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Sample records for coastal site castellon

  1. Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COASTAL INTENSIVE SITE NETWORK (CISNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership to establish pilot sites for the development of a network known as the Coastal Intensive Sit...

  3. Study of Nox Levels At The Castellon Area (spain) By Means of Passive Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J. M.; Esteve, V.

    Nitrogen oxides are emitted by mobile sources like traffic, heating engines and indus- tries. In the case of La Plana de Castellon area, the cities, the industrial area called El Serrallo (with its oil refinery and power plant), the tile factories and the main roads (A7-E15 and N-340), all they are the main pollutant focus of NOx. Those pollutants are precursors of tropospheric ozone formation. The aim of this work is the study of nitrogen oxides levels in La Plana de Castellon area, by means of passive samplers and stand relationships between NOx levels and ozone levels both measured with pas- sive samplers. The measurement campaign is made during summer, the higher pho- tochemical activity period (from May to September) in order to obtain the necessary data of NOx levels to make the relationship with measured ozone levels. Measuring campaing has been divided into sampling periods of one week. Twelve samples are collected each sampling period to cover an interest area of 1400 Km2, Two of these samples are laboratory blanks, four are situated at reference points (beside an auto- matic NOx sampler), one is situated at A7-E15 expressway, other at the main road N-340 and another one in a hard traffic road. The other three are placed in the main cities (Castellon and Benicassim). We employ Radielloo samplers developed by Dr. Cocheo at Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri. Samples located far from the main roads, at countryside show the lowest levels of NOx, lower than 10 ppb. Samples located at Castellon city show a difference between downtown and boundaries of about 33% higher at downtown, raising from 11 ppb to 14,5 ppb of NOx. The highest levels of NOx are measured at roads and their surroundings with medium levels of 14,3 ppb of NOx. Moreover, the sample located close to the expressway raises its level until 18 ppb of NOx, 53,4% higher than the media of all the samples measured. We would like to thank Dr. M. Wolfson(Harvard University), Dr. Carlos Felis (Conselleria de

  4. Hurricane Properties for KSC and Mid-Florida Coastal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Rawlins, Michael A.; Kross, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane information and climatologies are needed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Florida for launch operational planning purposes during the late summer and early fall Atlantic hurricane season. Also these results are needed to be used in estimating the potential magnitudes of hurricane and tropical storm impact on coastal Florida sites when passing within 50, 100 and 400 nm of that site. Roll-backs of the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles, on pad, are very costly when a tropical storm approaches. A decision for the vehicle to roll-back or ride-out needs to be made. Therefore the historical Atlantic basin hurricane climatological properties were generated to be used for operational planning purposes and in the estimation of potential damage to launch vehicles, supporting equipment, buildings, etc.. The historical 1885-1998 Atlantic basin hurricane data were compiled and analyzed with respect to the coastal Florida site of KSC. Statistical information generated includes hurricane and tropical storm probabilities for path, maximum wind, and lowest pressure, presented for the areas within 50, 100 and 400 nm of KSC. These statistics are then compared to similar parametric statistics for the entire Atlantic basin.

  5. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  6. (abstract) Seasonal Variability in Coastal Upwelling: A Comparison of Four Coastal Upwelling Sites from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1996-01-01

    Coastal upwelling of subsurface nutrient-rich water occurs along the eastern boundary of the ocean basins and leads to high primary production and fish catches. In this study satellite observations are used to compare the seasonal cycle in wind forcing and in the oceanic and biological response of the major coastal upwelling regions associated with the Canary, Benguela, California, and Humboldt Currents.

  7. Dissolved Organic Carbon In Precipitation At A Coastal Rural Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Daley, M.; Sive, B. C.; Talbot, R. W.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a ubiquitous component of precipitation. This DOC is a complex mixture of compounds from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The amount and chemistry of the DOC in precipitation has been studied for a variety of reasons: as a source of acidity, as a source of C to marine and terrestrial ecosystems, or to track the fate of individual compounds or pollutants. In most cases, past studies have focused on particular compounds or a limited number of precipitation events. Very little is known about the temporal trends in DOC or the relationship between DOC and other constituents of precipitation. We collected precipitation events for more than five years at a rural coastal site in New Hampshire. We evaluated the seasonal patterns and compared the DOC concentrations to other typical measures of the wet atmospheric deposition (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride). In addition, we compared the DOC in precipitation to the concentrations of various organic constituents of the atmosphere. The volume weighted mean C concentration was 0.75 mg C/L with concentrations in the summer significantly higher than in the other three seasons. The DOC concentration was most strongly associated with ammonium concentrations (r=0.81), but was also significantly related to nitrate (r=0.50) and sulfate (r=0.63) concentrations. There was no significant association between DOC and chloride concentrations. Preliminary regression tree analysis suggests that the DOC concentration in precipitation was best predicted by the atmospheric concentration of methyl vinyl ketone, an oxidation product of isoprene. These results suggest that both terrestrial biogenic and anthropogenic sources may be important precursors to the C removed from the atmosphere during precipitation events.

  8. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  9. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  10. Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes between a coastal and inland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming; Blanchard, Pierrette; Dalziel, John; Tordon, Rob; Huang, Jiaoyan; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2013-03-01

    Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes were conducted between a coastal and inland site in northeastern North America. Identifying sources of atmospheric Hg is essential for understanding what is potentially contributing to Hg bioaccumulation at these two sites. A data set consisting of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particle-bound mercury, ozone, trace gases, particulate ions, and meteorological data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), absolute principal component scores (APCS), and back trajectories. The PCA factors representing gaseous Hg condensation on particles during winter and combustion and industrial sources were found at both sites. However, the PCA factor for combustion/industrial sources was not found in 2010 at either site, likely because of SO2 emissions reductions from coal utilities from 2008 to 2010. Using APCS and back trajectories, the combustion/industrial factor at the coastal site was narrowed down to shipping ports along the Atlantic coast. Hg sources affecting coastal sites are different from those affecting inland sites because of the influence of marine airflows. GEM evasion from the ocean was evident from a PCA factor containing GEM, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation along with significantly higher contributions of this source (APCS) from oceanic trajectories compared to land/coastal trajectories. Analysis of the effects of ozone and water vapor mixing ratio on %GOM/total gaseous mercury suggest that Hg-Br photochemistry occurred at lower ozone concentrations (<40 ppb) at the coastal site and the absence of free troposphere transport of GOM.

  11. PILOT STUDY FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A NETWORK OF COASTAL REFERENCE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership for a pilot study for the establishment of a network of reference sites, the Coastal Int...

  12. Natural new particle formation at the coastal Antarctic site Neumayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, R.; Schmidt, K.; Teinilä, K.; Hillamo, R.

    2015-10-01

    We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer (70°39´ S, 8°15´ W) during two summer campaigns (from 20 January to 26 March 2012 and 1 February to 30 April 2014) and during the polar night between 12 August and 27 September 2014 in the particle diameter (Dp) range from 2.94 to 60.4 nm (2012) and from 6.26 to 212.9 nm (2014). During both summer campaigns we identified all in all 44 new particle formation (NPF) events. From 10 NPF events, particle growth rates could be determined to be around 0.90 ± 0.46 nm h-1 (mean ± SD; range: 0.4-1.9 nm h-1). With the exception of one case, particle growth was generally restricted to the nucleation mode (Dp < 25 nm) and the duration of NPF events was typically around 6.0 ± 1.5 h (mean ± SD; range: 4-9 h). Thus, in the surrounding area of Neumayer, particles did not grow up to sizes required for acting as cloud condensation nuclei. NPF during summer usually occurred in the afternoon in coherence with local photochemistry. During winter, two NPF events could be detected, though showing no ascertainable particle growth. A simple estimation indicated that apart from sulfuric acid, the derived growth rates required other low volatile precursor vapours.

  13. Natural new particle formation at the coastal Antarctic site Neumayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, R.; Schmidt, K.; Teinilä, K.; Hillamo, R.

    2015-06-01

    We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer (70°39' S, 8°15' W) during two summer campaigns (from 20 January to 26 March 2012 and 1 February to 30 April 2014) and during polar night between 12 August and 27 September 2014 in the particle diameter (Dp) range from 2.94 to 60.4 nm (2012) and from 6.26 to 212.9 nm (2014). During both summer campaigns we identified all in all 44 new particle formation (NPF) events. From 10 NPF events, particle growth rates could be determined to be around 0.90 ± 0.46 nm h-1 (mean ± SD; range: 0.4 to 1.9 nm h-1). With the exception of one case, particle growth was generally restricted to the nucleation mode (Dp < 25 nm) and the duration of NPF events was typically around 6.0 ± 1.5 h (mean ± SD; range: 4 to 9 h). Thus in the main, particles did not grow up to sizes required for acting as cloud condensation nuclei. NPF during summer usually occurred in the afternoon in coherence with local photochemistry. During winter, two NPF events could be detected, though showing no ascertainable particle growth. A simple estimation indicated that apart from sulfuric acid, the derived growth rates required other low volatile precursor vapours.

  14. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  15. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  16. From site data to safety assessment: analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at a coastal site in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at the Forsmark site in Sweden, which has been proposed as the site for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Forsmark is a coastal site that changes in response to shoreline displacement. In the considered time frame (until year 10 000 AD), the hydrological system will be affected by landscape succession associated with shoreline displacement and changes in vegetation, regolith stratigraphy, and climate. Based on extensive site investigations and modeling of present hydrological conditions, the effects of different processes on future site hydrology are quantified. As expected, shoreline displacement has a strong effect on local hydrology (e.g., groundwater flow) in areas that change from sea to land. The comparison between present and future land areas emphasizes the importance of climate variables relative to other factors for main hydrological features such as water balances. PMID:23619800

  17. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  18. High-resolution pollutant dispersion modelling in contaminated coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Ramšak, Vanja; Malačič, Vlado; Ličer, Matjaž; Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Žagar, Dušan

    2013-08-01

    The recent developments in pollutant measurement methods and techniques necessitate improvements in modelling approaches. The models used so far have been based on seasonally averaged data, which is insufficient for making short-term predictions. We have improved the existing modelling tools for pollutant transport and dispersion on three levels. We significantly refined the numerical grid; we used temporally and spatially non-uniform meteorological parameters for predicting pollutant dispersion and transformation processes; we used grid nesting in order to improve the open boundary condition. We worked on a typical contaminated site (The Gulf of Trieste), where mercury poses a significant environmental threat and where an oil-spill is a realistic possibility. By calculating evasion we improved the mass balance of mercury in the Gulf. We demonstrated that the spreading of river plumes under typical wind conditions is different than has so far been indicated by model simulations. We also simulated an oil-spill in real time. The improved modelling approaches and the upgraded models are now suitable for use with the state-of-the-art measurements technology and can represent an important contribution to the decision-making process. PMID:23477567

  19. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the Worl&dacute;s population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  20. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the World's population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  1. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  2. Determining return water levels at ungauged coastal sites: a case study for northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Arne; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    We estimate return periods and levels of extreme still water levels for the highly vulnerable and historically and culturally important small marsh islands known as the Halligen, located in the Wadden Sea offshore of the coast of northern Germany. This is a challenging task as only few water level records are available for this region, and they are currently too short to apply traditional extreme value analysis methods. Therefore, we use the Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) approach. This originates from hydrology but has been used before in several coastal studies and is also currently applied by the local federal administration responsible for coastal protection in the study area. The RFA enables us to indirectly estimate return levels by transferring hydrological information from gauged to related ungauged sites. Our analyses highlight that this methodology has some drawbacks and may over- or underestimate return levels compared to direct analyses using station data. To overcome these issues, we present an alternative approach, combining numerical and statistical models. First, we produced a numerical multidecadal model hindcast of water levels for the entire North Sea. Predicted water levels from the hindcast are bias corrected using the information from the available tide gauge records. Hence, the simulated water levels agree well with the measured water levels at gauged sites. The bias correction is then interpolated spatially to obtain correction functions for the simulated water levels at each coastal and island model grid point in the study area. Using a recommended procedure to conduct extreme value analyses from a companion study, return water levels suitable for coastal infrastructure design are estimated continuously along the entire coastline of the study area, including the offshore islands. A similar methodology can be applied in other regions of the world where tide gauge observations are sparse.

  3. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  4. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  5. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  6. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds. PMID:26719071

  7. Modern erosion rates and loss of coastal features and sites, Beaufort Sea coastline, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, C.D.; Eisner, Wendy R.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents modern erosion rate measurements based upon vertical aerial photography captured in 1955, 1979, and 2002 for a 100 km segment of the Beaufort Sea coastline. Annual erosion rates from 1955 to 2002 averaged 5.6 m a-1. However, mean erosion rates increased from 5.0 m a-1 in 1955-79 to 6.2 m a-1 in 1979-2002. Furthermore, from the first period to the second, erosion rates increased at 60% (598) of the 992 sites analyzed, decreased at 31% (307), and changed less than ?? 30 cm at 9% (87). Historical observations and quantitative studies over the past 175 years allowed us to place our erosion rate measurements into a longer-term context. Several of the coastal features along this stretch of coastline received Western place names during the Dease and Simpson expedition in 1837, and the majority of those features had been lost by the early 1900s as a result of coastline erosion, suggesting that erosion has been active over at least the historical record. Incorporation of historical and modern observations also allowed us to detect the loss of both cultural and historical sites and modern infrastructure. U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps reveal a number of known cultural and historical sites, as well as sites with modern infrastructure constructed as recently as the 1950s, that had disappeared by the early 2000s as a result of coastal erosion. We were also able to identify sites that are currently being threatened by an encroaching coastline. Our modern erosion rate measurements can potentially be used to predict when a historical site or modern infrastructure will be affected if such erosion rates persist. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. Long-term halocarbon observations from a coastal and an inland site in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Ashfold, M. J.; Gostlow, B.; Warwick, N. J.; O'Brien, L. M.; Beardmore, E. J.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Phang, S. M.; Samah, A. A.; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; Peng, L. K.; Yong, S. E.; Mohamad, M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Short-lived halocarbons are believed to have important sources in the tropics, where rapid vertical transport could provide a significant source to the stratosphere. In this study, quasi-continuous measurements of short-lived halocarbons are reported for two tropical sites in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo), one coastal and one inland (rainforest). We present the observations for C2Cl4, CHBr3, CH2Br2* (actually ~80% CH2Br2 and ~20% CHBrCl2) and CH3I from November 2008 to January 2010 made using our μDirac gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). We focus on the first 15 months of observations, showing over one annual cycle for each compound and therefore adding significantly to the few limited-duration observational studies that have been conducted thus far in southeast Asia. The main feature in the C2Cl4 behaviour at both sites is its annual cycle, with the winter months being influenced by northerly flow with higher concentrations, typical of the Northern Hemisphere, and with the summer months influenced by southerly flow and lower concentrations representative of the Southern Hemisphere. No such clear annual cycle is seen for CHBr3, CH2Br2* or CH3I. The baseline values for CHBr3 and CH2Br2* are similar at the coastal (overall median: CHBr3 1.7 ppt, CH2Br2* 1.4 ppt) and inland sites (CHBr3 1.6 ppt, CH2Br2* 1.1 ppt), but periods with elevated values are seen at the coast (overall 95th percentile: CHBr3 4.4 ppt, CH2Br2ast 1.9 ppt), presumably resulting from the stronger influence of coastal emissions. Overall median bromine values from [CHBr3 × 3] + [CH2Br2* × 2] are 8.0 ppt at the coast and 6.8 ppt inland. The median values reported here are largely consistent with other limited tropical data and imply that southeast Asia generally is not, as has been suggested, a hot spot for emissions of these compounds. These baseline values are consistent with the most recent emissions found for southeast Asia using the p-TOMCAT (Toulouse Off-line Model of

  9. Long term halocarbon observations from a~coastal and an inland site in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Ashfold, M. J.; Gostlow, B.; Warwick, N. J.; O'Brien, L. M.; Beardmore, E. J.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Phang, S. M.; Samah, A. A.; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; Peng, L. K.; Yong, S. E.; Mohamad, M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Short lived halocarbons are believed to have important sources in the tropics where rapid vertical transport could provide a significant source to the stratosphere. In this study, quasi-continuous measurements of short-lived halocarbons are reported for two tropical sites in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo), one coastal and one inland (rainforest). We present the observations for C2Cl4, CHBr3, CH2Br2* (actually ~80% CH2Br2 and ~20% CHBrCl2) and CH3I from November 2008 to January 2010 made using our μDirac gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). We focus on the first 15 months of observations, showing over one annual cycle for each compound and therefore adding significantly to the few limited-duration observational studies that have been conducted thus far in southeast Asia. The main feature in the C2Cl4 behaviour at both sites is its annual cycle with the winter months being influenced by northerly flow with higher concentrations, typical of the Northern Hemisphere, with the summer months influenced by southerly flow and lower concentrations representative of the Southern Hemisphere. No such clear annual cycle is seen for CHBr3, CH2Br2Br2* or CH3I. The baseline values for CHBr3 and CH2Br2Br2* are similar at the coastal (overall median: CHBr3 1.7 ppt; CH2Br2Br2* 1.4 ppt) and inland sites (CHBr3 1.6 ppt, CH2Br2Br2* 1.1 ppt), but periods with elevated values are seen at the coast (overall 95th percentile: CHBr3 4.4 ppt; CH2Br2Br2* 1.9 ppt) presumably resulting from the stronger influence of coastal emissions. Overall median bromine values from [CHBr3] + [CH2Br2Br2*] are 8.0 ppt at the coast and 6.8 ppt inland. The median values reported here are largely consistent with other limited tropical data and imply that southeast Asia generally is not, as has been suggested, a hot-spot for emissions of these compounds. These baseline values are consistent with the most recent emissions found for southeast Asia using the p-TOMCAT model. CH3I, which is only

  10. Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several hydrostratigraphic classification schemes have been devised to describe the hydrogeology at the Savannah River Site SRS. Central to these schemes is the one-to-one fixed relationship between the hydrostratigraphic units and the lithostratigraphic units currently favored for the Site. This fixed relationship has proven difficult to apply in studies of widely separated locations at the Site due to the various facies observed in the updip Coastal Plain sequence. A detailed analysis and synthesis of the geophysical, core, and hydrologic data available from more than 164 deep wells from 23 cluster locations both on the Site and in the surrounding region was conducted to provide the basis for a hydrostratigraphic classification scheme which could be applied to the entire SRS region. As a result, an interim hydrostratigraphic classification was developed that defines the regional hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the Site (Aadland et al., 1990). The hydrostratigraphic code accounts for and accommodates the rapid lateral variation in lithofacies observed in the region, and eliminates all formal'' connection between the hydrostratigraphic nomenclature and the lithostratigraphic nomenclature. The code is robust and can be made as detailed as is needed to characterize the aquifer units and aquifer zones described in Site-specific studies. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: Role of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Lisa S.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Senff, Christoph J.; White, Allen B.; Banta, Robert M.; Post, Madison J.; Brewer, W. Alan; Marchbanks, Richard; Alvarez, Raul J.; Peckham, Steven E.; Mao, Huiting; Talbot, Robert

    2007-08-01

    Time series from two ozone monitoring stations are evaluated, one on an island several km off the New England coast, the other several km inland in New Hampshire. In the summer of 2002, during the New England Air Quality Study 2002 (NEAQS-2002), ozone measurements at the island station, Appledore Island (ADI), were consistently higher than at the inland station, Thompson Farm (TF). We hypothesized that the differences in ozone concentrations were due to transport differences driven by mesoscale meteorology, since neither site was in a source region. We found that the Appalachian Trough, coastal cold fronts and coastal stationary fronts at times caused TF to have westerly component flow while ADI had southerly component flow. In these situations, the southwesterly flow along the New England coast brought ozone and precursors to ADI from metropolitan areas to the southwest (e.g., Boston). Conversely, the air transported to TF from the west was contaminated by fewer upstream sources, and therefore the ozone was lower at TF. The sea breeze was also a factor, which tended to have the contrasting effect of nearly equalizing the ozone concentrations at the two sites by transporting ozone-rich air already impacting ADI inland to TF. Enhanced measurements from the NEAQS-2002 study were used in the analysis, including radar wind profilers, Doppler and ozone profiling lidars, and radiosondes launched from a ship. We also assessed model performance for two models, WRF/Chem and MM5/Chem, for four key days.

  12. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P; Yates, Royden

    2004-04-20

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only approximately 50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  13. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  14. Lower tropospheric ozone and aerosol measurements at a coastal mountain site in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Conley, S. A.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Faloona, I. C.; Wexler, A. S.; Lighthall, D.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing concern over the impacts of exogenous air pollution in California's Central Valley have prompted the establishment of a coastal, high altitude monitoring site at the Chews Ridge Observatory (1550 m) approximately 30 km east of Point Sur in Monterey County. Six months of ozone and aerosol measurements are presented in the context of long-range transport and its potential impact on surface air quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Moreover, approximately monthly ozone surveys are conducted by aircraft upwind, over the Pacific Ocean, and downwind, over the Central Valley, to characterize horizontal and vertical transport across the coastal mountains. The measurements exhibit no systematic diurnal variations of ozone or water vapor, an indication that the site primarily samples lower free tropospheric air which has not been significantly influenced by either local emissions or convective coupling to the surface. Aerosol size is measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer and composition is analyzed with an 8-stage rotating drum impactor whose substrates are characterized by X-ray fluorescence. Various elemental ratios and back trajectory calculations are used to infer the temporal patterns of influence that long range transport has on California air quality.

  15. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard G.; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E.; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P.; Yates, Royden

    2004-01-01

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only ≈50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  16. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark; York Lewis; Abigail Michel; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-01-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  17. Seasonal Trends in Boundary Layer Concentrations of Halocarbons at Coastal and Forest Sites in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew; Harris, Neil; Gostlow, Bryan; O'Brien, Louise; Hawkes, Jeff; Ashfold, Matt; Yang, Xin; Warwick, Nicola; Pyle, John; Nadzir, Shahrul

    2010-05-01

    Halogen compounds are increasingly recognised as being important in atmospheric chemistry processes in the stratosphere and the troposphere. The sources of the halogens include natural (marine and terrestrial) and anthropogenic emissions of organic species. Long term measurements of halocarbons are currently made from various sites globally (e.g. by the AGAGE network and by NOAA-ESRL), however these sites are generally in background locations and have sparse coverage of the maritime continent which is anyway an understudied region. From April 2008 until present we have been making measurements in Borneo from inland (forest) and coastal sites using two µDirac instruments. One instrument is based at the Bukit Atur Research Station, Danum Valley (5.0°N, 117.8°E) and the other is based at a coastal site in Borneo (Tawau, 4.2°N, 118.0°E). The instruments are gas chromatographs with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and are capable of operating quasi-autonomously with a low level of local support. They were initially deployed as part of the OP3 project and thereafter through another NERC funded project. Here we present the results from the first two years of measurements of certain short-lived halocarbons (including CHCl3, CH2Br2/CHCl2Br, C2Cl4 and CHBr3). High concentrations of some halocarbons have been observed at the coastal site. For 2-3 weeks in September 2008 the lowest observed values of CHBr3 were around 4 pptv, though there was no well defined background level and there were also significantly higher values (peaking at 50-150 pptv). Since then, lower background values (1-2 pptv) have been measured, with transient peaks present in all seasons except northern winter when the air comes predominantly from the northern hemisphere. The observed background concentrations at the inland site (about 85 km away) are around 1-2 pptv with relatively few of the transient peaks observed at the coast (occasional excursions to 5 pptv). These peaks are thus attributed to

  18. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC MODELS FOR FORECASTING BACTERIA LEVELS AT COASTAL BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 authorizes studies of pathogen indicators in coastal recreation waters that develop appropriate, accurate, expeditious, and cost-effective methods (including predictive models) for quantifying pathogens in co...

  19. Using remote sensing data for exploitation of integrated renewable energy at coastal site in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from Remote Sensing can provide detailed information for analysis for sources of renewable energy and to determine the potential energy and socially acceptability of suggested location. Coastal sites of Southern Italy have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use renewable energy, such us cloud free days and local breeze phenomena. Many ports are located where they have opportunities for exploitation of renewable energy, by using existing port area and by taking advantage of their coastal locations. Policies of European-Committee and Global-Navigation-PIANC for a better use of energy and an efficient supply from renewable sources are also focused on the construction of port facilities in zero emissions. Using data from Remote Sensing, can reduce the financial resources currently required for finding and assessing suitable areas, we defined an integrated methodology for potential wind and solar energy in harbor areas. In this study we compared the hourly solar power energy using MSG-SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data products DSSF (Down-welling Surface Short-wave-Flux), and PV-Plant measurements with Nominal Power Peak of 19,85 kWp. The PV Plant is situated at a coastal site in Calabrian region, located near Vibo Valentia harbor area. We estimate potential energy by using input solar radiation of Satellite data, with same characteristics of the PV-plant. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly averaged solar electrical reproducibility are estimated including clear and sky conditions. Comparison between energy reproducibility by using DSSF product and PV-plant measurements, made over the period October 2013-June 2014, showed a good agreement in our costal site and generally overestimate (RMSE(35W/m2) and BIAS(4W/m2)) electrical reproducibility from a PV-plant. For wind resource

  20. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  1. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  2. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  3. Temporal evolution of aerosol derived from N2-Raman lidar at a Mediterranean coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Following the temporal variability of the aerosols in the atmospheric column on coastal areas is challenging. In situ ground-based or integrated column properties are not enough to understand the sea-continent exchange processes and identify the sources of particles. Now classical approach using the synergy between passive (e.g. sunphotometer) and active (e.g. backscatter lidar) instruments gives only a partial view of the aerosol properties, because they could be highly heterogeneous in the lower and middle troposphere. On June-July 2014, an automatic N2-Raman lidar (355 nm) was installed at a coastal site close to Toulon in the South of France. Using the coupling between cross-polarized elastic and N2-Raman channels, various aerosol natures are identified all along the time and against the altitude. Specific regularization algorithms have been tested to improve the aerosol classification. The results of these tests will be presented in terms of sensitivity studies based on the Monte Carlo approach. Selecting the most appropriate inversion method of the lidar profiles, the aerosol types encountered during the field campaign will be presented. We will also discuss their origin and the sea-continent exchanges including the sea breeze effect. We will see that a proper identification of particles passes through analyses coupling satellite observations and air mass trajectory studies. Acknowledgments: The experiments have been funded by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and the Centre national de la recherchescientifique (CNRS). We thank Université de Toulon (SeaTech Engineering School) for their hosts. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Labex IPSL, is also acknowledged for its support in the data simulations and analyses.

  4. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  5. Site characterization studies along coastal Andhra Pradesh—India using multichannel analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trupti, S.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Pavan Kishore, P.; Seshunarayana, T.

    2012-04-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique was employed for site characterization studies at the identified lineament locations along coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh covering ~ 600 km to measure the shear wave velocity. The shear (S)-wave velocity of near surface materials (such as soil, rocks and pavement) and its effect on seismic wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering and environmental studies. Geologically, the study area comprises of Precambrian basement over which younger rocks commencing with Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary have given rise to varying sequences in different parts. The study has been conducted along the lineaments and these were selected based on the analysis of IRS-1D LISS-IV satellite images and the field geological investigation. The average shear wave velocity, stiffness and the liquefaction potential were evaluated by using the obtained shear wave velocities. Soils are classified into four categories as soft soils, stiff soils, dense soils/soft rock and hard rock based on the obtained shear wave velocities. The factor of safety (FS) against liquefaction is determined and it is found that the sites with low shear wave velocity have FS < 1 and these are possible liquefiable zones. The results of this study are useful to study the earthquake hazard assessment, and also taking the necessary precautions in the vicinity of the faults/lineaments for the construction of engineering projects such as pipelines, dams, bridges, canal alignments, and cross-drainage structures.

  6. Use of a coastal biogeochemical model to select environmental monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Thompson, Peter A.; Volkman, John K.; Parslow, John

    2011-10-01

    A method for the spatial selection of sites for a coastal environmental monitoring system is described. The study was completed in southeastern Tasmania, Australia, but the method can be applied in all regions with validated biogeochemical models. A 3-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model with high spatial and temporal resolution was validated against observations collected throughout 2002 and found to capture the essential features of the biogeochemical dynamics of the system. The model was used to predict the possible quantitative environmental impact of a projected increase in fish farming activity in the region. Integrated impacts of fish farm waste on labile nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water column were spatially ranked to identify the most likely places to detect environmental change due to fish farming activities. Priority sites were found to be grouped in the Huon Estuary and northern part of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel consistent with the residual northward current in the region. The final monitoring program synthesized model and field understanding to ensure adequate spatial and temporal sampling of the region.

  7. Geophysical detection of on-site wastewater plumes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) continues to be the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States. On-site wastewater systems (OWS) contribute to NPS; however, due to the range of system designs and complexity of the subsurface, OWS contributions to groundwater pollution are not well understood. As the population of coastal North Carolina continues to increase, better methods to locate and characterize wastewater impacted groundwater are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of non-intrusive geophysical methods to provide high resolution information on various contaminants in different geologic settings. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitively coupled resistivity (CCR) for detecting OWS components, delineating associated wastewater plumes, and monitoring temporal variations in groundwater quality. Cross-sectional and three dimensional (3D) geophysical surveys were conducted periodically over a one year period (February 2011--January 2012) at two schools utilizing OWS in the lower Neuse River Basin (NRB) in the North Carolina Coastal Plain (NCCP). Cores were collected at both study sites; as well as monthly groundwater depth, temperature, and specific conductivity measurements to better constrain the geophysical interpretations. Additionally, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and Cl concentrations were monitored bi-monthly to assess nutrient transport at the sites. The 3D GPR surveys effectively located the wastewater drainage trenches at both sites, in close agreement with locations described in as-built OWS blueprints. Regression analysis of resistivity versus groundwater specific conductivity revealed an inverse relationship, suggesting resistivity ≤ 250 ohm.m was indicative of wastewater impacted groundwater at both sites. The 3D resistivity models identified regions of low resistivity beneath the drainfields relative to background values. Regression analysis of

  8. Lower tropospheric ozone and aerosol measurements at a coastal mountain site in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.; Lighthall, D.; Wexler, A. S.; Cliff, S. S.; Conley, S. A.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing concern over the impacts of exogenous air pollution in California's Central Valley has prompted the establishment of a coastal, high altitude monitoring site at the Chews Ridge Observatory (1550 m) approximately 30 km east of Point Sur in Monterey County, operated by the Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy. Eighteen months of ozone and aerosol measurements are presented in the context of long-range transport and its potential impact on surface air quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Moreover, several ozone surveys have been conducted by aircraft upwind, over the Pacific Ocean, and downwind, over the Central Valley, to characterize horizontal and vertical transport across the coastal mountains. Diurnal variations present at Chews Ridge indicate the formation of a convective boundary layer on the ridge during the daytime leading to a 6-8 ppb decrease in ozone accompanied by a rise in specific humidity of 2-3 g/kg due to coupling with the forest. During the nighttime, the sampled air masses are representative of free tropospheric conditions which have not been significantly influenced by either local emissions nor convective coupling to the surface. The maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentration at Chews Ridge is used in lagged correlation analysis with two sites in the San Joaquin Valley, Fresno and Arvin, to de-emphasize the influence of locally produced, diurnally cycled ozone. The correlation coefficients (~0.60) peak between 9-21 hour lag and tend to decorrelate completely within 4-5 days. These and other analyses along with data provided by the aircraft sampling are used to provide a deeper understanding of ozone transport into the San Joaquin Valley. Aerosol size is measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer and composition is analyzed with an 8-stage rotating drum impactor whose substrates are characterized by X-ray fluorescence. Various elemental ratios and back trajectory calculations are used to infer the temporal

  9. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) site-specific projects: 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the classification of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change.

  10. Measurements of Ice Nuclei at a Remote Coastal Site in Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, M.; Mason, R.; Li, J.; Dickie, R.; Chou, C.; Ladino Moreno, L.; Yakobi-Hancock, J.; Schiller, C. L.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Desiree, T. S.; Abbatt, J.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are abundant in the atmosphere, and they can influence climate by modifying the formation of ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Understanding the sources of ice nuclei (IN) should lead to better predictions of climate. Many current instruments for measuring atmospheric concentrations of IN are not capable of providing size-resolved information. Such knowledge is useful in identifying the sources of IN. The recently developed micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) provides size-resolved information by combining an established immersion freezing apparatus with a cascade impactor for sample collection. Here we show results from a field study undertaken at a remote coastal site in Western Canada in August, 2013 using this technique. The size distributions of IN will be presented. A recent study suggested that the IN population in remote marine regions might be dominated by primary biogenic particles. To address the sources of IN from this campaign, correlations between IN concentrations and biological aerosols, carbonaceous aerosols, and other possible IN sources will be discussed.

  11. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height under marine upstream flow conditions at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PeñA, A.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A. N.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractWe investigate several lidar-type instruments and methodologies for boundary layer height (BLH) estimation during 2 days at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> for winds that experience marine upstream flow conditions. Wavelet and profile fitting procedures on the aerosol backscatter signals from a ceilometer and an aerosol lidar reveal similar BLHs, but their agreement depends on the presence of clouds and the instrument signal, among others. BLHs derived by a threshold on the carrier-to-noise profiles of a wind lidar agree well with those derived by using a threshold on the backscatter profile of the ceilometer and are used as reference for a 10 day BLH intercomparison. Furthermore, the BLHs from the aerosol analysis are comparable to those derived from wind speed and direction profiles from combined mast/wind lidar measurements. The BLH derived from simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model shows similar behavior compared to the lidar observations. The seasonal diurnal variation of the BLH for 2010, derived from the wind lidar and ceilometer thresholds, shows similar BLHs but generally higher values compared to that from WRF. No clear BLH diurnal variation is observed neither from the observations nor from the WRF model outputs, except in summer for the latter. Both observations and WRF model simulations reveal higher BLHs during autumn compared to spring time. These BLHs are used to evaluate the intra-annual variation and show high peaks in September, November, and February.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.1141R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.1141R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">PRIAMO project: a feasibility study on Sicilian <span class="hlt">sites</span> for sea power plants in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribotti, A.; Borghini, M.; Cucco, A.; De Domenico, E.; Dibenedetto, V.; Fazioli, L.; Genovese, L.; Iaria, G.; Olita, A.; Raffa, F.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.; Spanò, N.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The increasing demand for renewable energy sources has recently favoured the exploitation of wind energy and photovoltaic, with strong repercussions on the landscape due to the visual impact of wind turbines and of the photovoltaic panels. A policy protecting the landscape suggests to focus on innovative solutions that enable the use of renewable energy and a low visual impact. This can be done with extensive offshore diving equipment installed in the sea, formed by turbines that use ocean currents to produce electric energy. The accommodation at sea, as well as offering greater availability of <span class="hlt">sites</span>, has the advantage of giving a better and relatively constant resource with maximum efficiency and productivity. The international scenario suggests the need to identify <span class="hlt">sites</span> potentially suitable and safe for energy use, placed at a distance from the coast at depths with bathymetric characteristics that make the power plant installation safe and technologically and economically feasible. In this context, the project PRIAMO (Planning, Research and Innovation in a Oriented Marine Environment), funded by the European Commission through the Sicilian Regional Operational Programme (POR), aims to verify the potential suitability of two Sicilian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, i.e. the Strait of Messina and a stretch of coast near Capo Granitola (Strait of Sicily). The work is realised with a view to the exploitation of marine currents that will be studied through the use of existing or new numerical models from the open sea to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scale, then evaluating its cost-effectiveness in collaboration with Atlantis Resources Corp. Pte. Ltd (UK), European manufacturer of underwater turbines. An environmental study is done through monitoring and remediation techniques to assess the potential size of the foundation structure: sedimentological and morpho-bathymetric characteristics of the bottom, depth, steepness of the seabed, benthic biocoenoses, and load-bearing capacity of the area affected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011CSR....31.1075C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011CSR....31.1075C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of mesozooplankton assemblages in subtropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Hong Kong: A comparative study between a eutrophic estuarine and a mesotrophic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Mianrun; Chen, Bingzhang; Harrison, Paul; Liu, Hongbin</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A monthly comparative study of mesozooplankton biomass and composition between a eutrophic Pearl River estuarine <span class="hlt">site</span> (WE) and a mesotrophic <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-oceanic <span class="hlt">site</span> (EO) in Hong Kong waters was conducted to examine the response of mesozooplankton to nutrient-rich riverine discharge. Although the annual average mesozooplankton biomass was higher at WE than at EO, they were not statistically significant. Variations of mesozooplankton biomass at both stations followed similar trends of Chl a concentrations, with the exception of July at WE where mesozooplankton biomass was low but total Chl a was high. This mismatch may be due to the high flushing effect of the Pearl River discharge in summer and a time lag in mesozooplankton population growth. On the other hand, the composition of mesozooplankton was significantly modified by riverine discharge and eutrophication conditions. While small copepods dominated at both <span class="hlt">sites</span>, the eutrophic estuarine water had a high abundance of barnacle and polychaete larvae, while cladocerans, bivalve larvae, gastropod larvae and chaetognaths mainly occurred at EO. Eutrophication increased the top-down role of copepods in the grazing community, revealed by an increase in the percentage of copepods in the total metazoan mesozooplankton, especially during the period of high river discharge. Moreover, mesozooplankton diversity at the two stations was similar, and they both showed relatively higher diversity during autumn and winter and lower diversity during summer, especially at WE. These results suggest that, despite high nutrient and Chl a concentrations in estuarine waters, mesozooplankton biomass were not enhanced compared to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters with no river impact, possibly due to poor food quality and increased predation in the eutrophic estuarine waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3044/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3044/"><span id="translatedtitle">Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring <span class="hlt">sites</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual <span class="hlt">coastal</span> restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..46..189Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..46..189Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical processes in sea-salt chloride depletion observed at a Canadian rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Leiming</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chloride depletion in sea-salt aerosols was studied using size-segregated inorganic ions data collected at a Canadian rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> during a summer (June 29-July 15, 2002) and a fall campaign (October 25 - November 15, 2002). Three samples collected in the fall campaign had high concentrations of sea-salt and ammoniated sulfate and nitrate aerosols and were used to study the relative importance of different chemical reactions contributing to the depletion. The percentage depletion (Cl -depletion(%)) increased substantially with decreasing particle size (up to 86% for particles in the size range of 1.0-3.1 μm). For particles >6.2 μm, the observed NO 3- was responsible for all the depleted Cl -; but less than a quarter of the depletion was explained by the HCl-released reaction between NaCl and HNO 3; the rest of the depletion was likely due to the non-HCl-released reactions, e.g., between NaCl and N 2O 5. For particles in the size range of 3.1-6.2 μm, the NO 3- was responsible for nearly 80-90% of all the depleted Cl - via HCl-released and/or non-HCl-released reactions; the remaining depletion was likely due to the reactions releasing Cl 2, HOCl, etc. Particles >3.1 μm were mostly neutral acidity while a portion of particles at 1.0-3.1 μm was acidic. SO 42- was only responsible for Cl -depletion(%) in acidic particles at 1.0-3.1 μm and the highest Cl -depletion(%) was observed in acidic particles of this size range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.119...59M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.119...59M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of wildfires on size-resolved aerosol composition at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> California <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Jonsson, H. H.; Sorooshian, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Size-resolved aerosol composition measurements were conducted at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in central California during the Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) between July and August of 2013. The <span class="hlt">site</span> is just east of ship and marine emission sources and is also influenced by continental pollution and wildfires, such as those near the California-Oregon border which occurred near the end of NiCE. Two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used, and water-soluble and elemental compositions were measured. The five most abundant water-soluble species (in decreasing order) were chloride, sodium, non-sea salt (nss) sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate. During wildfire periods, nss K mass concentrations were not enhanced as strongly as other species in the sub-micrometer stages and even decreased in the super-micrometer stages; species other than nss K are more reliable tracers for biomass burning in this region. Chloride levels were reduced in the fire sets likely due to chloride depletion by inorganic and organic acids that exhibited elevated levels in transported plumes. During wildfire periods, the mass size distribution of most dicarboxylic acids changed from unimodal to bimodal with peaks in the 0.32 μm and 1.0-1.8 μm stages. Furthermore, sulfate's peak concentration shifted from the 0.32 μm to 0.56 μm stage, and nitrate also shifted to larger sizes (1.0 μm to 1.8-3.2 μm stages). Mass concentrations of numerous soil tracer species (e.g., Si, Fe) were strongly enhanced in samples influenced by wildfires, especially in the sub-micrometer range. Airborne cloud water data confirm that soil species were associated with fire plumes transported south along the coast. In the absence of biomass burning, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition is dominated by nss sulfate and ammonium, and the water-soluble organic fraction is dominated by methanesulfonate, whereas for the samples influenced by wildfires, ammonium becomes the dominant overall species, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51D..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51D..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Data, Provenance and Chaos through Standardization and Automation at the Georgia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecosystems LTER <span class="hlt">Site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheldon, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Managing data for a large, multidisciplinary research program such as a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) <span class="hlt">site</span> is a significant challenge, but also presents unique opportunities for data stewardship. LTER research is conducted within multiple organizational frameworks (i.e. a specific LTER <span class="hlt">site</span> as well as the broader LTER network), and addresses both specific goals defined in an NSF proposal as well as broader goals of the network; therefore, every LTER data can be linked to rich contextual information to guide interpretation and comparison. The challenge is how to link the data to this wealth of contextual metadata. At the Georgia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecosystems LTER we developed an integrated information management system (GCE-IMS) to manage, archive and distribute data, metadata and other research products as well as manage project logistics, administration and governance (figure 1). This system allows us to store all project information in one place, and provide dynamic links through web applications and services to ensure content is always up to date on the web as well as in data set metadata. The database model supports tracking changes over time in personnel roles, projects and governance decisions, allowing these databases to serve as canonical sources of project history. Storing project information in a central database has also allowed us to standardize both the formatting and content of critical project information, including personnel names, roles, keywords, place names, attribute names, units, and instrumentation, providing consistency and improving data and metadata comparability. Lookup services for these standard terms also simplify data entry in web and database interfaces. We have also coupled the GCE-IMS to our MATLAB- and Python-based data processing tools (i.e. through database connections) to automate metadata generation and packaging of tabular and GIS data products for distribution. Data processing history is automatically tracked throughout the data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS22B0261B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS22B0261B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Circulation and Potential Disease Pathways Among Aquaculture <span class="hlt">Sites</span> Near the Eastern U.S.- Canadian Border.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brooks, D. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) is a flu-like virus that can be transmitted between aquaculture <span class="hlt">sites</span> by tides and currents, contaminated boats and equipment, fish wastes, and ectoparasites. In 1997 ISA outbreaks were reported in Canadian net-pen aquaculture <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Passamaquoddy Bay, near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. In March 2001, the first incidence of ISA in the United States occurred at a <span class="hlt">site</span> near the entrance to Cobscook Bay, about 5 km west of previously infected <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Canada. In December 2001, it was necessary to destroy Cobscook fish worth about \\12 million at maturity, decimating the local industry. Most net-pen <span class="hlt">sites</span> are located in protected bays east of Penobscot Bay, Maine, where large tides and cold waters are favorable for aquaculture. Chaotic tidal mixing provides a ready supply of nutrients and oxygen, and also a potential mechanism for ISA transmission within and between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bays. In cold water (~6°$C), the ISA virus may remain infective for several days or longer, according to a recent report from a joint government/industry study in Scotland. Recent model studies indicate rapid spreading of neutral particles over distances of 5 km or more, possibly linking Cobscook and Passamaquoddy Bays within a few tidal cycles. On a larger scale, observations and models show the seasonal development of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> current that flows southwestward from the Saint John River in the Bay of Fundy toward Penobscot Bay, where the current generally turns offshore to become part of the circulation in the Gulf of Maine. Tidal excursions superimposed on the nontidal <span class="hlt">coastal</span> current can result in particle displacements of 10-20 km per day, raising concerns about further migration of fish disease pathogens along the Maine coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160..126D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160..126D"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban and montane Atlantic Forest <span class="hlt">sites</span> in southeastern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest <span class="hlt">sites</span> downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all <span class="hlt">sites</span>, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban than montane forest <span class="hlt">sites</span>, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest <span class="hlt">site</span>, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.130..182S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.130..182S"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol optical properties over a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Goa, along the west coast of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirodkar, Shilpa; Menon, Harilal B.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Spectral characteristics of the Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured over a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Goa (15.46°N and 73.83°E), from a plateau ~50 m above mean sea level, for the period 2008-2010, are analyzed to understand the inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal variability and to delineate different aerosol sources. A Microtops-II sunphotometer having five different wavelengths centered at 0.380, 0.440, 0.500, 0.675 and 0.870 μm was used to estimate AODs in different seasons classified as: winter monsoon season from December to March (WMS), spring inter-monsoon season from April to May (SIMS), summer monsoon season from June to September (SMS) and fall inter-monsoon season from October to November (FIMS). The number of data (AODs) generated in each season is 569 in WMS, 131 in SIMS, 38 in SMS and 256 in FIMS. The highest AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) was recorded in SIMS (0.43±0.18) while the lowest value was observed in SMS (0.32±0.10). The seasonal mean values of Ångström α computed from the least-square method in the wavelength range 0.440-0.870 μm showed higher values (1.23±0.20) in FIMS than those in SMS (0.75±0.34). The highest Ångström β values were noticed in SIMS (0.25±0.10) and lowest in FIMS (0.17±0.06). To make a source appropriation and thus to resolve the complexity of aerosols in the study area, α was computed in different wavelength ranges, viz: short wavelengths (0.440-0.500 μm) and long wavelengths (0.675-0.870 μm), which revealed differing α values for different ranges of wavelengths. To account for the curvature, a second order polynomial fit is introduced. Subsequently, the second-order Ångström exponent (ά) and the coefficient of the second-order polynomial fit are analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=195223','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=195223"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and native range simulation at diverse <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Effective comparisons of natural grasslands and improved pasture requires a robust model for plant growth, soil water balance, runoff, soil erosion, and climatic impacts. The objective of this study was to develop plant parameters that enable the ALMANAC model to simulate growth of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bermudag...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=222340','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=222340"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">site</span> evaluation of hydrology component of SWAT in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of Southwest Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land use changes and development within mixed use watersheds can result in adverse or positive environmental impacts. In this study, the feasibility of using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model to predict hydrologic responses in watersheds within the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of southwest Geo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=217591','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=217591"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">site</span> Evaluation of Hydrology Component of SWAT in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of Southwest Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Many concerns have been raised about the potential impacts of land use changes and development in ungaged watersheds. In this study, the feasibility of using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting the hydrology of ungaged watersheds within the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of southwest Georgia was ev...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..114..166N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..114..166N"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the impact of historical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landfill <span class="hlt">sites</span> on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these <span class="hlt">sites</span> waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical <span class="hlt">sites</span> may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test <span class="hlt">site</span>. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712151H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712151H"><span id="translatedtitle">Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each <span class="hlt">site</span> were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11420306L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11420306L"><span id="translatedtitle">Year-round record of surface ozone at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Dumont d'Urville) and inland (Concordia) <span class="hlt">sites</span> in East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Jourdain, B.; GalléE, H.; Goutail, F.; Weller, R.; Savarino, J.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Surface ozone is measured since 2004 at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> East Antarctic station of Dumont d'Urville (DDU) and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. Ozone levels at Concordia reach a maximum of 35 ppbv in July and a minimum of 21 ppbv in February. From November to January, sudden increases of the ozone level, up to 15-20 ppbv above average, often take place. They are attributed to local photochemical ozone production as previously seen at the South Pole. The detailed examination of the diurnal ozone record in summer at Concordia suggests a local photochemical ozone production of around 0.2 ppbv h-1 during the morning. The ozone record at DDU exhibits a maximum of 35 ppbv in July and a minimum of 18 ppbv in January. Mixing ratios at DDU are always higher than those at Neumayer (NM), another <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Antarctic station. A noticeable difference in the ozone records at the two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> lies in the larger ozone depletion events occurring from July to September at NM compared to DDU, likely due to stronger BrO episodes in relation with a larger sea ice coverage offshore that <span class="hlt">site</span>. A second difference is the large day-to-day fluctuations which are observed from November to January at DDU but not at NM. That is attributed to a stronger impact at DDU than at NM of air masses coming from the Antarctic plateau. The consequences of such a high oxidizing property of the atmosphere over East Antarctica are discussed with regard to the dimethylsulfide (DMS) chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15001941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15001941"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of cloud properties at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland <span class="hlt">site</span> at the North Slope of Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; Jakob, C.</p> <p>2002-06-11</p> <p>In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> were significantly higher than those at the inland <span class="hlt">site</span>, but for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/15001941-comparison-cloud-properties-coastal-inland-site-north-slope-alaska','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/15001941-comparison-cloud-properties-coastal-inland-site-north-slope-alaska"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of cloud properties at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland <span class="hlt">site</span> at the North Slope of Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; Jakob, C.</p> <p>2002-06-11</p> <p>In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> were significantly higher than those at the inland <span class="hlt">site</span>, butmore » for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JOUC....1..148M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JOUC....1..148M"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of the bacterial microflora between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Qingdao, P. R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macinnes, J.; Robertson, P. A. W.; Austin, B.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two <span class="hlt">sites</span> located on the west coast of Scotland, were compared to cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard coefficients (SJ) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacterium sp., Vibrio, sp., V. campbellii, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However, the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Gram-negative bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410471P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410471P"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of IO hot-spots at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> with the combination of a mobile CE- and LP- DOAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pöhler, D.; Horbanski, M.; Schmitt, S.; Anthofer, M.; Tschritter, J.; Platt, U.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Reactive iodine species are emitted by seaweed in the intertidal zone of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> during low tide. Beside their oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and reduction of ozone, they act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in several field studies. However, modelling studies suggest that the so far observed mixing ratios of iodine oxide are too low to explain the observed particle formation. This may be caused by the so far applied measurement techniques which either average over a long measurement path of several km (LP-DOAS) or by immobile in-situ techniques (LIF or BB-CEAS) located typically few 10-100m of the intertidal area. Thus both techniques could not observe local "hot-spots", locations with locally elevated IO levels above the background with small spatial extend (e.g. above a source). We present a new developed Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE- DOAS) instrument for the direct identification of IO down to 1ppt. This technique gives the possibility to achieve long absorption light paths in a compact setup (<2.0m) and thus apply the DOAS principle to in-situ measurements. The resonator of the cavity is formed by two high reflective mirrors in the spectral window from 430-460nm. To avoid any interference of reactive iodine compounds with tubes, walls or filters, the resonator is open similar to a LP-DOAS setup. A blue LED is used as light source. The total instrument setup is relatively light (25kg) and can easily be located at different locations. Hence it is possible to setup this instrument directly over the macro algae in the intertidal area during low tide to investigate the IO spatial distribution and "hot-spots". As IO concentrations vary strongly due to different meteorological parameters, the CE-DOAS measurements are combined with LP-DOAS in the same area. Thus the combination allows deriving a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v115n04/p0970-p0978.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v115n04/p0970-p0978.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling colony <span class="hlt">site</span> dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We developed a Markov process model for colony <span class="hlt">site</span> dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia. We used the model and data on colony <span class="hlt">site</span> occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony <span class="hlt">sites</span> along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony <span class="hlt">sites</span> over the four-year period. We then used data on annual <span class="hlt">site</span> occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a <span class="hlt">site</span> in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of <span class="hlt">site</span> occupancy. <span class="hlt">Site</span> survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a <span class="hlt">site</span> being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 <span class="hlt">sites</span> that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The low colony-<span class="hlt">site</span> fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile <span class="hlt">sites</span> that the terns may use. <span class="hlt">Sites</span> not used one year may still be used in subsequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1169/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1169/"><span id="translatedtitle">Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Sites</span> in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study <span class="hlt">sites</span>, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative <span class="hlt">site</span> assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for <span class="hlt">sites</span> of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618820"><span id="translatedtitle">Ambient air benzene at background <span class="hlt">sites</span> in China's most developed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background <span class="hlt">sites</span> in China's most developed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The <span class="hlt">sites</span> are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background <span class="hlt">sites</span> were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both <span class="hlt">sites</span> (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background <span class="hlt">sites</span>, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both <span class="hlt">sites</span> in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD <span class="hlt">site</span> in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD <span class="hlt">site</span> in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions. PMID:25618820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.6669Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.6669Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural <span class="hlt">sites</span> across China's developed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural <span class="hlt">sites</span> in China's developed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern <span class="hlt">sites</span> was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern <span class="hlt">sites</span> originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP <span class="hlt">site</span> and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP <span class="hlt">site</span> were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD <span class="hlt">site</span> were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP13C1477L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP13C1477L"><span id="translatedtitle">End-Pleistocene Soil Constituents from Selected <span class="hlt">Sites</span> on the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain: First Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecompte, M. A.; Rock, B. N.; Demitroff, M.; Reid, M.; Lucas, L.; Hughes, D.; Hayden, L. B.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Stratigraphic analyses of soil samples taken from dated and undated <span class="hlt">sites</span> located along the mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain have yielded evidence of increased contemporary biomass burning, compared to under and overlying strata. Host strata ages are known or projected to bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode at 12.9 cal ka. This ongoing investigation includes samples from: 1) a late-Pleistocene aged periglacial feature located within the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey; 2) an artifact dated stratum (~ 12.9 ka) in an embankment on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; and 3) an as yet undated (C14 test results pending) embankment of the Perquimans River in northeastern North Carolina projected to be age-appropriate. Sample analysis of scanning electron (SEM) micrographs from the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">site</span> revealed charred fragments of late-Wisconsinan Krummholz birch (Betula) and species of spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies), which are not extant on the modern-day, temperate <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. In addition, organic faunal material is found in association with ancient charred boreal wood, including hollow hair and skin fragments that are as yet unidentified, perhaps from cold climate adapted animals as inferred from host sediment age. Charred wood fragments are found to be attracted to a neodymium magnet. Some aggregates of organic matter appear to contain magnetic spherule-like grains whose composition is awaiting geochemical analysis. Photomicrographs of all specimens and a stratigraphic breakdown in the relative amount of burned carbon associated with each <span class="hlt">site</span> and strata will be presented, along with the results of various analyses that are currently underway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1512547M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1512547M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice nucleating particles at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine boundary layer <span class="hlt">site</span>: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this <span class="hlt">site</span> for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1516273M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1516273M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice nucleating particles at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine boundary layer <span class="hlt">site</span>: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this <span class="hlt">site</span> for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1531..572L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1531..572L"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol scattering optical properties by nephelometer measurements at the El Arenosillo <span class="hlt">site</span> (SW <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Aerosol light scattering coefficients, the hemispheric σsp and the back-scattering coefficient σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelengths integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006 to May 2008) at the monitoring station ESAT-El Arenosillo. This station is located in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of the province of Huelva, in the southwest of the Iberian, Peninsula. The Ångström exponent α, has been also derived from the spectral dependence of σsp. All these parameters have been carefully analyzed to investigate their general characteristics and features, and diurnal variability. A general statistic gives mean values and std of σsp = 48.5 ±38.1 Mm-1 with a large range of variation showing moderate values of this rural and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> with marine prevalence but with significant influence of local sources of pollution. The daily cycle of σsp and α presents different behaviour depending on the season and is modulated by sea-land breeze regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019568','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019568"><span id="translatedtitle">Land use investigations in the central valley and central <span class="hlt">coastal</span> test <span class="hlt">sites</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Estes, J. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The Geography Remote Sensing Unit (GRSU) at the University of California, Santa Barbara is responsible for investigations with ERTS-1 data in the Central <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone and West Side of the San Joaquin Valley. The nature of investigative effort involves the inventory, monitoring, and assessment of the natural and cultural resources of the two areas. Land use, agriculture, vegetation, landforms, geology, and hydrology are the principal subjects for attention. These parameters are the key indicators of the dynamically changing character of the areas. Monitoring of these parameters with ERTS-1 data will provide the techniques and methodologies required to generate the information needed by federal, state, county, and local agencies to assess change-related phenomena and plan for management and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5616M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5616M"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of The Convective-boundary Layer On A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span>: Summer and Winter Field Measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mantilla, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Millán., M. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Within the framework of the EU project RECAB ("Regional Assessment and Model- ing of the Carbon Balance of Europe", EVK2-1999-00236), during July and December of 2001, convective boundary-layer measurements were performed systematically for several days at the coastline near El Saler (Valencia, Spain). A tethersonde sound- ing system was used, with a 1000 m maximum altitude. The measurement strategy included the realization of different profiles during the day: before or about sunrise to determine the characteristics of the drainage flow; at about the time of maximum boundary-layer development after noon; and in the afternoon-evening, to show the collapse of the diurnal flow. The objective was to document experimentally the struc- ture and daily evolution of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> boundary layer in the area, as well as to show seasonal variability in response to differences in mesoscale forcing. One of the most important aspects registered in the profiles, and expanding the previous evidences on the western Mediterranean coast, is the intense compensatory sinking on the coast oc- curring within the general subsidence process related to the persistent high pressure system in these latitudes during the summer period in response to the development of the sea breeze <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cycles. This extra sinking, not present in the winter mea- surements (due to the fact that in this period meteorological processes are dominated by higher scale structures), gives rise to a rich thermal structure in the first hundreds meters of the atmosphere, creating intense superadiabatic lapse rates (a very strati- fied structure can often be appreciated, where different more-or-less uncoupled layers persist), which suppose an important barrier to the vertical diffusion of any surface emissions. This fact is very important for understanding the general process of the surface-atmosphere interchange mechanisms, and especially for modeling such pro- cesses with simple mixing layer schemes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.810M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.810M"><span id="translatedtitle">The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex <span class="hlt">coastal</span> industrial <span class="hlt">site</span> nearby populated areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a <span class="hlt">site</span> already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at <span class="hlt">site</span>. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780037437&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsewage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780037437&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsewage"><span id="translatedtitle">Outfall <span class="hlt">siting</span> with dye-buoy remote sensing of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine <span class="hlt">siting</span> problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in <span class="hlt">siting</span> two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall <span class="hlt">site</span> was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall <span class="hlt">site</span> was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20455939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20455939"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal succession and UV sensitivity of marine bacterioplankton at an Antarctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Davidson, Andrew T; Buma, Anita G J</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Despite extensive microbial biodiversity studies around the globe, studies focusing on diversity and community composition of Bacteria in Antarctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions are still scarce. Here, we studied the diversity and development of bacterioplankton communities from Prydz Bay (Eastern Antarctic) during spring and early summer 2002-2003. Additionally, we investigated the possible shaping effects of solar UV radiation (UV-R: 280-400 nm) on bacterioplankton communities incubated for 13-14 days in 650-L minicosm tanks. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of the natural bacterioplankton communities revealed an initial springtime community composed of three evenly abundant bacterial classes: Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes (CFB), Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. At the end of spring, a shift occurred toward a CFB-dominated community, most likely a response to the onset of a springtime phytoplankton bloom. The tail end of Prydz Bay clone library diversity revealed sequences related to Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobiales, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes and an unclassified bacterium (ANT4E12). Minicosm experiments showed that incubation time was the principal determinant of bacterial community composition and that UV-R treatment significantly changed the composition in only two of the four experiments. Thus, the successional maturity of the microbial community in our minicosm studies appears to be a greater determinant of bacterial community composition rather than the nonprofound and subtle effects of UV-R. PMID:20455939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr95-279/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr95-279/"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Georgia-Florida <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain study unit, 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed <span class="hlt">sites</span> were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed <span class="hlt">sites</span> was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some <span class="hlt">sites</span> were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed <span class="hlt">sites</span> that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85682&keyword=benthic+AND+invertebrate+AND+abundance+AND+biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59050257&CFTOKEN=83122700','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85682&keyword=benthic+AND+invertebrate+AND+abundance+AND+biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59050257&CFTOKEN=83122700"><span id="translatedtitle">NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER <span class="hlt">SITES</span> IN TWO RHODE ISLAND <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water <span class="hlt">sites</span> in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAfES..45..279P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAfES..45..279P"><span id="translatedtitle">Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project <span class="hlt">Sites</span> 6 10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; MacLeod, Kenneth; McMillan, Ian K.; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Msaky, Emma</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Initial results from scientific drilling in southern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Tanzania are described. In a field season in 2003, a total of five <span class="hlt">sites</span> was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly marine clays and claystones deposited in an outer shelf or slope environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology) and organic geochemistry. TDP <span class="hlt">Site</span> 6 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko (UTM 37L 555752, 9014922), 350 m to the south-east of a previous <span class="hlt">site</span>, TDP <span class="hlt">Site</span> 1. The top 59.58 m, which was mostly drilled without coring, consists of an Oligocene clay formation belonging to nannofossil Zone NP23. The rest of the hole, to a total depth of 61.25 m, consists of a fault zone in which the Oligocene sediments are intermixed with middle Eocene clays of planktonic foraminifer Zone E9 and nannofossil Subzone NP15b. TDP <span class="hlt">Site</span> 7 consists of two holes (Hole TDP7A: UTM 37L 547126, 9030142; Hole TDP7B: UTM 37L 0547130, 9030140) drilled just 5 m apart at Kwamatola, a creek to the south of Kilwa Kivinje. Underneath approximately 20 m of unconsolidated sands and gravels, claystones and siltstones were recovered to a total depth of 128.00 m. The <span class="hlt">site</span> spans lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones E1, E2 and E3 and nannofossil Subzones NP 9b and NP10. The bottom of Hole TDP7B approaches the Paleocene-Eocene boundary but no unambiguously Paleocene sediments were recovered. TDP <span class="hlt">Site</span> 8 was drilled to the south-east of Singino Hill (UTM 37L 548033, 9025811). Below a covering of surface gravels, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey claystones to a total depth of 22.95 m. The sediments are from the lower Eocene and span the boundary between planktonic foraminifer Zones E3 and E4 and fall within</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..116..122M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..116..122M"><span id="translatedtitle">Terminal Antarctic melting inferred from a far-field <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauz, Barbara; Ruggieri, Gabriella; Spada, Giorgio</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to deglacial sea-level rise is poorly constrained. This shortfall gives rise to concerns because incorrect AIS estimates impact significantly on our ability to predict sea-level change in the course of global warming. Given the scarcity of geological data and the complexity of the Antarctic response to glacio-isostatic adjustment processes, there is a need for accurate data to constrain the timing of the ice-sheet retreat. Here, we provide such data on the Holocene Antarctic melting through an isolated geographic <span class="hlt">site</span> on the northern hemisphere, which we show is sensitive to the Antarctic signal. Using both our <span class="hlt">site</span>, and other mid-latitudinal relative sea-level <span class="hlt">sites</span>, our model provides a consensus estimate that the AIS released water corresponding to 5 m equivalent sea level at 8 ka and ceased melting at 6 ka. This is different to most AIS models, which release an equal amount of water at 11 ka or after 6 ka. Our findings change model assumptions about the terminal AIS melting and show that future Holocene sea-level research should focus on broad shelves and large coast embayments in the mid latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70%5B1625%3AESOADP%5D2.0.CO%3B2+;+http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.2193%2F0022-541X(2006)70[1625%3AESOADP]2.0.CO%3B2','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70%5B1625%3AESOADP%5D2.0.CO%3B2+;+http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.2193%2F0022-541X(2006)70[1625%3AESOADP]2.0.CO%3B2"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">site</span> occupancy and detection probability parameters for meso- and large mammals in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> eosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Talancy, N.W.; Bailey, L.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Cook, R.; Gilbert, A.T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale, multispecies monitoring programs are widely used to assess changes in wildlife populations but they often assume constant detectability when documenting species occurrence. This assumption is rarely met in practice because animal populations vary across time and space. As a result, detectability of a species can be influenced by a number of physical, biological, or anthropogenic factors (e.g., weather, seasonality, topography, biological rhythms, sampling methods). To evaluate some of these influences, we estimated <span class="hlt">site</span> occupancy rates using species-specific detection probabilities for meso- and large terrestrial mammal species on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. We used model selection to assess the influence of different sampling methods and major environmental factors on our ability to detect individual species. Remote cameras detected the most species (9), followed by cubby boxes (7) and hair traps (4) over a 13-month period. Estimated <span class="hlt">site</span> occupancy rates were similar among sampling methods for most species when detection probabilities exceeded 0.15, but we question estimates obtained from methods with detection probabilities between 0.05 and 0.15, and we consider methods with lower probabilities unacceptable for occupancy estimation and inference. Estimated detection probabilities can be used to accommodate variation in sampling methods, which allows for comparison of monitoring programs using different protocols. Vegetation and seasonality produced species-specific differences in detectability and occupancy, but differences were not consistent within or among species, which suggests that our results should be considered in the context of local habitat features and life history traits for the target species. We believe that <span class="hlt">site</span> occupancy is a useful state variable and suggest that monitoring programs for mammals using occupancy data consider detectability prior to making inferences about species distributions or population change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768872"><span id="translatedtitle">Radionuclide transfer in marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and <span class="hlt">site</span> data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This study implements new <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with <span class="hlt">site</span> measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with <span class="hlt">site</span> data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518306"><span id="translatedtitle">Vanadium uptake and translocation in dominant plant species on an urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> brownfield <span class="hlt">site</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Feng, Huan; Wu, Meiyin; Zhu, Qingzhi</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This study, conducted at a brownfield <span class="hlt">site</span> in New Jersey, USA, investigated factors controlling V uptake and translocation in naturally assembled plant species. Six dominant species were collected from 22 stations in the study area. We found that V concentration in the plants decreased in a sequence of root>leaf>stem. No significant differences were found among the six dominant plant species in terms of root V uptake efficiency (V BCF) and V root to shoot translocation (V TF). Although soil pH and TOC did not show significant impact on V accumulation in the roots, soil labile V content showed significant positive linear correlation (p<0.05) with plant root V. Non-linear regression analysis indicates that V translocation efficiency decreases with increasing concentration in the soil, implying that excessive V in the soil might inhibit its absorption by the plant roots. Leaf V concentration was constant in all the plant species regardless of the variation in soil V concentration. The study shows that the six dominant plant species on <span class="hlt">site</span> had limited amount of V translocated to the aerial part of the plant. PMID:24518306</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ACP....16.8053L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ACP....16.8053L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Dumont d'Urville, 2004-2014) and inland (Concordia, 2007-2014) <span class="hlt">sites</span> in East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Savarino, Joël; Frey, Markus M.; Kukui, Alexandre; Helmig, Detlev; Jourdain, Bruno; Jones, Anna E.; Weller, Rolf; Brough, Neil; Gallée, Hubert</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> East Antarctic <span class="hlt">site</span> of Dumont d'Urville (DDU), and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic <span class="hlt">sites</span>. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two <span class="hlt">sites</span> with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m) than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland <span class="hlt">sites</span>. DDU appears to be the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three <span class="hlt">sites</span> are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the <span class="hlt">sites</span>, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes the katabatic flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27334343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27334343"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in north-western Bay of Bengal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1 < 30 m isobath and Type 2 > 30 m isobath) at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2. PMID:27334343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.118..127N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.118..127N"><span id="translatedtitle">PM1 variability and transport conditions between an urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area and a high mountain <span class="hlt">site</span> during the cold season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolás, J. F.; Galindo, N.; Yubero, E.; Crespo, J.; Soler, R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>During late autumn and winter, the western Mediterranean basin is often affected by severe pollution episodes (SPE) caused by stagnant weather conditions that produce a notable increase in particulate matter (PM) levels. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact of these episodes on the variability of PM1 concentrations at an urban and a high mountain station in the western Mediterranean. At the urban <span class="hlt">site</span>, SPEs caused increases in PM1 levels of up to 20 μg m-3 at 20:00-21:00 UTC due to a decrease in the mixing layer depth during the evening rush hour. In contrast, the highest increments at the high mountain station (∼12 μg m-3) were observed around midday. Since there are little anthropogenic emissions in the surroundings of the mountain station, this was most likely the result of aerosol transport from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban areas and photochemical formation of secondary particles during transport. The transport of air pollutants through a complex orography occurs under specific weather conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1567D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1567D"><span id="translatedtitle">LIDAR-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial <span class="hlt">site</span> of Borre (Norway)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Viking-age burial <span class="hlt">site</span> in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial <span class="hlt">site</span> in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour <span class="hlt">site</span> is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24973612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24973612"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> using a Worldview-2 satellite image.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² <span class="hlt">site</span> located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers. PMID:24973612</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865346"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine <span class="hlt">sites</span> regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor <span class="hlt">site</span> throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference <span class="hlt">site</span>. Furthermore, we classified the <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted <span class="hlt">site</span> with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. PMID:25865346</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1190/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1190/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic <span class="hlt">Site</span>, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Landforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic <span class="hlt">Site</span> (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic <span class="hlt">Site</span> (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70058009','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70058009"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-<span class="hlt">coastal</span>-oceanic gradient: Current status and needs for inter-<span class="hlt">site</span> comparisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Troxler, Tiffany G.; Gaiser, Evelyn; Barr, Jordan; Fuentes, Jose D.; Jaffe, Rudolf; Childers, Daniel L.; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Anderson, William; Chambers, Randy; Chen, Meilian; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Davis, Stephen E.; Engel, Victor C.; Fitz, Carl; Fourqurean, James; Frankovich, Tom; Kominoski, John; Madden, Chris; Malone, Sparkle L.; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Olivas, Paulo; Richards, Jennifer; Saunders, Colin; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Scinto, Leonard J.; Sklar, Fred; Smith, Thomas J., III; Smoak, Joseph M.; Starr, Gregory; Twilley, Robert; Whelan, Kevin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems can bury significantly more C than tropical forests, indicating that continued <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development and exposure to sea level rise and storms will have global biogeochemical consequences. The Florida <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (FCE LTER) <span class="hlt">site</span> provides an excellent subtropical system for examining carbon (C) balance because of its exposure to historical changes in freshwater distribution and sea level rise and its history of significant long-term carbon-cycling studies. FCE LTER scientists used net ecosystem C balance and net ecosystem exchange data to estimate C budgets for riverine mangrove, freshwater marsh, and seagrass meadows, providing insights into the magnitude of C accumulation and lateral aquatic C transport. Rates of net C production in the riverine mangrove forest exceeded those reported for many tropical systems, including terrestrial forests, but there are considerable uncertainties around those estimates due to the high potential for gain and loss of C through aquatic fluxes. C production was approximately balanced between gain and loss in Everglades marshes; however, the contribution of periphyton increases uncertainty in these estimates. Moreover, while the approaches used for these initial estimates were informative, a resolved approach for addressing areas of uncertainty is critically needed for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystems. Once resolved, these C balance estimates, in conjunction with an understanding of drivers and key ecosystem feedbacks, can inform cross-system studies of ecosystem response to long-term changes in climate, hydrologic management, and other land use along coastlines</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191730&keyword=flexible+AND+led&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76259369&CFTOKEN=80777624','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191730&keyword=flexible+AND+led&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76259369&CFTOKEN=80777624"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining Existing Monitoring <span class="hlt">Sites</span> with a Probability Survey Design-Examples from U.S. EPA's National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment was envisioned as a research effort led by EPA's Office of Research and Development to evaluate assessment methods for ecosystem condition monitoring. The program was conducted through strategic partnershi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A43C0290R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A43C0290R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol Size, CCN, and Black Carbon Properties at a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span> in the Eastern U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Royalty, T. M.; Petters, M. D.; Grieshop, A. P.; Meskhidze, N.; Reed, R. E.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in regulating the global radiative budget through direct and indirect effects. To date, the role of sea spray aerosols in modulating climate remains poorly understood. Here we present results from measurements performed at the United States Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, USA. Aerosol mobility size distributions (10-600 nm), refractory black carbon (rBC) and scattering particle size distributions (200-620 nm), and size resolved cloud condensation nuclei distributions (.07% - .6% supersaturation) were collected at the end of a 560m pier. Aerosol characteristics associated with northerly, high wind speed (15+ m s-1) flow originating from an oceanic trajectory are contrasted with aerosol properties observed during a weak to moderate westerly flow originating from a continental trajectory. Both marine and continental air masses had aerosol with bi-modal number size distributions with modes centered at 30nm and 140nm. In the marine air-mass, the CCN concentration at supersaturation of 0.4%, total aerosol number, surface, and volume concentration were low. rBC number concentration (D > 200 nm) associated with the marine air-mass was an order of magnitude less than continental number concentration and indicative of relatively unpolluted air. These measurements are consistent with measurements from other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> under marine influence. The relative proportion of Aitken mode size particles increased from 1:2 to 2:1 while aerosol surface area was < 25 μm2 cm-3, suggesting that conditions upwind were potentially conducive to new particle formation. Overall, these results will contribute a better understanding to composition and size variation of marine aerosols.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1122/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1122/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System <span class="hlt">sites</span> and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone on <span class="hlt">site</span>, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS <span class="hlt">sites</span> across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 <span class="hlt">sites</span> located in three <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70074760','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70074760"><span id="translatedtitle">The collection of clear-water contraction and abutment scour data at selected bridge <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain and piedmont of South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andy W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Clear-water contraction and abutment scour data were collected at 128 bridge <span class="hlt">sites</span> in South Carolina. In the sandy soils of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain, clear-water-scour data were collected at 63 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (scour depths ranged from 0.4 to 7.2 meters.) In the clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 47 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (scour depths ranged from 0 to 1.4 meters.) In the sandy, clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 18 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (scour depths ranged from 0.9 to 5.5 meters.) The field data are to be compiled into a data base that will include bridge age; basin, soil and hydraulic characteristics; and theoretical scour data. The data are planned to be statistically analyzed for significant relations that may help explain and (or) predict maximum scour depths at bridges in South Carolina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6516129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6516129"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of hot dry rock exploration techniques in the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain: a test <span class="hlt">site</span> on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Detailed investigation of a potential Hot Dry Rock (HDR) energy extraction <span class="hlt">site</span> in the area of Crisfield, Maryland, and Wallops Island, Virginia, (referred to as the Cris-Wall <span class="hlt">site</span>) was carried out to evaluate HDR exploration techniques in the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain province. The findings favor the HDR exploration program that is outlined for locating a deep test hole in an area with presumed HDR potential (higher than normal heat flow). Six potential <span class="hlt">sites</span> for extracting HDR energy have been identified within the Cris-Wall area. Each <span class="hlt">site</span> is thought to have temperatures at the basement rock surface in excess of 75/sup 0/C and to be at least 1 km away from the nearest fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BoLMe.159..329G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BoLMe.159..329G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine <span class="hlt">Sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier; Peña, Alfredo; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, Burghard</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The variability in the wind field among the <span class="hlt">sites</span> is expressed in terms of mean wind speed and Weibull distribution shape-parameter profiles. The consequences of the carrier-to-noise-ratio ( CNR) threshold-value choice on the wind-lidar observations are revealed as follows. When the wind-lidar CNR is lower than a prescribed threshold value, the observations are often filtered out as the uncertainty in the wind-speed measurements increases. For a pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar, use of the traditional -22 dB CNR threshold value at all measuring levels up to 600 m results in a ≈ 7 % overestimation in the long-term mean wind speed over land, and a ≈ 12 % overestimation in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and marine environments. In addition, the height of the profile maximum of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution (so-called reversal height) is found to depend on the applied CNR threshold; it is found to be lower at small CNR threshold values. The reversal height is greater in the suburban (high roughness) than in the rural (low roughness) area. In <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas the reversal height is lower than that over land and relates to the internal boundary layer that develops downwind from the coastline. Over the sea the shape parameter increases towards the sea surface. A parametrization of the vertical profile of the shape parameter fits well with observations over land, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions and over the sea. An applied model for the dependence of the reversal height on the surface roughness is in good agreement with the observations over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125564"><span id="translatedtitle">Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Sites</span> and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lowland <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local <span class="hlt">coastal</span> populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488425','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488425"><span id="translatedtitle">Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Sites</span> and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lowland <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local <span class="hlt">coastal</span> populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318155','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318155"><span id="translatedtitle">Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes differ between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and inland road corridors in the Northeastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeast, switchgrass was restricted to a narrow zone adjacent to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> salt marsh, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=189684&keyword=flexible+AND+led&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76259369&CFTOKEN=80777624','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=189684&keyword=flexible+AND+led&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76259369&CFTOKEN=80777624"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining Existing Monitoring <span class="hlt">Sites</span> with a Probability Survey Design - Examples from U.S. EPA’s National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment was envisioned as a research effort led by EPA’s Office of Research and Development to evaluate assessment methods for ecosystem condition monitoring. The program was conducted through strategic partnershi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.A11C3026W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.A11C3026W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fog water from seven <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven <span class="hlt">sites</span> spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 <span class="hlt">sites</span> in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 <span class="hlt">sites</span>: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811001W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811001W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol optical properties at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong, South China: temporal features, size dependencies and source analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiaping; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Hong Kong is a typical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> city adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China, which is one of the regions suffering from severe air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols can affect the earth's radiative balance by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Black Carbon (BC) aerosol is a particularly emphasized component due to its strong light absorption. Aerosol transported from different source areas consists of distinct size distributions, leading to different optical properties. As the byproducts of the incomplete oxidation, BC and CO both have relatively long life time, their relationship is a good indicator for distinguishing different pollutant sources. In this study, temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and concentrations of BC and CO at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> background station in Hong Kong were investigated. Transport characteristics and origins of aerosol were elucidated by analyzing backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) results, together with related parameters including the relationships between optical properties and particle size, BC-CO correlations, ship location data and meteorological variables. From February 2012 to September 2013 and March 2014 to February 2015, continuous in-situ measurements of light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle size distribution and concentrations of BC and CO were conducted at Hok Tsui (HT), a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> background station on the southeast tip of Hong Kong Island (22.22°N, 114.25°E, 60 m above the sea level) with few local anthropogenic activities. Affected by the Asian monsoon, this region is dominated by continental outflow in winter and by marine inflow from the South China Sea in summer, which is an ideal station for identifying the transport characteristics of aerosol and their effects on optical properties from different anthropogenic emission sources. 7-day backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling was performed for source identification. Three</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8888E..0HA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8888E..0HA"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of ocean color data processing schemes for VIIRS sensor using in-situ data of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> AERONET-OC <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Hlaing, S.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.; Wang, M.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>In the processing of Ocean Color (OC) data from sensor data recorded by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard JPSS-Suomi satellite, NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) is deriving a continuous temporal calibration based on the on-board calibration measurements for the visible bands, and then reprocessing the full mission to produce a continuously calibrated sensor data record (SDR) product. In addition, a vicarious calibration during SDR to OC Level-2 processing is applied. In the latest processing the vicarious calibration is derived from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data, whereas in the initial processing it was derived from a sea surface reflectance model and a climatology of chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, NASA has recently reprocessed the OC data for the entire VIIRS mission with lunar-based temporal calibration and updated vicarious gains. On the other hand, in fulfilling the mission of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, for the processing of the environmental data products from sensor data records, has gained beta status for evaluation. As these processing schemes continue to evolve, monitoring the validity and assessments of the related VIIRS ocean color products are necessary, especially for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, to evaluate the consistency of these processing and calibration schemes. The ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been designed to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-<span class="hlt">site</span> measurements collected by autonomous multispectral radiometer systems deployed above water. As part of this network, the Long Island Sound <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory (LISCO) near New York City and WaveCIS in the Gulf of Mexico expand those observational capabilities with continuous monitoring as well as (for the LISCO <span class="hlt">site</span>) additional assessment of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salt+AND+marshes&id=ED243722','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salt+AND+marshes&id=ED243722"><span id="translatedtitle">A Guide to Field Trip <span class="hlt">Sites</span> in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> North Carolina. Project CAPE Teaching Module SC3a.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carroll, Walter B.; Carroll, Carolyn H.</p> <p></p> <p>This guide provides information on preparing students in grades 4-10 for field trips and describes possible field trip <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the northeastern, mid-eastern, and southeastern regions of North Carolina. Selected <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the northeastern region (from Roanoke Island to Ocracoke) include the Dare Coastline and Cape Hatteras National Seashore.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2906B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2906B"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for <span class="hlt">site</span> taphonomy in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> settings worldwide. These archaeological <span class="hlt">sites</span> have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer <span class="hlt">sites</span> from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of <span class="hlt">site</span> formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on <span class="hlt">site</span>, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological <span class="hlt">site</span>, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp <span class="hlt">site</span>); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8498L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8498L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparaison of 85Kr measurements with the ADMS model (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System) on a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> complex <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leroy, C.; Maro, D.; Connan, O.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Modelling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive plumes is a major issue for nuclear safety institutes to predict and estimate the radiological consequences to the population. The French Institute for the Radiological protection and the Nuclear Safety (IRSN) uses gaussian plume models, particularly adapted in accidental situations, because of short computation times. Due to the lack of experimental data, the reliability of these models is poorly documented and misunderstood for elevated sources in the near field and more particularly, in complex areas (topography, change of roughness). In order to improve the knowledge of dispersion mechanisms in such conditions, the IRSN ran a series of experimental campaigns between 1999 and 2002 in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (AREVA NC - France). The La Hague peninsula is very narrow and the plant is located at 2 km from the coastline, at 150 m above sea level. During the experiments, the krypton-85 (85Kr), a radionucleide, was used as a non-reactive tracer of the plumes released by the 100 m high stack. In this work, the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC) obtained from 85Kr measurements at La Hague are compared with the computations of the "next generation" gaussian model ADMS (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System) performed with "complex and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> effects" ADMS modules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2128R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2128R"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Dynamics (ACD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rachold, V.; Boike, J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> dynamics directly reflecting the complicated land-ocean interactions play an important role in the balance of sediments, organic carbon and nutrients in the Arctic basin. Recent studies indicate that sediment input to the Arctic shelves resulting from erosion of ice-rich, permafrost-dominated coasts may be equal to or greater than input from river discharge. Thus, the understanding and quantification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes is critical for interpreting the geological history of the Arctic shelves. The predictions of future behavior of these coasts in response to climatic and sea level changes is an important issue because most of the human activity that occurs at high latitudes concentrates on the Arctic coastlines. As an initiative of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) the multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Dynamics (ACD), which was recently accepted as a project of the International Arctic Sciences Committee (IASC), had been developed. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior. In particular, the project aims to: - establish the rates and magnitudes of erosion and accumulation of Arctic coasts; - develop a network of long-term monitoring <span class="hlt">sites</span> including local community-based observational <span class="hlt">sites</span>; - identify and undertake focused research on critical processes; - estimate the amount of sediments and organic carbon derived from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion; - refine and apply an Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> classification (includes ground-ice, permafrost, geology etc.) in digital form (GIS format); - extract and utilize existing information on relevant environmental forcing parameters (e.g. wind speed, sea level, fetch, sea ice etc.); - produce a series of thematic and derived maps (e.g. <span class="hlt">coastal</span> classification, ground-ice, sensitivity etc.); - develop empirical models to assess the sensitivity of Arctic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037549','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037549"><span id="translatedtitle">Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery <span class="hlt">sites</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479960"><span id="translatedtitle">Leucine aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase activity rates and their significance in nutrient cycles in some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caruso, Gabriella</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and beta-glucosidase, beta-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the "potential" metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sites</span>, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and beta-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. beta-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2866468','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2866468"><span id="translatedtitle">Leucine Aminopeptidase, β-Glucosidase and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Rates and Their Significance in Nutrient Cycles in Some <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caruso, Gabriella</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and β-glucosidase, β-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the “potential” metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sites</span>, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and β-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. β-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21A0004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21A0004B"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol spectral optical depths of the South Asian winter haze at a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in India under background state of the stratospheric aerosol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balla, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Every year during the South Asian winter and pre-monsoon periods most of the Indian subcontinent, the Bay of Bengal and the adjoining tropical Indian Ocean are affected by a synoptic transport of polluted aerosol from the continent in the northern hemisphere, known as the South Asian Winter Haze (SAWH). Visakhapatnam (17.7 deg N, 83.3 deg E), a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> station in India, is also affected by this anthropogenic regional haze. In spite of the usual clear blue skies and clean maritime airmasses hazy skies associated with public health effects, and higher values of spectral optical depths and near-surface aerosol mass concentrations have become a regular scenario at Visakhapatnam and its environs during wintertime. For an accurate assessment of the possible direct and indirect effects aerosol spectral optical depth of this lower atmospheric haze must be obtained. The problem of retrieving spectral optical depths of the SAWH from atmospheric optical depths by ground-based solar radiometry and inter-channel correlations was discussed in our recent article [Rao, B.M. and Niranjan, K., 2012. Optical properties of the South Asian winter haze at a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in India, Atmos. Environ. 54, 449-455]. The present work is concerned with the retrieval of SAWH AOD at Visakhapatnam under background state of the stratospheric aerosol. The SAWH AODs (spectral values) obtained for two successive winter seasons during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 are compared with their columnar counterparts (obtained by a conventional method) and the results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5260/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5260/"><span id="translatedtitle">Clear-Water Contraction Scour at Selected Bridge <span class="hlt">Sites</span> in the Black Prairie Belt of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain in Alabama, 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Transportation, made observations of clear-water contraction scour at 25 bridge <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Black Prairie Belt of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of Alabama. These bridge <span class="hlt">sites</span> consisted of 54 hydraulic structures, of which 37 have measurable scour holes. Observed scour depths ranged from 1.4 to 10.4 feet. Theoretical clear-water contraction-scour depths were computed for each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths by about 475 percent. Variables determined to be important in developing scour in laboratory studies along with several other hydraulic variables were investigated to understand their influence within the Alabama field data. The strongest explanatory variables for clear-water contraction scour were channel-contraction ratio and velocity index. Envelope curves were developed relating both of these explanatory variables to observed scour. These envelope curves provide useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in the Black Prairie Belt of Alabama.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23E3292I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23E3292I"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Influence of Marine Vessel Emissions Plumes on Measurements Collected at the Amphitrite Point <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Background <span class="hlt">Site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iannone, R.; Jones, K.; Schiller, C. L.; Ainslie, B.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mihele, C.; Vingarzan, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A marine boundary layer air quality monitoring <span class="hlt">site</span> was established on the west coast of Vancouver Island at Amphitrite Point in May 2010. The main objectives for the <span class="hlt">site</span> were to (1) determine background air pollutant concentrations and trends, (2) support air quality modelling validation and development, (3) complement the high elevation background monitoring <span class="hlt">site</span> at Whistler and other regional monitoring initiatives, and (4) conduct chemical process studies in the marine boundary layer. During the initial evaluations of the collected data (e.g., O3, PM2.5, NOx, and SO2) and its comparison to other marine background <span class="hlt">sites</span>, periods were observed that are clearly representative of background air, continental background air, and those clearly influenced by ship and boat traffic in the region.On the basis that the individual pollutants observed are closely related to emissions observed by underway marine vessels, certain observational periods in the collected dataset were associated with ship plumes. Utilizing the data provided by marine vessel movements, CALPUFF emission inputs were generated for dispersion modelling of ship pollutants. CALPUFF model output data were subsequently compared to measured data in order to better characterize impacts from marine vessel traffic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1648%2F0273-8570%282004%29075%5B0317%3ANSAHSO%5D2.0.CO%3B2','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1648%2F0273-8570%282004%29075%5B0317%3ANSAHSO%5D2.0.CO%3B2"><span id="translatedtitle">Nest-<span class="hlt">site</span> selection and hatching success of waterbirds in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia: some results of habitat manipulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rounds, R.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Portera, J.H.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Rising sea levels in the mid-Atlantic region pose a long-term threat to marshes and their avian inhabitants. The Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica), Common Tern (S. hirundo), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), species of concern in Virginia, nest on low shelly perimeters of salt marsh islands on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Marsh shellpiles are free of mammalian predators, but subject to frequent floods that reduce reproductive success. In an attempt to examine nest-<span class="hlt">site</span> selection, enhance habitat, and improve hatching success, small (2 ? 2 m) plots on five island shellpiles were experimentally elevated, and nest-<span class="hlt">site</span> selection and hatching success were monitored from 1 May to 1 August, 2002. In addition, location, elevation, and nesting performance of all other nests in the colonies were also monitored. No species selected the elevated experimental plots preferentially over adjacent control plots at any of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. When all nests were considered, Common Tern nests were located significantly lower than were random point elevations at two <span class="hlt">sites</span>, as they tended to concentrate on low-lying wrack. At two other <span class="hlt">sites</span>, however, Common Tern nests were significantly higher than were random points. Gull-billed Terns and American Oystercatchers showed a weak preference for higher elevations on bare shell at most <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Hatching success was not improved on elevated plots, despite the protection they provided from flooding. Because of a 7 June flood, when 47% of all nests flooded, hatching success for all species was low. Nest elevation had the strongest impact on a nest's probability of hatching, followed by nest-initiation date. Predation rates were high at small colonies, and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) depredated 90% of early Gull-billed Tern nests at one shellpile. The importance of nest elevation and flooding on hatching success demonstrates the potential for management of certain waterbird nesting <span class="hlt">sites</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1111185S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1111185S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-rural <span class="hlt">site</span> at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH33C1930H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH33C1930H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Storms on <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Vulnerability Through Revisiting <span class="hlt">Sites</span> Impacted by Super Storm Sandy Offshore Long Island, New York</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Yong, W. Y.; Delligatti, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent models indicate that due to climate change storm activity can intensify. Sea level rise as a result of climate change can lead to storm flooding and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> damage in low-lying populated areas such as NE, USA. The New York metropolitan area experienced one of the highest storm surges in its history during Hurricane Sandy. The peak storm-tide elevation measured by USGS in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m higher than historical measurements in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation Rapid Response we surveyed from the R/V Pritchard and sampled the bays and inlets along the southern shore of Long Island after Super Storm Sandy in January 2013 and during June 2014 for assessing the impact of the storm. Short-lived radioisotopes, heavy metals and grain size variability were used to track the path of the storm. In 2013 high concentrations of metals (Pb 184 ppm) were deposited on the landward side of barrier islands and were tracked offshore for10 km. In 2014, we revisited the 2013 locations. The offshore, metal enriched mud layer was seen as small inclusions in sand and not present at the surface suggestive that natural processes are cleansing the sea-floor. Inland the cores showed three facies. From the base upwards: 1) coarse sand with low Pb 99 ppm. Interpreted as either sand transported landwards by the storm or in situ; 2) fine-grained, organic rich sediment with the high Pb 443 ppm and interpreted as seaward transport by the storm; 3) organic rich mud with lower Pb 200 ppm was found in the core tops. Most importantly the sea-floor was colonized by tubeworms suggestive that the environment is returning to normal conditions. These results coupled to other regional studies indicate that the storm was catastrophic and resulted in significant sediment transport. The surge brought sand inland modifying channel and inlet depths but most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. It appears that the bays and inlets are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..526V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..526V"><span id="translatedtitle">Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the <span class="hlt">sites</span> without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the <span class="hlt">site</span> influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999HMR....53..163K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999HMR....53..163K"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea <span class="hlt">sites</span>, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B51B..05E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B51B..05E"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Measured Evaporation at Wet and Mesic <span class="hlt">Sites</span> to Modeled Evaporation Using BIOME BGC in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engstrom, R. N.; Hope, A. S.; Harazano, Y.; Kwon, H.; Mano, M.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The growing season evaporation process in Arctic ecosystems is affected by the unique characteristics of the region, including non-vascular vegetation, a substantial ground heat sink, low energy inputs, and other factors. These characteristics may be a source of uncertainty in evaporation estimates using models developed for mid-latitude ecosystems. By incorporating these characteristics into evaporation models, the accuracy of model predictions should improve. In this study the ecophysiological model BIOME BGC was adapted to Arctic environments by including a non-vascular vegetation evaporation routine, adding ground heat flux as an input, accounting for ground shading by dead vegetation, developing a new parameter set for tundra vegetation, and by accounting for ponded water evaporation. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of this modified version of BIOME BGC to simulate measured evaporation fluxes at two eddy flux tower locations with contrasting wetness conditions in Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain ecosystems. Model simulations were compared to measured evaporation at two eddy flux towers located within 1 km of each other in Barrow, Alaska with substantially different moisture regimes for the 1999, 2000, and 2001 summer seasons. One tower was located in a marsh area that has standing water while the other tower is located in a drier, mesic tundra location. Results indicated that the model performed well at the wet <span class="hlt">site</span> however, it tended to over predict evaporation at the drier <span class="hlt">site</span>. This over prediction is most likely due to the affects of lateral redistribution of water from the drier <span class="hlt">site</span> not being accounted for in model simulations. Additional results indicated that the modified BIOME BGC model was able to simulate measured leaf area index and inter-annual variations in snowmelt date well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100028434','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100028434"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET <span class="hlt">site</span> in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest <span class="hlt">site</span> ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.132...48L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.132...48L"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of aerosol scattering properties measured by a nephelometer at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-rural <span class="hlt">site</span> in the Atlantic southwest of the Iberian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Angel M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Aerosol hemispherical scattering and the backscattering coefficients, σsp, σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006-May 2008) in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. These coefficients have been carefully analyzed starting with the impact of corrections on the measurements of σsp: i.e., drift calibration constants do not modify the mean value in our data series. However, the selection of dry data (with RH less than 50%) modifies substantially the number of data and the resulting mean value of σsp is now 14% lower, which is compensated when the angular truncation correction is applied. The characterization and features of σsp, σbsc, and the derived parameters αsp (alpha Ångström exponent) and b (the backscatter ratio) has been analyzed, as annual, seasonal and diurnal evolution. A general statistic based on hourly data gives mean values and standard deviation of σsp (500 nm)=48±38 Mm-1 with a median of 38 Mm-1, and σbsc (500 nm)=5.6±3.8 Mm-1 with a median of 4.6 Mm-1. Thus, these values show moderate-low values but with a large range of variation considering the existing measured values over the Iberian Peninsula. The median value of σsp (500 nm) is an indicator that events of high aerosol burden are frequent presenting a substantial influence on the daily averages. The alpha Ångström exponent, αsp, derived from the pairs 450/700 nm gives a mean value 1.35±0.54 with a median of 1.47 and with the most frequent value of 1.7, thus indicating the prevalence of medium size particles but with a significant influence of fine particles. The b ratio has the same value for mean and median, 0.12±0.02, showing a decrease with increasing values of σsp. Annual and daily cycles have been also analyzed showing the complex behaviour of the optical properties at this <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> where cold and warn periods show very different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/981606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/981606"><span id="translatedtitle">Model for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli</p> <p>2007-07-27</p> <p>Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for <span class="hlt">site</span> prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9464Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9464Z"><span id="translatedtitle">One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a <span class="hlt">site</span> located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring <span class="hlt">site</span>. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.129...18S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.129...18S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiyear in-situ measurements of atmospheric aerosol absorption properties at an urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in western Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Esteve, A. R.; Marcos, C. R.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In-situ aerosol absorption properties measured in Valencia (Spain) for four years, from February 2011 to February 2015, have been analysed. Spectral absorption properties have been obtained using a seven-wavelength Aethalometer AE-31 which covers the range from UV (370 nm) to IR (950 nm). In order to obtain the absorption coefficients, compensation parameters have been calculated for the Aethalometer considering seasonal and spectral differences. For this multiyear measurement period, seasonal <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific calibration parameters have been obtained. Furthermore, estimations of the absorption Ångström Exponent (αabs) have been calculated using the seven Aethalometer wavelengths. The averaged absorption coefficients (plus/minus the standard deviation) obtained for the seven channels range between 9 ± 4 Mm-1 at 950 nm and 33 ± 18 Mm-1 at 370 nm. These results are typical of a moderate polluted environment. The obtained absorption Ångström Exponent (plus/minus the standard deviation) is 1.42 ± 0.08, which suggests the presence of brown carbon or black carbon coated by non-absorbing particles in our <span class="hlt">site</span>. Seasonal and daily variations, together with the effect of both the boundary layer height and traffic, have been also studied. Strong seasonal differences in the absorption coefficient are found, mainly due to seasonal variation of the mixing layer height. On the opposite, the study of the diurnal variations of the absorption Ångström Exponent proves that this parameter is more affected by traffic emissions than by the evolution of the mixing layer height.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26116197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26116197"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractionation and risk assessment of Fe and Mn in surface sediments from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> of Sonora, Mexico (Gulf of California).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jara-Marini, Martín E; García-Camarena, Raúl; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín; García-Rico, Leticia</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe and Mn distribution in geochemical fractions of the surface sediment of four oyster culture <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Sonora coast, Mexico. A selective fractionation scheme to obtain five fractions was adapted for the microwave system. Surface sediments were analyzed for carbonates, organic matter contents, and Fe and Mn in geochemical fractions. The bulk concentrations of Fe ranged from 10,506 to 21,918 mg/kg (dry weight, dry wt), and the bulk concentrations of Mn ranged from 185.1 to 315.9 mg/kg (dry wt) in sediments, which was low and considered as non-polluted in all of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The fractionation study indicated that the major geochemical phases for the metals were the residual, as well as the Fe and Mn oxide fractions. The concentrations of metals in the geochemical fractions had the following order: residual > Fe and Mn oxides > organic matter > carbonates > interchangeable. Most of the Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction. Among non-residual fractions, high percentages of Fe and Mn were linked to Fe and Mn oxides. The enrichment factors (EFs) for the two metals were similar in the four studied coasts, and the levels of Fe and Mn are interpreted as non-enrichment (EF < 1) because the metals concentrations were within the baseline concentrations. According to the environmental risk assessment codes, Fe and Mn posed no risk and low risk, respectively. Although the concentrations of Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction, the levels in non-residual fractions may significantly result in the transference of other metals, depending on several physico-chemical and biological factors. PMID:26116197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41..506H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41..506H"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of source apportionment and potential source locations of PM 2.5 at a west <span class="hlt">coastal</span> IMPROVE <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, InJo; Hopke, Philip K.</p> <p></p> <p>Particle composition data for PM 2.5 samples collected at Kalmiopsis Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) <span class="hlt">site</span> in southwestern Oregon from March 2000 to May 2004 were analyzed to provide source identification and apportionment. A total of 493 samples were collected and 32 species were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission, proton elastic scattering analysis, photon-induced X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, and thermal optical reflectance methods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to estimate the source profiles and their mass contributions. The PMF modeling identified nine sources. In the Kalmiopsis <span class="hlt">site</span>, the average mass was apportioned to wood/field burning (38.4%), secondary sulfate (26.9%), airborne soil including Asian dust (8.6 %), secondary nitrate (7.6%), fresh sea salt (5.8%), OP-rich sulfate (4.9%), aged sea salt (4.5 %), gasoline vehicle (1.9%), and diesel emission (1.4%). The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was then used to help identify likely locations of the regional sources of pollution. The PSCF map for wood/field burning indicates there is a major potential source area in the Siskiyou County and eastern Oregon. The potential source locations for secondary sulfate are found in western Washington, northwestern Oregon, and the near shore Pacific Ocean where there are extensive shipping lanes. It was not possible to extract a profile directly attributable to ship emissions, but indications of their influence are seen in the secondary sulfate and aged sea salt compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194232"><span id="translatedtitle">How does the selection of landscape classification schemes affect the spatial pattern of natural landscapes? An assessment on a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland <span class="hlt">site</span> in southern Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomaselli, V; Veronico, G; Sciandrello, S; Blonda, P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>It is widely known that thematic resolution affects spatial pattern and landscape metrics performances. In literature, data dealing with this issue usually refer to a specific class scheme with its thematic levels. In this paper, the effects of different land cover (LC) and habitat classification schemes on the spatial pattern of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape were compared. One of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system was considered as the study <span class="hlt">site</span>, and different schemes widely used in the EU were selected and harmonized with a common thematic resolution, suitable for habitat discrimination and monitoring. For each scheme, a thematic map was produced and, for each map, 28 landscape metrics were calculated. The landscape composition, already in terms of number of classes, class area, and number of patches, changes significantly among different classification schemes. Landscape complexity varies according to the class scheme considered and its underlying semantics, depending on how the different types aggregate or split when changing class scheme. Results confirm that the selection of a specific class scheme affects the spatial pattern of the derived landscapes and consequently the landscape metrics, especially at class level. Moreover, among the classification schemes considered, EUNIS seems to be the best choice for a comprehensive representation of both natural and anthropogenic classes. PMID:27194232</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AtmEn..36.2933V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AtmEn..36.2933V"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> using a modified Gaussian model and a mesoscale sea breeze model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venkatesan, R.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Somayaji, K. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Ground level concentration and sky-shine dose due to radioactive emissions from a nuclear power plant at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> have been estimated using the standard Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) and the modified GPM suggested by Misra (Atmospheric Environment 14 (1980) 397), which incorporates fumigation effect under sea breeze condition. The difference in results between these two models is analysed in order to understand their significance and errors that would occur if proper choice were not made. Radioactive sky-shine dose from 41Ar, emitted from a 100 m stack of the nuclear plant is continuously recorded by environmental gamma dose monitors and the data is used to validate the modified GPM. It is observed that the dose values increase by a factor of about 2 times than those of the standard GPM estimates, up to a downwind distance of 6 km during sea breeze hours. In order to examine the dispersion of radioactive effluents in the mesoscale range, a sea breeze model coupled with a particle dispersion model is used. The deposited activity, thyroid dose and sky-shine radioactive dose are simulated for a range of 30 km. In this range, the plume is found to deviate from its straight-line trajectory, as otherwise assumed in GPM. A secondary maximum in the concentration and the sky-shine dose is also observed in the model results. These results are quite significant in realistically estimating the area affected under any unlikely event of an accidental release of radioactivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6819071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6819071"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span>, Upper <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cathcart, E.M. . Dept. of Geology); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The Upper Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span> were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AtmEn..45.2480C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AtmEn..45.2480C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a <span class="hlt">coastal</span>/rural <span class="hlt">site</span> downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span>/rural <span class="hlt">site</span> of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling <span class="hlt">site</span> from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2345G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.2345G"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional and local contributions to ambient non-methane volatile organic compounds at a polluted rural/<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Pearl River Delta, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, H.; Wang, T.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Kwok, Y. H.; Li, Y. S.</p> <p></p> <p>Identification of major sources of airborne pollutants and their contribution to pollutant loadings are critical in developing effective pollution control and mitigation strategies. In this study, a comprehensive dataset of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) collected from August 2001 to December 2002 at a polluted rural/<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is analyzed to assess the relative contributions of major pollution sources to ambient NMVOC mixing ratios. A unique approach based on emission ratios of individual chemical species was used to classify the bulk air samples in order to apportion regional and local source contributions to the measured mixing ratios. The collected air samples fell into four major groups, including air masses from the inner PRD region and Hong Kong (HK) urban area. To estimate the source apportionment of NMVOCs, a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores receptor model was applied to the classified data points. The results indicate that the regional and local source contributions to ambient NMVOC levels at the <span class="hlt">site</span> were significantly different due to the differences in local versus regional energy use and industrial activities. For air masses originating from HK, vehicular emissions accounted for approximately 39% of the total NMVOC levels, followed by industrial emissions (35%), gasoline evaporation (14%) and commercial/domestic liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas use (12%). By contrast, for air masses originating from the PRD the industrial emissions accounted for 43% of the total NMVOC burden, followed by vehicular emissions (32%) and biomass burning (25%). In particular, the higher regional contribution of biomass burning found in this study as compared to existing emission inventories suggests that further efforts are necessary to refine the emission inventories of NMVOCs in the PRD region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H21L..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H21L..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Industrial Park <span class="hlt">Site</span>, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sung, R.; Li, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) <span class="hlt">Site</span>, Taiwan. The CCIP <span class="hlt">Site</span> is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8563Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8563Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics and potential sources of atmospheric mercury at a subtropical near-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in East China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Ben; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Fu, Xuewu; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>To evaluate the impact of regional mercury (Hg) emissions and understand possible source regions of atmospheric Hg in Eastern China, 2 year observation for speciated atmospheric Hg was conducted at the Dameishan Atmospheric Observatory, a mountain <span class="hlt">site</span> near the east coast of China. The observed concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) was 3.3 ± 1.4 ng m-3. During the sampling period, gaseous oxidized Hg and particulate bound Hg were 6.7 ± 4.3 pg m-3 and 180 ± 110 pg m-3 in winter and 5.9 ± 3.4 pg m-3 and 130 ± 100 pg m-3 in spring, respectively. The relatively high mean concentration of TGM was mainly caused by regional anthropogenic emissions and occasional long-range transport from domestic source regions. Seasonal variation in the TGM concentration was observed with lower values in the wet monsoon season (from May to September) and higher values in the dry monsoon season (from October to April). Backward trajectories and potential source contribution function analysis suggested that anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion in the Yangtze River Delta region was the most likely cause for the elevated TGM concentrations. Relatively clean air originating from the East China Sea was the most possible cause for the observed low TGM concentrations. Positive correlation between TGM concentration and air quality index suggests that emissions that influenced regional air quality contributed to the elevated TGM concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........59H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........59H"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidirectional reflectance correction model for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water and its application to minimization of uncertainties in satellite and in-situ water leaving radiances at Long Island Sound <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hlaing, Soe Min</p> <p></p> <p>Ocean Color data validation is the absolute requirement to provide the steady and reliable Ocean Color data stream. In the validation of Ocean Color data, water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be compared in very accurate manner. Both in-situ and satellite data to be used in the comparisons are required to be the representative of the typical water and environmental condition at the <span class="hlt">site</span> without being affected by the unexpected natural and environmental perturbation. As the result, assessments of the uncertainties in the water leaving radiance data must be carried out in the measurement and the every step of data processing procedure. With the hyper- and multi-spectral water leaving radiance data retrieved for the different viewing geometries of the instruments at the Long Island Sound <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory (LISCO), uncertainties in the water leaving radiance data and processing procedures have been assessed and quantified. Recommendations and algorithm improvements have been also made to reduce the uncertainties in the processing and validation of Ocean Color data. Particularly, remote sensing reflectance model to correct the bidirectional angular dependencies in both in-situ and satellite data have been proposed. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multi- and hyper-spectral radiometers which have different viewing geometries installed at LISCO. Match-ups and inter-comparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with spectral average improvement of 2.4%. LISCO's time series data has also been used to evaluate improvements in the match-up comparisons of MODIS satellite data when the proposed Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It has been shown that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972199"><span id="translatedtitle">A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains Reaches of the Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span> and its Tributaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, D.</p> <p>2007-03-05</p> <p>Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span> was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969551"><span id="translatedtitle">PM2.5 source apportionment in a French urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> under steelworks emission influences using constrained non-negative matrix factorization receptor model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kfoury, Adib; Ledoux, Frédéric; Roche, Cloé; Delmaire, Gilles; Roussel, Gilles; Courcot, Dominique</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The constrained weighted-non-negative matrix factorization (CW-NMF) hybrid receptor model was applied to study the influence of steelmaking activities on PM2.5 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) composition in Dunkerque, Northern France. Semi-diurnal PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume sampler in winter 2010 and spring 2011 and were analyzed for trace metals, water-soluble ions, and total carbon using inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ICP--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ionic chromatography and micro elemental carbon analyzer. The elemental composition shows that NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+) and total carbon are the main PM2.5 constituents. Trace metals data were interpreted using concentration roses and both influences of integrated steelworks and electric steel plant were evidenced. The distinction between the two sources is made possible by the use Zn/Fe and Zn/Mn diagnostic ratios. Moreover Rb/Cr, Pb/Cr and Cu/Cd combination ratio are proposed to distinguish the ISW-sintering stack from the ISW-fugitive emissions. The a priori knowledge on the influencing source was introduced in the CW-NMF to guide the calculation. Eleven source profiles with various contributions were identified: 8 are characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban background <span class="hlt">site</span> profiles and 3 are related to the steelmaking activities. Between them, secondary nitrates, secondary sulfates and combustion profiles give the highest contributions and account for 93% of the PM2.5 concentration. The steelwork facilities contribute in about 2% of the total PM2.5 concentration and appear to be the main source of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn. PMID:26969551</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063963"><span id="translatedtitle">The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles. PMID:25063963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26969556"><span id="translatedtitle">Size and elemental composition of dry-deposited particles during a severe dust storm at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of Eastern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Hu, Wei; Shi, Jinhui; Li, Ruipeng; Gao, Huiwang; Pian, Wei; Hu, Min</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Dry-deposited particles were collected during the passage of an extremely strong dust storm in March, 2010 at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Qingdao (36.15 °N, 120.49 °E), a city located in Eastern China. The size, morphology, and elemental composition of the particles were quantified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray instrument (SEM-EDX). The particles appeared in various shapes, and their size mainly varied from 0.4 to 10 μm, with the mean diameters of 0.5, 1.5, and 1.0 μm before, during, and after the dust storm, respectively. The critical size of the mineral particles settling on the surface in the current case was about 0.3-0.4 μm before the dust storm and about 0.5-0.7 μm during the dust storm. Particles that appeared in high concentration but were smaller than the critical size deposited onto the surface at a small number flux. The elements Al, Si and Mg were frequently detected in all samples, indicating the dominance of mineral particles. The frequency of Al in particles collected before the dust storm was significantly lower than for those collected during and after the dust storm. The frequencies of Cl and Fe did not show obvious changes, while those of S, K and Ca decreased after the dust arrival. These results indicate that the dust particles deposited onto the surface were less influenced by anthropogenic pollutants in terms of particle number. PMID:26969556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8431V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8431V"><span id="translatedtitle">Radon tower measurements in a Spanish <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> for Lagrangian particle dispersion model inter-comparison and performance assessment at the mesoscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vargas, Arturo; Arnold, Delia; Ángel Hernández-Ceballos, Miguel; Adame, José Antonio; Morton, Don; Grossi, Claudia; Schicker, Irene; de la Morena, Benito; Bolivar, Juan Pedro; Gil, Manuel</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In the framework of the spanish research project "Development and validation of advanced atmospheric dispersion models for their application in radiological emergency systems" (ref:CGL2008-00473) /CLI, the "El Arenosillo" tower, belonging to the National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA) was equiped with radon monitors and, since 2011, is providing reliable and high quality measurements of Rn-222 air concentrations on an hourly basis at two elevations, namely 10 and 100 m above ground level. This radionuclide data is accompanied by continuous meteorological data including temperature, humidity, pressure and wind speed / direction. The location of the station, at the very edge of the Southern Europe, exposed to continental (rural, industrial and urban), marine and Saharan air masses, together with the Rn-222 and meteorological measurements, make it particularly attractive to study the transport phenomena and the performance of meteorological and transport models at all scales, as well as to carry out studies on the vertical structure of the atmosphere in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>. In this context, two intensive measurement campaigns, including radio soundings, were performed during October 2011 and May 2012, allowing the comparison and a better understanding of the Rn-222 measurements under different meteorological conditions. This work will present a first evaluation of the two campaigns at the INTA station, analyzing the evolution of Rn-222 concentration data and the results of the meteorological numerical modelling of those episodes using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different parameterizations. Finally, the atmospheric dispersion model inter-comparison (HYSPLIT-WRF and FLEXPART-WRF) with Rn-222 as a tracer is performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..98..438E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..98..438E"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking a northern fulmar from a Scottish nesting <span class="hlt">site</span> to the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: Evidence of linkage between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeding seabirds and Mid-Atlantic Ridge feeding <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Ewan W. J.; Quinn, Lucy R.; Wakefield, Ewan D.; Miller, Peter I.; Thompson, Paul M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The seas above mid-ocean ridges are biodiversity hotspots in an otherwise largely oligotrophic environment, but the nature and extent of linkage between these offshore regimes and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems remains uncertain. Using a combination of GPS and geolocation tracking data, we show that a male fulmar, breeding on the Scottish coast, foraged over areas of persistent thermal fronts along the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the incubation period. The bird travelled over 6200 km in 14.9 days. First-passage time analysis identified seven areas of restricted search, four on the shelf and three in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Previous studies of incubation foraging trip durations at this <span class="hlt">site</span> suggest that a trip of this duration is unusual, and further work is required to assess the extent to which different individuals use these offshore resources. Nevertheless, these data highlight the potential importance of high sea areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction when considering the management and conservation of seabirds breeding in NW Europe, and raises the potential for even greater linkage between the CGFZ and seabirds breeding colonies in other regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.1443B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.1443B"><span id="translatedtitle">One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> receptor <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here one-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> suburban receptor <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/[Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined datasets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor <span class="hlt">site</span>, especially on high sulfate days, while local formation processes contributed approximately</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9013B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.9013B"><span id="translatedtitle">One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> receptor <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here 1-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> suburban receptor <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size-segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~ 0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/([Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')) when Pn_fine is significant (> 10%). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined data sets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor <span class="hlt">site</span>, especially on high-sulfate days while local formation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S51E0095G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S51E0095G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Velocity Model From <span class="hlt">Site</span> Response Measurements and Influence of Lithological Variations Down to 500-m-depth on Ground Motion Amplification (Israel's Inner <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gvirtzman, Z.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The last strong destructive earthquake in Israel occurred in 1927 when 300 people were killed out of a population of 200-300 thousand. Today the population is about 8 million and the bothering question is how many losses are expected, if such an earthquake will struck again. The present research focuses on the inner <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain of Israel, where much of its population is concentrated. The distance to the Dead Sea seismogenic zone is ~70 km and in order to estimate the ground motion expected during an EQ, amplification related to near surface sediments must be considered. One practical obstacle in estimating <span class="hlt">site</span> effect in Israel is the lack of strong motion recordings. Another problem, typical to the area studied here, is the lack of hard rock <span class="hlt">sites</span> that can be used as reference stations. Thus, the present study relies on the Nakamura technique, which determines the dominant frequency and the amplification factor of a single <span class="hlt">site</span> from the ratio between horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations. Three advantages were most helpful here. One is the large amount of subsurface data available from hundreds of boreholes and seismic lines. The second is the simple measurement technique that allowed hundreds of results within a few years - the present study analyzes 700 provided with the courtesy of the Geophysical Survey of Israel. The third advantage is the consistent relationships found between the thickness of soft sediments overlying the hard Judea Group and the measurements. These relationships (valid to thickness smaller than 500 m) allow quick approximation of the resonance frequency and the amplification factor directly from the top Judea structural map in areas that were not surveyed. The advantage of this approximation is the availability of such a map in high resolution in most of the country; the disadvantage is the low accuracy of plus minus 50 percent. In order to improve this approximation the soft sediments overlying the Judea Group were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6876368','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6876368"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> energy sitting dilemmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randle, R.V.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The construction of energy facilities in any port seems to assure a bitterly contested political decision, and paralysis or delay in the <span class="hlt">siting</span> of necessary energy facilities. Analysis of this confrontation and delay is important in evaluating the Federal government's present approach to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> energy <span class="hlt">siting</span>. Part I examines the rural and urban patterns of opposition which have brought <span class="hlt">siting</span> to a near standstill. Part II explores the possibility of using a tradeoff principle as a means to compromise these disputes and expedite <span class="hlt">siting</span>. Disputes over the <span class="hlt">siting</span> of a liquid propane gas (LPG) terminal and an oil refinery in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> North Carolina are examined in order to understand the obstacles to using a tradeoff approach. The three major obstacles to a successful tradeoff policy for <span class="hlt">siting</span> are preemption of important regulatory matters by the Federal government; fragmentation of permit processes and appeals; and failure of these state and Federal regulatory programs adequately to address liability and insurance aspects of these facilities. An institutional arrangement is suggested that could <span class="hlt">site</span> these facilities at an acceptable speed in an acceptable manner through the use of the tradeoff principle, consolidated permit and appellate proceedings, and appropriate substantive protections. 165 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS44B..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS44B..06R"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Erosion Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravens, T. M.; Jones, B.; Zhang, J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Erikson, L. H.; Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A process-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion/shoreline change model has been developed for Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bluffs subject to niche erosion/block collapse. The model explicitly accounts for many environmental/geographic variables including: water temperature, water level, wave height, and bluff height. The model was originally developed for a small <span class="hlt">coastal</span> segment near Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. This <span class="hlt">coastal</span> setting has experienced a dramatic increase in erosion since the early 2000's. The bluffs at this <span class="hlt">site</span> are 3-4 m tall and consist of ice-wedge bounded blocks of fine-grained sediments cemented by ice-rich permafrost and capped with a thin organic layer. The bluffs are typically fronted by a narrow (~ 5 m wide) beach or none at all. During a storm surge, the sea contacts the base of the bluff and a niche is formed through thermal and mechanical erosion. The niche grows both vertically and laterally and eventually undermines the bluff, leading to block failure or collapse. The fallen block is then eroded both thermally and mechanically by waves and currents, which must occur before a new niche forming episode may begin. The model has been calibrated based on shoreline change data at Drew Point for two time periods: 1979-2002 and 2002-2007. Measured and modeled shoreline change rates were about 8 m/yr and 16 m/yr, for the earlier and later periods, respectively. In this paper, this work is extended to include modeling and measurement of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion at Drew Point on an annual basis for the period 2007-2010. In addition, the model is applied at three other Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> locations - Elson Lagoon, Cape Halkett, and Barter Island - where niche erosion/block collapse prevails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9772Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9772Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=upwelling&id=EJ582663','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=upwelling&id=EJ582663"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Upwelling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clark, Steve</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=23836&keyword=yes+any+any&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77063046&CFTOKEN=68160923','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=23836&keyword=yes+any+any&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77063046&CFTOKEN=68160923"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> GUIDELINES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><B>Resource Purpose:</B>Developed to support effluent guidelines for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> subcategory of the oil and gas extraction industry. Data were used to develop environmental impacts, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation.<BR><B>Legislation/Enabling Authority:</B>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70125313','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70125313"><span id="translatedtitle">Portable <span class="hlt">coastal</span> observatories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These <span class="hlt">sites</span>, along with other cabled <span class="hlt">sites</span>, will play an important role in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of <span class="hlt">sites</span> that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled <span class="hlt">sites</span> are inherently limited geographically to <span class="hlt">sites</span> within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9067M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9067M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and HR-ToF-AMS measurements at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong: size-resolved CCN activity and closure analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, J. W.; Yeung, M. C.; Li, Y. J.; Lee, B. Y. L.; Chan, C. K.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on 1-30 May 2011 at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Hong Kong. Size-resolved CCN activation curves, the ratio of number concentration of CCN (NCCN) to aerosol concentration (NCN) as a function of particle size, were obtained at supersaturation (SS) = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% using a DMT CCN counter (CCNc) and a TSI scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The mean bulk size-integrated NCCN ranged from ∼500 cm-3 at SS = 0.15% to ∼2100 cm-3 at SS = 0.70%, and the mean bulk NCCN / NCN ratio ranged from 0.16 at SS = 0.15% to 0.65 at SS = 0.70%. The average critical mobility diameters (D50) at SS = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% were 116 nm, 67 nm, 56 nm, and 46 nm, respectively. The corresponding average hygroscopic parameters (κCCN) were 0.39, 0.36, 0.31, and 0.28. The decrease in κCCN can be attributed to the increase in organic to inorganic volume ratio as particle size decreases, as measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The κCCN correlates reasonably well with κAMS based on size-resolved AMS measurements: κAMS = κorg × forg + κinorg × finorg, where forg and finorg are the organic and inorganic volume fractions, respectively, κorg = 0.1 and κinorg = 0.6, with a R2 of 0.51. In closure analysis, NCCN was estimated by integrating the measured size-resolved NCN for particles larger than D50 derived from κ assuming internal mixing state. Estimates using κAMS from size-resolved AMS measurements show that the measured and predicted NCCN were generally within 10% of each other at all four SS. The deviation increased to 26% when κAMS was calculated from bulk PM1 AMS measurements of particles because PM1 was dominated by particles of 200 nm to 500 nm in diameter, which had a larger inorganic fraction than those of D50 (particle diameter < 200 nm). A constant κ = 0.33 (the average value of size-resolved κAMS over the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24214680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24214680"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition and variation of sediment bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities at representative <span class="hlt">sites</span> of the Bohai Gulf <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Xiangyu; Zhu, Lingling; Li, Youxun; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhao, Mingzhang; Luo, Ximing</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>With rapid urbanization, anthropogenic activities are increasingly influencing the natural environment of the Bohai Bay. In this study, the composition and variation of bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone sediments of the Bohai Gulf were analyzed using PCR-based clone libraries. A total of 95 genera were detected in the bacterial communities, with Proteobacteria (72.1 %), Acidobacteria (10.5 %), Firmicutes (1.7 %), Bacteroidetes (1.4 %), Chloroflexi (0.7 %) and Planctomycetes (0.7 %) being the dominated phyla. The NirS sequences were divided into nine Clusters (A-I). Canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacterial or denitrifying communities were correlated with different environmental factors, such as total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, sulfate, etc. Furthermore, bacterial communities' composition and diversity are influenced by oil exploration, sewage discharge and other anthropogenic activities in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of the Bohai Sea. Thus, this study provided useful information on further research on regional or global environmental control and restore. PMID:24214680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131163','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131163"><span id="translatedtitle">Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System <span class="hlt">Sites</span> and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19447531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19447531"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing radiation impact at a protected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sand dune <span class="hlt">site</span>: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wood, Michael D; Beresford, Nicholas A; Barnett, Catherine L; Copplestone, David; Leah, Richard T</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R&D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sand dunes. Using measured (90)Sr, (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented. PMID:19447531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5224/pdf/sir2014-5224.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5224/pdf/sir2014-5224.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund <span class="hlt">Site</span>, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The regional hydrogeologic framework indicates that the <span class="hlt">site</span> is underlain by <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain sediments of the Columbia, Merchantville, and Potomac Formations. Two primary aquifers underlying the <span class="hlt">site</span>, the Columbia and the upper Potomac, are separated by the Merchantville Formation confining unit. Local groundwater flow in the surficial (Columbia) aquifer is controlled by topography and generally flows northward and discharges to nearby surface water. Regional flow within the Potomac aquifer is towards the southeast, and is strongly influenced by major water withdrawals locally. Previous investigations at the <span class="hlt">site</span> indicated that contaminants, primarily benzene and chlorinated benzene compounds, were present in the Columbia aquifer in most locations; however, there were only limited detections in the upper Potomac aquifer as of 2004. From 2005 through 2012, the USGS designed a monitoring network, assisted with exploratory drilling, collected data at monitoring wells, conducted geophysical surveys, evaluated water-level responses in wells during pumping of a production well, and evaluated major aquifer withdrawals. Data collected through these efforts were used to refine the local conceptual flow system. The refined conceptual flow system for the <span class="hlt">site</span> includes: (a) identification of gaps in confining units in the study area, (b) identification and correlation of multiple water-bearing sand intervals within the upper Potomac Formation, (c) connections between groundwater and surface water, (d) connections between shallow and deeper groundwater, (e) new water-level (or potentiometric surface) maps and inferred flow directions, and (f) identification of major local pumping well influences. The implications of the revised conceptual flow system on the occurrence and movement of <span class="hlt">site</span> contaminants are that the resulting detection of contaminants in the upper Potomac aquifer at specific well locations can be attributed primarily to either advective lateral transport, direct</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ECSS..178..129R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ECSS..178..129R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Do recreational activities affect <span class="hlt">coastal</span> biodiversity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Human activities are largely affecting <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several <span class="hlt">sites</span> were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..997L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121..997L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Year-round records of sea salt, gaseous, and particulate inorganic bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (Dumont d'Urville) and central (Concordia) East Antarctic <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legrand, Michel; Yang, Xin; Preunkert, Susanne; Theys, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multiple year-round records of bulk and size-segregated compositions of aerosol were obtained at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Dumont d'Urville (DDU) and inland Concordia <span class="hlt">sites</span> located in East Antarctica. They document the sea-salt aerosol load and composition including, for the first time in Antarctica, the bromide depletion of sea-salt aerosol relative to sodium with respect to seawater. In parallel, measurements of bromide trapped in mist chambers and denuder tubes were done to investigate the concentrations of gaseous inorganic bromine species. These data are compared to simulations done with an off-line chemistry transport model, coupled with a full tropospheric bromine chemistry scheme and a process-based sea-salt production module that includes both sea-ice-sourced and open-ocean-sourced aerosol emissions. Observed and simulated sea-salt concentrations sometime differ by up to a factor of 2 to 3, particularly at DDU possibly due to local wind pattern. In spite of these discrepancies, both at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland Antarctica, the dominance of sea-ice-related processes with respect to open ocean emissions for the sea-salt aerosol load in winter is confirmed. For summer, observations and simulations point out sea salt as the main source of gaseous inorganic bromine species. Investigations of bromide in snow pit samples do not support the importance of snowpack bromine emissions over the Antarctic Plateau. To evaluate the overall importance of the bromine chemistry over East Antarctica, BrO simulations were also discussed with respect data derived from GOME-2 satellite observations over Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..115...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..115...75C"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial degradation at a shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially α-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82703&keyword=Loa+AND+loa&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65045445&CFTOKEN=32791447','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82703&keyword=Loa+AND+loa&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65045445&CFTOKEN=32791447"><span id="translatedtitle">COMMENTS ON "MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SPECIES AT A <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> <span class="hlt">SITE</span> IN THE ANTARCTIC AND OVER THE SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN DURING POLAR SUMMER"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Attached comment submitted to Environmental Science and Technology entitled, Comments on "Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Species at a Costal <span class="hlt">Site</span> in the Antarctic and over the South Atlantic Ocean during Polar Summer" by Temme et al. Environmental Science and Technology 37 (...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28.2342R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28.2342R"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Essex, UK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important <span class="hlt">site</span> on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian <span class="hlt">site</span> at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both <span class="hlt">sites</span> have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type <span class="hlt">site</span> of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the <span class="hlt">sites</span> can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119485"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Essex, UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important <span class="hlt">site</span> on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian <span class="hlt">site</span> at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both <span class="hlt">sites</span> have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type <span class="hlt">site</span> of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the <span class="hlt">sites</span> can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2806946','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2806946"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Essex, UK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J.N.; Harrison, Colin J.O.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important <span class="hlt">site</span> on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian <span class="hlt">site</span> at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both <span class="hlt">sites</span> have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type <span class="hlt">site</span> of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the <span class="hlt">sites</span> can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011983"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three <span class="hlt">sites</span> are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three <span class="hlt">sites</span>, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip156','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip156"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> storm monitoring in Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding. In <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring <span class="hlt">sites</span> located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026243','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026243"><span id="translatedtitle">Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow <span class="hlt">site</span> for barrier island restoration, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90...25O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90...25O"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Odada, Eric</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The monitoring and modeling of lakes and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments is becoming ever more important, particularly because these environments bear heavy loads in terms of human population, and their resources are critical to the livelihoods and well-being of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inhabitants and ecosystems. Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environments is a collection of 18 papers arising from the Lake 2004 International Conference on Conservation, Restoration and Management of Lakes and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands, held in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, 9-13 December 2004. Consequently, 15 of the papers are concerned with studies on the Indian subcontinent, and many of the papers focus on India's Lake Chilika, the <span class="hlt">site</span> of a special session during the conference. Two papers concern Japan, and one focuses on North America's Great Lakes region. Although the book has a regional bias, the replication of best practices that can be drawn from these studies may be useful for an international audience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23739809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23739809"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">site</span>, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that <span class="hlt">site</span>, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for <span class="hlt">site</span> (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24045212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24045212"><span id="translatedtitle">Adenovirus-associated health risks for recreational activities in a multi-use <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watershed based on <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundu, Arti; McBride, Graham; Wuertz, Stefan</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>We used <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the probability of adenovirus illness for three groups of swimmers: adults with primary contact, children with primary contact, and secondary contact regardless of age. Human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were monitored by qPCR in a multi-use watershed and Adenovirus type 40/41 was detected in 11% of 73 samples, ranging from 147 to 4117 genomes per liter. Enterovirus was detected only once (32 genomes per liter). Seven of eight virus detections occurred when E. coli concentrations were below the single sample maximum water quality criterion for contact recreation, and five of eight virus detections occurred when fecal coliforms were below the corresponding criterion. We employed dose-harmonization to convert viral genome measurements to TCID50 values needed for dose-response curves. The three scenarios considered different amounts of water ingestion and Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the variability associated with the doses. The mean illness risk in children based on adenovirus measurements obtained over 11 months was estimated to be 3.5%, which is below the 3.6% risk considered tolerable by the current United States EPA recreational criteria for gastrointestinal illnesses (GI). The mean risks of GI illness for adults and secondary contact were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. These risks changed appreciably when different distributions were fitted to the data as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In general, risk was at a maximum for the log-logistic distribution and lowest for the hockey stick distribution in all three selected scenarios. Also, under default assumptions, the risk was lowered considerably when assuming that only a small proportion of Adenovirus 40/41 (3%) was as infectious as Adenovirus type 4, compared to the assumption that all genomes were Adenovirus 4. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific QMRA on water-borne adenoviruses in this watershed provided a similar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750016050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750016050"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region. Attachment 4: Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Nansemond River <span class="hlt">site</span>. [a proposed oil refinery <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Background data was provided for the assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed oil refinery location. Climatic background, particulate data, digitized portrayal of <span class="hlt">site</span> molecular and meteorological data, graphical portrayal of molecular data, hourly meteorological data, and streamflow charts and radiosonde data are given</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26995453"><span id="translatedtitle">Weathering steel as a potential source for metal contamination: Metal dissolution during 3-year of field exposure in a urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raffo, Simona; Vassura, Ivano; Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Carla; Bignozzi, Maria C; Passarini, Fabrizio; Bernardi, Elena</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Surface and building runoff can significantly contribute to the total metal loading in urban runoff waters, with potential adverse effects on the receiving ecosystems. The present paper analyses the corrosion-induced metal dissolution (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) from weathering steel (Cor-Ten A) with or without artificial patinas, exposed for 3 years in unsheltered conditions at a marine urban <span class="hlt">site</span> (Rimini, Italy). The influence of environmental parameters, atmospheric pollutants and surface finish on the release of dissolved metals in rain was evaluated, also by means of multivariate analysis (two-way and three-way Principal Component Analysis). In addition, surface and cross-section investigations were performed so as to monitor the patina evolution. The contribution provided by weathering steel runoff to the dissolved Fe, Mn and Ni loading at local level is not negligible and pre-patination treatments seem to worsen the performance of weathering steel in term of metal release. Metal dissolution is strongly affected by extreme events and shows seasonal variations, with different influence of seasonal parameters on the behaviour of bare or artificially patinated steel, suggesting that climate changes could significantly influence metal release from this alloy. Therefore, it is essential to perform a long-term monitoring of the performance, the durability and the environmental impact of weathering steel. PMID:26995453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288675"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean <span class="hlt">sites</span> off southern California, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seubert, Erica L; Gellene, Alyssa G; Howard, Meredith D A; Connell, Paige; Ragan, Matthew; Jones, Burton H; Runyan, Jennifer; Caron, David A</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Reports of toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) attributed to the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have been increasing in California during the last several decades. Whether this increase can be attributed to enhanced awareness and monitoring or to a dramatic upswing in the development of HAB events remains unresolved. Given these uncertainties, the ability to accurately and rapidly identify an emerging HAB event is of high importance. Monitoring of HAB species and other pertinent chemical/physical parameters at two piers in southern California, Newport and Redondo Beach, was used to investigate the development of a <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific bloom definition for identifying emerging domoic acid (DA) events. Emphasis was given to abundances of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata size category of Pseudo-nitzschia due to the prevalence of this size class in the region. P. seriata bloom thresholds were established for each location based on deviations from their respective long-term mean abundances, allowing the identification of major and minor blooms. Sixty-five percent of blooms identified at Newport Beach coincided with measurable DA concentrations, while 36 % of blooms at Redondo Beach coincided with measurable DA. Bloom definitions allowed for increased specificity in multiple regression analysis of environmental forcing factors significant to the presence of DA and P. seriata. The strongest relationship identified was between P. seriata abundances 2 weeks following upwelling events at Newport Beach. PMID:23288675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970199"><span id="translatedtitle">Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inomata, Yayoi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ(34)S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ(34)S (δ(34)Snss) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0-3.9‰ in spring, 2.8-4.5‰ in summer, 1.3-4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7-5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ(34)Snss in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring <span class="hlt">sites</span> were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ(34)Snss in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ(34)Snss in coal, the lower δ(34)Snss for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ(34)Snss due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40-75% in spring, 51-63% in summer, 45-73% in autumn, and 53-81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan. PMID:26970199</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162444"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecosystem functioning approach applied to a large contaminated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>: the study case of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cibic, Tamara; Bongiorni, Lucia; Borfecchia, Flavio; Di Leo, Antonella; Franzo, Annalisa; Giandomenico, Santina; Karuza, Ana; Micheli, Carla; Rogelja, Manja; Spada, Lucia; Del Negro, Paola</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Knowledge on ecosystem functioning can largely contribute to promote ecosystem-based management and its application. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto is a densely populated area at a high risk of environmental crisis. Here, planktonic primary production (PP) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP) were measured as proxies of functioning in three sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> located in two inlets at different levels of industrial contamination, during three sampling surveys (June 2013, February and April 2014). To have a better overall view and provide some insights into the benthic-pelagic coupling, we integrated PP and HPP in the water column with those in the sediments and then discussed this with the origin of the organic matter pools based on analysis of stable isotopes. Heavy metals and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were also analysed in the surface (1 cm) sediment layer and related to the overall ecosystem functioning. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, based on the main data, clearly separated the second inlet from the first one, more severely impacted by anthropogenic activities. The stable isotope mixing model suggested the prevalent terrestrial/riverine origin of the particulate organic matter pools (mean 45.5 %) in all sampling periods, whereas phytoplankton contributed up to 29 % in February. Planktonic PP and HPP rates followed the same pattern over the entire study period and seemed to respond to phytoplankton dynamics confirming this community as the main driver for the C cycling in the water column. On the contrary, benthic PP rates were almost negligible while HPP rates were lower or comparable to those in the water column indicating that although the Mar Piccolo is very shallow, the water column is much more productive than the surface sediments. The sediment resuspension is likely responsible for a pulsed input of contaminants into the water column. However, their interference with the proper functioning of the pelagic ecosystem seems to be limited to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1523K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1523K"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain (IODP Expedition 313, <span class="hlt">Site</span> M0027)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from <span class="hlt">Site</span> M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2 </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7499F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7499F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> erosion and accretion rates in Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Erosion threatens many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as <span class="hlt">coastal</span> roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development, it does appear that rapid <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management in Greece and substandard design of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures, which are often <span class="hlt">sited</span> without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures to "protect" versus nourish, <span class="hlt">siting</span> lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165564&keyword=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77028428&CFTOKEN=39783325','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=165564&keyword=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77028428&CFTOKEN=39783325"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> CONDITION REPORT III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> waers in the US include estuaries, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61241&keyword=Wings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64257771&CFTOKEN=61806696','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61241&keyword=Wings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64257771&CFTOKEN=61806696"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effective combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Green...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61009&keyword=Wings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64257771&CFTOKEN=61806696','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61009&keyword=Wings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64257771&CFTOKEN=61806696"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> WETLANDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effecive combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Green ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=154423&keyword=flow+AND+measurement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934120&CFTOKEN=76674139','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=154423&keyword=flow+AND+measurement&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934120&CFTOKEN=76674139"><span id="translatedtitle">AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> FRONTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement <span class="hlt">sites</span> near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7110148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7110148"><span id="translatedtitle">The global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards data base</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gornitz, V. . Goddard Inst. for Space Studies Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); White, T.W. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A rise of sea level between 0.5 and 1.5 m, caused by predicted climate warming in the next century, could jeopardize low-lying radioactive waste disposal <span class="hlt">sites</span> near the coast, due to permanent and episodic inundation, increased shoreline retreat, and changes in the water table. The effects of global sea level rise on the shoreline will not be spatially uniform. Therefore, <span class="hlt">site</span> selection will depend on assessment of these differential vulnerabilities, in order to avoid high-risk coasts. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards data base described here could provide an appropriate framework. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards data base integrates relevant topographic, geologic, geomorphologic, erosional and subsidence information in a Geographic Information System (GIS), to identify high-risk shorelines characterized by low <span class="hlt">coastal</span> relief, an erodible substrate, present and past evidence of subsidence, extensive shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Data for seven variables relating to inundation and erosion hazards are incorporated into the ORNL ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS). Data compilation has been completed for the US and is being extended to North America, and ultimately the world. A <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk <span class="hlt">coastal</span> segments. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392613"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilience from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewing, Lesley C</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/<span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99784&keyword=internet+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61223642&CFTOKEN=25513846','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99784&keyword=internet+AND+effects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61223642&CFTOKEN=25513846"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> CONDITION REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60732&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60732&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ASSESSMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of the National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010527','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010527"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> zone management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tilton, E. L., III</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9352H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9352H"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> density gradients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howarth, M. J.; Palmer, M. R.; Polton, J. A.; O'Neill, C. K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Density gradients in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions with significant freshwater input are large and variable and are a major control of nearshore circulation. However their measurement is difficult, especially where the gradients are largest close to the coast, with significant uncertainties because of a variety of factors - spatial and time scales are small, tidal currents are strong and water depths shallow. Whilst temperature measurements are relatively straightforward, measurements of salinity (the dominant control of spatial variability) can be less reliable in turbid <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing and receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey, Ribble and Conwy estuaries, each with different catchment influences. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The water column stratifies intermittently. A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory has been operational since 2002 with regular (quasi monthly) CTD surveys on a 9 km grid, an situ station, an instrumented ferry travelling between Birkenhead and Dublin and a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves. These measurements are complementary, each having different space-time characteristics. For <span class="hlt">coastal</span> gradients the ferry is particularly useful since measurements are made right from the mouth of Mersey. From measurements at the in situ <span class="hlt">site</span> alone density gradients can only be estimated from the tidal excursion. A suite of coupled physical, wave and ecological models are run in association with these measurements. The models, here on a 1.8 km grid, enable detailed estimation of nearshore density gradients, provided appropriate river run-off data are available. Examples are presented of the density gradients estimated from the different measurements and models, together with accuracies and uncertainties, showing that systematic time series measurements within a few kilometres of the coast are a high priority. (Here gliders are an exciting prospect for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5287435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5287435"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span>-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three <span class="hlt">sites</span> (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>) to assess the insolation at the coast. A <span class="hlt">site</span> (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional <span class="hlt">sites</span>, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and the control <span class="hlt">site</span>, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each <span class="hlt">site</span> to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton <span class="hlt">sites</span> only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMarA...7..141H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMarA...7..141H"><span id="translatedtitle">Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horlings, Rachel L.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged <span class="hlt">sites</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck <span class="hlt">site</span> is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615273S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615273S"><span id="translatedtitle">Micrometeorological flux measurements at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Guozheng; Meixner, Franz X.; Bruse, Michael; Mamtimin, Buhalqem</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The eddy covariance (EC) technique is the only direct measurement of the momentum, heat, and trace gas (e.g. water vapor, CO2 and ozone) fluxes. The measurements are expected to be most accurate over flat terrain where there is an extended homogenous surface upwind from the tower, and when the environmental conditions are steady. Additionally, the one dimensional approach assumes that vertical turbulent exchange is the dominant flux, whereas advective influences should be negligible. The application of EC method under non-ideal conditions, for example in complex terrain, has yet to be fully explored. To explore the possibilities and limitations of EC technique under non-ideal conditions, an EC system was set up at Selles beach, Crete, Greece (35.33°N, 25.71°E) in the beginning of July 2012. The dominant wind direction was west, parallel to the coast. The EC system consisted of a sonic anemometer (CSAT3 Campbell Scientific), an infrared open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-7500, Li-COR Biosciences) and a fast chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (enviscope GmbH). All the signals of these fast response instruments were sampled at 10 Hz and the measurement height was 3 m. Besides, another gradient system was setup. Air temperature, relative humidity (HYGROMER MP 103 A), and wind speed (WMT700 Vaisala) were measured every 10 seconds at 3 heights (0.7, 1.45, 3 m). Air intakes were set up at 0.7m and 3m. A pump drew the air through a flow system and a telflon valve alternately switched between the two heights every 30 seconds. H2O, CO2 (LI-840A, Li-COR Biosciences) and ozone mixing ratio s (model 205, 2BTechnologies) were measured every 10 seconds. Momentum, heat, CO2 and ozone fluxes were evaluated by both EC and gradient technique. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes, TK3 algorithm (Department of Micrometeorology, University Bayreuth, Germany) was applied. We will present the measured fluxes of the two systems and assess the data quality under such non-ideal condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770017609"><span id="translatedtitle">California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes study, LANDSAT 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study <span class="hlt">sites</span> at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ocean+AND+hazards&id=EJ567977','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ocean+AND+hazards&id=EJ567977"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Erosion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vandas, Steve</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-zone hazards. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/25155','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/25155"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> mapping handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Geological Survey; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ellis, Melvin Y., (Edited By)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Passage of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire <span class="hlt">coastal</span> community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFMOS32B..05M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFMOS32B..05M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Connectivity in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D.; Watson, J.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The quantification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from marine pollution to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> connectivity is best defined as the probability that water parcels from one nearshore location are advected to another <span class="hlt">site</span> over a given time interval. Here, we demonstrate how to quantify <span class="hlt">coastal</span> connectivity using Lagrangian probability- density function (PDF) methods, a classic modeling approach for many turbulent applications, and numerical solutions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> circulation for the Southern California Bight. Mean dispersal patterns from a single release <span class="hlt">site</span> (or Lagrangian PDFs) show a strong dependency to the particle-release location and seasonal variability, reflecting circulation patterns in the Southern California Bight. Strong interannual variations, responding to El Nino and La Nina transitions are also observed. Mean connectivity patterns, deduced from Lagrangian PDFs, is spatially heterogeneous for the advection time of around 30 days or less, resulting from distinctive circulation patterns, and becomes more homogeneous for a longer advection time. A given realization of connectivity is stochastic because of eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind forcing changes. In general, mainland <span class="hlt">sites</span> are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor source <span class="hlt">sites</span>, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the Southern California Bight (e.g., designing marine protected areas, understanding gene structures, and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and provide a path for assessing connectivity for other regions of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...37P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...37P"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposing the U.S. <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratson, Lincoln; Divins, David; Butler, Tanja; Metzger, Dan; Sharman, George; Steele, Mark; Berggren, Todd; Holcombe, Troy; Ramos, Ricardo</p> <p></p> <p>Overdevelopment of shores and wetlands, dwindling <span class="hlt">sites</span> on land for the disposal of human-generated waste, contamination of estuaries and nearshore sediments, the disruption of <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-water ecosystems by dredging, and the specter of rising sea level due to anthropogenically induced global warming are but a few of the pressures humans are exerting on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments around the world. In the United States, a lot is riding on the response of its <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments to these pressures. The majority of the U.S. population resides in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> states, where the country's largest cities and most popular recreation areas are located.If the United States is to sustain the health and beauty of its <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments, then they must be managed, not only on the federal scale, but also on the state and local scales. One of the most fundamental types of data required to conduct this management will be detailed elevation data. On land, topography dictates the flow of water and the maximum extent of flooding. Offshore, bathymetry is a major control on shallow-water ocean currents and the dissemination of sediments eroded from the continent.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003AGUFM.H22H..07M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003AGUFM.H22H..07M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Rainfall Estimation using AMSR-E</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCollum, J.; Ferraro, R.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The vast majority of microwave rainfall estimation research has been for either ocean-filled or land-filled fields of view, as the physics for both surface types are quite different. However, neither ocean-based nor land-based methods may be used for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> pixels that contain a mixture of water and land. Current algorithms for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions perform relatively poorly. We have built upon previous <span class="hlt">coastal</span> rainfall algorithms developed for the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Using principal component analysis, we found multi-frequency brightness temperature responses to rainfall over <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions, enabling us to do a more accurate rain/no-rain classification. The TMI has similar frequencies and resolutions as AMSR-E, so we could use the co-located TMI and Precipitation Radar (PR) data to determine the principal components related to rainfall. These principal components are effective in distinguishing rain from no-rain AMSR-E pixels, as we show with AMSR-E data. We include global results as well as those from the Eureka, CA, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> radar AMSR-E validation <span class="hlt">site</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026099','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026099"><span id="translatedtitle">Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone: The LOICZ approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Land-Ocean Interactions in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific and global assessments of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes and their drivers. Indicators used in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014453','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014453"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> geomorphology of arctic Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and delta dunes. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes by changing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes operating in this environment that will be useful on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments elsewhere in the Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760005357','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760005357"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of remote sensors in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Caillat, J. M.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A review of processes taking place along coastlines and their biological consideration led to the determination of the elements which are required in the study of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures and which are needed for better utilization of the resources from the oceans. The processes considered include waves, currents, and their influence on the erosion of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures. Biological considerations include <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fisheries, estuaries, and tidal marshes. Various remote sensors were analyzed for the information which they can provide and <span class="hlt">sites</span> were proposed where a general ocean-observation plan could be tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767637"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial <span class="hlt">Sites</span> in Pacific <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Southern Chiapas, Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. PMID:26767637</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740022685&hterms=construction+processes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dconstruction%2Bprocesses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740022685&hterms=construction+processes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dconstruction%2Bprocesses"><span id="translatedtitle">California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary findings are presented and applications derived from ERTS-1 satellite imagery of the nearshore <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes of the California coast. The objectives were to analyze nearshore currents, sediment transport, and estuarine and river discharges along the California coast through the use of synoptic and repetitive imagery from ERTS as well as aircraft underflights and surface data. The major conclusions are: (1) Distinct seasonal patterns for sediment transport as a function of the oceanic current systems and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> morphology have been identified. (2) Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers extend offshore to previously unanticipated ranges. (3) Computer generated contouring of radiance levels from computer-compatible tapes result in charts that can be used for determination of surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. (4) Flying spot scanner enhancements result in details of nearshore features. (5) Data is providing significant information for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> planning and construction projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..375M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..375M"><span id="translatedtitle">Inland and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Workshop for Remote Sensing of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland water bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contaminated&pg=3&id=EJ744620','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contaminated&pg=3&id=EJ744620"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Brownfields as Nature Preserves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Brownfields have the potential to be reused as nature preserves or recreation areas. This reuse depends on the public's perceptions of risk and their willingness to support the new uses of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. This study examines attitudes about the reuse of large <span class="hlt">coastal</span> brownfields from local and nonlocal students and the public. The <span class="hlt">sites</span> include the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160715&keyword=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77028428&CFTOKEN=39783325','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=160715&keyword=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77028428&CFTOKEN=39783325"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> CONDITION REPORT II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245237"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> laws strike a balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dennison, M.S.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=218368&keyword=method+AND+projects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67473550&CFTOKEN=74791182','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=218368&keyword=method+AND+projects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67473550&CFTOKEN=74791182"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Validation of Rapid Assessment Indices of Condition for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands in Southern New England, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Vegetation, soils, on-<span class="hlt">site</span> disturbances, and watershed land use and land cover were assessed at 81 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland <span class="hlt">sites</span> using the New England Rapid Asssessment Method (NERAM). Condition indices (CIs) were derived from various combinations of the multi-dimensional data using pri...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63389&keyword=sounds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65046328&CFTOKEN=62253843','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63389&keyword=sounds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65046328&CFTOKEN=62253843"><span id="translatedtitle">CHAPTER 7: <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ZONES.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Mid-Atlantic's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59574&keyword=oracle+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75182718&CFTOKEN=34844250','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59574&keyword=oracle+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75182718&CFTOKEN=34844250"><span id="translatedtitle">MANAGING <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> DATA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and its partners have collected estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> data from hundreds of stations along the coasts of the continental United States. Types of data include w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73566&keyword=grain+AND+quality&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64119186&CFTOKEN=19651975','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73566&keyword=grain+AND+quality&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64119186&CFTOKEN=19651975"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> EMAP PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several state and federal agencies are collecting monitoring data. One of the goals of the project is to assist the states in the implementation of their statewide <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring strategy by dealing with issues of statewide data comparability and information management. The ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23A0942B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23A0942B"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone mapping: Evolution of sedimentary coasts in Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change threatens many of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas all over the world. In the Arctic, the warming happens at a rate which is three times faster than the global average increasing the pressure on the coast. Arctic coasts differ from coasts in lower latitude in terms of the natural conditions prevailing, i.e. sea-ice, permafrost, and thermal erosion. These factors are likely to change with an increasing temperature, and thereby the erodibility of the shores and the erosivity of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes are changing. The majority of studies on arctic coasts focus on tundra coasts. Here, there is a general increase of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion rates over the last decades. However, the arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of Greenland differ; they are often close to hard rock protrusions and are characterized by large differences in geomorphology, erodibility of sediments, and erosivity by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes. Sedimentary coasts in Greenland are only sporadically investigated, and it is thus difficult to predict the impact of climate changes in these areas. With this work we focus on sedimentary coasts in Greenland and present shoreline analysis of two sedimentary <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. We show how the position of the shoreline has changed since the 1930'ies and we address the responsible factors controlling this evolution. The hotspots of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change are all located near delta mouths and the detected changes are coupled to dominating process occurring here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047720','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank, (artist); France, Rigoberto Guardado, (translator); Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H23N1065C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H23N1065C"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Drought Index Using Salinity Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conrads, P. A.; Darby, L. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities. It influences community composition in freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, determines fisheries spawning habitat, and controls freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. These dynamics may be affected by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> drought through changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. There are many definitions of drought, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on water supply and agriculture. Four general types of drought are recognized: hydrological, agricultural, meteorological, and socio-economic. Indices have been developed for these drought types incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, groundwater levels, and snow pack. These indices were developed for upland areas and may not be appropriate for characterizing drought in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Because of the uniqueness of drought impacts on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems, a need exists to develop a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> drought index. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity to develop a salinity-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> drought index. The challenge of characterizing salinity dynamics in response to drought is excluding responses attributable to occasional saltwater intrusion events. Our approach to develop a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> drought index modified the Standardized Precipitation Index and applied it to <span class="hlt">sites</span> in South Carolina and Georgia, USA. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> drought indices characterizing 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and12-month drought conditions were developed. Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> drought index indicates that it can be used for different estuary types, for comparison between estuaries, and as an index for wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.256....1N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.256....1N"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating decadal <span class="hlt">coastal</span> morphodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040071092&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsewage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040071092&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsewage"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS71F..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS71F..01K"><span id="translatedtitle">Oregon <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observing System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosro, M.; Allen, J. S.; Barth, J. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Huyer, A.; Smith, R. L.; Grantham, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Menge, B. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Since 1997, a growing system of sustained <span class="hlt">coastal</span> measurements, together with a high-resolution, data-assimilating <span class="hlt">coastal</span> modeling program, have been used off Oregon to study the response of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean to forcing at a range of space and time scales. The measurements include a large array of HF radars, which permit time-series mapping of the surface circulation over most of the Oregon coast; both long-term and short-term moored components, which provide time-series sampling through the water column; and repeat hydrographic, ADCP and surface drifter sampling, including the Newport Hydrographic Line (which has been sampled since the 1960s). At interannual frequencies, these measurements show changes in the alongshore circulation over the continental slope accompanying ENSO. At seasonal and storm frequencies, the strength and persistence of spatial patterns in wind-driven currents and the importance of bathymetry in steering the circulation are seen. Discovery of episodic phenomena, such as the recent finding of a hypoxic pool and associated die-off of fish and crabs on the continental shelf off Heceta Head, are made possible by repeated sampling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961470"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual-based ecology of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stillman, Richard A; Goss-Custard, John D</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Conservation objectives for non-breeding <span class="hlt">coastal</span> birds (shorebirds and wildfowl) are determined from their population size at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. To advise <span class="hlt">coastal</span> managers, models must predict quantitatively the effects of environmental change on population size or the demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) that determine it. As habitat association models and depletion models are not able to do this, we developed an approach that has produced such predictions thereby enabling policy makers to make evidence-based decisions. Our conceptual framework is individual-based ecology, in which populations are viewed as having properties (e.g. size) that arise from the traits (e.g. behaviour, physiology) and interactions of their constituent individuals. The link between individuals and populations is made through individual-based models (IBMs) that follow the fitness-maximising decisions of individuals and predict population-level consequences (e.g. mortality rate) from the fates of these individuals. Our first IBM was for oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus and accurately predicted their density-dependent mortality. Subsequently, IBMs were developed for several shorebird and wildfowl species at several European <span class="hlt">sites</span>, and were shown to predict accurately overwinter mortality, and the foraging behaviour from which predictions are derived. They have been used to predict the effect on survival in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> birds of sea level rise, habitat loss, wind farm development, shellfishing and human disturbance. This review emphasises the wider applicability of the approach, and identifies other systems to which it could be applied. We view the IBM approach as a very useful contribution to the general problem of how to advance ecology to the point where we can routinely make meaningful predictions of how populations respond to environmental change. PMID:19961470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-16987.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-07/pdf/2011-16987.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 39857 - Alaska <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management Program Withdrawal From the National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management Program Under...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-07</p> <p>... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management Program Withdrawal From the National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management Program Under the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=223772&keyword=Molybdenum&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76053126&CFTOKEN=49848695','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=223772&keyword=Molybdenum&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76053126&CFTOKEN=49848695"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward N Criteria in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field <span class="hlt">sites</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-23/pdf/2010-20851.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-23/pdf/2010-20851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine Ecological Classification Standard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-23</p> <p>... changes will be made available to the public on the FGDC Web <span class="hlt">site</span>. DATES: Comments on the draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span>... CMECS domain extends from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> tidal splash zone to the deep ocean, including all substrate and water column features of the oceans as well as the deep waters of the Great Lakes. CMECS describes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44D..07D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44D..07D"><span id="translatedtitle">Onshore Winds and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fog Enhance Bacterial Connections Between Water and Air In the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Juhl, A. R.; Weathers, K. C.; Uriarte, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Globally, bacteria suspended in the atmosphere, or microbial aerosols, can range in concentration from 10^4 to 10^5 cells m^-3. They can be either attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air, and can serve as ice, cloud and fog nucleators. To better understand sources for bacterial aerosols in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment, we assessed the effect of onshore wind speed on bacterial aerosol production and fallout in urban and non-urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> settings. We found that the fallout rate of culturable (viable) bacterial aerosols increased with onshore wind speeds. Furthermore, molecular characterization of the 16S rRNA gene diversity of bacteria from aerosols and surface waters revealed a similar species-level bacterial composition. This bacterial connection between water and air quality was strengthened at wind speeds above 4 m s^-1, with similar temporal patterns for coarse aerosol concentrations, culturable bacterial fallout rates, and presence of aquatic bacteria in near-shore aerosols. The water-air connection created by onshore winds in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment may be further modulated by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fog. Previous work has shown that the deposition of viable microbial aerosols increases by several orders of magnitude when fog is present in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment. Also, molecular analyses of bacteria in fog provide evidence that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fog enhances the viability of aerosolized marine bacteria, potentially allowing these bacteria to be transported further inland in a viable state with onshore winds. Implications for the coupling of wind-based aerosol production from surface waters with fog presence in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment include bi-directional atmospheric feedbacks between terrestrial and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean systems and the potential for water quality to affect air quality at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628017"><span id="translatedtitle">Floristic and structural patterns in South Brazilian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> grasslands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Luciana S; Müller, Sandra C; Overbeck, Gerhard E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The natural vegetation of Southern Brazil's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region includes grasslands formations that are poorly considered in conservation policy, due to the lack of knowledge about these systems. This study reports results from a regional-scale survey of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> grasslands vegetation along a 536 km gradient on southern Brazil. We sampled 16 <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain with 15 plots (1 m²) per <span class="hlt">site</span>. All <span class="hlt">sites</span> were grazed by cattle. We estimated plant species cover, vegetation height, percentage of bare soil, litter and manure, and classified species according to their growth forms. We found 221 species, 14 of them exotic and two threatened. The prostate grasses: Axonopus aff.affinis, Paspalum notatum and P. pumilumwere among the most important species. Prostrate graminoids species represented the most important vegetation cover, followed by cespitose grasses. Vegetation height, bare soil, litter and manure were similar among all areas, highlighting the homogeneity of sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> due to similar management. In comparison to other grasslands formations in Southern Brazil, the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> grasslands presented rather low species richness. The presence of high values for bare soil at all sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> indicates the need to discuss management practices in the region, especially with regard to the intensity of livestock grazing. PMID:26628017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6715017','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6715017"><span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> geomorphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pethick, J.S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landform development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1126889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1126889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ohio Wind Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner</p> <p>2014-04-04</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v103n02/p0218-p0254.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v103n02/p0218-p0254.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Approaches to the conservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands in the Western Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bildstein, K.L.; Bancroft, G.T.; Dugan, P.J.; Gordon, D.H.; Erwin, R.M.; Nol, E.; Payne, L.X.; Senner, S.E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands rank among the most productive and ecologically valuable natural ecosystems on Earth. Unfortunately, they are also some of the most disturbed. Because they are productive and can serve as transportation arteries, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands have long attracted human settlement. More than half of the U.S. population currently lives within 80 km of its coasts, and one estimate places 70% of all humanity in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Human impacts to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands include physical alteration of hydrological processes; the introduction of toxic materials, nutrients, heat, and exotic species; and the unsustainable harvest ofnative species. Between 1950 and 1970, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland losses in the U.S. averaged 8 100 ha/year. In Central and South America, development pressures along the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone rank among the most serious natural resource problems in the region..... Here, we (1) briefly describe <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland avifauna, (2) discuss the threat of global warming on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands, (3) use several Western Hemisphere wetlands as <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific examples of development pressures facing these habitats, and (4) provide synopses of nongovernmental and governmental approaches to wetland conservation. Overall, we provide a socio-economic context for conservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands in the Western Hemisphere. We suggest that efforts aimed at conserving <span class="hlt">sites</span> of particular importance for their biological diversity should be pursued within a framework of wise use that addresses the broader issues of human population growth and economic development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12688694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12688694"><span id="translatedtitle">A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steets, B M; Holden, P A</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate, what is the fate of runoff-associated FC through a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon? To address this question, we developed a mass balance-based, mechanistic model of FC concentration through a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon and simulated, for summer and winter conditions, FC within the lagoon water column, lagoon sediments, and in the ocean water just downstream of the lagoon mouth. Our model accounts for advective flow and dispersion, decay and sedimentation and resuspension of FC-laden sediments during high flow, erosional conditions. Under low flow conditions that occur in the summer, net FC decay and FC storage in lagoon sediments are predicted. Under high flow conditions that occur in the winter, FC-laden sediments are predicted to erode, resuspend and flow out of the lagoon where they elevate FC concentrations in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean. For both seasonal conditions, the predicted water column FC concentrations were within an order of magnitude of field measurements for a reference <span class="hlt">site</span> in southern California. Our results suggest that there are seasonally varying roles for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons in mediating FC contamination to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. PMID:12688694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3567041','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3567041"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rappé, Michael S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cluster of sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span>, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these <span class="hlt">sites</span> showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at <span class="hlt">sites</span> close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817174M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817174M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual hydrogeological model of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrosystem in the mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitropapas, Anastasios; Pouliaris, Christos; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Vasileiou, Eleni; Schüth, Christoph; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Kallioras, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Groundwater resources management in the Mediterranean basin is an issue of paramount importance that becomes a necessity in the case of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrosystems. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> aquifers are considered very sensitive ecosystems that are subject to several stresses being of natural or anthropogenic origin. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrosystem of Lavrion can be used as a reference <span class="hlt">site</span> that incorporates multi-disciplinary environmental problems, which are typical for Circum-Mediterranean. This study presents the synthesis of a wide range of field activities within the area of Lavrion including the monitoring of water resources within all hydrologic zones (surface, unsaturated and saturated) and geophysical (invasive and non-invasive) surveys. Different monitoring approaches -targeting to the collection of hydrochemical, geophysical, geological, hydrological data- were applied, that proved to provide a sound characterization of the groundwater flows within the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> karstic system in connection to the surrounding water bodies of the study area. The above are used as input parameters process during the development of the conceptual model of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrosystem of Lavrion. Key-words: <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> hydrosystems, Mediterranean basin, seawater intrusion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62661&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62661&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073"><span id="translatedtitle">A NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ASSESSMENT OF <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> SEDIMENT CONDITION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614606E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614606E"><span id="translatedtitle">Sinking <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226481','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226481"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic impacts of strip tillage for a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Strip till is a growing practice among many <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain cotton growers which can lead to reduced surface runoff and reduced transport of sediment and agrichemicals. This research examines nine years of rainfall-runoff data from a paired conventional till / strip till research <span class="hlt">site</span>. Annual water ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810007"><span id="translatedtitle">Microclimate Corrosion Effects in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.</p> <p>1996-03-24</p> <p>The Albany Research Center is conducting atmospheric corrosion research in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments to improve the performance of materials in the Nation's infrastructure. The corrosion of bare metals, and of painted, thermal-sprayed, and galvanized steels are presented for one-year exposures at <span class="hlt">sites</span> located on bridges and utility poles along the Oregon coast. The effects of microclimates (for example distance from the ocean, high wind zones, and salt-fog prone regions) are examined in conjunction with sample orientation and sheltered/unsheltered comparisons. An atmospheric corrosion model examines the growth and dissolution of corrosion product layers to arrive at a steady-state thickness and corrosion rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641195"><span id="translatedtitle">Boundary layer halogens in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S; Salmon, Rhian A; Bauguitte, Stephane J-B; Jones, Anna E; Roscoe, Howard K; Plane, John M C</p> <p>2007-07-20</p> <p>Halogens influence the oxidizing capacity of Earth's troposphere, and iodine oxides form ultrafine aerosols, which may have an impact on climate. We report year-round measurements of boundary layer iodine oxide and bromine oxide at the near-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of Halley Station, Antarctica. Surprisingly, both species are present throughout the sunlit period and exhibit similar seasonal cycles and concentrations. The springtime peak of iodine oxide (20 parts per trillion) is the highest concentration recorded anywhere in the atmosphere. These levels of halogens cause substantial ozone depletion, as well as the rapid oxidation of dimethyl sulfide and mercury in the Antarctic boundary layer. PMID:17641195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81287&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81287&keyword=Card&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77947986&CFTOKEN=56056073"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> CONDITION REPORT II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of EPA's National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232403&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934457&CFTOKEN=33200754','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232403&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934457&CFTOKEN=33200754"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> CONDITION REPORT IV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018774"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Color Scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.372..189E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.372..189E"><span id="translatedtitle">Sinking <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740009008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740009008"><span id="translatedtitle">On the use of drift bottle and seabed drifter data in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welch, C. S.; Norcross, J. J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The use of drift bottle and seabed drifter information for use in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management is discussed. The drift bottle/seabed drifter portion of VIMS project MACONS (Mid Atlantic Continental Shelf) is described as an example of how a comprehensive survey using drift bottles and seabed drifters provides data useful for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management. The data from MACONS are analyzed to answer specific questions of interest to several different <span class="hlt">coastal</span> managers: a manager <span class="hlt">siting</span> a deep oil port, one <span class="hlt">siting</span> a sewage outfall, a manager responsible for setting up emergency beach protection procedures before an accident occurs, and a manager responsible for the environmental quality of a particular small section of coastline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS13H..06L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS13H..06L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable Management of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ocean Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based <span class="hlt">site</span> studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024450"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns in the abundance of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> horned lizard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fisher, R.N.; Suarez, A.V.; Case, T.J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> horned lizards (Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing tender the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 <span class="hlt">sites</span> across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2-3 years. At each array we measured 26 "local" <span class="hlt">site</span> descriptors and averaged these values with other "regional" measures to determine <span class="hlt">site</span> characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among <span class="hlt">sites</span> correlated with the presence and abundance of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a <span class="hlt">site</span>. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within <span class="hlt">sites</span>, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales (hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31L..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31L..04E"><span id="translatedtitle">Sinking <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.elsevierdirect.com/article.jsp?pageid=10752','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.elsevierdirect.com/article.jsp?pageid=10752"><span id="translatedtitle">Scenarios for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound <span class="hlt">coastal</span> changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management, integrated assessments of climatic change in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040001430&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsewage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040001430&hterms=sewage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsewage"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032423','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032423"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands pilot survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. Sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland <span class="hlt">site</span> is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-<span class="hlt">site</span> evidence. Tier 3, an intensive <span class="hlt">site</span> assessment, involves on-<span class="hlt">site</span> collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol3-sec574-645.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol3-sec574-645.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 574.645 - <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> barriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> barriers. 574.645 Section....645 <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> barriers. In accordance with the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Barrier Resources System....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80526&keyword=block+AND+ecological&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72225015&CFTOKEN=85872195','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80526&keyword=block+AND+ecological&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72225015&CFTOKEN=85872195"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> 2000 MONITORING IN THE NORTHEAST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> 2000 is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> states to develop a national <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring program. This joint effort will permit for the first time regional comparisons of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resource conditions. It will also provide a nationw...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676611"><span id="translatedtitle">Estrogens from sewage in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 <span class="hlt">sites</span> were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241440','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241440"><span id="translatedtitle">Estrogens from sewage in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 <span class="hlt">sites</span> were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25701944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25701944"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference <span class="hlt">sites</span> of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the northern Baltic. Three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reference <span class="hlt">sites</span> were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> reference <span class="hlt">site</span> was also included. Contaminated <span class="hlt">sites</span> showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ΦST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> sample differed significantly from all <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and also showed lower genetic variation. PMID:25701944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/factshts/090-03.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/factshts/090-03.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Native Plants for Effective <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetland Restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Howard, Rebecca J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual <span class="hlt">coastal</span> land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems. Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences. These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14763617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14763617"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical monitoring and evaluation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain aquifers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Land, Lewis A; Lautier, Jeff C; Wilson, Nathaniel C; Chianese, Gabrielle; Webb, Steven</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We use time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings to monitor ground water conditions beneath the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain in eastern North Carolina. The TDEM method measures the earth's response to an induced electromagnetic field. The resulting signal is converted, through a complex inversion process, to apparent resistivity values, which can be directly correlated to borehole resistivity logs. TDEM soundings are used to map the interface between fresh and salt water within <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifers, and estimate depth to basement when <span class="hlt">siting</span> new monitoring wells. Focused TDEM surveys have identified areas of salt water encroachment caused by high volumes of discharge from local supply wells. Electromagnetic sounding, when used in tandem with the state's network of monitoring wells, is an accurate and inexpensive tool for evaluating fresh water/salt water relationships on both local and regional scales within <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain aquifers. PMID:14763617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24934440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24934440"><span id="translatedtitle">Contamination of diuron in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters around Malaysian Peninsular.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Bakari, Said Suleiman; Bachok, Zainudin</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no <span class="hlt">site</span> has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas should be given a priority in the future. PMID:24934440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9i5007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9i5007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Chinese <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seas are facing heavy atmospheric nitrogen deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, X. S.; Tang, A. H.; Shi, K.; Wu, L. H.; Li, W. Q.; Shi, W. Q.; Shi, X. K.; Erisman, J. W.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>As the amount of reactive nitrogen (N) generated and emitted increases the amount of N deposition and its contribution to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones are becoming issues of environmental concern. To quantify N deposition in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seas of China we selected six typical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> from North to South in 2011. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, particulate NH4+ (pNH4+) and pNO3- ranged from 1.97- 4.88, 0.46 -1.22, 3.03 -7.09, 2.24 - 4.90 and 1.13-2.63 μg N m-3 at Dalian (DL), Changdao (CD), Linshandao (LS), Fenghua (FH), Fuzhou (FZ), and Zhanjiang (ZJ) <span class="hlt">sites</span>, respectively. Volume-weighted NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations in precipitation varied from 0.46 to 1.67 and 0.47 to 1.31 mg N L-1 at the six <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Dry, wet and total deposition rates of N were 7.8-23.1, 14.2-25.2 and 22.0 - 44.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 across the six <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Average N dry deposition accounted for 45.4% of the total deposition and NH3 and pNH4+ contributed to 76.6% of the dry deposition. If we extrapolate our total N deposition of 33.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the whole Chinese <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sea area (0.40 million km2), total N deposition amounts to 1.36 Tg N yr-1, a large external N input to surrounding marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ChJOL..34..267Q&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ChJOL..34..267Q&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The 1st International <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone, Sustainable Utilization of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Bioresources, and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99511&keyword=systems+AND+classification&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76947618&CFTOKEN=33870728','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99511&keyword=systems+AND+classification&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76947618&CFTOKEN=33870728"><span id="translatedtitle">CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=peat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77941261&CFTOKEN=82474729','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=peat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77941261&CFTOKEN=82474729"><span id="translatedtitle">North Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Tidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. The book c...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3244H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3244H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Liverpool Bay <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>A pre-operational <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ <span class="hlt">sites</span>, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar <span class="hlt">site</span>. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016794','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016794"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411551V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411551V"><span id="translatedtitle">Megacities in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...102...62H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...102...62H"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality assessment in the Mexican Caribbean: Impacts on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Terrones, Laura M.; Null, Kimberly A.; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Paytan, Adina</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> zones are dominated by economically important ecosystems, and excessive urban, industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities can lead to rapid degradation of those habitats and resources. Groundwater in the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifer discharges directly into the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean affecting the coral reefs, which are part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System. The composition and impacts of groundwater were studied at different <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments around Akumal (SE Yucatan Peninsula). Radium isotopes and salinity were used to quantify fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater contributions to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Excess Ra distribution suggests spatially variable discharge rates of submarine groundwater. High NO3- levels and high coliform bacteria densities indicate that groundwater is polluted at some <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Dissolved phosphorous content is elevated in the winter and during the high tourism season, likely released from untreated sewage discharge and from aquifer sediments under reducing conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..165...70H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..165...70H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study <span class="hlt">sites</span>, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove <span class="hlt">sites</span> (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS51B1296D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS51B1296D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In arctic knowledge on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1459D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.1459D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Hidden Forests: The role of vegetated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats in the ocean carbon budget (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duarte, Carlos M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Vegetated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats, including mangrove forests, salt-marshes, seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds, provide the marine equivalent to terrestrial forests. However, in contrast to the traditional recognition of forests as significant components of the global carbon budget, the biogeochemical significance of vegetated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats has been largely ignored. However, the past decade has witness a paradigm shift, where vegetated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats have been recognized to play a globally significant role in the carbon budget of the ocean. Here I synthesize this evidence and consider how current representations of the ocean carbon budget need be reconsidered to incorporate the role of vegetated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats and globally relevant, <span class="hlt">sites</span> of intense carbon cycling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046849','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046849"><span id="translatedtitle">The roles of large top predators in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems: new insights from long term ecological research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mather, Martha E.; Matich, Philip; Nifong, James C.; Ripple, William J.; Silliman, Brian R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During recent human history, human activities such as overhunting and habitat destruction have severely impacted many large top predator populations around the world. Studies from a variety of ecosystems show that loss or diminishment of top predator populations can have serious consequences for population and community dynamics and ecosystem stability. However, there are relatively few studies of the roles of large top predators in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems, so that we do not yet completely understand what could happen to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas if large top predators are extirpated or significantly reduced in number. This lack of knowledge is surprising given that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas around the globe are highly valued and densely populated by humans, and thus <span class="hlt">coastal</span> large top predator populations frequently come into conflict with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> human populations. This paper reviews what is known about the ecological roles of large top predators in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems and presents a synthesis of recent work from three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> eastern US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) <span class="hlt">sites</span> where long-term studies reveal what appear to be common themes relating to the roles of large top predators in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems. We discuss three specific themes: (1) large top predators acting as mobile links between disparate habitats, (2) large top predators potentially affecting nutrient and biogeochemical dynamics through localized behaviors, and (3) individual specialization of large top predator behaviors. We also discuss how research within the LTER network has led to enhanced understanding of the ecological roles of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> large top predators. Highlighting this work is intended to encourage further investigation of the roles of large top predators across diverse <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquatic habitats and to better inform researchers and ecosystem managers about the importance of large top predators for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystem health and stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NHESS...8..577G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NHESS...8..577G"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated approach for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards and risks in Sri Lanka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot <span class="hlt">site</span>, a methodology for multiple <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP31A3525R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP31A3525R"><span id="translatedtitle">Extensive mapping of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change in Alaska by Landsat time-series analysis, 1972-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, J.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Spencer, S. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The landscape-scale effects of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> storms on Alaska's Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska coasts includes <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion, migration of spits and barrier islands, breaching of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lakes and lagoons, and inundation and salt-kill of vegetation. Large changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> storm frequency and intensity are expected due to climate change and reduced sea-ice extent. Storms have a wide range of impacts on carbon fluxes and on fish and wildlife resources, infrastructure <span class="hlt">siting</span> and operation, and emergency response planning. In areas experiencing moderate to large effects, changes can be mapped by analyzing trends in time series of Landsat imagery from Landsat 1 through Landsat 8. The authors are performing a time-series trend analysis for over 22,000 kilometers of coastline along the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. Ice- and cloud-free Landsat imagery from Landsat 1-8, covering 1972-2013, were analyzed using a combination of regression, changepoint detection, and classification tree approaches to detect, classify, and map changes in near-infrared reflectance. Areas with significant changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> features, as well as timing of dominant changes and, in some cases, rates of change were identified . The approach captured many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> changes over the 42-year study period, including <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion exceeding the 60-m pixel resolution of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data and migrations of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> spits and estuarine channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1151/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1151/"><span id="translatedtitle">Alabama-Mississippi <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Classification Maps - Perdido Pass to Cat Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high-priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk from storm waves. Another purpose of the project is to develop a geomorphic (land feature) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions in the United States. A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Classification Map describing local geomorphic features is the first step toward determining the hazard vulnerability of an area. The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Classification Maps of the National Assessment of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Change Project present ground conditions such as beach width, dune elevations, overwash potential, and density of development. In order to complete a hazard vulnerability assessment, that information must be integrated with other information, such as prior storm impacts and beach stability. The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Classification Maps provide much of the basic information for such an assessment and represent a critical component of a storm-impact forecasting capability. The map above shows the areas covered by this web <span class="hlt">site</span>. Click on any of the location names or outlines to view the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Classification Map for that area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA41A2159O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA41A2159O"><span id="translatedtitle">The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Property Values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Donnell, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects <span class="hlt">coastal</span> geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected <span class="hlt">sites</span>. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087928"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory</p> <p>2009-03-13</p> <p>Shelf and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions around the world (the Global <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244061','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244061"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrous oxide in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..137...32B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..137...32B"><span id="translatedtitle">The value of carbon sequestration and storage in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> margin habitats. Changes in UK <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable <span class="hlt">site</span> specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27015516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27015516"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic isolation between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three <span class="hlt">sites</span> beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but also among dolphins from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, identifying three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled <span class="hlt">coastally</span> formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. PMID:27015516</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711774L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711774L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal <span class="hlt">site</span> and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118613"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> eutrophication and temperature variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ganoulis, J.; Rafailidis, S.; Bogardi, I.; Duckstein, L.; Matyasovszky, I.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A 3-D hydroecological model has been developed to simulate the impact of climate-change-induced daily temperature variation on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water quality and eutrophication. Historical daily temperature time series over a thirty-year period have been used to link local meteorological variables to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Then, CPs generated under a 2{times}CO{sub 2} scenario have been used to simulate climate-change-induced local daily temperature variations. Both historical and climate-change-induced temperature time series have been introduced as inputs into the hydroecological model to simulate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water quality and eutrophication. Subject to model validation with available data, a case study in the bay of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) indicates a risk of increasing eutrophication and oxygen depletion in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas due to possible climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=284448&keyword=images&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68676213&CFTOKEN=53314351','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=284448&keyword=images&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68676213&CFTOKEN=53314351"><span id="translatedtitle">POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE <span class="hlt">SITES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste <span class="hlt">sites</span> can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Lake Michigan county were t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol3-sec921-12.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol3-sec921-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">15 CFR 921.12 - Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection. 921.12 Section... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">Site</span> Selection, Post <span class="hlt">Site</span> Selection and Management Plan Development § 921.12 Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection. (a) At the time of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> state's request...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title15-vol3-sec921-12.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title15-vol3-sec921-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">15 CFR 921.12 - Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection. 921.12 Section... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">Site</span> Selection, Post <span class="hlt">Site</span> Selection and Management Plan Development § 921.12 Post <span class="hlt">site</span> selection. (a) At the time of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> state's request...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..55.1507M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..55.1507M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> flood management in Semarang, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and is nowadays suffering from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding. Land subsidences, high water tide, and inadequate structural measures play important roles in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundations. Structural and non-structural methods for controlling <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding including dykes, drainage systems, pump stations, polder systems, <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-land reclamations, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> planning and management, public education, as well as the establishment of an institutional framework for disaster management have been implemented in the Semarang <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. Although some improvements have been made, the current flood management system has generally failed to address a wide range of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation problems. Some improvement actions have been proposed including stakeholders involvement on the disaster mitigation. For a long period <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management, accelerated sea level rises due to global warming should also be taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181004&keyword=integrated+AND+reporting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59508861&CFTOKEN=45924428','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=181004&keyword=integrated+AND+reporting&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=59508861&CFTOKEN=45924428"><span id="translatedtitle">REGION 4-SESD <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> PROGRAM PROJECTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> activities include projects to support the Region 4 Water Management Division <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> programs. These field investigations include development of a Quality Assurance Project Plan for field sample collection and a sub...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43B1744T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43B1744T"><span id="translatedtitle">Devil's Slide: An evolving feature of California's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, M.; Loague, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> landslides in the United States remain a persistent threat to human life and urban development. The focus of this study is a landslide-prone section of the central California coastline, approximately 20 km south of San Francisco, known as Devil's Slide. This investigation employs an extensive aerial image inventory, digital elevation models (DEMs), and a water balance / limit-equilibrium approach to better understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of deep-seated bedrock slides at the <span class="hlt">site</span>. Photographic surveys of the area reveal nearly three kilometers of headscarp and a complex network of slope failures that respond to hydrologic, seismic, and anthropogenic perturbations. DEM analysis suggests that, for a 145-year period (1866 to 2010), the study area experienced an average <span class="hlt">coastal</span> retreat rate of 0.14 m yr-1 and an average volumetric loss of 11,216 m3 yr-1. At least 38% of the landscape evolution in the steep <span class="hlt">coastal</span> terrain has been driven by slope failure events. A loosely coupled water balance / limit-equilibrium analysis quantitatively illustrates the precarious nature of the active landslide zone at the <span class="hlt">site</span>. The slope is shown to be unstable for a large suite of equally-likely scenarios. The analyses presented herein suggest that future work should include a rigorous characterization of pore-water pressure development, driven by comprehensive simulations of subsurface hydrologic response, to improve our understanding of slope failure initiation at the Devil's Slide <span class="hlt">site</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9111E..14B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9111E..14B"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional vicarious gain adjustment for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> VIIRS products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowers, Jennifer; Arnone, Robert; Ladner, Sherwin; Fargion, Giulietta S.; Lawson, Adam; Martinolich, Paul; Vandermeulen, Ryan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>As part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Ocean Cal/Val Team, Naval Research Lab - Stennis Space Center (NRL-SSC) has been working to facilitate calibration and validation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) ocean color products. By relaxing the constraints of the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) methodology for vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites and utilizing the Aerosol Robotic Network Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) system to provide in situ data, we investigated differences between remotely sensed water leaving radiance and the expected in situ response in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and compare the results to traditional Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) calibration/validation activities. An evaluation of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP)-VIIRS ocean color products was performed in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters using the time series data obtained from the Northern Gulf of Mexico AERONET-OC <span class="hlt">site</span>, WaveCIS. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> provides different water types with varying complexity of CDOM, sedimentary, and chlorophyll components. Time series data sets were used to develop a vicarious gain adjustment (VGA) at this <span class="hlt">site</span>, which provides a regional top of the atmospheric (TOA) spectral offset to compare the standard MOBY spectral calibration gain in open ocean waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..756P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..756P"><span id="translatedtitle">Flooding, erosion and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures hazards on the Spanish coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perez, Jorge; Losada, Inigo; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa; Izaguirre, Cristina; Requejo, Soledad; Abascal, Ana; Tomas, Antonio; Camus, Paula</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> flooding, beach erosion and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures can be affected by long-term changes in sea level and in the storminess. Each beach or construction requires a specific study for a proper estimation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards. However, high resolution regional studies are useful to decision-makers to focus in the most endangered areas. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risks along the Spanish coast. Four different databases providing hourly data have been used to study 423 local <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the Spanish coastline (around 10 Km spatial resolution). 1- The mean sea level was estimated from satellite and tide-gauges based on Church et al. (2004). 2- The astronomical tide was assessed from the Spanish tide-gauge network interpolating 68 tidal constituents to obtain a tide series for each local <span class="hlt">site</span>. 3- The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> surge data come from a numerical reanalysis (GOS) with 1/8 degree spatial resolution performed by using the 2-D barotropic Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model. 4- Nearshore wave time series (at 15-25 m water depth) are provided from a reanalysis obtained from a hybrid downscaling along the Spanish coast (Camus et al., 2013). Flooding can be considered as the combined result of mean sea level, tidal level, surge level and run-up. Run-up has been assessed by the Stockdon et al. (2006) formulation from the wave time series. We reconstructed hourly flood level time series from their components in the selected locations during 60 years (from 1950 to 2009). A time-dependent extreme value model based on Pareto and Poisson probability distributions has been developed for magnitude and frequency respectively. Long-term trends and their statistical significance, and future changes on flooding return levels (e.g. 20 year return level) have been estimated. Two main causes of beach erosion have been analyzed. The shoreline retreat induced by sea level rise has been quantified by using Bruun's rule, and the erosion due to changes in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046095','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046095"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater hydrology--<span class="hlt">coastal</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sanford, Ward E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>How groundwater flow varies when long-term external conditions change is little documented. Geochemical evidence shows that sea-level rise at the end of the last glacial period led to a shift in the flow patterns of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> groundwater beneath Florida.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=117422&keyword=water+AND+state+AND+irrigation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76787474&CFTOKEN=49776006','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=117422&keyword=water+AND+state+AND+irrigation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76787474&CFTOKEN=49776006"><span id="translatedtitle">MARYLAND <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> BAYS IR 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Maryland <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Bays Program Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Program through examination of its activities in relation to the CCMP. During the CCMP planning phase the stakeholders prioritized the actions and determined the impl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U32A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U32A..01C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Adaptation and Ecological Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheong, S. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53E0240R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53E0240R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Eutrophication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabalais, N. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The world's climate has changed and human activities will continue to contribute to the acceleration of greenhouse gases and temperature rise. The major drivers of these changes are increased temperature, altered hydrological cycles and shifts in wind patterns that might alter <span class="hlt">coastal</span> currents. Increasing temperatures alone have the potential to strengthen pycnoclines in estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, but lower surface salinity (e.g., from increased freshwater runoff) would be more of a factor in stratifying the water column. The combination of increased nutrient loads (from human activities) and increased freshwater discharge (from GCC) will aggravate the already high loads of nutrients from the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, strengthen stratification (all other factors remaining the same), and worsen the hypoxia situation. Reduced precipitation, on the other hand, would lower the amount of nutrients and water reaching the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone and, perhaps, lead to oligotrophication and reduced fisheries productivity, or perhaps alleviate hypoxia. The increase or decrease in flow (whichever occurs), flux of nutrients and water temperature are likely to have important, but as yet not clearly identifiable, influences on hypoxia. In anticipation of the negative effects of global change, nutrient loadings to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters need to be reduced now, so that further water quality degradation is prevented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..160T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..160T"><span id="translatedtitle">Oceanography: <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> oceanic nitrogen loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thamdrup, Bo</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Oxygen minimum zones crop up along the eastern boundaries of ocean basins in the low latitudes. A survey of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific points to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone as a hotspot for anammox-driven marine nitrogen loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dunes&pg=3&id=EJ341893','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dunes&pg=3&id=EJ341893"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Studies for Primary Grades.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes a set of field trips for participants of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Greenhouse+AND+effect+AND+definition&id=EJ458240','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Greenhouse+AND+effect+AND+definition&id=EJ458240"><span id="translatedtitle">Issues in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Derrin</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Addresses the following issues relevant to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927470"><span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerability to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cholera ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collins, Andrew E</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally. PMID:12927470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=72477&keyword=florida+AND+coral&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75505368&CFTOKEN=94676857','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=72477&keyword=florida+AND+coral&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75505368&CFTOKEN=94676857"><span id="translatedtitle">FLORIDA ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Florida Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environmental Initiative (FACEI) will consist of a multiyear, multidisciplinary research and monitoring program designed to detect and trace a variety of nutrient sources (point and non-point sources) and other major environmental stressors to the coa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53C1287P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC53C1287P"><span id="translatedtitle">Scenario Planning for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Adaptation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parris, A.; Obeysekera, J.; Knuuti, K.; Moss, R. H.; Horton, R. M.; Weiss, J. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Sea level rise (SLR) is a persistent environmental change observed globally for more than a century, and its expected continuation poses significant challenges to the United States (US). We summarize a process associated with the United States National Climate Assessment for identifying four scenarios of global mean sea level rise (SLR). The main finding is that global mean sea level is expected to rise no less than 0.2 meters and no more than 2.0 meters by the end of the century. Recent publications suggest that a 4 C world would result in global mean SLR towards the upper end of that range. Aside from this process, there is currently no coordinated, interagency effort in the US to identify agreed upon global mean sea level rise projections for the purpose of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> planning, policy, and management. This is an important gap because identifying global mean SLR estimates is a critical step in assessing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> impacts and vulnerabilities. At present, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> managers are left to identify global SLR estimates through their own interpretation of the scientific literature or the advice of experts on an ad-hoc basis. Yet, relative SLR at over one hundred tide gages (~80%) along the US coast reflect the global trend (1.7 - 3.2 mm/yr). No widely accepted method is currently available for producing probabilistic projections of SLR at actionable scales (i.e., regional to local). The desire to have a most probable or likely outcome can lead to paralysis or inaction for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> decision-making. Given the range of uncertainty in future global SLR, scenario planning offers an opportunity to overcome decision-making paralysis and initiate actions now that may reduce future impacts and vulnerabilities. Scenarios do not predict future changes, but describe future potential conditions in a manner that supports decision-making under uncertainty. Using multiple scenarios, none more likely than the other, encourages experts and decision makers to rehearse multiple, plausible futures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H51L..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H51L..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross-shore transport pathways between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifers and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seas: Archetype of a nearshore variable-density contaminant plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barry, D. A.; Bakhtyar, R.; Brovelli, A.; Li, L.; Robinson, C. E.; Xin, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>On permeable beaches, tides and waves lead to an upper saline plume underneath the beach face in addition to the saltwater wedge. The transport and fate of land-derived chemicals depend on process dynamics at the land-sea interface, which can be examined using a nearshore variable-density contaminant plume. Such a plume can be taken as an archetype, since it includes tracer transport as a special case, or can become unstable if a suitable density contrast is imposed. Using this archetype, we consider three features of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifers: (i) Dense plumes interact with groundwater to produce features that resemble instabilities but are, instead, distinct features that depend on the flow regime and aquifer geometry. While evident in the laboratory, such features are unlikely to occur in the field. (ii) In oceanic settings, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifers respond and interact with tides and waves. Simulations confirm that beach morphology and in/exfiltration across the beach face are both linked to wave breaking on short time scales, i.e., linkages between beach morphology and in/exfiltration both reflect their relationship with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waves. On longer time scales, tide and wave effects are roughly additive, with tides usually being more important. (iii) The density of inland contaminant plume and the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifer depth both impact on the distribution of travel times from the contaminant <span class="hlt">site</span> to the beachface. Tracer plume breakthrough curves resemble a Gaussian distribution, with increasing skewness as the plume density increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH24A..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH24A..01F"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical cyclone Pam <span class="hlt">coastal</span> impact survey in Vanuatu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, H. M.; Pilarczyk, J.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Hong, I.; Rarai, A.; Harrison, M. J.; Jockley, F. R.; Horton, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam caused the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history since severe tropical cyclone Uma in 1987. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands and intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 <span class="hlt">sites</span> including the hardest hit settlements. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters. Coral boulders of more than 1 m diameter were measured on Erromango and sediment samples were collected at key <span class="hlt">sites</span> across the archipelago. Infrastructure damage on traditional and modern structures was assessed. Eyewitnesses were interviewed at most <span class="hlt">sites</span> to document the chronology of the wind and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5104L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> dynamics in western Sicily</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> band. More than half the world population lives in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15757744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15757744"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping water quality and substrate cover in optically complex <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and reef waters: an integrated approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phinn, S R; Dekker, A G; Brando, V E; Roelfsema, C M</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Sustainable management of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and coral reef environments requires regular collection of accurate information on recognized ecosystem health indicators. Satellite image data and derived maps of water column and substrate biophysical properties provide an opportunity to develop baseline mapping and monitoring programs for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and coral reef ecosystem health indicators. A significant challenge for satellite image data in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and coral reef water bodies is the mixture of both clear and turbid waters. A new approach is presented in this paper to enable production of water quality and substrate cover type maps, linked to a field based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystem health indicator monitoring program, for use in turbid to clear <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and coral reef waters. An optimized optical domain method was applied to map selected water quality (Secchi depth, Kd PAR, tripton, CDOM) and substrate cover type (seagrass, algae, sand) parameters. The approach is demonstrated using commercially available Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data over a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> embayment exhibiting the range of substrate cover types and water quality conditions commonly found in sub-tropical and tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments. Spatially extensive and quantitative maps of selected water quality and substrate cover parameters were produced for the study <span class="hlt">site</span>. These map products were refined by interactions with management agencies to suit the information requirements of their monitoring and management programs. PMID:15757744</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26686564"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard <span class="hlt">coastal</span> infrastructure and natural rocky shores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The numbers of hard <span class="hlt">coastal</span> artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of <span class="hlt">sites</span> we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. PMID:26686564</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10127871"><span id="translatedtitle">Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains. Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.</p> <p>1990-12-31</p> <p>The focus of the this conference of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span> (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077267','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Sensitivity to Sea Level: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection <span class="hlt">sites</span>, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sensitivity to sea level includes: • A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast (1992) • A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards Data Base for the U.S. Gulf Coast (1993) • A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509748"><span id="translatedtitle">The cost and feasibility of marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> restoration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Land-use change in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, <span class="hlt">site</span> selection, and techniques</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188308&keyword=monitoring+AND+Wildlife&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76891731&CFTOKEN=87764800','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188308&keyword=monitoring+AND+Wildlife&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76891731&CFTOKEN=87764800"><span id="translatedtitle">An Integrated Approach to Assess Broad-Scale Condition of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands – The Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands Pilot Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. Sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> were select...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987611"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> effects study: synthesis of findings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bay, Steven M; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Kelley, Kevin M; Maruya, Keith A; Gully, Joseph R</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Municipal wastewater discharges constitute a major source of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, yet uncertainty exists regarding their linkage to adverse biological effects such as endocrine disruption. Limited information is available concerning the types and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from municipal wastewater and their potential for ecological impacts. The present study investigated the impacts of CECs from ocean wastewater discharges on SCB fish. Concentrations of CECs were measured in effluents from four major municipal wastewater dischargers. Seawater, sediment, and hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from the discharge <span class="hlt">sites</span> and a reference area were collected and analyzed for chemical and biological indicators. Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial and commercial compounds were measured in effluent. Some CECs were also detected in sediment, seawater, and fish livers near the outfalls, confirming exposure to CECs. Fish plasma hormone analyses suggested the presence of physiological effects, including a reduced stress response, altered estrogen synthesis or estrogenic exposure, and reduced thyroxine. Most fish responses were found at all <span class="hlt">sites</span> and could not be directly associated with effluent discharges. However, concentrations of thyroxine were lower at all discharge <span class="hlt">sites</span> relative to the reference, and estradiol concentrations were lower at three of the four outfall <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The physiological responses found were not associated with adverse impacts on fish reproduction or populations. Interpretation of molecular and physiological measurements in field organisms such as those used in the present study is challenging because of a lack of information on baseline conditions and uncertain linkages to apical endpoints such as survival and reproduction. PMID:22987611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...U21B05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...U21B05P"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Advances in Studies of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Marsh Sedimentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pasternack, G. B.; Leonard, L. A.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Limited understanding of sedimentation processes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshes is a key constraint on the management of environmental impacts associated with sea level rise, degrading quality and quantity of aquatic habitats, and downstream impacts of watershed land use. The problem is exacerbated by complex interactions among physical, ecological, and chemical variables that impact sedimentation over a large range of spatio-temporal scales. These challenges are being met by increasingly sophisticated approaches which cross-fertilize from other disciplines or go even further to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives. One example of the former has been improved precision of fine scale measurements of fluid mechanics and sediment transport over marsh plains and application of those measurements in geomorphologic and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> engineering models. This advancement has improved our understanding of marsh dynamics at a mechanistic level, which is key for improving the predictive capabilities of wetland models. An example of a multidisciplinary approach that has become very common is the combined usage of multiple monitoring, isotopic, and palynological methods for estimating sedimentation and erosion at a <span class="hlt">site</span> over a range of time scales. By applying such combinations, it has been possible to piece apart the relative roles of natural processes such as sea level rise and storms from human impacts such as flow constrictions, channel dredging, and sediment supply changes. Beyond improving approaches used to study marshes, past work has led to new questions about marsh morphodynamics and how <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshes interact with upland watersheds. With the aid of chaos theory, some recent studies have asserted that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marsh channels are fractal and thus must follow universal laws in common with watershed drainages and other dendritic systems. Also, where marshes exist among a mosaic of habitats on a delta, research has revealed the relative roles of watershed versus <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5954A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5954A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forcing, socio-economic and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage <span class="hlt">sites</span>, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (<span class="hlt">coastal</span> geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional <span class="hlt">coastal</span> slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812716M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812716M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated approach to manage <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, such as the selection of the best <span class="hlt">sites</span> for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5340358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5340358"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of impacts: Produced waters in sensitive <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats. Central <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boesch, D.F.; Rabalais, N.N.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>This study quantified the location and characteristics of outer continental shelf (OCS) produced waters discharged into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments of the Gulf of Mexico and provided an assessment of the environmental fate and effects of selected discharges. An inventory of produced-water discharges based on records of regulatory agencies in Texas and Louisiana was compiled. The other Gulf states do not permit the discharge of produced water into surface waters. Three <span class="hlt">sites</span> representing large volumes of OCS-generated produced water discharges and different hydrological conditions were selected for field assessment. Produced water contained elevated levels of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons, organic acids, and tract metals. Concentrations of the organic constituents may depend on the separation and treatment technologies employed. Substantial contamination of fine-grained bottom sediments with petroleum hydrocarbons was observed near the discharges at the three <span class="hlt">sites</span> studied. General surveys at the three <span class="hlt">sites</span> showed evidence of biological effects in terms of reduced density and diversity of macrobenthic organisms in contaminated sediments and the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the tissues of filter-feeding bivalves proximate to the discharge <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939045"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial pollution of Messina <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters: a one year study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caruso, G; Zaccone, R; Monticelli, L; Crisafi, E; Zampino, D</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>A year's monitoring of faecal pollution of marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters surrounding Messina was carried out in 1996/97. The distribution of faecal coliforms was evaluated in 15 stations located along the Sicilian coastline, sampled monthly in coincidence of the two opposing current phases ("montante" and "scendente" currents) which characterise the Straits of Messina. The data obtained provided a complete picture of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the area and highlighted the presence of heavily polluted <span class="hlt">sites</span> in correspondence with river outflows. Higher bacterial counts were associated with lower salinity values and higher ammonia concentrations; over an annual study, they occurred during the coldest months, showing the negative impact of continental water inputs on the bacteriological quality of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. PMID:10939045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1105/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1105/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh <span class="hlt">sites</span> covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019539"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Atlantic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshlands, Maryland, Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshes are the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Groundbased and low-altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time-consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test <span class="hlt">sites</span> selected were in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and Ossabaw Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS imagery, enlarged to 1:250,000: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; and (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS will be an excellent tool for many types of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6914Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6914Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Backscattering by very small particles in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiaodong; Gray, Deric J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The volume scattering and backscattering by very small particles (VSPs) of sizes <0.2 µm in four <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in U.S. (Chesapeake Bay, Monterey Bay, Mobile Bay, and the LEO-15 <span class="hlt">site</span>) were estimated by inverting the measured volume scattering functions (VSFs) at 532 nm. The measured VSFs are consistent with concurrent measurements of total scattering coefficients by the ac-meters and angular scattering at 100, 125, and 150° by the ECO-VSF sensor and at 140° by the HydroScat-6 sensor. The inferred backscattering coefficients by the VSPs correlate strongly with the absorption coefficients measured for the colored dissolved organic matter, indicating that the dissolved portion of particles do scatter light. In the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters that we studied, the backscattering by VSPs dominate over larger particles (of sizes >0.2 µm), accounting for 40-80% of total backscattering at 532 nm, while only account for <5% of total scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050060913','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050060913"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Turbidity using MODIS 250 m Band Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davies, James E.; Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Walker, Nan D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Terra MODIS 250 m observations are being applied to a Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) algorithm that is under development for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> case 2 waters where reflectance is dominated by sediment entrained in major fluvial outflows. An atmospheric correction based on MODIS observations in the 500 m resolution 1.6 and 2.1 micron bands is used to isolate the remote sensing reflectance in the MODIS 25Om resolution 650 and 865 nanometer bands. SSC estimates from remote sensing reflectance are based on accepted inherent optical properties of sediment types known to be prevalent in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. We present our findings for the Atchafalaya Bay region of the Louisiana Coast, in the form of processed imagery over the annual cycle. We also apply our algorithm to selected <span class="hlt">sites</span> worldwide with a goal of extending the utility of our approach to the global direct broadcast community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5932382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5932382"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Quaternary aminozones across the Cape Fear Arch, U. S. Atlantic Geology <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wehmiller, J.F.; York, L.L. ); Krantz, D.E. . Coll. of Marine Studies)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The interpretation of the regional aminostratigraphy of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain Quaternary units from North and South Carolina is potentially affected by sampling biases, variable preservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> records, reoccupation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments by multiple transgressions, geochemical alteration of samples, variable thermal histories of specific samples, and intergeneric and interlaboratory differences in analytical results.Two primary models for the correlation of emergent <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain units diverge significantly in southeastern North Carolina. New data from fresh exposure (1990--1991) at emergent <span class="hlt">sites</span> between Wilmington, NC and Charleston, SC, from previous onshore collections in this region, and from submergent samples between Cape Lookout, NC and Cape Romain, SC provide insight into the nature of these correlation issues. Although sampling of the area is not uniform, these results fill a major gap between regions of previous aminostratigraphy study. Inferred early-to-middle Pleistocene aminozones dominate the emergent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region between Cape Lookout and Romain, and late Pleistocene aminozones in this area are represented by subsurface samples beneath barrier islands or in shallow inner shelf cores, but have not been found onshore. A map view of the distribution of aminozones along the coast between northeastern NC and central SC mimics that of pre-Quaternary units that thin or disappear over the axis of the Cape Fear Arch, suggesting that the sampled Quaternary record reflects the combination of processes responsible for the preservation of the pre-Quaternary record. This perspective should provide a model for resolution of various geochronological controversies that have arisen because of limited stratigraphic or geochemical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMED31B0738F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMED31B0738F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major <span class="hlt">coastal</span> storms. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these <span class="hlt">sites</span> are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three <span class="hlt">sites</span> coincide with NOAA restoration <span class="hlt">sites</span> that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Long-term monitoring of these <span class="hlt">sites</span> includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three <span class="hlt">sites</span> are significant to the program because they provide a variety of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these <span class="hlt">sites</span> has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14602395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14602395"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">coastal</span> perspective on security.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John</p> <p>2003-11-14</p> <p>This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations. PMID:14602395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391805','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391805"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomes of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lagoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032685','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032685"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands: A Model Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands in four <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. PMID:24892044</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QSRv...20..449C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QSRv...20..449C"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene <span class="hlt">coastal</span> glaciation of Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf <span class="hlt">coastal</span> glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Alaska is evident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21A1584Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH21A1584Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Experiments for Storm Surge Inundation in Korean <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, J.; Shim, J.; Jun, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> predicted inundation regimes and depths were compared with measurements from a tidal gage each area and inundation map by field measurements after the event. Comparisons of the numerical results and measured data show a good correlation. The numerical model adopted in this study is expected to be a useful tool for analysis of storm surges, and for predicting inundation regimes due to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding. Many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cities including low-lying areas were flooded during strong typhoon. So it is necessary to consider detailed evacuation planning, including hazard map, preparation of evacuation <span class="hlt">site</span>, and sustainable city planning against storm surge inundation problems. For this study, we used 201 typhoons passing through Korea during the past 55 years since 1950. Typhoon wind model was used to estimate wind forcing and air pressure data for each typhoon. We estimated the spatial statistical analysis for inundation level as each return period. And finally we suggested the example of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazard map in the Korean coast(Masan, yeosu and Busan city).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361729"><span id="translatedtitle">Resolving <span class="hlt">coastal</span> conflicts using marine spatial planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping <span class="hlt">coastal</span> uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions; and 3) developing a draft <span class="hlt">coastal</span> use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-01/pdf/2010-4185.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-01/pdf/2010-4185.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 9158 - Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Sharks Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that on February 4, 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JMS.....7...95V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JMS.....7...95V"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> use structure within the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system. A sustainable development-consistent approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vallega, A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>To contribute to the development of methodological approaches to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area management consistent with the sustainable development concept and guidelines provided by UNCED Agenda 21, Chapter 17, first the classifications of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> uses provided by literature and those adopted by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management programmes are presented and discussed. Moving from this basis and reasoning in terms of general system-sustained approach the following concepts and methodological issues are considered: a goal-oriented concept of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> use; the sustainable development-grounded <span class="hlt">coastal</span> use framework and the role of discriminants through which it is conceived and described; the relationships between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> uses; in particular, conflicting relationships focusing attention on conflicts between decision-making centres, as well as users, motivations and tractability of uses; the relationships between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> uses and the ecosystem; the basic options for sustainability-consistent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> use development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3050/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3050/"><span id="translatedtitle">USGS Western <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine Geology Team</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Western <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and marine resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26541983"><span id="translatedtitle">Baseline monitoring of organic sunscreen compounds along South Carolina's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bratkovics, Stephanie; Wirth, Edward; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Pennington, Paul; Sanger, Denise</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Organic ultraviolet filters (UV-F) are increasingly being used in personal care products to protect skin and other products from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In this study, marine water was collected monthly for approximately one year from six <span class="hlt">coastal</span> South Carolina, USA <span class="hlt">sites</span> and analyzed for the occurrence of seven organic chemicals used as UV filters (avobenzone, dioxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, oxybenzone, padimate-o and sulisobenzone). The results were used to examine the relationship between beach use and the distribution of UV-F compounds along <span class="hlt">coastal</span> South Carolina, USA. Five of the seven target analytes were detected in seawater along <span class="hlt">coastal</span> South Carolina during this study. Dioxybenzone and sulisobenzone were not detected. The highest concentrations measured were >3700 ng octocrylene/L and ~2200 ng oxybenzone/L and beach use was greatest at this <span class="hlt">site</span>; a local beach front park. Patterns in concentrations were assessed based on season and a measure of beach use. PMID:26541983</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022627"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; <span class="hlt">siting</span> of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall <span class="hlt">siting</span>. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966867"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hao, Ze-Jia</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring <span class="hlt">site</span> were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring <span class="hlt">sites</span>. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water pollution source and spatial patterns. PMID:17966867</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95..463N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95..463N"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Research Approaches to <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> livelihoods. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management (CZM) actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1410626M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1410626M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The wave criteria for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ZONE DEFINITION <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> engineering and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several <span class="hlt">coastal</span> laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common <span class="hlt">coastal</span> features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those <span class="hlt">coastal</span> features, present in almost all <span class="hlt">coastal</span> laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> administrative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711560S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711560S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> scale operational oceanography with structural interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Pau Sierra, Joan; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manuel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Operational oceanography predictions are now starting to include coupled wind, wave and current fields for open ocean and shelf domains. However the same product for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scales, including a) the non-linearity of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes, b) the effect of continental rain driven discharge and c) the interaction with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures are still in an early stage of development, both for the physical and numerical aspects. In this paper we shall explore a coupled wind-wave-current model based on the COWAST system but including also the continental discharge and the effect of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures, in particular shore parallel detached breakwaters. We shall apply such a pre-operational code to a test case near Barcelona, where the concept of transient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> defences is being considered. The available in-situ and remote observations should also allow a robust calibration. The operational oceanography simulations will be used to support the activation of these transient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> defences and therefore illustrate the challenges required by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scales under rapid storm development such as is commonly found in the Western Mediterranean. The benefits of applying a robust and high resolution coupled hydro-dynamic system will become apparent from the stand point of transient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> defence deployment and risk mitigation in heavily populated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-15/pdf/2011-23626.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-15/pdf/2011-23626.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 57022 - <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management Program: Illinois</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS21A3873A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS21A3873A"><span id="translatedtitle">GREATEM survey in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>To determine the electric-resistivity structure in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExG....45..243C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ExG....45..243C"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping pollution and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, Niels B.; Halkjær, Max</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> hydrology is becoming the focus of increasing interest for several reasons. Hydrogeological models need good boundary conditions at the coastline, and with the expected sea level rise due to climate changes, it becomes increasingly important to grasp the dynamics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrology in order to predict the consequences of sea level rise for nature and society. We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted <span class="hlt">site</span> with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities. Data are subjected to constrained inversion with one-dimensional multi-layer (smooth) models. The extent of the pollution plume estimated from a conductive anomaly in the survey results is mainly in accordance with results from other investigations, but also points to hitherto unknown directions of seepage. The interleaving of freshwater extending under the offshore shallow sea and saltwater infiltrating under the onshore freshwater aquifer can be clearly discerned and preferential flow channels are revealed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092267&hterms=diatom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddiatom','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092267&hterms=diatom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddiatom"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Laurie L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7057106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7057106"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for <span class="hlt">site</span> characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023556','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023556"><span id="translatedtitle">Recognition of fiducial surfaces in lidar surveys of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> topography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, J.C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Wright, C.W.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A new method for the recognition and mapping of surfaces in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscapes that provide accurate and low variability topographic measurements with respect to airborne lidar surveys is described and demonstrated in this paper. Such surfaces are herein termed "fiducial" because they can represent reference baseline morphology in Studies of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change due to natural or anthropogenic causes. Non-fiducial surfaces may also be identified in each separate lidar survey to be used in a given geomorphic change analysis. <span class="hlt">Sites</span> that are non-fiducial in either or both lidar surveys that bracket the time period under investigation may be excluded from consideration in subsequent calculations of survey-to-survey elevation differences to eliminate spurious indications of landscape change. This new analysis method, or lidar fiducial surface recognition (LFSR) algorithm, is intended to more fully enable the non-ambiguous Use of topographic lidar in a range of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> investigations. The LFSR algorithm may be widely applied, because it is based solely on the information inherent in the USGS/NASA/NOAA airborne topographic lidar coverage that exists for most of the contiguous U.S. coastline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20133017','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20133017"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bernier, Julie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Wetland losses in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States are so extensive that they represent critical concerns to government environmental agencies and natural resource managers. In Louisiana, almost 3,000 square kilometers (km2) of low-lying wetlands converted to open water between 1956 and 2004, and billions of dollars in State and Federal funding have been allocated for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> restoration projects intended to compensate for some of those wetland losses. Recent research at the St. Petersburg <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) focused on understanding the physical processes and human activities that contributed to historical wetland loss in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana and the spatial and temporal trends of that loss. The physical processes (land-surface subsidence and sediment erosion) responsible for historical wetland loss were quantified by comparing marsh-surface elevations, water depths, and vertical displacements of stratigraphic contacts at 10 study areas in the Mississippi River delta plain and 6 <span class="hlt">sites</span> at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The timing and extent of land loss at the study areas was determined by comparing historical maps, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery; the temporal and spatial trends of those losses were compared with historical subsidence rates and hydrocarbon production trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010383','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010383"><span id="translatedtitle">Discriminating <span class="hlt">coastal</span> rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre <span class="hlt">site</span> in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this <span class="hlt">site</span> were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The accuracies for computer aided classification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824269"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of adjacent land use on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study <span class="hlt">site</span> Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study <span class="hlt">site</span> (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study <span class="hlt">sites</span> are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1148O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1148O"><span id="translatedtitle">The development of a vulnerabilities indicator library for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood risk management at a European scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Owen, Damon; Viavattene, Christophe; Priest, Sally; Micou, Paula; Parker, Dennis</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events (Xynthia, Ligurian Flash Floods, the 1953 North Sea storm surge etc) have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas in Europe. The hazard probability is likely to increase due to a changing climate with more frequent and violent instances of surge-driven floods, wind damage, erosion, overtopping and rain-driven flash flooding. The number and value of receptors in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area also increases due to continued economic development and population growth. As part of the FP7 EU RISCKIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts toolkit) project, a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability indicator library has been produced incorporating ecosystems, built environment, human population, critical infrastructure and the overall characteristics of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system. The library will include data at European, national and local levels and will be gathered, in large part, through a multitude of interviews with various members of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> community at 11 case study <span class="hlt">sites</span> across Europe. The presentation will give a brief outline of the challenges in developing vulnerability indicators - particularly for countries where specific data is limited or lacking - and how the library will be organised to facilitate the use of the data. Finally, the presentation will describe how the vulnerability library will feed into a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF). The CRAF will evaluate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risk at regional scale and identify "hot spots" to assist <span class="hlt">coastal</span> practitioners to choose the best prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures for their coast. The work described in this abstract was supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of RISC-KIT, contract no. 603458, and by contributions by the partner institutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045589','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045589"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State <span class="hlt">coastal</span> steelhead trout</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all <span class="hlt">coastal</span> M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......344S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......344S"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and modeling of decadal and long-term variability of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> California summer temperature changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequera, Pedro</p> <p></p> <p>Summer average daily maximum temperature (Tmax) trends for 1950-2010 were calculated for 241 locations along all of California by use of daily max temperatures from NWS Coop <span class="hlt">sites</span> to understand the spatial and temporal variabilities of the previously reported summer <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-cooling. Results show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-cooling appears almost continuously throughout the California coast in locations open to marine air penetrations for the period of 1970-2010. Correlations with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-cooling disappears during the increasing PDO period (1950-1985). The most influential factor(s) on California summer <span class="hlt">coastal</span> temperatures, i.e., Greenhouse Gas (GHG) warming, PDO and changes in Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU), were determined through numerical atmospheric modeling using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model. Combined results from observations, reanalysis and modeling lead to the conclusion that PDO is the main mechanism of decadal variability of California summer temperatures, dominating over global GHG-warming effects. PDO affects both <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland temperatures by controlling the position and intensity of the two dominating global circulation patterns on California summer: the semi-permanent Pacific High Pressure System and the continental Thermal-Low. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> cooling will rise on decreasing PDO periods, where the warming of inland regions and cooling of nearshore Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) results in an increase in sea-breeze activity. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span>-warming results in increasing periods of the PDO. Global warming induced by GHG and hyper-urbanization were found to be major sources of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> warming over complete PDO cycles (1950-2010).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23759556"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State <span class="hlt">coastal</span> steelhead trout.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael</p> <p>2013-06-13</p> <p>Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all <span class="hlt">coastal</span> M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..504P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..504P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perkins, Matthew J.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Dudgeon, David; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Globally, coastlines are under pressure as <span class="hlt">coastal</span> human population growth and urbanization continues, while climatic change leads to stormier seas and rising tides. These trends create a strong and sustained demand for land reclamation and infrastructure protection in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, requiring engineered <span class="hlt">coastal</span> defence structures such as sea walls. Here, we review the nature of ecological impacts of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures on intertidal ecosystems, seek to understand the extent to which ecological engineering can mitigate these impacts, and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation as a tool to contribute to conservation of intertidal habitats. By so doing, we identify critical knowledge gaps to inform future research. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> structures alter important physical, chemical and biological processes of intertidal habitats, and strongly impact community structure, inter-habitat linkages and ecosystem services while also driving habitat loss. Such impacts occur diffusely across localised <span class="hlt">sites</span> but scale to significant regional and global levels. Recent advances in ecological engineering have focused on developing habitat complexity on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures to increase biodiversity. 'Soft' engineering options maximise habitat complexity through inclusion of natural materials, species and processes, while simultaneously delivering engineering objectives such as <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection. Soft options additionally sustain multiple services, providing greater economic benefits for society, and resilience to climatic change. Currently however, a lack of inclusion and economic undervaluation of intertidal ecosystem services may undermine best practice in coastline management. Importantly, reviewed evidence shows mitigation and even restoration do not support intertidal communities or processes equivalent to pre-disturbance conditions. Crucially, an absence of comprehensive empirical baseline biodiversity data, or data comprising additional ecological parameters such as ecosystem functions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11J..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11J..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced <span class="hlt">Coastal</span>-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural <span class="hlt">sites</span> in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. That daytime summer <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cooling was seen in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural <span class="hlt">sites</span> near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural <span class="hlt">sites</span> experienced cooling, while the urban <span class="hlt">sites</span> showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995pace.agarR....P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995pace.agarR....P"><span id="translatedtitle">An overview of an intensive observation period on variability of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> atmospheric refractivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulus, Richard A.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>This paper is an overview of an experiment called Variability of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Atmospheric Refractivity (VOCAR). VOCAR was designed to be conducted under a larger program called <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Variability Analysis, Measurements, and Prediction and is a multi-year experimental effort to investigate the variability of atmospheric refractivity with emphasis on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. The experiment is being conducted jointly with the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, Point Mugu, CA, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the Naval Postgraduate School. In addition, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory and Penn State University/Applied Research Laboratory are participating in the measurement phase of VOCAR. The propagation measurements being made during VOCAR consist of monitoring signal strength variations of VHF/UHF transmitters in the southern California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region. Corresponding meteorological measurements are made during routine, special, and intensive observation periods. During an intensive measurement period from 23 August to 3 September 1993, radio data were collected at two receiver <span class="hlt">sites</span> and meteorological data were collected from three profiler <span class="hlt">sites</span>, eight radiosonde <span class="hlt">sites</span>, three aircraft, and numerous surface weather <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Samples of the data will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6916576','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6916576"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated multidisciplinary biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of southern California Neogene <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blake, G.H.; Arends, R.G.; Filewicz, M.V.; Thornton, M.L.C.; Vork, D.R.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>This integrated biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of several Neogene sections of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> southern California is based on the use of diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, palynology, and benthic foraminifera. The study included the Naples Bluff, Topanga Canyon, and Newport Bay sections, and DSDP <span class="hlt">Site</span> 468.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61921&keyword=area+AND+network+AND+range&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75131882&CFTOKEN=71568820','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61921&keyword=area+AND+network+AND+range&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75131882&CFTOKEN=71568820"><span id="translatedtitle">MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A network of stream-sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> was developed for the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) as part of collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal wei...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62190&keyword=area+AND+network+AND+range&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75131882&CFTOKEN=71568820','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62190&keyword=area+AND+network+AND+range&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75131882&CFTOKEN=71568820"><span id="translatedtitle">MID-ATLANTIC <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A network of stream-sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> was developed for the Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) a collaborative study between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal weighting was u...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=37355&keyword=sport&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75474083&CFTOKEN=98826110','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=37355&keyword=sport&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=75474083&CFTOKEN=98826110"><span id="translatedtitle">POTENTIAL HEALTH HAZARDS FROM CONSUMPTION OF FISH CAUGHT IN POLLUTED <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> WATERS OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A survey was carried out in the Los Angeles metropolitan <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area during 1980 to assess fishing activity and consumption rates of fish by sport fishermen at local <span class="hlt">sites</span> which were pollution impacted. Among the 1059 anglers interviewed, 49% of them fish at least one time each ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62759&keyword=overprotective&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68593441&CFTOKEN=90086695','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62759&keyword=overprotective&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68593441&CFTOKEN=90086695"><span id="translatedtitle">WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> WETLANDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select <span class="hlt">sites</span> wit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1215S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1215S"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the long-term historic evolution of exposure to flooding of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stevens, A. J.; Clarke, D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Wadey, M. P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> managers face the task of assessing and managing flood risk. This requires knowledge of the area of land, the number of people, properties and other infrastructure potentially affected by floods. Such analyses are usually static; i.e. they only consider a snapshot of the current situation. This misses the opportunity to learn about the role of key drivers of historical changes in flood risk, such as development and population rise in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood plain, as well as sea-level rise. In this paper, we develop and apply a method to analyse the temporal evolution of residential population exposure to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding. It uses readily available data in a GIS environment. We examine how population and sea-level change have modified exposure over two centuries in two neighbouring <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>: Portsea and Hayling Islands on the UK south coast. The analysis shows that flood exposure changes as a result of increases in population, changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population density and sea level rise. The results indicate that to date, population change is the dominant driver of the increase in exposure to flooding in the study <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but climate change may outweigh this in the future. A full analysis of changing flood risk is not possible as data on historic defences and wider vulnerability are not available. Hence, the historic evolution of flood exposure is as close as we can get to a historic evolution of flood risk. The method is applicable anywhere that suitable floodplain geometry, sea level and population data sets are available and could be widely applied, and will help inform <span class="hlt">coastal</span> managers of the time evolution in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood drivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..343H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..343H"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. This is because the households in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook <span class="hlt">site</span> showed almost comparable results for both <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The wood stove burning in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12...85O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12...85O"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduction of tsunami inundation by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohira, W.; Honda, K.; Harada, K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> forests are known to protect <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas from environmental degradation. In this paper, we examined another important role of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forests - to mitigate tsunami devastations to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Using a two-dimensional numerical model (Harada and Imamura model, 2005), we evaluated the damping effects of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forest to resist tsunami inundation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the simulations, we set up a two-km long control forest with a representative topography of the study <span class="hlt">site</span> and experimented its damping performance sensitivity under various width configurations, e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 m. The initial tsunami wave was set such that the inundation depth at the front edge of the forest would not exceed 4 m (tree fragility limit). The forest variables such as species, density, DBH, height and canopy size were determined from a typical forest of the <span class="hlt">site</span> (Casuarina plantation, 4 trees/100 m2, Diameter at Breast Height = 0.20 m). The results showed that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forest with 100 m width reduced inundation flux, depth and area by 17.6, 7.0 and 5.7%, respectively. Exponential models were found to describe the relationships between forest width and tsunami inundation transmission. An additional experiment was performed using actual topography and a forest plantation plan with 100 m width for 2.46 km2. In this experiment, the results showed that the plan would reduce inundation flux by 10.1%, while the exponential model estimated it to be 10.6%, close to the numerical model results. It suggests that statistical models of forest width and damping effects are useful tools for plantation planning, as it allows for quicker evaluation of the impact of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forest without simulation modeling that requires a lot of data, time and computing power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13157-011-0189-0','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13157-011-0189-0"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended <span class="hlt">coastal</span> swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that <span class="hlt">Site</span> 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than <span class="hlt">Site</span> 2. The effects of sediment in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014999','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014999"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigating oil and gas impacts in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cahoon, Donald R.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This abstract refers to technical recommendations for avoiding, minimizing, and restoring (i.e., mitigating) drilling <span class="hlt">site</span> access impacts related to oil and gas activities in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands through regulatory review, drawing mostly from the Louisiana experience. The two standard methods used to access wetland drilling locations are canals and roads, both of which require dredging. Each access method impacts wetland values and functions and each has been implicated directly and indirectly in wetland loss by converting marsh habitat to open water or upland habitat and by altering the local hydrologic regime. However, numerous regulatory management techniques exist and should be employed to avoids minimize, and restore canal and road-dump impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830013168&hterms=remote+sensing+suspended+sediment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dremote%2Bsensing%2Bsuspended%2Bsediment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830013168&hterms=remote+sensing+suspended+sediment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dremote%2Bsensing%2Bsuspended%2Bsediment"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> processes and resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klemas, V.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea%2blevel&pg=3&id=EJ431895','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea%2blevel&pg=3&id=EJ431895"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature, Humans, and the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walker, H. Jesse</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95934&keyword=sense&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68568202&CFTOKEN=99429272','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95934&keyword=sense&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68568202&CFTOKEN=99429272"><span id="translatedtitle">DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT IN <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ECOSYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Engle, Virginia D. and Stephen J. Jordan. In press. Diagnosing Causes of Impairment in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1008). <br><br>Estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems are challenge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecosystem+AND+marine&pg=6&id=EJ187634','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecosystem+AND+marine&pg=6&id=EJ187634"><span id="translatedtitle">Seagrasses and the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Marine Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Phillips, Ronald C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major <span class="hlt">coastal</span> producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710761E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710761E"><span id="translatedtitle">Caracterisation of anthropogenic contribution to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fluorescent organic matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Nahhal, Ibrahim; Nouhi, Ayoub; Mounier, Stéphane</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>It is known that most of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fluorescent organic matter is of a terrestrial origin (Parlanti, 2000; Tedetti, Guigue, & Goutx, 2010). However, the contribution of the anthropogenic organic matter to this pool is not well defined and evaluated. In this work the monitoring of little bay (Toulon Bay, France) was done in the way to determine the organic fluorescent response during a winter period. The sampling campaign consisted of different days during the month of December, 2014 ( 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th) on 21 different sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> for the fluorescence measurements (without any filtering of the samples) and the whole month of December for the bacterial and the turbidity measurements. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) of fluorescence (from 200 to 400 nm and 220 to 420 nm excitation and emission range) were treated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).The parafac analysis of the EEM datasets was conducted using PROGMEEF software in Matlab langage. On the same time that the turbidity and bacterial measurement (particularly the E.Coli concentration) were determined. The results gives in a short time range, information on the the contribution of the anthropogenic inputs to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fluorescent organic matter. In addition, the effect of salinity on the photochemical degradation of the anthropogenic organic matter (especially those from wastewater treatment plants) will be studied to investigate their fate in the water end member by the way of laboratory experiments. Parlanti, E. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry, 31(12), 1765-1781. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 Tedetti, M., Guigue, C., & Goutx, M. (2010). Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(3), 350-62. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9827E..11A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9827E..11A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal changes in ocean color in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) <span class="hlt">site</span> that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMEP43D0679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMEP43D0679L"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern Alaska <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Relief Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Relief Model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22208068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22208068"><span id="translatedtitle">Government conservation policies on Mexican <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas: is "top-down" management working?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two <span class="hlt">sites</span> on the Zihuatanejo <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each <span class="hlt">site</span> for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the <span class="hlt">site</span> with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.217...61W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.217...61W"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent rates of sedimentation on irregularly flooded Boreal Baltic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands: Responses to recent changes in sea level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ward, Raymond D.; Teasdale, Phillip A.; Burnside, Niall G.; Joyce, Christopher B.; Sepp, Kalev</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Boreal Baltic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands differ markedly from temperate salt marshes by their generally low maximum elevation (between 0 and 1 m above m.s.l.), low seaward gradients and the irregular nature of flooding that is characteristic of the NE Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region. As a result of these factors these wetlands have been considered to be threatened by future sea level rise. This study presents results for two Boreal Baltic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Estonia using the 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric dating methods to investigate the sedimentary development of these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems. Recent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> evolution has been largely driven by continuing glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA), with maximum rates of 2.8 mm yr- 1 around the NW Estonian coast and the inherited geomorphological setting of generally flat-lying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> topography, resulting in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> emergence. Broad agreement exists between calculated rates of sedimentation identified within the core sequences. Average rates of sedimentation using the 210Pbexcess CF:CS (or ‘simple’) model range between 0.2 and 1.3 mm yr- 1. These rates are corroborated using 137Cs, which also suggests an increase in sedimentation rates during recent decades approaching maximum values for current land uplift. Additionally, the 210Pbexcess CRS model reveals periods of sedimentation greatly in excess of these values in response to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding from known storm activity. This study indicates that changes in sea level caused by variations in atmospheric pressure and storm surges can contribute a significant sedimentary component, which coupled with GIA processes has driven <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland development/emergence and the historical progradation of these wetland systems. The recent acceleration in the rate of global sea-level rise may subtly alter this relationship. However current rates of GIA and sedimentation will continue to maintain the progradation of Boreal Baltic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands in the coming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BGeo...13.4167B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016BGeo...13.4167B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span>-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Timothée; Orr, James C.; Resplandy, Laure; Terhaar, Jens; Ethé, Christian; Gehlen, Marion; Bopp, Laurent</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes have been quantified extensively, but few studies have addressed the connection between land and ocean. In this transition zone, the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean, spatial and temporal data coverage is inadequate to assess its global budget. Thus we use a global ocean biogeochemical model to assess the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean's global inventory of anthropogenic CO2 and its spatial variability. We used an intermediate resolution, eddying version of the NEMO-PISCES model (ORCA05), varying from 20 to 50 km horizontally, i.e. coarse enough to allow multiple century-scale simulations but finer than coarse-resolution models (˜ 200 km) to better resolve <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bathymetry and complex <span class="hlt">coastal</span> currents. Here we define the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone as the continental shelf area, excluding the proximal zone. Evaluation of the simulated air-sea fluxes of total CO2 for 45 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions gave a correlation coefficient R of 0.8 when compared to observation-based estimates. Simulated global uptake of anthropogenic carbon results averaged 2.3 Pg C yr-1 during the years 1993-2012, consistent with previous estimates. Yet only 0.1 Pg C yr-1 of that is absorbed by the global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean. That represents 4.5 % of the anthropogenic carbon uptake of the global ocean, less than the 7.5 % proportion of <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-to-global-ocean surface areas. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters to the mean level found in the open-ocean mixed layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..132...17P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..132...17P"><span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons and estuaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sites</span>: 27 estuaries, 42 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34..365S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34..365S"><span id="translatedtitle">Two centuries of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change at Caesarea, Israel: natural processes vs. human intervention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shtienberg, Gilad; Zviely, Dov; Sivan, Dorit; Lazar, Michael</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The coast at Caesarea, Israel, has been inhabited almost continuously for the last 2,400 years, and the archeological <span class="hlt">sites</span> are today a major international tourist attraction. Because the <span class="hlt">sites</span> straddle the shoreline, they are subject to constant damage by wave action, and must therefore be frequently restored. In this paper, local shoreline migrations over the last 200 years are investigated with the aim of distinguishing between natural and man-made <span class="hlt">coastal</span> changes. In order to assess these changes accurately, geomorphological and sedimentological data were examined based on detailed beach profile measurements, bathymetric surveys, and grain-size analyses. In addition, series of old aerial photographs, as well as historical topographic maps and nautical charts were consulted. The results show that shoreline changes can be grouped into two main time periods. During the first period from 1862 to 1949 before the expansion of modern settlements, the position of the shoreline changed irregularly by up to 30 m. In the second period from 1949 onward, numerous <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures have been erected, and various <span class="hlt">coastal</span> modifications have been carried out. The evaluation of the data suggests that human interventions have had relatively little effect on the overall position of the shoreline, as displacements ranged only from 5 to 18 m. Thus, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> changes at Caesarea are predominantly due to natural wave action reflected in the heterogeneous geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of the shore. This contradicts the common assumption that human activities are always mainly responsible for large-scale shoreline modifications in the region. It is concluded that, in order to implement meaningful mitigating countermeasures, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> archeological <span class="hlt">sites</span> need to be individually assessed with respect to the dominant factors causing local <span class="hlt">coastal</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167...25P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167...25P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The conservation status and anthropogenic impacts assessments of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cogoni, Donatella; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes have been highly modified by human impacts and understanding their conservation status is crucial to preserve these extremely vulnerable habitats. In the present study three different diversity indices elaborated by Grunewald and Schubert (Hdune, a modified version of the Shannon diversity index, Edune, a modified Evenness index, and N, the Naturalness index) were applied in order to assess the conservation status and anthropogenic impacts on Is Arenas dune system (CW Sardinia), one of the widest and most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Within the system, two <span class="hlt">sites</span> with different anthropic disturbance conditions were selected; 25 permanent plots were seasonally monitored and the cover of each vascular plant present was visually estimated. The Hdune values were similar between <span class="hlt">sites</span> and differences were not significant; Edune showed higher value in the North than in the South <span class="hlt">site</span> with relevant statistical differences. Moreover a seasonal variation in the indices values was recorded, which could be linked to presence of annual plants rather than the touristic pressure. Instead, the small variability of N index suggests that the application of this index may be an important tool to assess human impact on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes, but better discriminates between <span class="hlt">sites</span> with different disturbance degrees. Our results highlight the usefulness of Hdune and Edune indices to assess the conservation status of a Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune system, while these indices are less influenced by the human trampling at finer scale (<span class="hlt">sites</span> within the beach). Spring and summer are the best seasons when the main plant diversity of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune can be captured. The diversity indices applied, although need to be developed through further researches, could be a quickly tool allowing to assess the integrity of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes in order to plan management actions of these complex and threatened ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179234"><span id="translatedtitle">The Egyptian Red Sea <span class="hlt">coastal</span> microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our <span class="hlt">sites</span> mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a <span class="hlt">site</span> previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a <span class="hlt">site</span> impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Microbiome," <span class="hlt">sites</span> with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:27179234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAMS...79.1307R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998BAMS...79.1307R"><span id="translatedtitle">Highlights of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waves 1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, David P.; Dorman, Clive E.; Edwards, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Ian M.; Melville, W. Kendall; Burk, Stephen D.; Thompson, William T.; Holt, Teddy; Ström, Linda M.; Tjernström, Michael; Grisogono, Branko; Bane, John M.; Nuss, Wendell A.; Morley, Bruce M.; Schanot, Allen J.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Some of the highlights of an experiment designed to study <span class="hlt">coastal</span> atmospheric phenomena along the California coast (<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waves 1996 experiment) are described. This study was designed to address several problems, including the cross-shore variability and turbulent structure of the marine boundary layer, the influence of the coast on the development of the marine layer and clouds, the ageostrophy of the flow, the dynamics of trapped events, the parameterization of surface fluxes, and the supercriticality of the marine layer.Based in Monterey, California, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 Hercules and the University of North Carolina Piper Seneca obtained a comprehensive set of measurements on the structure of the marine layer. The study focused on the effects of prominent topographic features on the wind. Downstream of capes and points, narrow bands of high winds are frequently encountered. The NCAR-designed Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar (SABL) provided a unique opportunity to connect changes in the depth of the boundary layer with specific features in the dynamics of the flow field.An integral part of the experiment was the use of numerical models as forecast and diagnostic tools. The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model System (COAMPS) provided high-resolution forecasts of the wind field in the vicinity of capes and points, which aided the deployment of the aircraft. Subsequently, this model and the MIUU (University of Uppsala) numerical model were used to support the analysis of the field data.These are some of the most comprehensive measurements of the topographically forced marine layer that have been collected. SABL proved to be an exceptionally useful tool to resolve the small-scale structure of the boundary layer and, combined with in situ turbulence measurements, provides new insight into the structure of the marine atmosphere. Measurements were made sufficiently far offshore to distinguish between the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25656628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25656628"><span id="translatedtitle">Benefits of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghermandi, Andrea</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected <span class="hlt">sites</span>. PMID:25656628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70100648','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70100648"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Warrick, Jonathan A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across <span class="hlt">coastal</span> margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment <span class="hlt">site</span>. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.151...72W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.151...72W"><span id="translatedtitle">Fog chemistry at three <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Youliang; Zhang, Jinwei; Marcotte, Aurelie R.; Karl, Matthias; Dye, Christian; Herckes, Pierre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fog composition was investigated at three <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Norway, one in suburban Oslo and two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the area of the Mongstad refinery. Overall fog frequency during the study periods was low. Fog pH was around 5 with slightly lower values at Hakadal, the suburban <span class="hlt">site</span>, compared to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, which were slightly above 5. Major ions at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> were sodium and chloride consistent with the marine environment. The ion chemistry at the suburban <span class="hlt">site</span> was dominated by ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, consistent with fogs in anthropogenically impacted environments. Overall concentrations of major ions were very low, orders of magnitude lower than those in polluted urban fogs. Organic matter concentrations were also low (< 3 mgC/L) consistent with limited anthropogenic impact and little biogenic activity in the winter months. Selected amine concentrations were determined and ranged from nanomolar concentrations for ethylamines to several hundred nanomolar concentrations for dimethylamine, the most abundant amine investigated. While N-nitrosodimehylamine was detected in fog, the concentrations were very low in the fogs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009QSRv...28.3428B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009QSRv...28.3428B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Pleistocene raised beaches of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Estremadura, central Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological <span class="hlt">sites</span> that confirm occupation of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple <span class="hlt">sites</span> dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1412834L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1412834L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> vegetation and its influence on the 2004 tsunami event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, J. C.; Marohn, C.; Dercon, G.; Dewi, S.; Piepho, H. P.; Joshi, L.; van Noordwijk, M.; Cadisch, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>A tsunami event has several effects once it reaches the shore. Infrastructure damage and casualties are two of its most dire consequences. The intensity of these damages is related to the wave force, which in turn is mostly determined by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. Nevertheless, once on land, the energy of the wave is attenuated by gravity (elevation) and friction (land cover). Despite being promoted as 'bio-shields' against wave impact, tree-belts lack quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, and have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. We have studied some of the land uses in <span class="hlt">sites</span> affected by the 2004 tsunami event, especially in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas close to the coast of Indonesia, more specifically in the west coast of Aceh, Sumatra. Using transects perpendicular to the coast we analyzed the influence of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. We developed a spatial statistical model that uses a land cover roughness coefficient to account for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. The coefficient was built using satellite imagery, land cover maps, land use characteristics such as stem diameter, height, and planting density, as well as a literature review. The spatial generalized linear mixed models used determined that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. Despite this positive effect of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation in front of a settlement, we also found out that dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. We believe that possibly debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. The models developed in Indonesia are currently being adapted and tested for the effects that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810061709&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drefraction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810061709&hterms=refraction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drefraction"><span id="translatedtitle">Refraction of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Refraction of gravity waves in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880023590&hterms=oceanography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Doceanography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880023590&hterms=oceanography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Doceanography"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative oceanography of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kjerfve, Bjorn</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053670&hterms=bioscience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbioscience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053670&hterms=bioscience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbioscience"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5199N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5199N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding and Predicting Decadal <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholls, Robert J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> management requires understanding and prognosis of decadal <span class="hlt">coastal</span> evolution. This evolution is sensitive to climate change among other drivers. The iCOASST project has developed new and improved methods to understand and predict such changes with application to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion and flood risk management as the application. The project is based on an integrated framework that links several components to develop a system-level understanding of this change as follows: (1) new methods for system-level analysis and mapping of coast, estuary and inner shelf landform behaviour; (2) well validated 'bottom-up' hydrodynamic and sediment transport shelf models that can be applied at shelf scales to investigate inner shelf-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> interactions; and (3) compositions of existing or new 'reduced complexity models' of selected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landforms and processes. The ability to link models and the availability of the data is also fundamental. The ultimate goal is multiple simulations of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> evolution to explore uncertainties in future decadal-scale <span class="hlt">coastal</span> response, including the effects of climate change and management choices. This paper reviews the achievements of this project, the lessons learnt and the next step research steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JGRC..11410026M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JGRC..11410026M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying connectivity in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean with application to the Southern California Bight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Watson, J. R.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J. C.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The quantification of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from assessment of pollutant risk to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> connectivity can be defined as the probability that water parcels from one location have advected to another <span class="hlt">site</span> over a given time interval. Here we demonstrate how to quantify connectivity using Lagrangian probability-density functions (PDFs) based on numerical solutions of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> circulation of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Ensemble mean dispersal patterns from a single release <span class="hlt">site</span> show strong dependencies on particle-release location, season, and year, reflecting annual and interannual circulation patterns in the SCB. Mean connectivity patterns are heterogeneous for the advection time of 30 days or less, due to local circulation patterns, and they become more homogeneous for longer advection times. However, connectivity patterns for a single realization are highly variable because of intrinsic eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind-forcing variability. In the long term, mainland <span class="hlt">sites</span> are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor sources, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the SCB (e.g., designing marine protected areas and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and demonstrates how high-resolution numerical solutions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean circulations can be used to quantify nearshore connectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8535S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8535S"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OSJ....50..589Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OSJ....50..589Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> erosion problem, modelling and protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> transport processes along the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of Göksu Delta to determine the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1986/0143/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1986/0143/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Base-flow measurements at partial-record <span class="hlt">sites</span> on small streams in South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barker, Carroll</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This report contains <span class="hlt">site</span> descriptions and base-flow data collected at 362 partial-record <span class="hlt">sites</span> in South Carolina. These data include <span class="hlt">site</span> name, <span class="hlt">site</span> description, latitude, longitude, drainage area, instantaneous streamflow, and date of the streamflow measurement. The base-flow data can be used as an aid to estimate low flow characteristics at ungaged locations on streams in South Carolina. Partial record data collection <span class="hlt">sites</span> were established in all physiographic provinces except the lower <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. Data collection <span class="hlt">sites</span> were not established in the lower <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain because of the widespread occurrence of zero during drought periods in all but the larger streams. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-254/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-254/"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution subsurface imaging of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> barriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Buynevich, Ilya V.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> barriers and tidal inlets are among the most dynamic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments. Understanding the processes that reshape our beaches and that are responsible for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion and formation of new inlets, particularly uring intense storms, will provide the necessary framework for forecasting <span class="hlt">coastal</span> behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720023684','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720023684"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs08997','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs08997"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands and global change: overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guntenspergen, G.R.; Vairin, B.; Burkett, V.R.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The potential impacts of climate change are of great practical concern to those interested in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland resources. Among the areas of greatest risk in the United States are low-lying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats with easily eroded substrates which occur along the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have identified <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands as ecosystems most vulnerable to direct, large-scale impacts of climate change, primarily because of their sensitivity to increases in sea-level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10106897"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008QSRv...27.2246F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008QSRv...27.2246F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the importance of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finlayson, Clive</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Italy. Neanderthal <span class="hlt">site</span> density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas to Neanderthals is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411590C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411590C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). <span class="hlt">Site</span>-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3001/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3001/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided <span class="hlt">coastal</span> coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. <span class="hlt">Site</span>-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP31A3526G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP31A3526G"><span id="translatedtitle">Statewide Repository and Interactive Map of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Elevation Profiles for Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gould, A.; Kinsman, N.; Southerland, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Beach elevation profiles are a type of temporal <span class="hlt">coastal</span> data that can be used to better understand <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments, document change and assess hazard vulnerability. The value of these measurements increases when <span class="hlt">sites</span> are revisited seasonally and/or interannually to capture the dynamic range of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landforms. Static measurements of the shoreface have been collected by a number of stakeholders in Alaska since the 1960s, but, have not historically been published or made readily accessible. In cooperation with the Alaska Ocean Observing System, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has designed a universal data repository to house these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> measurements. This new database has an interactive map interface that enables easy access to existing profile locations to encourage repeat observations. Users can explore profile measurements collected by DGGS and others as time-series plots and location-based images of the shoreface environment. The database has been designed to accommodate datasets collected with differing techniques, including differential leveling, survey-grade GPS or extraction from lidar-derived digital elevation models. Non-DGGS profile measurements, including community-led efforts, University of Alaska project datasets, and archived United States Geological Survey <span class="hlt">coastal</span> profiles have also been incorporated into the database and contributions from other entities are welcomed. In addition to exhibiting the new interactive map capabilities, we also provide a case study example from Yakutat, Alaska illustrating how this tool can be incorporated into broader investigations of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dynamics and how these measurements can augment shoreline change assessments. The readily accessible nature of this database also promotes local involvement in community-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring, also demonstrated in the Yakutat example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH44A..06M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMNH44A..06M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of NYC's <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Vulnerability and Potential Adaptation Strategies in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, S. M.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>New York City's coastlines are a mosaic of remnant natural habitat, man-made wetlands, manicured parkland, public beaches, housing, and industrial centers, all of which are extremely vulnerable to flooding, storm surge, and damaging wave action. Risks are projected to increase overtime as sea levels rise, population grows, and the frequency and severity of extreme events increases. In order to protect its citizens and infrastructure, New York City is planning to invest 20 billion into a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection plan, including 200 million towards wetlands creation and restoration. Focusing on the role of wetlands and parkland in reducing damages during Hurricane Sandy, our study seeks to identify the primary causes of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability and to provide guidelines for the design of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection measures. Our findings show that most of the small, fragmented NYC's wetlands did not provide significant protection from the violence of the hurricane. Large stretches of wetlands and parkland, on the other hand, were found to exacerbate storm surge along the coast, but did reduce surge penetration further inland. Much of the protection provided by wetlands and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> green <span class="hlt">sites</span> was in the form of cost avoidance. Wetlands existed in the most heavily hit areas and so averted damages that would have occurred if those areas had been developed. Our results suggest that, when positioned in the highest risk areas, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> green infrastructure such as wetlands and parklands can reduce <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood risks associated with extreme events like Hurricane Sandy. Policy would ideally prioritize conservation, restoration, and enhancement of large contiguous areas of wetlands in the lowest elevation areas of the city. Where low-lying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development cannot be relocated, the risk of damage from storm surges is best reduced by elevating critical infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12...87B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcSci..12...87B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Civitavecchia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> pressures and sensitivity areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The understanding of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two <span class="hlt">sites</span> of community importance located along the Civitavecchia <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812179M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812179M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Extended Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Impact Assessment: Spatial <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Population Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This work extends the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) by developing spatial projections of global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> migration drivers, which were identified from existing literature, we develop <span class="hlt">coastal</span> narratives for the five basic SSPs (SSP1-5). These narratives account for differences in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> versus inland population development in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates which differ for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland as well as for urban and rural regions. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data. We then adjust these rates for each SSP based on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> narratives. The resulting global population grids depict the projected distribution of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population for each SSP, until the end of the 21st century, at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. These grids exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population compared to the basic SSPs. Across all SSPs, except for SSP3, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population peaks by the middle of the 21st century and declines afterwards. In SSP3 the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population grows continuously until 2100. Compared to the base year 2000 the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population increases considerably in all SSPs. The extended SSPs are intended to be utilised in Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (IAV) assessments as they allow for improved analysis of exposure to sea-level rise and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding under different physical and socioeconomic scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015884','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015884"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scrub communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles, III</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Passerine birds within two California (USA) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland <span class="hlt">site</span>, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island <span class="hlt">site</span> during the study. At the mainland <span class="hlt">coastal</span> scrub <span class="hlt">site</span>, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62981&keyword=gulf+AND+alaska&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72235203&CFTOKEN=67723853','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62981&keyword=gulf+AND+alaska&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=72235203&CFTOKEN=67723853"><span id="translatedtitle">THE NATIONAL <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ASSESSMENT: PARTNERSHIP FOR SUCCESS <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> ZONE SYMPOSIUM, CLEVELAND, OH JULY 15-19, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Partnering for Success (Abstract). Presented at <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone 01: Hands Across the Water - Linking Land, Lake, and Sea, 15-19 July 2001, Cleveland, OH. 1 p. (ERL,GB R843). <br><br>The National <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Assessment (<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> 2000) is a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring survey that responds to the ne...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035094','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035094"><span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">coastal</span>: Shared evolutionary history between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> British Columbia and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct <span class="hlt">coastal</span> subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this <span class="hlt">coastal</span> rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044223','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044223"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cutthroat Trout</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Native <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a <span class="hlt">site</span> was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the <span class="hlt">site</span>. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Cutthroat Trout.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26158694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26158694"><span id="translatedtitle">Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries in Solomon Islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing <span class="hlt">sites</span> further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future. PMID:26158694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497618','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497618"><span id="translatedtitle">Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries in Solomon Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural <span class="hlt">coastal</span> community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing <span class="hlt">sites</span> further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region’s fisheries in the future. PMID:26158694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034264"><span id="translatedtitle">Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Busoms, Silvia; Teres, Joana; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Bomblies, Kirsten; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Weigel, Detlef; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Salt, David E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Plants from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and inland soils. PMID:26034264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20652176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20652176"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> outfalls, a sustainable alternative for improving water quality in north-east Atlantic estuaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Juanes, José A; Puente, Araceli; Revilla, José A</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The city of Santander ceased the discharge of sewage effluents into the bay of Santander in June, 2001 and began discharging at a <span class="hlt">site</span> 2.4 km offshore in the nearby <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area (Virgen del Mar, Bay of Biscay) at a water depth of about 40 m. The present study investigates the effects of the new outfall discharges on the water quality of the high-energy <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area and the recovery of the perturbed temperate estuarine area now only affected by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and urban pollution indicators were analysed. No significant spatial or temporal change in water quality variables was found in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area around the outfall. No signs of nutrification or increases in chlorophyll-a were observed throughout the study period, although a slight increase in phosphates, suspended solids and turbidity were observed two years after the relocation of the discharge. These changes were not attributed to outfall discharge but to a regional increase also observed at control stations and nearby <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Considerable reductions in indicators of urban discharges were observed in the estuary after the relocation of discharges, even at stations located around CSOs. Results from this study support the efficiency of ecological quality-driven designs of sanitation systems, which are used as management tools for sensitive and environmentally valuable <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems in the north-east Atlantic. PMID:20652176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marine+AND+coastal+AND+water+AND+pollution&id=EJ148886','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marine+AND+coastal+AND+water+AND+pollution&id=EJ148886"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Water Protection the Navy Way</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hura, Myron; And Others</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.517..148G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.517..148G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean biogeochemistry: Carbon at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gruber, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The extent to which <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-ocean regions act as a sink for carbon dioxide has been enigmatic. An estimate based on more than 3 million observations suggests a smaller sink than was thought, concentrated at high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11434027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11434027"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical perspectives of cooperative <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davos, C A; Lejano, R P; Lajano, R P</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>We accept the thesis that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management, as any other form of environmental management, can be effective only with the cooperation of a multitude of stakeholders with conflicting interests. At present, cooperation is forced upon stakeholders by a paternalistic (top-down) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management that is outcome oriented and coercive in nature. Forced cooperation is difficult to maintain, however. The alternative is to seek voluntary cooperation with a process-oriented, cooperative (bottom-up) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management approach. After a brief review of these arguments, we address the major analytical challenge of cooperative <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management, which is to search for solutions that can be negotiated and implemented with maximum voluntary cooperation. The main property of these solutions, which are also referred to as core solutions, is that they are preferable to individual stakeholders or coalitions of stakeholders over acting-alone alternatives. Our analysis is applicable to any other form of environmental management. PMID:11434027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760019559&hterms=Coastal+Management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCoastal%2BManagement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760019559&hterms=Coastal+Management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCoastal%2BManagement"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tilton, E. L., III</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Remote panchromatic imagery was applied to develop a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management atlas that provides for land cover or vegetation surveys as well as land use stereographic mapping for regional planning purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056706&hterms=freshwater+wetlands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfreshwater%2Bwetlands','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850056706&hterms=freshwater+wetlands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfreshwater%2Bwetlands"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane flux from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> salt marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>It is thought that biological methanogenesis in natural and agricultural wetlands and enteric fermentation in animals are the dominant sources of global tropospheric methane. It is pointed out that the anaerobic soils and sediments, where methanogenesis occurs, predominate in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine wetlands. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> marine wetlands are generally believed to be approximately equal in area to freshwater wetlands. For this reason, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine wetlands may be a globally significant source of atmospheric methane. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of direct measurements of methane fluxes to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils and of indirect determinations of fluxes from tidal creek waters. In addition, measurements of methane distributions in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine wetland sediments and water are presented. The results of the investigation suggest that marine wetlands provide only a minor contribution to atmospheric methane on a global scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82415&keyword=Density+AND+Elements&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65311061&CFTOKEN=49175048','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82415&keyword=Density+AND+Elements&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65311061&CFTOKEN=49175048"><span id="translatedtitle">ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> AQUIFERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri984007/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri984007/"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining discharge-coefficient ratings for selected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures in Broward and Palm Beach counties, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillis, G.M.; Swain, E.D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Discharges through 10 selected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, are presently computed using the theoretical discharge-coefficient ratings developed from scale modeling, theoretical discharge coefficients, and some field calibrations whose accuracies for specific <span class="hlt">sites</span> are unknown. To achieve more accurate discharge-coefficient ratings for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures, field discharge measurements were taken with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures under a variety of flow conditions. These measurements were used to determine computed discharge-coefficient ratings for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures under different flow regimes: submerged orifice flow, submerged weir flow, free orifice flow, and free weir flow. Theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged orifice and weir flows were determined at seven <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures, and discharge ratings for free orifice and weir flows were determined at three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures. The difference between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings varied from structure to structure. The theoretical and computed dischargecoefficient ratings for submerged orifice flow were within 10 percent at four of seven <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at two of the seven structures. The theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged weir flow were within 10 percent at three of seven <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at four of the seven <span class="hlt">coastal</span> control structures. The difference between theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for free orifice and free weir flows ranged from 5 to 32 percent. Some differences between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings could be better defined with more data collected over a greater distribution of measuring conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5945348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5945348"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management program in Kerala, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mallik, T.K. )</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21423796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21423796"><span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic sharks clean at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seamount.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this <span class="hlt">site</span> may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays. PMID:21423796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6833799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6833799"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane flux from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> salt marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartlett, K.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Sebacher, D.I.</p> <p>1985-06-20</p> <p>The seasonal flux of methane to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils was examined in three different vegetation zones within a single marsh near Yorktown, Virginia. A total of 100 measurements were made over a 2-year period, with maximum rates occurring during summer and fall. Spatial and temporal variability in fluxes was high; rates ranged from -2.4 to 21.3 x 10/sup -3/ g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2//d. Estimates of annual methane losses to the atmosphere were 0.43 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for a salt meadow zone, 1.3 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for short Spartina alterniflora, and 1.2 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for tall creek-bank S. alterniflora. A total of 63 flux measurements, made in a variety of other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> salt marshes along the east coast of the US, suggest that the Virginia <span class="hlt">site</span> may be fairly typical for this region. In addition to diffusional losses across the air-soil interface, methane can be lost from the marsh system to the atmosphere through the lateral movement of pore waters supersaturated with methane into tidal creeks, with subsequent degassing across the water-air interface. Estimates of the magnitude of methane input to the atmosphere by this mechanism indicate it may be as important as diffusional losses across the air-soil interface. These data suggest that salt marshes of this type make only a minor contribution to global atmospheric methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN42A..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN42A..04G"><span id="translatedtitle">A Collaborative, Multidisciplinary Environment for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graves, S. J.; Harper, S.; Maskey, M.; Twilley, R.; McAnally, B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Northern Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards Collaboratory (NG-CHC); a collaborative environment for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards research community in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama; is being developed to advance the science and engineering of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards across the tri-state region and address problems of major national importance, including engineering design, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system response, and risk management of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards. NG-CHC aims to accelerate the research process by providing cyberinfrastructure for simulating <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards in a multidisciplinary environment, enhancing the linkages between modeling and observations and allowing researchers to find and share data and information. In addition to serving as a community portal, the extensible environment allows researchers to organize, discover, share and reuse information about data, models, tools and other resources; manage project activities; discuss results with collaborators; view publications, presentations and other documents; and track the history of project activities. The environment also provides an education and outreach area for increasing public knowledge and understanding, with project information, educational tools, and learning modules. Since communication is at the heart of science, these technologies provide researchers with easy mechanisms to share ideas, data, and findings. By enabling the close interaction among scientists and enhancing productivity with tools and services, the collaboration environment frees the researcher from the complexities of sharing and using information, allowing him to concentrate on science. This cyberinfrastructure can be applied in many domains to stimulate knowledge discovery and breakthroughs in a range of fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413903V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413903V"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical classification of contrasted <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vantrepotte, V.; Loisel, H.; Dessailly, D.; Mériaux, X.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The high optical complexity of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean prevents the development of general open ocean-like inversion algorithms needed to derive in-water bio-optical and biogeochemical parameters from satellite information. To overcome this issue, regional algorithms are generally used in order to focus on the range of optical variability specific to a defined <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region. This regional approach presents however various limitations including its high dependency on the data set used for its development as well as its limited applicability for large scale applications. Another and more universal approach consists in classifying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters according to their optical properties (independently of their location) and then in applying a class-specific algorithm (empirical or semi-analytical). The framework associated with the development of such classification-based approach is detailed from an in situ data set collected in contrasted <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of the eastern English Channel, north Sea and French Guyana. The advantages of defining an optical typology of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> domain for monitoring <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water masses optical quality and improving the performance of the inversion procedure is emphasized. Further, the representativeness of optical classes defined in the latter training areas for global scale applications is also illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4233A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4233A"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensified <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development behind nourished beaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Population density, housing development, and property values in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting <span class="hlt">coastal</span> properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/175945','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/175945"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> evolution -- Late Quaternary shoreline morphodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carter, R.W.G.; Woodroffe, C.D.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This book is a product of International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) Project 274. It contains a collection of summary papers representing the latest concepts and knowledge of how coasts respond to changing climate and sea level. The chapters are organized by general topic (introduction, morphodynamics), <span class="hlt">coastal</span> types (deltas, wave-dominated coasts, macrotidal estuaries, lagoons and microtidal coasts, coral atolls, shelf reef systems, and paraglacial coasts), or <span class="hlt">coastal</span> setting (Arctic shores, tectonic shores, developed coasts). As indicated by this list, most but not all types of coasts are covered in the book. Some obvious omissions are mangrove swamps and other wetland coasts, sabkahs, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> deserts (aeolian dominated). Despite the international reputation of the authors, several chapters are limited in geographic scope and numerous case studies presented are from Australia and Canada. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> evolution encompasses a broad range of temporal and spatial scales and in this regard the subject receives some uneven treatment. A few chapters focus on short-term <span class="hlt">coastal</span> changes driven by oceanographic conditions, whereas others attempt to address much longer periods of eustatic fluctuation and the resultant changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115185"><span id="translatedtitle">Estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters need help</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levenson, H.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>For years, our marine environments-estuaries, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters from degradation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788665"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in soil organic carbon fractions after remediation of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> floodplain soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, V N L; McNaughton, C; Pearson, A</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> floodplain soils and wetland sediments can store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). These environments are also commonly underlain by sulfidic sediments which can oxidise to form <span class="hlt">coastal</span> acid sulfate soils (CASS) and contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. CASS are found on every continent globally except Antarctica. When sulfidic sediments are oxidised, scalds can form, which are large bare patches without vegetation. However, SOC stocks and fractions have not been quantified in these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> floodplain environments. We studied the changes in soil geochemistry and SOC stocks and fractions three years after remediation of a CASS scald. Remediation treatments included raising water levels, and addition of either lime (LO) or lime and mulch (LM) relative to a control (C) <span class="hlt">site</span>. We found SOC concentrations in the remediated <span class="hlt">sites</span> (LO and LM) were more than double than that found at <span class="hlt">site</span> C, reflected in the higher SOC stocks to a depth of 1.6 m (426 Mg C/ha, 478 Mg C/ha and 473 Mg C/ha at <span class="hlt">sites</span> C, LO and LM, respectively). The particulate organic C (POC) fraction was higher at <span class="hlt">sites</span> LO and LM due to increased vegetation and biomass inputs, compared to <span class="hlt">site</span> C. Reformation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) occurred throughout the profile at <span class="hlt">site</span> LM, whereas only limited AVS reformation occurred at <span class="hlt">sites</span> LO and C. Higher AVS at <span class="hlt">site</span> LM may be linked to the additional source of organic matter provided by the mulch. POC can also potentially contribute to decreasing acidity as a labile SOC source for Fe(3+) and SO4(2-) reduction. Therefore, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> floodplains and wetlands are a large store of SOC and can potentially increase SOC following remediation due to i) reduced decomposition rates with higher water levels and waterlogging, and ii) high C inputs due to rapid revegetation of scalded areas and high rates of biomass production. These results highlight the importance of maintaining vegetation cover in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> floodplains and wetlands for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966056','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/966056"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS <span class="hlt">sites</span>, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP <span class="hlt">sites</span> together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' <span class="hlt">sites</span> combined with large decreases at '<span class="hlt">coastal</span>' <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> California were due to increased irrigation, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Significant societal impacts may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ISPAr39B8..171L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ISPAr39B8..171L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Image Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazaridou, M. A.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features - particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents - oceans, states - large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta). The study of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation - digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ECSS...18..703P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ECSS...18..703P"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbons in Washington <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prahl, Fredrick G.; Carpenter, Roy</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>The sources and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons are characterized in seventeen sediments from a highly river-influenced sedimentary environment off the southwestern coast of Washington. The major hydrocarbons are land-derived, introduced as preformed compounds and display long-term stability in sediment cores. A series of PAH of anthropogenic origin and two naturally derived compounds, retene and perylene, dominate the PAH composition in these sediments. Plantwax n-alkanes are the major aliphatic hydrocarbon constituents. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of marine origin, pristane and a series of four acyclic, multibranched C 25 polyolefins, are also observed in many sediments. The concentrations of these marine-derived hydrocarbons decrease to negligible levels rapidly with sediment depth from the sea-sediment interface, suggesting degradation. In general, the major land-derived hydrocarbons are concentrated in the midshelf silt deposit which extends northwestward along the continental shelf from the Columbia River mouth. A quantitatively more minor, natural series of phenanthrene homologs, also of terrestrial origin, is preferentially advected further offshore and deposited in continental slope sediments. These distributions are consistent with recognized particle associations for these compounds and sediment dispersal processes in this <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment. Sediment core records suggest the present pattern of dispersal has persisted for at least the past century and possibly since the Late Pleistocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...139...79T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...139...79T"><span id="translatedtitle">Large and local-scale influences on physical and chemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Western Europe during winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tréguer, Paul; Goberville, Eric; Barrier, Nicolas; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Bozec, Yann; Rimmelin-Maury, Peggy; Czamanski, Marie; Grossteffan, Emilie; Cariou, Thierry; Répécaud, Michel; Quéméner, Loic</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>There is now a strong scientific consensus that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marine systems of Western Europe are highly sensitive to the combined effects of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. However, it still remains challenging to assess the spatial and temporal scales at which climate influence operates. While large-scale hydro-climatic indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) and the weather regimes such as the Atlantic Ridge (AR), are known to be relevant predictors of physical processes, changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters can also be related to local hydro-meteorological and geochemical forcing. Here, we study the temporal variability of physical and chemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters located at about 48°N over the period 1998-2013 using (1) sea surface temperature, (2) sea surface salinity and (3) nutrient concentration observations for two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> located at the outlet of the Bay of Brest and off Roscoff, (4) river discharges of the major tributaries close to these two <span class="hlt">sites</span> and (5) regional and local precipitation data over the region of interest. Focusing on the winter months, we characterize the physical and chemical variability of these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters and document changes in both precipitation and river runoffs. Our study reveals that variability in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters is connected to the large-scale North Atlantic atmospheric circulation but is also partly explained by local river influences. Indeed, while the NAO is strongly related to changes in sea surface temperature at the Brest and Roscoff <span class="hlt">sites</span>, the EAP and the AR have a major influence on precipitations, which in turn modulate river discharges that impact sea surface salinity at the scale of the two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20995674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20995674"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Nuclear Power Plants of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Recent tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> of India. The <span class="hlt">site</span> selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunami-genic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JMS...144...48Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JMS...144...48Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> benthic communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control <span class="hlt">site</span> comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize <span class="hlt">coastal</span> benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...72..570T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...72..570T"><span id="translatedtitle">Retention of crab larvae in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> null zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilburg, Charles E.; Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, Charles E.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Alongshelf transport in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight is forced by buoyancy-driven currents originating in three large estuaries along the bight. These currents are strongest in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean near the southern terminus of each estuary, while the analogous region on the northern side is characterized by weak subtidal flow. We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to test the hypothesis that these regions of weak subtidal flow are <span class="hlt">coastal</span> null zones that serve as retention areas for larvae. The field study consisted of a four-day, shipboard investigation of the distribution of blue crab larvae ( Callinectes sapidus) near the mouth of Delaware Bay (˜39°N, 75°W) in late summer, 2004. Hydrographic surveys of the study <span class="hlt">site</span> were conducted with a hull-mounted, surface-measuring system. Results showed a sharp boundary between the null zone and the buoyancy-driven current to the south. Blue crab larvae were collected in surface plankton tows along a 30-km transect that encompassed these two areas. Stations with higher densities of larvae were clustered in the null zone during both ebb and flood tides. A numerical model was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed distribution. Model results agreed with the field survey and showed that simulated larvae are aggregated in the null zone. The simulations also demonstrated that larvae spawned within the null zone have a much greater probability of settling in juvenile nursery habitat within the bay. The close agreement between field and model results provides consistent support for the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> null zones associated with the buoyancy-driven circulation of large estuaries may allow retention of larvae in the vicinity of the natal spawning population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001835"><span id="translatedtitle">Domoic acid production near California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling zones, June 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trainer, V L.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Bill, Brian D.; Stehr, Carla M.; Wekell, John C.; Moeller, Peter; Busman, Mark; Woodruff, Dana L. )</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near <span class="hlt">coastal</span> headlands. Nutrient levels at these <span class="hlt">sites</span> were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key <span class="hlt">coastal</span> locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180360"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Columbia River and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the <span class="hlt">site</span> specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project <span class="hlt">sites</span> to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26691557"><span id="translatedtitle">Do ENSO and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Development Enhance <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macreadie, Peter I; Rolph, Timothy C; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J; Skilbeck, Charles G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity ("super-ENSO") and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development. We suggest that ENSO and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development and ENSO intensification--both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century--can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20576347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20576347"><span id="translatedtitle">Formulating a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones. PMID:20576347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200536&keyword=LiDAR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76782403&CFTOKEN=68085889','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200536&keyword=LiDAR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76782403&CFTOKEN=68085889"><span id="translatedtitle">BEACH GRASS INVASIONS AND <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> FLOOD PROTECTION: FORECASTING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> VULNERABILITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p>Our work will yield an increased general understanding of interactions among the alteration of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystem, species invasions, climate change, and human risk in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments. In addition, we will conduct a quantitative vulnerability assessment of a specific coast...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686213','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686213"><span id="translatedtitle">Do ENSO and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Development Enhance <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Macreadie, Peter I.; Rolph, Timothy C.; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Skilbeck, Charles G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity (“super-ENSO”) and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development. We suggest that ENSO and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development and ENSO intensification—both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century—can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 44938 - Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-27/pdf/2010-9738.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-27/pdf/2010-9738.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 22103 - Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-27</p> <p>...In accordance with the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Act), NMFS, upon a delegation of authority from the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary), has determined that the State of New Jersey has failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Sharks (Plan) and......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73549&keyword=718&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74037393&CFTOKEN=63775875','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73549&keyword=718&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74037393&CFTOKEN=63775875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SITE</span> RANK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Site</span> rank is formulated for ranking the relative hazard of contamination sources and vulnerability of drinking water wells. <span class="hlt">Site</span> rank can be used with a variety of groundwater flow and transport models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..151..156K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..151..156K"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kellogg, M. Lisa; Smyth, Ashley R.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Brown, Bonnie L.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Piehler, Michael F.; Owens, Michael S.; Dalrymple, D. Joseph; Higgins, Colleen B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Enhancing populations of suspension feeding bivalves, particularly the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has been proposed as a means of mitigating eutrophication in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Review of studies evaluating the effects of C. virginica on nitrogen (N) cycling found that oysters can have effects on water quality that vary by orders of magnitude among <span class="hlt">sites</span>, seasons, and growing condition (e.g., oyster reefs, aquaculture). Nitrogen contained in phytoplankton consumed by oysters may be returned to the water column, assimilated into oyster tissue and shell, buried in the sediments, or returned to the atmosphere as dinitrogen gas, primarily via denitrification. Accurately quantifying oyster-related N removal requires detailed knowledge of these primary fates of N in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. A review of existing data demonstrated that the current state of knowledge is incomplete in many respects. Nitrogen assimilated into oyster tissue and shell per gram of dry weight was generally similar across <span class="hlt">sites</span> and in oysters growing on reefs compared to aquaculture. Data on long-term burial of N associated with oyster reefs or aquaculture are lacking. When compared to suitable reference <span class="hlt">sites</span>, denitrification rates were not consistently enhanced. Depending on environmental and oyster growing conditions, changes in denitrification rates varied by orders of magnitude among studies and did not always occur. Oyster aquaculture rarely enhanced denitrification. Unharvested oyster reefs frequently enhanced denitrification rates. Incorporating oysters into nutrient reduction strategies will require filling gaps in existing data to determine the extent to which relationships between N removal and environmental and/or growing conditions can be generalized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852949','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852949"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effectiveness, Costs and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W.; Reguero, Borja G.; Losada, Iñigo J.; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N.; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences–i.e. restoration projects aimed at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and <span class="hlt">site</span>. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..126....7R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..126....7R"><span id="translatedtitle">Small copepods structuring mesozooplankton community dynamics in a tropical estuary-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakhesh, M.; Raman, A. V.; Ganesh, T.; Chandramohan, P.; Dehairs, F.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>It is important to know the ultimate role of small copepods in structuring mesozooplankton community pattern and diversity on an estuary-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> gradient. Here multivariate analyses were used to elucidate this in the Godavari estuary, on the east coast of India. During May 2002, corresponding to the spring intermonsoon, mesozooplankton were sampled from 4 GPS fixed stations in the estuarine reaches of River Godavari and 19 in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters where Godavari enters the Bay of Bengal. There were 91 mesozooplankton taxa represented by 23 divergent groups. Copepods were by far the most prominent in terms of species richness, numerical abundance, and widespread distribution followed by appendicularians. Small copepods of families Paracalanidae, Acartiidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae, and Euterpinidae dominated. There were differing regional mesozooplankton/copepod communities, that segregated the estuary-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> into different biotic assemblages: Group-I representing the estuary proper, Group-II estuary mouth and near shore, Group-III the intermediate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> stations and Group-IV the <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-offshore waters. Alpha (SRp, H', J', Δ*) and beta diversity (MVDISP, β, β-dissimilarity) measures varied noticeably across these assemblages/areas. The significant correlation of small copepod abundance with total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (mgDM.m-3) in the estuarine (r: 0.40) and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> (r: 0.46-0.83) waters together with a regression analysis of diversity measures have revealed the importance of small copepods in the overall mesozooplankton/copepod community structure. There were 'characterizing' and 'discriminating' species, responsible for the observed assemblage patterns. Mesozooplankton/copepod community structure and the size-spectra observed during this study indicate an estuarine-<span class="hlt">coastal</span> gradient in plankton tropho-dynamics that may shift between a microbial dominated system inside the estuary and mixotrophy in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135247"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effectiveness, Costs and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and <span class="hlt">site</span>. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..118...11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..118...11S"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive occurrence models for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 <span class="hlt">sites</span> across <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each <span class="hlt">site</span> near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each <span class="hlt">site</span> Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the <span class="hlt">sites</span> across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044582','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044582"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive occurrence models for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 <span class="hlt">sites</span> across <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each <span class="hlt">site</span> near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each <span class="hlt">site</span> Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the <span class="hlt">sites</span> across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JGR....91.2123C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JGR....91.2123C"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat flow in the Piedmont and Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of the southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costain, J. K.; Speer, J. A.; Glover, L., III; Perry, L.; Dashevsky, S.; McKinney, M.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>Seventy-four new heat flow values have been determined at <span class="hlt">sites</span> from New Jersey to Georgia, mostly in the Piedmont and Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain provinces. Relatively high heat flows are characteristic of synmetamorphic and postmetamorphic granites exposed in the Piedmont and occurring in the basement beneath the sediments of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. The Piedmont heat flow and heat generation values, determined in granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt <span class="hlt">site</span>, lie in a belt approximately parallel to major structural trends in the Appalachians. These values fall on or near the regression line: q(mW/m2) = 29.8 ± 1.5(mW/m2) + 7.8(km) ± 0.475A(μW/m3) (R = 0.97477). It is proposed that the occurrence of a thrust fault that truncates granites at a depth, D, of 7.8 km is directly responsible for this linear relation in the eastern Piedmont. Basement core from beneath the sediments of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain was recovered at ten <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Results from five of these <span class="hlt">sites</span> plus one <span class="hlt">site</span> in the Baltimore Gabbro define a second linear relation with a slope (D = 8.0±0.380 km; R = 0.99550) approximately parallel to the Piedmont relation, but with an intercept of 48.2±0.8 mW/m2. These two relations may represent different heat flow provinces in the southeastern United States or the linear relations may simply be a consequence of differences in the thicknesses of the upper heat-producing layer at least as far east as postmetamorphic granites sampled under the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1369B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1369B"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing Vulnerability of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Communities to <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards through Building Community Resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhj, Premathilake</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Reducing Vulnerability of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Communities to <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards. Second part describes the application of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.199..214L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.199..214L"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking restoration ecology with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Restoration and preservation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "<span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP23A0776Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP23A0776Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> foredune evolution: evidence for ecological control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zarnetske, P. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The development and modification of landscape features existing at the aquatic-terrestrial interface - estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, lacustrine environments, rivers and streams, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes - is one of the most striking outcomes from the interactions and feedbacks between ecology and geomorphology. These distinct biophysical features arise from interactions among sediment, vegetation, and a fluid medium (air or water). Importantly, these features provide services including habitat, resources, and protection for human and ecological systems. Across 22 years (1988-2010) and 160 kilometers of coastline, we investigate the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes in shaping <span class="hlt">coastal</span> foredunes along the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). This system is particularly well suited to investigate this interplay because it contains significant gradients of physical (e.g., shoreline change rates) and ecological (e.g., vegetation species and densities) forces. Further, the two dominant sand binding grass species (invasive Ammophila grasses) are individually associated with different foredune morphologies through space and time (A. arenaria occurs on taller foredunes while A. breviligulata occurs on shorter foredunes). Within the last 22 years, A. breviligulata has spread and replaced much of A. arenaria as the dominant vegetation on CRLC foredunes. We hypothesize that after accounting for the primary physical drivers shaping foredunes (shoreline change rate, sediment accumulation rates, and frequency/intensity of storm events including El Niño/La Niña), we will find an ecological control or an interaction among physical and ecological forces on PNW <span class="hlt">coastal</span> foredune geomorphology. Here we test whether any residual variation in interannual- to decadal-scale <span class="hlt">coastal</span> foredune evolution is due to the change in Ammophila species abundance and density over this time period, and determine whether grass species are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5921651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5921651"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> land loss in Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, R.R. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>Florida has approximately 593 mi of shoreline fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Straits of Florida and approximately 673 mi of shoreline fronting on the Gulf of Mexico with an additional 5,000 mi of bay and estuary shoreline. Of a statewide total of 818.9 mi of open coast sandy beaches, 337.2 mi or 41.2% of the beaches are identified as erosion problem areas. These erosion problem areas include those beaches with a moderate or low erosion rate, but with a narrow width fronting a highly developed area, and those restored beaches with an active maintenance nourishment program. Of these erosion problem areas, 217.8 mi or 26.6% of the statewide beach length are areas of critical erosion; that is, segments of the shoreline where substantial development or recreation interests are threatened by the erosion processes. On a shorewide basis, the Atlantic Ocean beaches of Florida typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}3 ft per year, while the Gulf of Mexico beaches typically have historical erosion rates of between 0 and {minus}2 ft per year. Many of the problem areas have shoreline erosion rates in the magnitude of between {minus}3 and {minus}5 ft per year. The most extreme erosion rates are occurring along the southern portion of St. Joseph Peninsula at Cape San Bias where the annual shoreline recession exceeds {minus}20 ft. Erosion conditions in Florida are most apparent as a result of storm tides and storm wave activity. Extreme meteorological events inflict significant erosion conditions in all beach areas of the state. Historical shoreline changes are often the cumulative effect of a number of storm events and their cycles of poststorm recovery. Erosion and damage from recent storms as well as efforts to mitigate storm damage have heightened the erosion problems and incited a public response through <span class="hlt">coastal</span> construction regulation and beach management planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5421383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5421383"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metals in oyster tissue around three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marinas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marcus, J.M.; Thompson, A.M.</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>The past decade has presented an unprecedented period of growth and development along the coastline of South Carolina. The majority of this development has been to serve the recreation and tourism industry and, as such, has included the construction of numerous recreational marinas in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of the State. Various plans have been presented for the <span class="hlt">siting</span> of marinas in pristine estuarine waters. This has raised much concern due to the possible impacts of such development on the plentiful oyster resource found in those waters. Marinas present the potential for the introduction of pollutants such as heavy metals into the surrounding waters. This investigation was conducted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) during 1983, and yielded a multifaceted data base composed of physiocochemical and bacteriological analyses from water, chemical analyses from sediment and chemical/bacteriological physiological analyses from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). C. virginica was chosen as the organism of interest due to its wide distribution in the estuaries of South Carolina, its importance as an economic and recreational resource and its suitability as a sentinel organism for monitoring <span class="hlt">coastal</span> pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9221E..0VL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9221E..0VL"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power plants in China's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone: risk and safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible <span class="hlt">sites</span> for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..11112310C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..11112310C"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon measurement in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Y.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, K. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cao, J. J.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>To better understand anthropogenic pollution originating in Asia and its transport into the global atmosphere, black carbon (BC) emissions were measured continuously from June 2004 to May 2005 at Hok Tsui (22.13°N, 114.15°E). Hok Tsui is a continental outflow, downwind monitoring <span class="hlt">site</span>, located in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area near Hong Kong. Using an Aethalometer, hourly BC concentrations ranged from 63.0 ng/m3 to 17.3 μg/m3, showing a clear seasonal pattern with high concentrations in winter, spring, and fall and low values in summer. During the winter, high BC concentrations occurred frequently as a result of southward long-range transport of polluted air masses in the boundary layer over the Asian continent. Anthropogenic emissions in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of southeastern China were the major potential sources for the observed pollutants. During the summer, high BC concentrations were measured occasionally when the air masses came from the northwest. These anthropogenic pollutants were found to be regional in nature, originating from sources in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, which included emissions from residential and agricultural combustion, industry, power plants, motor vehicles, and ships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92..208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92..208S"><span id="translatedtitle">A new source of freshwater for Antarctica's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Research into submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), predominantly regarding its prevalence as a source of freshwater and nutrients to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems, has recently grown in prominence. Using a new groundwater discharge sensor specifically designed for use in the cold polar ocean, Uemura et al. measured the flows of freshwater streaming through the Antarctic subsurface and into the surrounding <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. The researchers found that SGD rates measured in Lützow-Holm Bay in eastern Antarctica showed important differences from SGD rates measured elsewhere on Earth. At midlatitudes, discharge rates drop with increasing ocean depth, while the Antarctic flows were relatively consistent despite differences in depth among the seven survey <span class="hlt">sites</span> scattered throughout the bay. In addition, the measured average flow rates, ranging from 0.85 × 10-7 to 9.5 × 10-7 meters per second, were 10-100 times higher than flow rates at similar depths made at midlatitudes. The authors also found that SDG rates oscillated with a period of 12.8 hours, peaking at low tide. Further, the discharge rates roughly tracked the size of the tide, having higher peaks in spring, when tides were strongest. The researchers propose that the most likely source of the freshwater flow is meltwater formed beneath the massive glaciers surrounding the bay. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046394, 2011)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SedG..325..106C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SedG..325..106C"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformed microbial mat structures in a semiarid temperate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> setting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cuadrado, Diana G.; Pan, Jerónimo; Gómez, Eduardo A.; Maisano, Lucía</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This study focuses on sedimentary structures formed by microbial consortia, in a particular <span class="hlt">coastal</span> setting, an ancient tidal channel, separated from the ocean by a sandy spit and connected by a blind tidal channel at the opposite end. Most studies in modern and ancient environments consider water movement as the triggering mechanism acting in the formation and deformation of sedimentary structures. As such, the paper documents the presence of several microbial structures such as shrinkage cracks, flip-over mats, microbial chips, and multidirectional ripples which are related to tidal processes, while bulges and gas domes structures are formed after occasional inundation events. However, the more conspicuous structures covering a great area at the study <span class="hlt">site</span> are folds and roll-ups, the product of deformation of microbially induced structures by the action of sporadic spring-tidal currents due to strong winds. Therefore, the objective of this research is to document modern sedimentary structures in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area and to provide a mechanistic explanation for their formation, based on the interplaying effects of the moisture variation and high shear stress. Also, several microbial sedimentary structures are distinguished throughout vertical sediment cores, such as microbial chips, detached mat, sponge fabrics, tears, and concentric structures, which are identified in a sedimentary profile. Through the recognition and interpretation of modern sedimentary deformation structures, this study contributes empirical tools for the reconstruction of analogous paleoenvironments in fossil studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992617"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain forest types.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parresol, Bernard, R.</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River <span class="hlt">Site</span> are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247291"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable nitrogen isotopes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> macroalgae: geographic and anthropogenic variability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Viana, Inés G; Bode, Antonio</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ(15)N). In this study δ(15)N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given <span class="hlt">site</span>, but algal δ(15)N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ(15)N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ(15)N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ(15)N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and in areas with more than 15×10(3) inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ(15)N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. PMID:23247291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3966728','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3966728"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Nurseries and Their Importance for Conservation of Sea Kraits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future. PMID:24670985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........24G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........24G"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of SASW systems for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and offshore applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Groenewold, Finn</p> <p></p> <p>Spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW) systems are an increasingly popular tool for the estimation of shear wave velocity profiles of geotechnical <span class="hlt">sites</span> as a reasonable alternative to expensive and difficult downhole and crosshole tests. However, there are relatively few commercial systems using this new approach. The prime-objective of this study is to understand the application of a commercial SASW system manufactured by Olson Instruments, Inc. and to compare the results obtained with it to a Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Wave system developed at the University of Rhode Island. For the field testing program, different sized sledgehammers and weights were used to impact the soil while measuring the passing Rayleigh surface waves with pairs of 4.5 Hz and 2 Hz geophones that were connected to a dynamic signal analyzer for different spacings. This data was processed in the programs WinTFS and WinSASW to develop <span class="hlt">site</span>-specific dispersion curves, which were then inverted to estimate shear wave velocity profiles. After preliminary testing, the system was used to conduct tests at different <span class="hlt">sites</span> where investigations of shear wave velocity with different systems have already been performed. Additionally, tests were performed at two different beach <span class="hlt">sites</span> to collect data that might be useful to explore the relationship between soil stiffness and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion. The results showed some agreement from inversions using a different system and software package. Nevertheless, there is still a need for further investigation to examine the reliability of the measurements and analysis methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010495','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010495"><span id="translatedtitle">Nearshore <span class="hlt">coastal</span> mapping. [in Lake Michigan and Puerto Rico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Two test <span class="hlt">sites</span> of different water quality and bottom topography were used to test for maximum water depth penetration using the Skylab S-192 MSS for measurement of nearshore <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bathymetry. <span class="hlt">Sites</span> under investigation lie along the Lake Michigan coastline where littoral transport acts to erode sand bluffs and endangers developments along 1,200 miles of shore, and on the west coast of Puerto Rico where unreliable shoal location and depth information constitutes a safety hazard to navigation. The S-192 and S-190A and B provide data on underwater features because of water transparency in the blue/green portion of the spectrum. Depth of 20 meters were measured with the S-192 in the Puerto Rico test <span class="hlt">site</span>. The S-190B photography with its improved spatial resolution clearly delineates the triple sand bar topography in the Lake Michigan test <span class="hlt">site</span>. Several processing techniques were employed to test for maximum depth measurement with least error. The results are useful for helping to determine an optimum spectral bandwidth for future space sensors that will increase depth measurements for different water attenuation conditions where a bottom reflection is detectable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5021/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5021/"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study <span class="hlt">sites</span> between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. Water-quality protection in the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the North Carolina <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain, although the extent of reduction at each <span class="hlt">site</span> was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42A..08O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA42A..08O"><span id="translatedtitle">Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> storms. Existing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813199T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813199T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process multicriteria and Geographical information system for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vulnerability analysis in Morocco: The case of Mohammedia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tahri, Meryem; Maanan, Mohamed; Hakdaoui, Mustapha</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper shows a method to assess the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risks such as <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion or submarine applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and spatial analysis techniques with Geographic Information System (GIS). The coast of the Mohammedia located in Morocco was chosen as the study <span class="hlt">site</span> to implement and validate the proposed framework by applying a GIS-FAHP based methodology. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risk vulnerability mapping follows multi-parametric causative factors as sea level rise, significant wave height, tidal range, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> erosion, elevation, geomorphology and distance to an urban area. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology enables the calculation of corresponding criteria weights. The result shows that the coastline of the Mohammedia is characterized by a moderate, high and very high level of vulnerability to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risk. The high vulnerability areas are situated in the east at Monika and Sablette beaches. This technical approach is based on the efficiency of the Geographic Information System tool based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to help decision maker to find optimal strategies to minimize <span class="hlt">coastal</span> risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10669C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10669C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> nutrification and coral health at Porto Seguro reefs, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costa, O.; Attrill, M.; Nimmo, M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Human activities have substantially increased the natural flux of nutrients to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems worldwide. In Brazilian reefs, all major stresses (sedimentation, overfishing, tourism-related activities and nutrification) are human induced. To assess nutrification levels in Brazilian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reefs, measurements of the distribution patterns of nutrients and chlorophyll concentrations were conducted in three nearshore and offshore reefs with distinct nutrient inputs along the south coast of Bahia State. Seawater and porewater samples were analysed for soluble reactive phosphorus, total oxidised nitrogen and reactive silica. Benthic surveys were performed at all <span class="hlt">sites</span> to investigate the relationships between benthic community composition and nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling was undertaken in dry and rainy seasons. Results of both seawater and porewater nutrient measurements revealed the occurrence of consistent spatial and temporal patterns. An inshore-offshore gradient reflects the occurrence of land-based point sources, with significant amount of nutrients being delivered by human activities on the coast (untreated sewage and groundwater seepage). Another spatial gradient is related to distance from a localized source of pollution (an urban settlement without sewerage treatment) with two nearshore reefs presenting distinct nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Seasonal variations suggest that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the primary source of nutrients for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> reefs during rainy season. The data also suggests that the SGD effect is not restricted to nearshore reefs, and may be an important factor controlling the differences between landward and seaward sides on the offshore reef. Benthic community assessment revealed that turf alga is the dominant group in all studied reefs and that zoanthids are the organisms most adapted to take advantage of nutrient increase in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. At nearshore reefs, there was a negative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP21C0335H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP21C0335H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..OS42B05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..OS42B05C"><span id="translatedtitle">Storm Occurrence and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Response on the Western Irish Coast: a Meso-scale Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, J.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>The western Irish coast comprises a highly compartmentalised series of headland-embayment cells in which sand and gravel beaches are typically backed by large vegetated dune systems. Exposure to modally high energy swell renders most beach systems dissipative in character although many are backed by a reflective coarse-grained section. A mesotidal range (c.3.5 m) exists along much of the coast. Analysis of instrumental wind records from three locations permitted the identification of a variety of storm types and the construction of a storm catalogue for the region. Few individual storms were recorded at all three stations indicating a lack of regional consistency in storm record although all stations recorded an increase in the frequency of strong winds. Analysis of historical shoreline changes recorded in maps and air photographs at a variety of <span class="hlt">sites</span> on the west Irish coast reveals an apparently non-uniform record of mesoscale <span class="hlt">coastal</span> behaviour with periods of stability apparently interrupted by phases of erosion that are tentatively linked to individual storms. Long-period wave energy attenuation across dissipative shorefaces and beaches minimises <span class="hlt">coastal</span> response to distant storms whereas short-period, locally generated wind waves are more likely to cause dune and beach erosion. The lack of regional consistency in storm-related <span class="hlt">coastal</span> response is interpreted as a function of: (i) the spatially non-uniform distribution of the storm record; (ii) the differing orientation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cells with respect to storm-related winds; (iii) the need for a storm to coincide with high water to provide a measurable record of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> response. This highly variable response of beach and dune systems to storm forcing at a decadal to century scale over a coastline length of 200km suggests that caution must be exercised when making generalisations regarding regional-scale <span class="hlt">coastal</span> responses to climatic change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC34A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC34A..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime Temperatures (1948-2005) in Growing Urban <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> California Air Basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily maximum temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban <span class="hlt">sites</span> were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average temperatures from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol3-sec930-153.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol3-sec930-153.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">15 CFR 930.153 - Coordination between States in developing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management policies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... developing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management policies. 930.153 Section 930.153 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities Having Interstate <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Effects §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ChJOL..25..247S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ChJOL..25..247S"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of Okinawa Island, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated <span class="hlt">sites</span> featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated <span class="hlt">sites</span> where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas around Okinawa Island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP31A0834A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP31A0834A"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic subsidence rate in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdol