Science.gov

Sample records for coated fertilizer granules

  1. Modelling and simulation of nutrient dispersion from coated fertilizer granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Radzuan; Daud, Hanita; Nor, Shafiq Mohd.

    2014-10-01

    The usage of Controlled-Release Fertilizer (CRF) is essential in plants and crops to fulfill the need and requirement for the modern agriculture which now feeds 6 billion people. Therefore modeling and simulation of nutrient release from coated fertilizer has become the best method to study the behavior of some parameters toward water saturation in and nutrient release from the coated-fertilizer granule. This paper is the improvement development of modeling and computer simulation by Basu [1] which include some of the factors affecting the water saturation time and nutrient release time from a coated-fertilizer. The effect of granule radius, the diffusivity of water and nutrient, the temperature of surrounding, the contact areas and the characteristic of the coating are studied and the simulation was developed using MATLAB software. The studies and understanding of this project is very important and useful especially to determine the important parameters in the manufacturing process of the coated-fertilizer granule and also will be useful for the farmers/users in the selection of the best fertilizers for their crops.

  2. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance. PMID:12785532

  3. Use of polyhydroxybutyrate and ethyl cellulose for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Costa, Milene M E; Cabral-Albuquerque, Elaine C M; Alves, Tito L M; Pinto, José Carlos; Fialho, Rosana L

    2013-10-23

    Fertilizers contain essential nutrients for agricultural growth and development. However, most nitrogen fertilizers are substances with high solubility of ions and are very susceptible to leaching and volatilization. To minimize these losses, an alternative is the creation of a physical barrier around granules. One way is to coat granules with polymers. In the present work urea granules were coated with polyhydroxybutyrate and ethyl cellulose in various conditions in the presence of emulsifiers. The original granules and the final products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry, to evaluate the surface morphology, the interaction between the granules and the coating, and the rates of mass change. The rates of urea release in distilled water were measured with a commercial enzyme kit. It is shown that those polymers are effective for coating of granules, leading to reduction of rates of urea dissolution in water. PMID:24059839

  4. Use of polyurea from urea for coating of urea granules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Panfang; Zhang, Yanfei; Jia, Cong; Li, Yufeng; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    A new type of controlled release fertilizers coated with polyurea was prepared. The granulated urea was firstly changed into a liquid urea by heating as the coating liquid. By spraying uniformly the urea was coated with the polyurea synthesized by the reaction of isocyanates with a liquid urea. The effects of different modifiers on N release characteristics of polyurea-coated urea (PCU) were studied. The morphology and chemical structure of PCU coating materials was investigated by SEM and FTIR. We studied the nitrogen release characteristics of the PCU applied in both water and soil, and the biodegradability of PCU coating after buried in soil. The results showed that PCU reduced nitrogen release rate and exhibited excellent controlled release property. The PCU coating materials could biodegrade in soil. This indicated that the low cost PCU products from urea are expected to use in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:27119061

  5. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  6. Conservation of energy in monoammonium and diammonium phosphate fertilizer granulation plants. Final progress report No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Work done during the last three years to further commercialize pipe-cross reactor (PCR) technology in the production of granular homogeneous NPKS, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers is summarized. The theory of granulation, the energy savings when replacing conventional ammoniation-granulation with PCR melt granulation, investment cost and payback, etc. are discussed in detail. (MHR)

  7. Dissolution kinetics of macronutrient fertilizers coated with manufactured zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Beak, Douglas G; Cornelis, Geert

    2012-04-25

    The solubility of Zn in Zn fertilizers plays an important role in the agronomic effectiveness of the fertilizer. On the basis of thermodynamics, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) should dissolve faster and to a greater extent than bulk ZnO particles (equivalent spherical diameter >100 nm). These novel solubility features of ZnO NPs might be exploited to improve the efficiency of Zn fertilizers. In this study, we compared the Zn solubility and dissolution kinetics of ZnO nanoparticles and bulk ZnO particles coated onto two selected granular macronutrient fertilizers, urea and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The main Zn species on coated MAP and urea granules were zinc ammonium phosphate and ZnO, respectively. Coated MAP granules showed greater Zn solubility and faster dissolution rates in sand columns compared to coated urea granules, which may be related to pH differences in the solution surrounding the fertilizer granules. The kinetics of Zn dissolution was not affected by the size of the ZnO particles applied for coating of either fertilizer type, possibly because solubility was controlled by formation of the same compounds irrespective of the size of the original ZnO particles used for coating. PMID:22480134

  8. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

  9. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  10. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  11. Cadmium availability from granulated and bulk-blended phosphate-potassium fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Carmona, G; Prochnow, L I; Austin, E R

    2003-01-01

    Recent field experiments have shown that high chloride (Cl) in irrigation waters can increase soil cadmium (Cd) uptake by crops because of the formation of soluble ion-pair complexes of Cd with Cl in soil solution. The present study was aimed at testing a hypothesis that KCl in granulated PK fertilizers may enhance Cd uptake by crops from Cd-containing P fertilizers because of close contact between Cd and Cl in the same granules. Less effect would be expected if the same granular PK fertilizers were bulk-blended because of separation of Cd and Cl in different granules. A single superphosphate (SSP) containing 32 mg Cd kg(-1) was granulated by the compaction process with KCl at a P to K ratio = 1:1. Granular KCl was also bulk-blended with granular SSP or Cd-free monocalcium phosphate (MCP) at the same P to K ratio. An acid Ultisol (pH 5.2) was treated with PK fertilizers at 400 mg kg(-1) each for P and K. Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were grown to maturity, and signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) was cut four times during the study. The results showed that the agronomic effectiveness in increasing crop yield was the same with SSP and MCP whether granulated or bulk-blended with KCl. Concentrations of Cd in plant tissue samples of all crops were much lower for MCP than for SSP. In all the plant tissue samples, except grain samples of upland rice, Cd concentrations obtained with granulated (SSP + KCl) were significantly higher than that with bulk-blended (SSP) + (KCl). PMID:14535337

  12. GRANULATION OF COMPLEX FERTILIZERS CONTAINING AMMONIUM SULFATE BY MELT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel process was developed for production of high analysis fertilizers in which large portions of the nutrients are derived from by-product and waste ammonium sulfate. The materials produced exhibit good physical and storage characteristics and are similar in grades to those n...

  13. Modeling controlled nutrient release from a population of polymer coated fertilizers: statistically based model for diffusion release.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A statistically based model for describing the release from a population of polymer coated controlled release fertilizer (CRF) granules by the diffusion mechanism was constructed. The model is based on a mathematical-mechanistic description of the release from a single granule of a coated CRF accounting for its complex and nonlinear nature. The large variation within populations of coated CRFs poses the need for a statistically based approach to integrate over the release from the individual granules within a given population for which the distribution and range of granule radii and coating thickness are known. The model was constructed and verified using experimentally determined parameters and release curves of polymer-coated CRFs. A sensitivity analysis indicated the importance of water permeability in controlling the lag period and that of solute permeability in governing the rate of linear release and the total duration of the release. Increasing the mean values of normally distributed granule radii or coating thickness, increases the lag period and the period of linear release. The variation of radii and coating thickness, within realistic ranges, affects the release only when the standard deviation is very large or when water permeability is reduced without affecting solute permeability. The model provides an effective tool for designing and improving agronomic and environmental effectiveness of polymer-coated CRFs. PMID:12785533

  14. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V; Cowen, James P; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-09-15

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 microg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 microg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(e)) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP

  15. Effect of granulated wood ash fertilization on N2O emissions in boreal peat forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liimatainen, Maarit; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Hytönen, Jyrki; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands cover one third of the land surface area in Finland and over half of that are drained for forestry. Natural peatlands are either small sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) or they can also act as a sinks of N2O. When peatlands are drained, oxygen concentration in the peat increases, organic matter decomposition accelerates and N2O emissions may increase significantly, especially in nutrient rich peat soils. Hence drainage and land-use changes can have a big impact on N2O fluxes in peatlands. The annual consumption of wood chips is to be increased to 13.5 M m3 from the present 8.7 M m3 in Finland. This will also increase the amount of wood ash in the power plants. Wood ash contains considerable amounts of mineral nutrients but lacks nitrogen. Therefore, it has been used as a fertilizer in nitrogen rich peatland forests lacking other nutrients. Recycling of ash would also return the nutrients lost during biomass harvesting back to the forests. We studied the effects of granulated wood ash as a fertilizer in peat soils drained for forestry. Ash is nowadays granulated mainly to facilitate its handling and spreading. Granulation also stabilizes the ash decreasing the solubility of most of the nutrients and minimizing harmful effects of ash spread over the vegetation. Granulated wood ash increases soil pH less than loose ash. Drainage of peatland forests increases microbial activity in the soil which is furthermore intensified with the addition of ash promoting organic matter decomposition and possibly affecting N2O emissions. We studied the effect of granulated wood ash on N2O fluxes in three different peat forests in Finland in both field and laboratory experiments. In the field, N2O emissions were not affected by granulated wood ash fertilization but the soil respiration rate increased. However, in the laboratory studies we observed a clear decrease in N2O production due to wood ash addition, although changes in pH values were only minor. We studied what could

  16. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% < PS, 56.16% < F2, 59.47%, < F2F, 63.12%. Field experiment showed that compared with the same application amount of NPK, all the test fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F. PMID:20387432

  17. Improving the granule strength of roller-compacted ibuprofen sodium for hot-melt coating processing.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Diogo Gomes; Garsuch, Verena; Becker, Karin; Paudel, Amrit; Stehr, Michael; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-08-20

    Solvent-free hot-melt coating processing is a novel and cost-efficient approach to manufacturing taste-masked multiparticulate systems. However, most API powders are fine and cohesive and not processable by hot-melt coating. The aim of this study was to produce dense and abrasion-resistant granules with high drug content (>80%) via roller compaction for hot-melt coating process optimization. The selected API was ibuprofen sodium dihydrate, a salt of ibuprofen with improved bioavailability and poor intrinsic compactibility. The formulation and roller compaction process were developed for the production of granules with 94%w/w of API and low friability (∼30%), using sorbitol and isomalt as excipients. The strong bonding mechanism relied on powder jamming prior to the rollers and was investigated via scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray scattering. It was shown that sorbitol crystals are solubilized during roller compaction and recrystallize as sorbitol hydrate, acting as strong solid bridges. The robustness of the roller compaction process and the re-compaction of fines were investigated. A statistical design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the hot-melt coating process for taste masking of ibuprofen sodium granules. Taste masking required coating ratios higher than 40%w/w of granule batch, emphasizing the need for high-drug-content and abrasion-resistant granules. PMID:27346416

  18. Effective gastric acid suppression after oral administration of enteric-coated omeprazole granules.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M A; Pursnani, K G; Katzka, D A; Gideon, R M; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    1997-04-01

    Omeprazole is inactivated by exposure to gastric acid and is formulated as a gelatin capsule containing enteric-coated granules that release the drug in alkaline medium. In clinical situations where patients are unable to take the capsule orally, the optimum means of administration is uncertain. Eleven normal volunteers were given omeprazole 20 mg every day for one week before breakfast in random order as either a 20-mg capsule with water or free enteric-coated granules with either 8 oz of orange juice, 8 oz of water with 2 Alka-Seltzer antacid tablets (aspirin free), or 1 teaspoon of apple sauce. On day 7 of each regimen, an 8-hr intragastric pH study was performed following omeprazole 20 mg and standard breakfast. The median percentage of time of gastric acid pH > 4 after an omeprazole capsule was 68.5 (25-100); after granules with orange juice 59 (43-100); after granules in Alka-Seltzer solution 63 (31-100), and after granules in apple sauce 65 (30-99), with no significant differences (ANOVA). The time for the gastric pH to reach <4' after having been above was also similar for all four regimens (ANOVA). Omeprazole granules administered orally in a variety of ways achieve gastric acid suppression as effectively as the intact capsule. PMID:9125637

  19. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. PMID:24593892

  20. Microencapsulation of fish oil by spray granulation and fluid bed film coating.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sri Haryani; Weissbrodt, Jenny; Kunz, Benno

    2010-08-01

    The stability of microencapsulated fish oil prepared with 2 production processes, spray granulation (SG) and SG followed by film coating (SG-FC) using a fluid bed equipment, was investigated. In the 1st process, 3 types of fish oil used were based on the ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (10/50, 33/22, and 18/12). Each type was emulsified with soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) and maltodextrin to produce 25% oil powders. In the 2nd process, 15% film coating of hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPBCD) was applied to the granules from the 1st process. The powder stability against oxidation was examined by measurement of peroxide values (PV) and headspace propanal after storage at room temperature and at 3 to 4 degrees C for 6 wk. Uncoated powder containing the lowest concentration of PUFA (18/12) was found to be stable during storage at room temperature with maximum PV of 3.98 +/- 0.001 meq/kg oil. The PV increased sharply for uncoated powder with higher concentration of omega-3 (in 33/22 and 10/50 fish oils) after 3 wk storage. The PVs were in agreement with the concentration of propanal, and these 2 parameters remained constant for most of the uncoated powders stored at low temperature. Unexpectedly, the outcomes showed that the coated powders had lower stability than uncoated powders as indicated by higher initial PVs; more hydroperoxides were detected as well as increasing propanal concentration. The investigation suggests that the film-coating by HPBCD ineffectively protected fish oil as the coating process might have induced further oxidation; however, SG is a good method for producing fish oil powder and to protect it from oxidation because of the "onion skin" structure of granules produced in this process. PMID:20722921

  1. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release and water-retention urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Liu, Mingzhu

    2006-02-22

    A double-coated, slow-release, and water-retention urea fertilizer (DSWU) was prepared by cross-linked poly(acrylic acid)-containing urea (PAAU) (the outer coating), polystyrene (PS) (the inner coating), and urea granule (the core). Elemental analysis results showed that the nitrogen content of the product was 33.6 wt %. The outer coating (PAAU) regulated the nitrogen release rate and protected the inner coating from damage. The slow-release property of the product was investigated in water and in soil. The possible mechanism of nitrogen release was proposed. The influences of PS coating percentage, temperature, water absorbency, and pH on the release of nitrogen were also investigated. It was found that PS coating percentage, temperature, and water absorbency had a significant influence on the release of nitrogen. However, the pH had no effect. The water-retention property of the product was also investigated. The results showed that the product not only had a good slow-release property but also excellent water-retention capacity, which could effectively improve the utilization of fertilizer and water resources. The results of the present work indicated that the DSWU would find good application in agriculture and horticulture, especially in drought-prone areas where the availability of water is insufficient. PMID:16478265

  2. Taste masking of naproxen sodium granules by fluid-bed coating.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-03-01

    The taste of oral dosage forms is an important argument regarding patient's compliance and acceptability. For this reason, it is often necessary to mask an undesirable and unpleasant taste of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The purpose of this study was to mask the taste of naproxen sodium by a new fluid-bed coating approach. Different compositions of coating suspensions were used to coat naproxen sodium granules. It was found that products with the addition of a plasticizer were not stable at 40 °C and tended to agglomerate. Subsequently, formulations without plasticizer were used and the ratio between water and Eudragit® E was varied. Increasing the fraction of water in the suspension from 3% to 14% reduced the effective release of naproxen sodium. An optimum ratio between naproxen sodium granules and Eudragit® E was found to be 1:1.576, where less naproxen sodium was released than the threshold bitter value and an appropriate taste masking for more than 5 min was guaranteed. Investigation of the particle size distribution revealed a d(10) of 138.35 ± 21.52 µm, a d(50 )= 256.40 ± 11.27 µm and a d(90 )= 500.85 ± 69.08 µm, which guarantees an acceptable mouthfeel for patients. PMID:23324020

  3. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward. PMID:15031946

  4. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOEpatents

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  5. [Variations of IR-spectra of three coating materials before and after spraying on urea fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-bin; Chen, Li-jun; Wu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Guang-na

    2009-09-01

    Coated fertilizer is a hot spot in the domain of fertilizer research. Related researches mainly focused on the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling the nutrient release from coated fertilizers, but less information is available on the structural variation of the coating materials before and after spraying on fertilizers, which is the key to whether we can directly use coating materials to extrapolate its mechanisms in controlling coated fertilizers' nutrient release. With polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butynelenes succinate) (PBS), and polycarbonate (PC) as test materials, the variations of their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer were determined, which was aimed to supply theoretical basis for further studying the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling coated fertilizers nutrient release. The results showed that PLA and PC had less variation in their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer, while PBS acted in reverse, suggesting that the former two coating materials could be directly used for studying the patterns of nutrient release from coated fertilizers. PMID:19950629

  6. Development of technology in the production of fertilizers in ammoniation-granulation plants. Progress report No. 12, September 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Work conducted to demonstrate procedures and equipment to conserve about 83% of fuel oil used for drying and generating steam in the ammoniation-granulation plants is reported. The general mechanism of granulation is examined. Conventional ammoniation-granulation plants are described and the new pipe-cross reactor system is described and schematics of their design are presented. Results of some demonstration tests reveal that an average of 785,000 Btu's per ton of production is eliminated with the installation of the TVA pipe-cross reactor process. It also reduces atmospheric emissions. Data on investment cost and payback period of the installation of a pipe-cross reactor in an existing TVA granulation fertilizer plant are presented.

  7. Distribution patterns of MCA-coated granules aerially applied to corn fields of Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Wennemann, L; Hummel, H E

    2003-01-01

    Field studies in corn (Zea mays L.) were conducted to evaluate distribution patterns of 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde (MCA) coated corn grits after aerial application with a Dromader fixed wing aircraft. The kairomone mimic MCA is synthetically available and a quite specific and efficient adult attractant for the invasive alien maize pest western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Orientation disruptive properties of MCA for WCR when applied at unphysiologically high concentrations are currently under investigation. For successful implementation of the MCA disruption technique, the distribution patterns of MCA coated corn granules ('grits') in the field are important. Grits are degrained corn cobs, shredded to different sizes, coated with MCA and used as a carrier material to disseminate MCA vapors into corn fields. Granules of 10-12 mesh size were aerially applied eight times at rates ranging from 12.4 to 25.0 kg/ha. The goal is to evaluate distribution patterns of corn grits treated with MCA in three fields located at Csanadpalota, Kardoskút and Mezöhegyes in Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002. Increasing rates reflect our attempts in finding and optimising the most even distribution of granules in the field. Field experiments were evaluated by collecting grits in 30-cm plastic saucers and by counting grits accumulated on corn plant parts. Variation in grit number per unit area and frequency of corn granule number per plant showed some transient technical application problems. Analysis of grits collected in the saucers revealed some statistical difference between the different application dates as well as differences in rates applied. Altogether grits in saucers were more evenly distributed in comparison to the grits collected on plant parts. As the corn plants age, their leaves and whorls present a smaller and smaller surface area where granules can accumulate. Altogether, however, grit distribution patterns indicate that aerial

  8. Use of polysulfone in controlled-release NPK fertilizer formulations.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Maria; Jarosiewicz, Anna

    2002-07-31

    Encapsulation of fertilizers in polymeric coatings is a method used to reduce fertilizer losses and to minimize environmental pollution. Polysulfone was used for a coating preparation for soluble NPK granular fertilizer in controlled-release fertilizer formulations. The coatings were formed by the phase inversion technique (wet method). The influence of the polymer concentration in the film-forming solution on the physical properties of the coatings was examined. The coating structure controls the diffusion of the elements from the interior of the fertilizer granule. It was experimentally confirmed that the use of polysulfone as a coating for a soluble fertilizer decreases the release rate of components. Moreover, the release rate of nutrients from coated granules decreases with the decrease of the coating porosity. In the case of coating with 38.5% porosity, prepared from 13.5% polymer solution after 5 h of test, 100% of NH(4)(+) was released, whereas only 19.0% of NH(4)(+) was released after 5 h for the coating with 11% porosity. In addition, coating of fertilizers leads to improvement of handling properties, and the crushing strength of all coated fertilizers was an average 40% higher than that for uncoated NPK fertilizer. PMID:12137488

  9. Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution using pottery granules coated with cyst of Azotobacter and portland cement: characterization, kinetics and modeling.

    PubMed

    Gauri, Samiran S; Archanaa, S; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R; Mandal, Santi M; Dey, Satyahari

    2011-05-01

    A new low cost adsorbents, pottery granules coated with cyst of Azotobacter and portland cement has been developed for aqueous arsenic removal. The developed granule is solid and porous structure forms a stable complex of Fe-Al-Si-O(2) allied with cyst biomass. Batch experiments were revealed that As removal was up to 96% using PGAC beads, whereas 65% by cyst biomass. Immobilization of cyst biomass to pottery granules through portland cement improved the stability of granules and adsorption capacity. Kinetics studies revealed that Langmuir isotherm was followed with a better correlation than the Freundlich isotherm and adsorption was first order diffusion controlled. Presence of Fe-Al-Si-O(2) and polysaccharide complex on the granule surface may be responsible for the adsorption of arsenic and preferentially binds to biomass containing composite than only biomass. Thus, this recently developed cost-effective novel biocomposite, PGAC granule can be used as household level to mitigate the arsenic problem. PMID:21392969

  10. The timing of cortical granule fusion, content dispersal, and endocytosis during fertilization of the hamster egg: an electrophysiological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kline, D; Stewart-Savage, J

    1994-03-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between cortical granule exocytosis and the repetitive calcium transients, which are characteristic of mammalian fertilization, we monitored membrane addition from exocytosis during fertilization of hamster eggs. Continuous measurement of membrane capacitance by applying a 3.1-nA alternating current at 375 Hz showed addition of cortical granule membrane. Simultaneous measurement of membrane potential revealed each calcium transient by the appearance of transient hyperpolarizing responses due to calcium-activated potassium channels in the egg. The initial membrane capacitance of the eggs averaged 736 +/- 44 pF (mean +/- SD; n = 7) and an increase in capacitance of 61 +/- 19 pF occurred within 4 sec of the start of the first hyperpolarizing response (HR) after fertilization. Immediately after the first increase in capacitance there was a gradual decline in membrane capacitance in all eggs and in five/seven eggs the capacitance returned to the unfertilized level in 7.8 +/- 4.4 min. The gradual decline in capacitance after the first increase indicated endocytosis, which was confirmed by the internalization of fluorescently labeled dextran. Superimposed on the gradual decline in membrane capacitance were smaller increases in capacitance that occurred with the second and later HRs. The total increase in capacitance from the first three events averaged 72 +/- 19 pF, representing an average increase in capacitance of about 10% of the capacitance of the unfertilized egg. By labeling eggs before and after permeabilization with two different fluorochromes attached to Lens culinaris agglutinin, we demonstrate that the dispersal of the cortical granules contents does not occur immediately after exocytosis. Our results demonstrate that cortical granule exocytosis in hamster eggs is closely coupled to the periodic increases in calcium, that the contents of the cortical granules are slow to disperse, and that after exocytosis, the surface

  11. [Effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fu-Liang; Song, Fu-Peng; Gao, Yang; Zou, Peng

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4%-16.5%, and the grain protein and starch contents by 5.8%-18.9% and 0.3%-1.4%, respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58.2%-101.2%. Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea. PMID:22489481

  12. Polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer based on mussel-inspired chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-03-27

    This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23464683

  13. Controlled release of manganese into water from coated experimental fertilizers: laboratory characterization.

    PubMed

    Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2001-03-01

    The release of manganese into water from controlled-release formulations containing manganese EDTA or manganese lignosulfonate was studied. These fertilizers were obtained in the laboratory by adhering the source of manganese over urea pellets and by adding a coating. The materials used as adhesives and coatings were mixtures of rosins plus tricalcium phosphate. With regard to the chemical composition, these formulations conformed to national and international standards for commercial fertilizers. The rate of release of manganese was a function of both the source of manganese used and the coating thickness. Under the same conditions the release of manganese was greater for formulations with manganese EDTA than with manganese lignosulfonate. To predict the kinetic behaviors of the two series of formulations, mathematical equations were established. The manganese source plus rosin coatings improved the handling and storage characteristics of the commercial urea pellets. The study of the rosin coatings using scanning electron microscopy showed that they were compact and homogeneous. PMID:11312854

  14. Nitrous Oxide Gas Fluxes in a Potato Field Following Application of Urea and Coated Urea Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of urea and other forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can generate atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Field experiments were conducted on a loamy sand soil in Becker, Minnesota to evaluate the effects of soluble and coated forms of urea on N2O fl...

  15. Macro- and micro-nutrient release characteristics of three polymer-coated fertilizers: Theory and measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of several published studies we have an incomplete understanding of the ion release mechanisms and characteristics of primary polymer-coated fertilizer (PCF) technologies. Here we extend current conceptual models describing release mechanisms and describe the critical effects of substrate m...

  16. Performance of coatings for concrete exposed to pesticides and fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Zarate, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    As a result of Congressional amendments for the reauthorization of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (known as FIFRA 1988), EPA is proposing minimum standards for secondary containment of pesticide bulk containers and for containment structures for certain pesticide dispensing operations. Concrete is the most common secondary containment construction material for pesticides but concrete may be susceptible to migration of spilled pesticides due to its porosity and potential for cracking. The research described here was requested by EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs to help identify coatings for concrete that could reduce the migration of pesticides through containment structures. At the time of this writing, the study was about half completed. Preliminary results from twelve generic coating types are discussed.

  17. Mussel-inspired thermosensitive polydopamine-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) coating for controlled-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Jia, Xin; Hu, Jiamei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Heyun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-12-18

    A thermoresponsive release multi-element compound fertilizer was first reported on the basis of a polydopamine-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) bilayer coated on a salty core by a combination of dopamine chemistry and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization techniques, and the control of nutrient release in response to the environmental temperature was investigated. The successful synthesized stimuli-responsive fertilizers were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The release of elements from fertilizer was determined by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometer. The thermosensitive fertilizers exhibit outstanding stimuli-responsive permeability to encapsulated nutrients, and the release rate of coated elements can be tailored by the ambient temperature. They can release nutrients easily at T < lower critical solution temperature (LCST) but slow at T > LCST. This strategy of grafting thermoresponsive polymer brushes on polydopamine (Pdop)-coated substrates is useful to prepare a stimuli-responsive release system, which can adjust the release rate according to different conditions, and will be effective and promising in the research and development of a stimuli-sensitive controlled-release system. PMID:24308285

  18. Role of cations as components of jelly coats in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela Fátima; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2010-02-01

    The role of monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) cations in Bufo arenarum fertilization was analysed. Our results showed that the highest fertilization percentages were obtained when strings of uterine oocytes (UO) were inseminated. Under these conditions, full jelly (FJ), which represents the jelly coats surrounding the oocytes at the time of deposition, contained 68.5 +/- 7.0 mM Na+, 27.4 +/- 2.4 mM K+, 6.3 +/- 0.9 mM Ca2+ and 6.9 +/- 0.9 mM Mg2+. When the strings of oocytes were washed in deionized water, these cations diffused into the liquid medium surrounding them. There was a marked similarity between the loss of Ca2+ in the jelly and the decrease in the fertilizability of the UO. Furthermore, the use of chelating agents of divalent cations showed the importance of the Ca2+ contained in the jelly. When Ca2+ was sequestered from the jelly coats by the addition of the chelating agents to the insemination medium as well as by pretreatment of the UO strings, a decrease in fertilization percentages occurred, this effect being dose dependent and more marked with EGTA. These results demonstrate that the Ca2+ in the jelly plays a role in fertilization. Nevertheless, taking into account that during the washing of the jelly other jelly coat components were diffused and considering that the addition of Ca2+ to the insemination medium reverted significantly, but only partially, the loss of fertilizability of jellied UO (washed), the participation of other components in the fertilization mechanism is suggested. PMID:19664308

  19. Degradation Ability of Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Film for Coating of Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong-tao; Ling, Yao; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yu-ling; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yu-long

    2015-11-01

    Using outdoor exposure and cinnamon soil incubation test, by quality changes, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopic scanning technology, to research the degradation ability of self-developed coated fertilizer films. The results of outdoor exposure and cinnamon soil incubation test showed that all films had certain degradation ability, and the degradation rate increased with the increase of time. Under two kinds of test conditions, the highest degradation rate could reach above 35%. The degradation ability of film citric acid/ PVA was much stronger than epoxy resin/PVA. The degradation ability of citric acid/PVA/diatomite composite film materials was further enhanced because of the addition of diatomite. The epoxy resin/PVA composite film materials, although they had certain degradability, compared to the contrast, the difference was not significant, and adding diatomite can't obviously increase the degradation rate. The results of IR spectroscopy showed that some major functional groups, such as C==O, C==C, ==C--H would be reduced after degradation, and the transmission rate also increased, which showed that the degradation of composite film materials must be happened Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface becomes rough and uneven, and it also meant the films have some degradation. The results of IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were consistent with the results of quality change test, and could more objectively represent the degradability of film material. Modified film materials can effectively control nutrient release without causing harm to the soil environment, so it is suitable for the film materials of coated fertilizer. PMID:26978946

  20. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  1. [Evaluation of nutrient release profiles from polymer coated fertilizers using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya-zhen; Du, Chang-wen; Zhou, Jian-min; Wang, Huo-yan; Chen, Xiao-qin

    2012-02-01

    The acrylate-like materials were used to develop the polymer coated controlled release fertilizer, the nutrients release profiles were determined, meanwhile the Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of the coatings were recorded and characterized; GRNN model was used to predict the nutrients release profiles using the principal components of the mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra as input. Results showed that the GRNN model could fast and effectively predict the nutrient release profiles, and the predicted calibration coefficients were more than 0.93; on the whole, the prediction errors (RMSE) were influenced by the profiling depth of the spectra, the average prediction error was 10.28%, and the spectra from the surface depth resulted in a lowest prediction error with 7.14%. Therefore, coupled with GRNN modeling, Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy can be used as an alternative new technique in the fast and accurate prediction of nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizer. PMID:22512162

  2. Preparation and properties of a coated slow-release and water-retention biuret phosphoramide fertilizer with superabsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuping; Yue, Guoren; Feng, Lei; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Xinghai; Zhang, Zenghu

    2011-01-12

    In this investigation, a novel water-insoluble slow-release fertilizer, biuret polyphosphoramide (BPAM), was formulated and synthesized from urea, phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), and ferric oxide (Fe(2)O(3)). The structure of BPAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, a coated slow-release BPAM fertilizer with superabsorbent was prepared by ionic cross-linked carboxymethylchitosan (the core), acrylic acid, acrylamide, and active carbon (the coating). The variable influences on the water absorbency were investigated and optimized. Component analysis results showed that the coated slow-release BPAM contained 5.66% nitrogen and 11.7% phosphorus. The property of water retention, the behavior of slow release of phosphorus, and the capacity of adsorption of cations were evaluated, and the results revealed that the product not only had good slow-release property and excellent water retention capacity but also higher adsorption capacities of cations in saline soil. PMID:21155599

  3. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP. PMID:27352017

  4. Characterization and cytocompatibility of a new injectable multiphasic bone substitute based on a combination of polysaccharide gel-coated OSPROLIFE(®) HA/TTCP granules and bone marrow concentrate.

    PubMed

    Pierini, Michela; Lucarelli, Enrico; Duchi, Serena; Prosperi, Susanna; Preve, Eleonora; Piccinini, Marzio; Bucciotti, Francesco; Donati, Davide

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro cytocompatibility of a novel injectable multiphasic bone substitute (MBS) based on polysaccharide gel-coated OSPROLIFE(®) hydroxyapatite (HA)/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) granules combined with bone marrow concentrate (BMC). Polysaccharide gel-coated granules loaded in syringe were combined with BMC diluted in ionic crosslinking solution. The product was then maintained in culture to investigate the cytocompatibility, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation function of cells contained in the BMC. The in vitro cytocompatibility was assessed after 0, 24, and 96 h from the injectable MBS preparation using the LIVE/DEAD(®) staining kit. The results highlighted that cells remained viable after combination with the polysaccharide gel-coated granules; also, viability was maintained over time. The distribution of the cells in the product, observed using confocal microscopy, showed viable cells immersed in the polysaccharide gel formed between the granules after ionic crosslinking. The mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) contained in the injectable MBS, the basic elements for bone tissue regeneration, were able to differentiate toward osteoblasts, producing an osteogenic matrix as evidenced by alizarin red-s (AR-S) staining. In conclusion, we found that the injectable MBS may have the potential to be used as a bone substitute by applying a "one-step" procedure in bone tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 894-902, 2016. PMID:25952003

  5. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:22730900

  6. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

    2008-02-01

    A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

  7. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse "L" curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was "S" curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies. PMID:26348791

  8. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  9. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies. PMID:26348791

  10. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals. PMID:22088197

  11. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  12. Biodegradation of a biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate membrane coating for controlled-release fertilizer and its effects on soil bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zeng, Yin; Du, Jie; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-06-01

    Biochar-modified polyacrylate-like polymers are promising waterborne polymer-based membrane coatings for controlled-release fertilizers. However, the effect of these membrane polymers on paddy soil is unknown. A soil incubation experiment was conducted using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the polymer-coated membranes in paddy soil, and Biolog EcoPlates and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to detect the effects of the membranes on soil bacterial community profiles. Compared to unmodified membranes, the biodegradation rate of the biochar-modified membrane was slower, and the membrane was more intact, which improved and guaranteed the controlled release of nutrients. Compared to the soil without membranes, the biochar-modified membranes, as well as unmodified ones, showed no significant impacts on the composition diversity of soil dominant bacterial community. The activity and functional diversity of soil culturable microbial community during the early stage of incubation were reduced by biochar-modified membranes due to the release of small amount of soluble organic materials but were both recovered in the 12(th) month of the incubation period. Therefore, the biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate was environmentally friendly, demonstrating its potential both in the development of coated controlled-release fertilizers and in the utilization of crop residue. PMID:25567059

  13. Roles of granule size in over-granulation during high shear wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Limin; Feng, Yushi; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2010-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the over-granulation problem during high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process can guide efficient development of robust formulation and manufacturing process. Using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a model compound, we demonstrate that size enlargement is an important mechanism for over-granulation in HSWG. A higher granulation water level results in larger granules and lower tabletability. With increasing water, granules enlarge sharply when water level is higher than 65%. Granule tabletability deteriorates with increasing granule size and becomes over-granulated when more than 70% water is used. For a batch of over-granulated granule that is ground and sieved, tabletability of the sieved fractions decreases with increasing granule size. The tabletability of the finest fraction (45-90 microm) is nearly four times that of the largest fraction (300-425 microm). These results show that size reduction can be an effective strategy to address the problem of over-granulation. PMID:20232456

  14. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  15. Effects of spaceflight conditions on fertilization and embryogenesis in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Sommer, L.; Levine, H.; Anderson, K.; Runco, M.; Kemp, R.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. Calcium and cytoskeletal events were investigated within sea urchin embryos which were cultured in space under both microgravity and 1 g conditions. Embryos were fixed at time-points ranging from 3 h to 8 days after fertilization. Investigative emphasis was placed upon: (1) sperm-induced calcium-dependent exocytosis and cortical granule secretion, (2) membrane fusion of cortical granule and plasma membranes; (3) microfilament polymerization and microvilli elongation; and (5) embryonic development into morula, blastula, gastrula, and pluteus stages. For embryos cultured under microgravity conditions, the processes of cortical granule discharge, fusion of cortical granule membranes with the plasma membrane, elongation of microvilli and elevation of the fertilization coat were reduced in comparison with embryos cultured at 1 g in space and under normal conditions on Earth. Also, 4% of all cells undergoing division in microgravity showed abnormalities in the centrosome-centriole complex. These abnormalities were not observed within the 1 g flight and ground control specimens, indicating that significant alterations in sea urchin development processes occur under microgravity conditions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability. PMID:23923819

  17. Understanding size enlargement and hardening of granules on tabletability of unlubricated granules prepared by dry granulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Dahiya, Sandeepkumar; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2011-02-01

    The mechanism of loss of "reworkability" or tabletability of dry granulated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was investigated in relation to both granule size enlargement and granule hardness. Slugs of MCC were prepared under three pressures (12.5, 37.5, and 93.8 MPa) and tabletability (tensile strength vs. pressure) of respective granules (three different sizes) was determined. Nominal single granule fracture strength and granule friability were measured. The reduction in tabletability was profound for harder granules, which were obtained from higher slugging pressure. This is consistent with their ability to resist granule fragmentation during tableting. Variation in granule size exhibits negligible effect on tabletability for the lowest slugging pressure and only a small effect for the middle and highest slugging pressure. This observation is again related to different tendency to granule fragmentation during compaction. The results suggest that granule-hardening negatively affects tensile strength more than that of granule size enlargement for MCC. PMID:20803605

  18. A complex cortical reaction leads to formation of the fertilization envelope in the lobster, Homarus.

    PubMed

    Talbot, P; Goudeau, M

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the formation of the fertilization envelope in the lobsters Homarus americanus and H gammarus. Oocytes were fixed for electron microscopy either in the ovary or following extrusion from the gonopore. Mature ovarian oocytes are surrounded by a coat (envelope 1), which is comprised of small electron-dense granules and structures resembling "bottlebrushes." At least part of this coat is synthesized by the follicle cells of the ovary. The cortex of ovarian oocytes contains four types of vesicles that we refer to as high-density vesicles (HDV), low-density vesicles (LDV), moderately dense vesicles (MDV), and ring vesicles (RV). Oocytes that were electrically extruded from the gonopore and fixed immediately had an envelope identical to that of ovarian oocytes. The cortex of gonopore oocytes contained the four types of vesicles found in ovarian oocytes. When unfertilized gonopore oocytes were allowed to incubate in sea water, the oocyte cortex appeared unaltered, but envelope 1 swelled and the bottlebrushes dispersed. When recently fertilized oocytes were fixed during natural spawning or following in-vitro fertilization, each type of vesicle was released in sequence from the cortex of the oocyte. The contents of the HDV and LDV appeared first in the perivitelline space, but their fate could not be determined at later times. The ring-shaped elements of the RV and the moderately electron-dense material of the MDV were released exocytotically somewhat later; these materials coalesced in the perivitelline space to form a new coat (envelope 2). Envelope 1 subsequently condensed to its original thickness and appeared firmly attached to envelope 2. Our results show that the fertilized lobster egg is surrounded by two discrete coats. The outer coat, which is formed in the ovary, undergoes a swelling/condensation cycle at spawning. The inner coat originates from a complex cortical reaction. Together these coats comprise the fertilization envelope of the lobster

  19. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  20. Inferred properties of stellar granulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.F.; Toner, C.G.

    1985-06-01

    Apparent characteristics of stellar granulation in F and G main-sequence stars are inferred directly from observed spectral-line asymmetries and from comparisons of numerical simulations with the observations: (1) the apparent granulation velocity increases with effective temperature, (2) the dispersion of granule velocities about their mean velocity of rise increases with the apparent granulation velocity, (3) the mean velocity of rise of granules must be less than the total line broadening, (4) the apparent velocity difference between granules and dark lanes corresponds to the granulation velocity deduced from stellar line bisectors, (5) the dark lanes show velocities of fall approximately twice as large as the granule rise velocities, (6) the light contributed to the stellar flux by the granules is four to ten times more than the light from the dark lanes. Stellar rotation is predicted to produce distortions in the line bisectors which may give information on the absolute velocity displacements of the line bisectors. 37 references.

  1. Effect of granule properties on rough mouth feel and palatability of orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kanada, Ken; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we evaluated the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing core granules with different particle sizes, coating, and types of materials using visual analog scales (VAS). Tableting the core granules into ODTs reduced rough mouth feel and improved overall palatability compared to the ingestion of core granules alone. Moreover, the evaluation performed immediately after spitting out ODTs demonstrated differences in rough mouth feel between ODTs containing placebo and core granules. Rough mouth feel was found to be significantly more intense with core granules with particle sizes ≥ 200 μm. Since ODTs may contain taste-masked particles, palatability of ODTs containing coated core granules was also evaluated. Although coating with polymers impairs palatability, it was improved by coating the outer layer with d-mannitol. The effects on palatability of materials constituting core granules were also evaluated, with reduced rough mouth feel observed with core granules composed of water-soluble additives. Based on these data, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the threshold VAS scores at which the subjects felt roughness and discomfort. In addition, the threshold particle size of the core granule contained within the ODT required for feeling roughness was determined to be 244 μm. This study elucidated the effect of the properties of masking particles on the rough mouth feel and palatability of ODTs. PMID:25681720

  2. mRNP granules

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules are dynamic, self-assembling structures that harbor non-translating mRNAs bound by various proteins that regulate mRNA translation, localization, and turnover. Their importance in gene expression regulation is far reaching, ranging from precise spatial-temporal control of mRNAs that drive developmental programs in oocytes and embryos, to similarly exquisite control of mRNAs in neurons that underpin synaptic plasticity, and thus, memory formation. Analysis of mRNP granules in their various contexts has revealed common themes of assembly, disassembly, and modes of mRNA regulation, yet new studies continue to reveal unexpected and important findings, such as links between aberrant mRNP granule assembly and neurodegenerative disease. Continued study of these enigmatic structures thus promises fascinating new insights into cellular function, and may also suggest novel therapeutic strategies in various disease states. PMID:25531407

  3. Germ-granule components prevent somatic development in the C. elegans germline

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Andrew Kekūpa'a; Egelhofer, Thea A.; Campbell, Anne C.; Strome, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Specialized ribonucleoprotein organelles collectively known as germ granules are found in the germline cytoplasm from worms to humans [1]. In Drosophila, germ granules have been implicated in germline determination [2]. C. elegans germ granules, known as P granules, do not appear to be required for primordial germ cell (PGC) determination [3], but their components are still needed for fertility [4–6]. One potential role for P granules is to maintain germline fate and totipotency. This is suggested by the loss of P granules from germ cells that transform into somatic cell types, e.g. in germlines lacking MEX-3 and GLD-1 or upon neuronal induction by CHE-1 [7, 8]. However, it has not been established whether loss of P granules is the cause or effect of cell-fate transformation. To test cause-effect, we severely compromised P granules by simultaneously knocking down factors that nucleate granule formation (PGL-1 and PGL-3) and promote their perinuclear localization (GLH-1 and GLH-4) [9], and investigated if that causes germ cells to lose totipotency and initiate somatic reprogramming. We found that compromising P granules causes germ cells to express neuronal and muscle markers and send out neurite-like projections, suggesting that P granules maintain totipotency and germline identity by antagonizing somatic fate. PMID:24746798

  4. Review: granulation and fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history of granulation techniques is very long; however, the systematic study of the granulation phenomenon began only after 1950. The first, distinguished paper treating the fundamental binding mechanism of granules was published by Rumpf in 1958. Although there are several binding forces, the discussion in this paper is confined to granulation involving the capillary energy of a liquid-particle system. This technique has been applied widely and successfully to various fields of powder technology because of its advantages of simplicity and economy (ref. 2). Granules with diameters larger than 5 mm can be prepared efficiently by rotating-type granulators, such as a pan or a trommel (ref. 3, 4, 5). On the other hand, the purpose of fluidized-bed granulators (hereafter abbreviated as FBG) is to produce small granules with diameters from 0.3 to 3 mm (ref. 6). Because it contains a small amount of liquid, a fluidized-bed granulator has a fluidization state differing significantly from that of an ordinary fluidized bed. The dispersion of liquid and powder in the bed plays an important role in the granulation mechanism. This mechanism is compared to that of pan granulators, and the differences in characteristics are discussed.

  5. Investigation of internal structure of fine granules by microtomography using synchrotron X-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shuji; Kajihara, Ryusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Fujinami, Yukari; Suzuki, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-03-10

    Computed tomography (CT) using synchrotron X-ray radiation was evaluated as a non-destructive structural analysis method for fine granules. Two kinds of granules have been investigated: a bromhexine hydrochloride (BHX)-layered Celphere CP-102 granule coated with pH-sensitive polymer Kollicoat Smartseal 30-D, and a wax-matrix granule constructed from acetaminophen (APAP), dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, and aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) manufactured by melt granulation. The diameters of both granules were 200-300 μm. CT analysis of CP-102 granule could visualize the laminar structures of BHX and Kollicoat layers, and also visualize the high talc-content regions in the Kollicoat layer that could not be detected by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, CT analysis using X-ray energies above the absorption edge of Br specifically enhanced the contrast in the BHX layer. As for granules manufactured by melt granulation, CT analysis revealed that they had a small inner void space due to a uniform distribution of APAP and other excipients. The distribution of AMCE revealed by CT analysis was also found to involve in the differences of drug dissolution from the granules as described previously. These observations demonstrate that CT analysis using synchrotron X-ray radiation is a powerful method for the detailed internal structure analysis of fine granules. PMID:23376507

  6. Isolation of neuromelanin granules.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Neuromelanin granules are pigmented organelles in the human midbrain that give name to a brain area, substantia nigra pars compacta, which macroscopically appears as a dark brown region in the midbrain due to the insoluble pigment neuromelanin. The substantia nigra pars compacta massively degenerates in Parkinson's disease and gives rise to severely disabling movement symptoms. It has been suggested that neuromelanin granules play an important role in the neurodegenerative events in Parkinson's disease: redox-active iron is bound to neuromelanin and thereby retained within this compartment, but in Parkinson's disease it is thought to be increasingly released into the cytosol, promoting oxidative stress. This unit includes a methodological workflow for the isolation of neuromelanin granules from the human midbrain. This top-down approach (describes an approach that reduces the complexity of the sample stepwise from the level of tissue to cell, and from cell to organelle) encompasses the organelle isolation by sequential density gradient centrifugation and the assessment of the isolation efficacy by western blotting. PMID:19085988

  7. Granulation of increasingly hydrophobic formulations using a twin screw granulator.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shen; Reynolds, Gavin K; Huang, Zhenyu; de Matas, Marcel; Salman, Agba D

    2014-11-20

    The application of twin screw granulation in the pharmaceutical industry has generated increasing interest due to its suitability for continuous processing. However, an understanding of the impact of formulation properties such as hydrophobicity on intermediate and finished product quality has not yet been established. Hence, the current work investigated the granulation behaviour of three formulations containing increasing amounts of hydrophobic components using a Consigma™-1 twin screw granulator. Process conditions including powder feed rate, liquid to solid ratio, granulation liquid composition and screw configuration were also evaluated. The size of the wet granules was measured in order to enable exploration of granulation behaviour in isolation without confounding effects from downstream processes such as drying. The experimental observations indicated that the granulation process was not sensitive to the powder feed rate. The hydrophobicity led to heterogeneous liquid distribution and hence a relatively large proportion of un-wetted particles. Increasing numbers of kneading elements led to high shear and prolonged residence time, which acted to enhance the distribution of liquid and feeding materials. The bimodal size distributions considered to be characteristic of twin screw granulation were primarily ascribed to the breakage of relatively large granules by the kneading elements. PMID:25124058

  8. RNA Granules in Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Seydoux, Geraldine; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Nagamori, Ippei

    2011-01-01

    “Germ granules” are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and function. One hypothesis is that germ granules operate as hubs for the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, a function at the core of the germ cell differentiation program. PMID:21768607

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A FABRICATION PROCESS FOR SOL-GEL/METAL HYDRIDE COMPOSITE GRANULES

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Eric Frickey, E; Leung Heung, L

    2004-02-23

    dried in air at 40 C. The granules were heated to 230 C for 30 minutes in argon to remove the remaining water and organic materials. The resulting product was spherical composite granules (100 to 2000 micron diameter) with a porous silica matrix containing small agglomerates of metal hydride particles. Open porosity in the silica matrix allows hydrogen to permeate rapidly through the matrix but the pores are small enough to contain the metal hydride particles. Additional porosity around the metal hydride particles, induced using abietic acid as a pore former, allows the particles to freely expand and contract without fracturing the brittle sol-gel matrix. It was demonstrated that the granules readily absorb and desorb hydrogen while remaining integral and dimensionally stable. Microcracking was observed after the granules were cycled in hydrogen five times. The strength of the granules was improved by coating them with a thin layer of a micro-porous polymer sol-gel that would allow hydrogen to freely pass through the coating but would filter out metal hydride poisons such as water and carbon monoxide. It was demonstrated that if a thin sol-gel coating was applied after the granules were cycled, the coating not only improved the strength of the granules but the coated granules retained their strength after additional hydrogen cycling tests. This additional strength is needed to extend the lifetime of the granules and to survive the compressive load in a large column of granules. Additional hydrogen adsorption tests are planned to evaluate the performance of coated granules after one hundred cycles. Tests will also be performed to determine the effects of metal hydride poisons on the granules. The results of these tests will be documented in a separate report. The process that was developed to form these granules could be scaled to a production process. The process to form granules from a mixture of metal hydride particles and pore former such as abietic acid can be

  10. Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations. PMID:25901297

  11. Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations. PMID:25901297

  12. Development of maize starch granules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize kernels of self-pollinated inbred line B73 harvested on various days after pollination (DAP) were subjected for starch granule development studies. Starch in endosperms was first observed on 6 DAP. A small amount of starch granules (<2% of dry weight) was found in the endosperm on 12 DAP. S...

  13. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  14. Controlled-release fertilizer prepared using a biodegradable aliphatic copolyester of poly(butylene succinate) and dimerized fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Lubkowski, Krzysztof; Smorowska, Aleksandra; Grzmil, Barbara; Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-18

    The preparation and characterization of a controlled-release multicomponent (NPK) fertilizer with the coating layer consisting of a biodegradable copolymer of poly(butylene succinate) and a butylene ester of dilinoleic acid (PBS/DLA) is reported. The morphology and structure of the resulting polymer-coated materials and the thickness of the covering layers were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined with a strength-testing machine. Nutrient release was measured in water using spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and conductivity methods. The results of the nutrient release experiments from these polymer-coated materials were compared with the requirements for controlled-release fertilizers. A conceptual model is presented describing the mechanism of nutrient release from the materials prepared in this study. This model is based on the concentrations of mineral components inside the water-penetrated fertilizer granules, the diffusion properties of the nutrients in water, and a diffusion coefficient through the polymer layer. The experimental kinetic data on nutrient release were interpreted using the sigmoidal model equation developed in this study. PMID:25715823

  15. A Role for Myosin 1e in Cortical Granule Exocytosis in Xenopus Oocytes*s

    PubMed Central

    Schietroma, Cataldo; Yu, Hoi-Ying; Wagner, Mark C.; Umbach, Joy A.; Bement, William M.; Gundersen, Cameron B.

    2010-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes undergo dynamic structural changes during maturation and fertilization. Among these, cortical granule exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis provide effective models to study membrane trafficking. This study documents an important role for myosin1e in cortical granule exocytosis. Myosin1e is expressed at the earliest stage that cortical granule exocytosis can be detected in oocytes. Prior to exocytosis, myosin1e relocates to the surface of cortical granules. Overexpression of myosin1e augments the kinetics of cortical granule exocytosis, whereas tail-derived fragments of myosin1e inhibit this secretory event (but not constitutive exocytosis). Finally, intracellular injection of myosin1e antibody inhibits cortical granule exocytosis. Further experiments identified cysteine string proteins as interacting partners for myosin1e. As constituents of the membrane of cortical granules, cysteine string proteins are also essential for cortical granule exocytosis. Future investigation of the link between myosin1e and cysteine string proteins should help to clarify basic mechanisms of regulated exocytosis. PMID:17702742

  16. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  17. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  18. Granule consolidation during compaction.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, M H

    1976-03-01

    The deformation of small cylindrical aggregates of dibasic calcium phosphate was measured during compaction. An analogy between these aggregates and cylindrical granules was proposed. No change in the original shape of the aggregates occurred; the cylindrical shape was maintained even at high compaction pressures. Relaxation of the aggregates occurred at pressures higher than 420 MNm-2 (60.9 x 10(3) lb in.-2) when removed from the compacts, but no relaxation took place at pressures below this value. In addition, the aggregates relaxed by an increase in thickness only; there was no corresponding change in diameter. Up to a pressure of 200 MNm-2 (29.0 x 10(3) lb in.-2), an increase in aggregate diameter occurred, which was accompanied by a reduction in thickness. This change produced only a small reduction in volume, which was attributable to interparticulate slippage resulting in a closer packed arrangement. At a pressure of 200 MNm-2, the aggregate diameter no longer increased because solid bridges were formed between the particles and the die wall, preventing further spreading. From 200 to 420 MNm-2, failure of the material occurred by plastic deformation, which produced only a decrease in aggregate thickness. From 420 to 800 MNm-2 (116.0 x 10(3) lb in.-2), a structure was formed that could support the applied load without further reduction of thickness, and this structure was shown to behave elastically. PMID:1263085

  19. Granulopoiesis and granules of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Cowland, Jack B; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Granules are essential for the ability of neutrophils to fulfill their role in innate immunity. Granule membranes contain proteins that react to environmental cues directing neutrophils to sites of infection and initiate generation of bactericidal oxygen species. Granules are densely packed with proteins that contribute to microbial killing when liberated to the phagosome or extracellularly. Granules are, however, highly heterogeneous and are traditionally subdivided into azurophil granules, specific granules, and gelatinase granules in addition to secretory vesicles. This review will address issues pertinent to formation of granules, which is a process intimately connected to maturation of neutrophils from their precursors in the bone marrow. We further discuss possible mechanisms by which decisions are made regarding sorting of proteins to constitutive secretion or storage in granules and how degranulation of granule subsets is regulated. PMID:27558325

  20. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; De Leersnyder, Fien; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2016-07-30

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading elements in the granulator screw allowing the production of granules with a size distribution appropriate for tableting. The distribution of residence time and granulation liquid is governed by the field conditions (such as location and length of mixing zones) in the twin-screw granulator, thus contain interesting information on granulation time, mixing and resulting sub-processes such as wetting, aggregation and breakage. In this study, the impact of process (feed rate, screw speed and liquid-to-solid ratio) and equipment parameters (number of kneading discs and stagger angle) on the residence time (distribution), the granulation liquid-powder mixing and the resulting granule size distributions during twin-screw granulation were investigated. Residence time and axial mixing data was extracted from tracer maps and the solid-liquid mixing was quantified from moisture maps, obtained by monitoring the granules at the granulator outlet using near infra-red chemical imaging (NIR-CI). The granule size distribution was measured using the sieving method. An increasing screw speed dominantly reduced the mean residence time. Interaction of material throughput with the screw speed and with the number of kneading discs led to most variation in the studied responses including residence time and mixing capacity. At a high screw speed, granulation yield improved due to high axial mixing. However, increasing material throughput quickly lowers the yield due to insufficient mixing of liquid and powder. Moreover, increasing liquid-to-solid ratio resulted in more oversized granules, and the fraction of oversized granules further increased at higher throughput. Although an increasing number

  1. Suppression of Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Based Fertilizers Using Urease Inhibitors: A Reasonably Available Control Technology for Agriculture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia loss from fertilizers can impact formation of atmospheric aerosols, as well as contribute to nitrogen (N) deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urea is the predominant form of N fertilizer used worldwide due to its high N content (46.6% N) and low cost. Once in contact with soil or vegetation, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonium via naturally occurring urease enzymes. Losses of N from surface applied urea as ammonia can exceed 30%. To address this issue, various physical and chemical mechanisms have been incorporated into granular urea. The most common approach is incorporation of urease inhibitors such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). We have been investigating ammonia volatilization from urea granules (+/- urease inhibitors) in various field and laboratory controlled experiments for the past several years. Laboratory experiments are conducted with a customized growth chamber system designed to continuously measure ammonia volatilization. Field measurements are conducted using a passive sampler technology with an acid-coated trap in PVC cylinders, or annular denuder technology using flow-through PVC chambers. Daily exchanges of acid-coated denuder tubes enhance the sensitivity of ammonia volatilization measurements for the urease-inhibitor treated product. Loss of N from commercial urea granules has ranged from 6 - ~ 35%, depending on ambient temperature. This loss typically occurs within the first 5-10 days under field conditions. Some urease-inhibitors can minimize loss of N via volatilization (< 5%) for up to 20+ days in the absence of a rainfall event. Visual observations have confirmed that on bare soil, treated or untreated urea granules quickly "dissolve" and move into the soil. The accompanying urease-inhibitor formulation moves with the urea continuing to provide protection against reaction with naturally occurring urease enzymes. Use of urease-inhibitors does not guarantee increased crop yields or NUE, but the consistency of

  2. Application of polyhydroxyalkanoate granules for sizing of paper.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Robert; Marchessault, Robert H

    2010-04-12

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are characterized by the chemistry of the biodegradable inclusions inside the microbial membrane. They are produced by a wide variety of bacteria, where they function as energy and carbon storage materials. This intracellular Bioplastic forms a stable latex suitable for surface treatments of paper such as sizing and coating. In this work, we compare native granules and artificial granules made from market poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV), for their ability as sizing agent. Paper sizing was assayed by measuring the resistance of sized paper to penetration by aqueous fluids. Our results indicate that the sizing effect of PHAs is dependent on several factors, such as, paper drying temperature, drying time, pressure, and polymer composition, that is, homopolymer, random copolymer, and texture of granules. The sizing efficiency of the copolymer is generally poor compared to the PHB homopolymer. In addition to water permeability, the tensile strength of sized paper was measured and physical properties of granule suspensions were recorded using SEM microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic light scattering. PMID:20155934

  3. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  4. CSR-1 and P granules suppress sperm-specific transcription in the C. elegans germline.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne C; Updike, Dustin L

    2015-05-15

    Germ granules (P granules) in C. elegans are required for fertility and function to maintain germ cell identity and pluripotency. Sterility in the absence of P granules is often accompanied by the misexpression of soma-specific proteins and the initiation of somatic differentiation in germ cells. To investigate whether this is caused by the accumulation of somatic transcripts, we performed mRNA-seq on dissected germlines with and without P granules. Strikingly, we found that somatic transcripts do not increase in the young adult germline when P granules are impaired. Instead, we found that impairing P granules causes sperm-specific mRNAs to become highly overexpressed. This includes the accumulation of major sperm protein (MSP) transcripts in germ cells, a phenotype that is suppressed by feminization of the germline. A core component of P granules, the endo-siRNA-binding Argonaute protein CSR-1, has recently been ascribed with the ability to license transcripts for germline expression. However, impairing CSR-1 has very little effect on the accumulation of its mRNA targets. Instead, we found that CSR-1 functions with P granules to prevent MSP and sperm-specific mRNAs from being transcribed in the hermaphrodite germline. These findings suggest that P granules protect germline integrity through two different mechanisms, by (1) preventing the inappropriate expression of somatic proteins at the level of translational regulation, and by (2) functioning with CSR-1 to limit the domain of sperm-specific expression at the level of transcription. PMID:25968310

  5. Chile Pepper Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following two years of continuous corn production. A polymer-coated urea, ESN® (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen), N fertilizer source was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased ...

  6. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  7. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  8. Process optimization for continuous extrusion wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Carella, Anthony J; Ren, Yukun; Lo, Julian B

    2011-08-01

    Three granulating binders in high drug-load acetaminophen blends were evaluated using high shear granulation and extrusion granulation. A polymethacrylate binder enhanced tablet tensile strength with rapid disintegration in simulated gastric fluid, whereas polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroxypropyl cellulose binders produced less desirable tablets. Using the polymethacrylate binder, the extrusion granulation process was studied regarding the effects of granulating liquid, injection rate and screw speed on granule properties. A full factorial experimental design was conducted to allow the statistical analysis of interactions between extrusion process parameters. Response variables considered in the study included extruder power consumption (screw loading), granule bulk/tapped density, particle size distribution, tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution. PMID:20367553

  9. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  10. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Italiano, J.E.; Battinelli, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. The majority of this vast array of secreted proteins is stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets. PMID:19630794

  11. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  12. Formation of Potato Virus A-Induced RNA Granules and Viral Translation Are Interrelated Processes Required for Optimal Virus Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hafrén, Anders; Lõhmus, Andres; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    RNA granules are cellular structures, which play an important role in mRNA translation, storage, and degradation. Animal (+)RNA viruses often co-opt RNA granule proteins for viral reproduction. However, the role of RNA granules in plant viral infections is poorly understood. Here we use Potato virus A (PVA) as a model potyvirus and demonstrate that the helper component-proteinase (HCpro), the potyviral suppressor of RNA silencing, induces the formation of RNA granules. We used confocal microscopy to demonstrate the presence of host RNA binding proteins including acidic ribosomal protein P0, argonaute 1 (AGO1), oligouridylate-binding protein 1 (UBP1), varicose (VCS) and eukaryotic initiation factor iso4E (eIF(iso)4E) in these potyvirus-induced RNA granules. We show that the number of potyviral RNA granules is down-regulated by the genome-linked viral protein (VPg). We demonstrated previously that VPg is a virus-specific translational regulator that co-operates with potyviral RNA granule components P0 and eIF(iso)4E in PVA translation. In this study we show that HCpro and varicose, components of potyviral RNA granules, stimulate VPg-promoted translation of the PVA, whereas UBP1 inhibits this process. Hence, we propose that PVA translation operates via a pathway that is interrelated with potyviral RNA granules in PVA infection. The importance of these granules is evident from the strong reduction in viral RNA and coat protein amounts that follows knock down of potyviral RNA granule components. HCpro suppresses antiviral RNA silencing during infection, and our results allow us to propose that this is also the functional context of the potyviral RNA granules we describe in this study. PMID:26641460

  13. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Tervahauta, Taina; van der Weijden, Renata D; Flemming, Roberta L; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1-2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11-13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product. PMID:24183558

  14. [Hemocompatibility of various synthetic granulates].

    PubMed

    Jung, F; Mrowietz, C; Seyfert, U T; Franke, R P

    1997-06-01

    The adherence of platelets to different polymer granulates was examined in a perfusion chamber filled with platelet-rich plasma. The surface area of each of the granulates was of a standardised size. The results were compared with those found for a non-thrombogenic and a highly thrombogenic foreign-body surface. The three polymers examined-Cryolite, Styrolux and Zylar-must be considered non-thrombogenic. Platelet adherence to these substances is significantly less (3%) than that to a highly thrombogenic surface such as glass (95%). The three materials did not differ in terms of platelet adherence, and would appear to be suitable potential materials for use in cell separators. PMID:9312306

  15. Iron granules in plasma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, M K; Madden, M

    1982-01-01

    The curious and unusual finding of coarse iron granules in marrow plasma cells is reported in 13 patients, in whom the finding was incidental. In 10 of these patients there was known alcohol abuse and serious medical complications of that abuse. Previous reports of the finding are reviewed. Haematological data of the 13 patients are presented. A hypothesis is outlined which may account for the finding. Images PMID:7068907

  16. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme. PMID:25661308

  17. Protein mobility within secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Bittner, Mary A; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the basis for previous observations that fluorescent-labeled neuropeptide Y (NPY) is usually released within 200 ms after fusion, whereas labeled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is often discharged over many seconds. We found that tPA and NPY are endogenously expressed in small and different subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells in culture. We measured the mobility of these proteins (tagged with fluorophore) within the lumen of individual secretory granules in living chromaffin cells, and related their mobilities to postfusion release kinetics. A method was developed that is not limited by standard optical resolution, in which a bright flash of strongly decaying evanescent field (∼64 nm exponential decay constant) produced by total internal reflection (TIR) selectively bleaches cerulean-labeled protein proximal to the glass coverslip within individual granules. Fluorescence recovery occurred as unbleached protein from distal regions within the 300 nm granule diffused into the bleached proximal regions. The fractional bleaching of tPA-cerulean (tPA-cer) was greater when subsequently probed with TIR excitation than with epifluorescence, indicating that tPA-cer mobility was low. The almost equal NPY-cer bleaching when probed with TIR and epifluorescence indicated that NPY-cer equilibrated within the 300 ms bleach pulse, and therefore had a greater mobility than tPA-cer. TIR-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed a significant recovery of tPA-cer (but not NPY-cer) fluorescence within several hundred milliseconds after bleaching. Numerical simulations, which take into account bleach duration, granule diameter, and the limited number of fluorophores in a granule, are consistent with tPA-cer being 100% mobile, with a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10(-10) cm(2)/s (∼1/3000 of that for a protein of similar size in aqueous solution). However, the low diffusive mobility of tPA cannot alone explain its slow postfusion release. In the

  18. RNAi Screen Identifies Novel Regulators of RNP Granules in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germ Line.

    PubMed

    Wood, Megan P; Hollis, Angela; Severance, Ashley L; Karrick, Megan L; Schisa, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Complexes of RNA and RNA binding proteins form large-scale supramolecular structures under many cellular contexts. In Caenorhabditis elegans, small germ granules are present in the germ line that share characteristics with liquid droplets that undergo phase transitions. In meiotically-arrested oocytes of middle-aged hermaphrodites, the germ granules appear to aggregate or condense into large assemblies of RNA-binding proteins and maternal mRNAs. Prior characterization of the assembly of large-scale RNP structures via candidate approaches has identified a small number of regulators of phase transitions in the C. elegans germ line; however, the assembly, function, and regulation of these large RNP assemblies remain incompletely understood. To identify genes that promote remodeling and assembly of large RNP granules in meiotically-arrested oocytes, we performed a targeted, functional RNAi screen and identified over 300 genes that regulate the assembly of the RNA-binding protein MEX-3 into large granules. Among the most common GO classes are several categories related to RNA biology, as well as novel categories such as cell cortex, ER, and chromosome segregation. We found that arrested oocytes that fail to localize MEX-3 into cortical granules display reduced oocyte quality, consistent with the idea that the larger RNP assemblies promote oocyte quality when fertilization is delayed. Interestingly, a relatively small number of genes overlap with the regulators of germ granule assembly during normal development, or with the regulators of solid RNP granules in cgh-1 oocytes, suggesting fundamental differences in the regulation of RNP granule phase transitions during meiotic arrest. PMID:27317775

  19. RNAi Screen Identifies Novel Regulators of RNP Granules in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germ Line

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Megan P.; Hollis, Angela; Severance, Ashley L.; Karrick, Megan L.; Schisa, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Complexes of RNA and RNA binding proteins form large-scale supramolecular structures under many cellular contexts. In Caenorhabditis elegans, small germ granules are present in the germ line that share characteristics with liquid droplets that undergo phase transitions. In meiotically-arrested oocytes of middle-aged hermaphrodites, the germ granules appear to aggregate or condense into large assemblies of RNA-binding proteins and maternal mRNAs. Prior characterization of the assembly of large-scale RNP structures via candidate approaches has identified a small number of regulators of phase transitions in the C. elegans germ line; however, the assembly, function, and regulation of these large RNP assemblies remain incompletely understood. To identify genes that promote remodeling and assembly of large RNP granules in meiotically-arrested oocytes, we performed a targeted, functional RNAi screen and identified over 300 genes that regulate the assembly of the RNA-binding protein MEX-3 into large granules. Among the most common GO classes are several categories related to RNA biology, as well as novel categories such as cell cortex, ER, and chromosome segregation. We found that arrested oocytes that fail to localize MEX-3 into cortical granules display reduced oocyte quality, consistent with the idea that the larger RNP assemblies promote oocyte quality when fertilization is delayed. Interestingly, a relatively small number of genes overlap with the regulators of germ granule assembly during normal development, or with the regulators of solid RNP granules in cgh-1 oocytes, suggesting fundamental differences in the regulation of RNP granule phase transitions during meiotic arrest. PMID:27317775

  20. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers. PMID:16124498

  1. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, rendezvin, and ovoperoxidase. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs deceased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, and different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation of the cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species–sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxa in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization. PMID:23331915

  2. Balloon-borne imagery of the solar granulation. II - The lifetime of solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehltretter, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Phenomenological aspects of the temporal evolution of photospheric granulation are reported as derived from time series of granulation photographs obtained during a flight of a balloon-borne telescope. The distribution of granule lifetime probabilities is determined, and it is found that the data can be represented by an exponential decrease with a 'decay constant' of 5.9 min. The general properties of granular evolution are described along with the way individual granules evolve with time. The most common type of granule is shown to be a medium-sized or small fragment, and it is suggested that all granules are produced by fragmentation of preexisting granules. The relative frequencies of granule destruction by fragmentation, fading, and merging are determined to be 51%, 21%, and 28%, respectively. An average radial velocity of 0.8 km/s is computed for conglomerates with an average diameter of 2.25 arcsec.

  3. Calcium spatial distribution in aerobic granules and its effects on granule structure, strength and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ting-Ting; Liu, Li; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Zhang, Ming-Chuan; Zhu, Jian-Rong

    2008-07-01

    Calcium-rich aerobic granules were cultivated after 3-month operation. The chemical form and spatial distribution of calcium in the granules and their physicochemical characteristics were explored. Examination with a scanning electron microscope combined energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX) shows that Ca was mainly accumulated in the core of the granules. CaCO(3) was found to be the main calcium precipitate in the granules. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that the cells were crowded in the outer layer and gathered in clusters. Compared with the granules without Ca accumulation, the Ca-rich granules had more rigid structure and a higher strength. However, their specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) reduced after the Ca accumulation inside them. Comparison between the SOUR values of the granules with and without Ca accumulation suggests that Ca accumulated in the aerobic granules might have a negative effect on their bioactivity. PMID:18514253

  4. Carbon granule probe microphone for leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1985-02-01

    A microphone which is not subject to corrosion is provided by employing carbon granules to sense sound waves. The granules are packed into a ceramic tube and no diaphragm is used. A pair of electrodes is located in the tube adjacent the carbon granules and are coupled to a sensing circuit. Sound waves cause pressure changes on the carbon granules which results in a change in resistance in the electrical path between the electrodes. This change in resistance is detected by the sensing circuit. The microphone is suitable for use as a leak detection probe in recovery boilers, where it provides reliable operation without corrosion problems associated with conventional microphones.

  5. Corrosion behavior of HVOF coated sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Abdul-Aleem, B. J.; Khalid, M.

    2003-12-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating finds application in industry due to its superior resistance to corrosion and thermal loading. In the HVOF process, the metallic powders at elevated temperature are sprayed at supersonic speed onto a substrate material. The powder granules sprayed impact onto each other, forming a mechanical bonding across the coating layer. In most of the cases, the distances among the particles (powder granules sprayed) are not the same, which in turn results in inhomogeneous structure across the coating layer. Moreover, the rate of oxidation of the powder granules during the spraying process varies. Consequently, the electrochemical response of the coating layer surfaces next to the base material and free to atmosphere differs. In the current study, the electrochemical response of a coating sheet formed during HVOF thermal spraying was investigated. NiCrMoNb alloy (similar to Inconel 625) wass used for the powder granules. Thermal spraying was carried out onto a smooth surface of stainless steel workpiece (without grid blasting), and later the coating layer was removed from the surface to obtain the coating sheet for the electrochemical tests. It was found that the corrosion rate of the smooth surface (surface next to the stainless steel surface before its removal) is considerably larger than that corresponding to the rough surface (free surface) of the coating sheet, and no specific patterns were observed for the pit sites.

  6. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. PMID:25869451

  7. Ceramic granule strength variability and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Readey, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    Diametral compression strength distributions and the compaction behavior and of irregular shape 150--200 {mu}m ceramic granules and uniform-size 210 {mu}m glass spheres were measured to determine how granule strength variability relates to compaction behavior of granular assemblies. High variability in strength, represented by low Weibull modulus values (m<3) was observed for ceramic granules having a distribution of sizes and shapes, and for uniform-size glass spheres. Compaction pressure data were also analyzed using a Weibull distribution function, and the results were very similar to those obtained from the diametral compression strength tests for the same material. This similarity suggests that it may be possible to model granule compaction using a weakest link theory, whereby an assemblage of granules is viewed as the links of a chain, and failure of the weakest granule (i.e., the weakest link) leads to rearrangement and compaction. Additionally, with the use of Weibull statistics, it appears to be possible to infer the variability in strength of individual granules from a simple pressure compaction test, circumventing the tedious task of testing individual granules.

  8. Continuous twin screw granulation: influence of process variables on granule and tablet quality.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Córdoba Díaz, D; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to screen theophylline (125 mg) tablets manufactured via twin screw granulation in order to improve process understanding and knowledge of process variables that determine granule and tablet quality. A premix of theophylline anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and PVP (ratio: 30/67.5/2.5,w/w) was granulated with demineralized water. Experiments were done using the high-shear wet granulation module (based on twin screw granulation) of the ConsiGma™-25 unit (a continuous tablet manufacturing system) for particle size enlargement. After drying, granules were compressed using a MODUL™ P tablet press (compression force: 10 kN, tablet diameter: 12 mm). Using a D-optimal experimental design, the effect of several process variables (throughput (10-25 kg/h), screw speed (600-950 rpm), screw configuration (number (2, 4, 6 and 12) and angle (30°, 60° and 90°) of kneading elements), barrel temperature (25-40°C) and method of binder addition (dry versus wet)) on the granulation process (torque and temperature increase in barrel wall), granule (particle size distribution, friability and flowability) and tablet (tensile strength, porosity, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality was evaluated. The results showed that the quality of granules and tablets can be optimized by adjusting specific process variables (number of kneading elements, barrel temperature and binder addition method) during a granulation process using a continuous twin screw granulator. PMID:22687571

  9. Mast cell secretory granules: armed for battle.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Sara; Pejler, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells of the immune system and recent studies show that they have immunomodulatory roles in diverse processes in both health and disease. Mast cells are distinguished by their high content of electron-dense secretory granules, which are filled with large amounts of preformed and pre-activated immunomodulatory compounds. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, a process by which these preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on an immune response are closely associated with the biological actions of the granule compounds that they release, as exemplified by the recent studies showing that mast cell granule proteases account for many of the protective and detrimental effects of mast cells in various inflammatory settings. In this Review, we discuss the current knowledge of mast cell secretory granules. PMID:24903914

  10. Electrochemical performance of granulated titania nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, O.; Pratsinis, S. E.; de Chambrier, E.; Crouzet, M.; Exnar, I.

    The electrochemical performance of Li-ion insertion into electrodes made of various sizes of anatase titania nanoparticles embedded in larger granulated entities (1-10 μm) is investigated. The granules are formed by spray drying of a suspension containing titania nanoparticles made by hydrolyzing titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). Depending on the three process steps, i.e. hydrolysis-condensation, hydrothermal processing and spray drying, different properties for the electrode made from these granules can be achieved in terms of phase composition, specific surface area (SSA) and specific charge capacity. Hydrothermally processed (HP) particles are more resistant to calcination than sol-gel precipitated (SGP) ones and have a higher SSA which leads to a better performance with respect to specific charge capacity. Electrodes made from granulated nanoparticles have superior specific charge capacity than from non-granulated ones as the former have more inter-particle contacts.

  11. [Correlation of dry granulation process parameters and granule quality based on multiple regression analysis].

    PubMed

    Cao, Han-Han; Du, Ruo-Fei; Yang, Jia-Ning; Feng, Yi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, microcrystalline cellulose WJ101 was used as a model material to investigate the effect of various process parameters on granule yield and friability after dry granulation with a single factor and the effect of comprehensive inspection process parameters on the effect of granule yield and friability, then the correlation between process parameters and granule quality was established. The regress equation was established between process parameters and granule yield and friability by multiple regression analysis, the affecting the order of the size of the order of the process parameters on granule yield and friability was: rollers speed > rollers pressure > speed of horizontal feed. Granule yield was positively correlated with pressure and speed of horizontal feed and negatively correlated rollers speed, while friability was on the contrary. By comparison, fitted value and real value, fitted and real value are basically the same of no significant differences (P > 0.05) and with high precision and reliability. PMID:24961115

  12. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  13. Influence of metronidazole particle properties on granules prepared in a high-shear mixer-granulator.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Piera; Censi, Roberta; Malaj, Ledjan; Martelli, Sante; Joiris, Etienne; Barthélémy, Christine

    2007-02-01

    Metronidazole is a good example of high-dose drug substance with poor granulating and tableting properties. Tablets are generally produced by liquid granulation; however, the technological process failure is quite frequent. In order to verify how the metronidazole particle characteristics can influence granule properties, three metronidazole batches differing for crystal habit, mean particle size, BET surface area and wettability were selected, primarily designed according to their different elongation ratio: needle-shaped, stick-shaped, and isodimensional. In the presence of lactose monohydrate and pregelatinized maize starch, respectively as diluent and binder, they were included in a formula for wet granulation in a high-shear mixer-granulator. In order to render the process comparable as far as possible, all parameters and experimental conditions were maintained constant. Four granule batches were obtained: granules from placebo (G-placebo), granules from needle-shaped crystals (G-needle-shaped), granules from stick-shaped crystals (G-stick-shaped), and granules from isodimensional crystals (G-isodimensional). Different granule properties were considered, in particular concerning porosity, friability, loss on drying (LOD), and flowability. In order to study their tabletability and compressibility, the different granules obtained were then compressed in a rotary press. The best tabletability was obtained with the isodimensional batch, while the poorest was exhibited by the stick-shaped one. Differences in tabletability are in good accordance with compressibility results: to a better tabletability corresponds an important granule ability to undergo a volume reduction as a result of an applied pressure. In particular, it was proposed that the greatest compressibility of the G-isodimensional must be related to the greatest granule porosity percentage. PMID:17454043

  14. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  15. Impact of screw configuration on the particle size distribution of granules produced by twin screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Burggraeve, A; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-02-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) has been reported by different research groups as an attractive technology for continuous wet granulation. However, in contrast to fluidized bed granulation, granules produced via this technique typically have a wide and multimodal particle size distribution (PSD), resulting in suboptimal flow properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of granulator screw configuration on the PSD of granules produced by TSG. Experiments were performed using a 25 mm co-rotating twin screw granulator, being part of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line from GEA Pharma Systems). Besides the screw elements conventionally used for TSG (conveying and kneading elements), alternative designs of screw elements (tooth-mixing-elements (TME), screw mixing elements (SME) and cutters) were investigated using an α-lactose monohydrate formulation granulated with distilled water. Granulation with only conveying elements resulted in wide and multimodal PSD. Using kneading elements, the width of the PSD could be partially narrowed and the liquid distribution was more homogeneous. However, still a significant fraction of oversized agglomerates was obtained. Implementing additional kneading elements or cutters in the final section of the screw configuration was not beneficial. Furthermore, granulation with only TME or SME had limited impact on the width of the PSD. Promising results were obtained by combining kneading elements with SME, as for these configurations the PSD was narrower and shifted to the size fractions suitable for tableting. PMID:25562758

  16. Reduced tabletability of roller compacted granules as a result of granule size enlargement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin; Himmelspach, Micah W

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism for the frequently observed "loss of reworkability or tabletability" of dry-granulated (DG) powders was investigated in detail using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). It was hypothesized that granule size enlargement is the primary mechanism to the phenomenon. Detrimental effects of size enlargement on tabletability of plastic materials are predictable based on the physical model of interparticulate bonding within a tablet. In absence of extensive fracture of particles/granules, larger particles/granules exhibit lower surface area available for bonding thus lower tensile strength when compressed under identical conditions. Size effects were first demonstrated using different grades of MCC powders, both whole and sieved, of different particle size distributions. Regardless grade and sieve fraction, larger particles always resulted in lower tabletability, that is, lower tensile strength at the same compaction pressure. It was subsequently shown that enlargement of granules also reduced powder tabletability regardless grade of MCC. Tabletability of sieved granules after roller compacted for one, two, and four times decreased monotonically with increasing granule size but independent of the total number of roller compaction. Moreover, tabletability of fine granules (44-106 microm) was higher than that of coarse MCC powder (Avicel PH-200). These results suggest that the primary mechanism for reduced tabletabilty of DG granules of MCC is granule size enlargement rather than "work-hardening." PMID:16315244

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  19. Asymmetric distribution in twin screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Chan Seem, Tim; Rowson, Neil A; Gabbott, Ian; de Matas, Marcel; Reynolds, Gavin K; Ingram, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) was successfully employed to validate measured transverse asymmetry in material distribution in the conveying zones of a Twin Screw Granulator (TSG). Flow asymmetry was established to be a property of the granulator geometry and dependent on fill level. The liquid distribution of granules as a function of fill level was determined. High flow asymmetry at low fill level negatively affects granule nucleation leading to high variance in final uniformity. Wetting of material during nucleation was identified as a critical parameter in determining final granule uniformity and fill level is highlighted as a crucial control factor in achieving this. Flow asymmetry of dry material in conveying zones upstream of binder fluid injection leads to poor non-uniform wetting at nucleation and results in heterogeneous final product. The granule formation mechanism of 60°F kneading blocks is suggested to be primarily breakage of agglomerates formed during nucleation. Optimisation of screw configuration would be required to provide secondary growth. This work shows how fill dependent flow regimes affect granulation mechanisms. PMID:26820919

  20. Analysis of the release process of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride from ethylcellulose matrix granules V. Release properties of ethylcellulose layered matrix granules.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Atsuko; Fujii, Ryuta; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2008-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical preparation of a controlled release drug, it is very important and necessary to understand the release properties. In previous papers, a combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations was confirmed to be a useful equation for qualitative treatment. It was also confirmed that the combination equation could analyze the release properties of layered granules as well as matrix granules. The drug release property from layered granules is different from that of matrix granules. A time lag occurs before release, and the entire release property of layered granules was analyzed using the combination of the square-root time law and cube-root law equations. It is considered that the analysis method is very useful and efficient for both matrix and layered granules. Comparing the granulation methods, it is easier to control the manufacturing process by tumbling granulation (method B) than by tumbling-fluidized bed granulation (method C). Ethylcellulose (EC) layered granulation by a fluidized bed granulator might be convenient for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms as compared with a tumbling granulator, because the layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator can granulate and dry at the same time. The time required for drying by the fluidized bed granulator is shorter than that by the tumbling granulator, so the fluidized bed granulator is convenient for preparation of granules in handling and shorter processing time than the tumbling granulator. It was also suggested that the EC layered granules prepared by the fluidized bed granulator were suitable for a controlled release system as well as the EC matrix granules. PMID:18379102

  1. Development and Evaluation of Taste Masked Granular Formulation of Satranidazole by Melt Granulation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal Ashok; Joshi, Pooja Rasiklal

    2014-01-01

    Drugs from nitroimidazole category are generally bitter in taste. Oral formulation with bitter taste is not palatable. Geriatrics and pediatrics patients usually suffer from swallowing difficulties. Many other patients in some disease conditions avoid swallowing tablets. Satranidazole is a new nitro-imidazole derivative with bitter taste and is available in market as film coated tablet. The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Satranidazole by coating complexation with low melting point wax and Eudragit EPO. Different types of wax (glyceryl monostearate, stearic acid and cetyl alcohol) were tried for taste masking. The drug to stearic acid ratio 1 : 2 was found to be optimum on the basis of taste evaluation and in vitro release. The formulated granules were found to possess good flow property. FTIR studies confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. Scanning Electron Microscopy of drug and the optimized batch of granules was performed. The in vitro release of drug from granules was compared with marketed tablet formulation. The taste masked granules of optimized batch showed 87.65% release of drug in 1 hr which is comparable to that of marketed tablet formulation. PMID:26556200

  2. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  3. [Optimization of dry granulating technique of Qibai Pingfei granule through response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Li, Yun-xiao; Xu, Zhen-qiu; Meng, Jin; Yan, Ming; Jin, Rui-ting; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    To determine the optimum process conditions for dry granulating technique of Qibai Pingfei granule, granule excipient type, rolling wheel speed and pressure and feeding speed were studied. Taking shaping rate at a time, moisture absorption and dissolubility as index, the type and amount of granule excipient were determined. In addition, taking shaping rate at a time as index, parameters of rolling wheel speed and pressure and feeding speed were researched through single factor test and response surface methodology. The optimum parameters were as follows: lactose as excipient, dry extract powder to excipient at 1:2, rolling wheel speed and pressure at 10.9 Hz and 6.4 MPa and feeding speed at 7.2 Hz. After validation of three batches pilot-scale production, the optimum processing parameters for dry granulating technique of Qibai Pingfei granule is reasonable and feasible, which can provide reliable basis for production. PMID:26677695

  4. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers. PMID:17826902

  5. Regulation of RNA granule dynamics by phosphorylation of serine-rich, intrinsically disordered proteins in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer T; Smith, Jarrett; Chen, Bi-Chang; Schmidt, Helen; Rasoloson, Dominique; Paix, Alexandre; Lambrus, Bramwell G; Calidas, Deepika; Betzig, Eric; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    RNA granules have been likened to liquid droplets whose dynamics depend on the controlled dissolution and condensation of internal components. The molecules and reactions that drive these dynamics in vivo are not well understood. In this study, we present evidence that a group of intrinsically disordered, serine-rich proteins regulate the dynamics of P granules in C. elegans embryos. The MEG (maternal-effect germline defective) proteins are germ plasm components that are required redundantly for fertility. We demonstrate that MEG-1 and MEG-3 are substrates of the kinase MBK-2/DYRK and the phosphatase PP2APPTR−½. Phosphorylation of the MEGs promotes granule disassembly and dephosphorylation promotes granule assembly. Using lattice light sheet microscopy on live embryos, we show that GFP-tagged MEG-3 localizes to a dynamic domain that surrounds and penetrates each granule. We conclude that, despite their liquid-like behavior, P granules are non-homogeneous structures whose assembly in embryos is regulated by phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04591.001 PMID:25535836

  6. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

  7. Insulin Granule Biogenesis, Trafficking and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, June Chunqiu; Min, Le; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that beta cell dysfunction resulting in abnormal insulin secretion is the essential element in the progression of patients from a state of impaired glucose tolerance to frank type 2 diabetes (Del Prato, 2003; Del Prato and Tiengo, 2001). Although extensive studies have examined the molecular, cellular and physiologic mechanisms of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, and exocytosis the precise mechanisms controlling these processes and their dysregulation in the developed of diabetes remains an area of important investigation. We now know that insulin biogenesis initiates with the synthesis of preproinsulin in rough endoplastic reticulum and conversion of preproinsulin to proinsulin. Proinsulin begins to be packaged in the Trans-Golgi Network and is sorting into immature secretory granules. These immature granules become acidic via ATP-dependent proton pump and proinsulin undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting the formation of insulin and C-peptide. During the granule maturation process, insulin is crystallized with zinc and calcium in the form of dense-core granules and unwanted cargo and membrane proteins undergo selective retrograde trafficking to either the constitutive trafficking pathway for secretion or to degradative pathways. The newly formed mature dense-core insulin granules populate two different intracellular pools, the readily releasable pools (RRP) and the reserved pool. These two distinct populations are thought to be responsible for the biphasic nature of insulin release in which the RRP granules are associated with the plasma membrane and undergo an acute calcium-dependent release accounting for first phase insulin secretion. In contrast, second phase insulin secretion requires the trafficking of the reserved granule pool to the plasma membrane. The initial trigger for insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane is a rise in intracellular calcium and in the case of glucose stimulation results from

  8. Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique. PMID:25402966

  9. Process analysis of fluidized bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, J; Jørgensen, A; Räsänen, E; Luukkonen, P; Airaksinen, S; Raiman, J; Hänninen, K; Antikainen, O; Yliruusi, J

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the fluidized bed granulation process for the optimization of a model formulation using in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for moisture determination. The granulation process was analyzed using an automated granulator and optimization of the verapamil hydrochloride formulation was performed using a mixture design. The NIR setup with a fixed wavelength detector was applied for moisture measurement. Information from other process measurements, temperature difference between process inlet air and granules (T(diff)), and water content of process air (AH), was also analyzed. The application of in-line NIR provided information related to the amount of water throughout the whole granulation process. This information combined with trend charts of T(diff) and AH enabled the analysis of the different process phases. By this means, we can obtain in-line documentation from all the steps of the processing. The choice of the excipient affected the nature of the solid-water interactions; this resulted in varying process times. NIR moisture measurement combined with temperature and humidity measurements provides a tool for the control of water during fluid bed granulation. PMID:14727858

  10. Role of Microtubules in Stress Granule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Konstantin G.; Barbet, Aurélie; Hamon, Loic; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Pastré, David

    2009-01-01

    Following exposure to various stresses (arsenite, UV, hyperthermia, and hypoxia), mRNAs are assembled into large cytoplasmic bodies known as “stress granules,” in which mRNAs and associated proteins may be processed by specific enzymes for different purposes like transient storing, sorting, silencing, or other still unknown processes. To limit mRNA damage during stress, the assembly of micrometric granules has to be rapid, and, indeed, it takes only ∼10–20 min in living cells. However, such a rapid assembly breaks the rules of hindered diffusion in the cytoplasm, which states that large cytoplasmic bodies are almost immobile. In the present work, using HeLa cells and YB-1 protein as a stress granule marker, we studied three hypotheses to understand how cells overcome the limitation of hindered diffusion: shuttling of small messenger ribonucleoprotein particles from small to large stress granules, sliding of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles along microtubules, microtubule-mediated stirring of large stress granules. Our data favor the two last hypotheses and underline that microtubule dynamic instability favors the formation of micrometric stress granules. PMID:19843517

  11. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S.; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline—the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction—protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  12. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline-the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction-protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  13. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  14. Modified granulation of red mud by weak gelling and its application to stabilization of Pb.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-li; Huang, Sheng-sheng; Luo, Lin; Wu, Gen-yi; Liu, Yan

    2012-08-15

    This study presents a novel modification of red mud (RM) with cementitious materials by rotary drum granulation under partial hydration. Admixtures and surfactants were applied to improve the microspore structure of red mud-based granules in order to stabilize Pb steadily. Through XRD and SEM-EDS analyses, it was demonstrated that calcite, the main alkali in RM, was partially concreted and coated. Compared to pH 12.47 for RM, the lowest pH of the granules was 10.66 implying that the release of OH(-) from hydrolysis and decomposition was decreased. Based on stabilization of Pb, influence on soil properties and forming qualities, composition of the optimum granule PSP was determined as 5% cement, 5% gypsum, 1% rice straw, and 0.1% emulsifier OP-10. Within a 90 d remediation, immobilization of ionic Pb in a 500 mg kg(-1) Pb-contaminated artificial soil was 9.85 mg kg(-1) at day 30 with 5% PSP2 as substitute. Furthermore, the reverse increase diminished as the final concentration was 11.13 mg kg(-1) while it was 14.25 mg kg(-1) by RM. The increase of residual Pb was 122.61%, which was better than the 83.92% of RM. Particularly, the highest pH in mine soil was 11.09 at day 1 with RM, but the decrease of ionic Pb was 46.26%. Meanwhile, a significant deviation from the control soil zeta-potential lasted longer and the recovery was more difficult, as compared to the granules. Therefore, a granulated modification of RM is shown to be very important when aiming at steady release of OH(-) to improve the later stabilization of Pb. PMID:22664259

  15. The evolution of granule fracture strength as a function of impeller tip speed and granule size for a novel reverse-phase wet granulation process.

    PubMed

    Wade, J B; Martin, G P; Long, D F

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of a novel reverse-phase wet granulation process has been established previously and several potential advantages over the conventional process have been highlighted (Wade et al., 2014a,b,b). Due to fundamental differences in the growth mechanism and granule consolidation behaviour between the two processes the reverse-phase approach generally formed granules with a greater mass mean diameter and a lower intragranular porosity than those formed by the conventional granulation process under the same liquid saturation and impeller tip speed conditions. The lower intragranular porosity was hypothesised to result in an increase in the granule strength and subsequent decrease in tablet tensile strength. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of impeller tip speed and granule size on the strength and compaction properties of granules prepared using both the reverse-phase and conventional granulation processes. For the conventional granulation process an increase in the impeller tip speed from 1.57 to 4.71 ms(-1) (200-600 RPM) resulted in an increase in the mean granule strength (p<0.05) for all granule size fractions and as the granule size fraction increased from 425-600 to 2000-3350 μm the mean fracture strength decreased (p<0.05). For the reverse-phase process an increase in impeller tip speed had no effect (p>0.05) on mean granule strength whereas, like the conventional process, an increase in granule size fraction from 425-600 to 2000-3350 μm resulted in a decrease (p<0.05) in the mean fracture strength. No correlation was found between mean granule fracture strength and the tablet tensile strength (p>0.05) for either granulation approach. These data support the rejection of the original hypothesis which stated that an increase in granule strength may result in a decrease in the tablet tensile strength. The similar tablet tensile strength observed between the conventional and reverse-phase granulation processes indicated that

  16. Strengthening aerobic granule by salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Jun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Structural stability of aerobic granules is generally poor during long-term operation. This study precipitated seven salts inside aerobic granules using supersaturated solutions of (NH4)3PO4, CaCO3, CaSO4, MgCO3, Mg3(PO4)2, Ca3(PO4)2 or SiO2 to enhance their structural stability. All precipitated granules have higher interior strength at ultrasonic field and reveal minimal loss in organic matter degradation capability at 160-d sequential batch reactor tests. The strength enhancement followed: Mg3(PO4)2=CaSO4>SiO2>(NH4)3PO4>MgCO3>CaCO3=Ca3(PO4)2>original. Also, the intra-granular solution environment can be buffered by the precipitate MgCO3 to make the aerobic granules capable of degradation of organic matters at pH 3. Salt precipitation is confirmed a simple and cost-effective modification method to extend the applicability of aerobic granules for wastewater treatments. PMID:27377228

  17. Formation of volutin granules in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Pallerla, Srinivas Reddy; Knebel, Sandra; Polen, Tino; Klauth, Peter; Hollender, Juliane; Wendisch, Volker F; Schoberth, Siegfried M

    2005-02-01

    Volutin granules are intracellular storages of complexed inorganic polyphosphate (poly P). Histochemical staining procedures differentiate between pathogenic corynebacteria such as Corynebacterum diphtheriae (containing volutin) and non-pathogenic species, such as C. glutamicum. Here we report that strains ATCC13032 and MH20-22B of the non-pathogenic C. glutamicum also formed subcellular entities (18-37% of the total cell volume) that had the typical characteristics of volutin granules: (i) volutin staining, (ii) green UV fluorescence when stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, (iii) electron-dense and rich in phosphorus when determined with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, and (iv) 31P NMR poly P resonances of isolated granules dissolved in EDTA. MgCl2 addition to the growth medium stimulated granule formation but did not effect expression of genes involved in poly P metabolism. Granular volutin fractions from lysed cells contained polyphosphate glucokinase as detected by SDS-PAGE/MALDI-TOF, indicating that this poly P metabolizing enzyme is present also in intact poly P granules. The results suggest that formation of volutin is a more widespread phenomenon than generally accepted. PMID:15668011

  18. Denitrification in USB reactor with granulated biomass.

    PubMed

    Pagácová, P; Galbová, K; Drtil, M; Jonatová, I

    2010-01-01

    Denitrification of low concentrations of NO(3)-N (20 mg L(-1)), with methanol as an organic carbon source (COD:NO(3)-N=6) in laboratory upflow sludge bed reactor (USB), was tested as a possibility for wastewater post-treatment. By gradual increase of volumetric loading (Bv) and hydraulic loading (gamma), anoxic biomass spontaneously granulated out even from flocculate activated sludge and from anaerobic granulated sludge as well. Anaerobic granulated biomass derived from high-rate anaerobic IC reactor was a far better inoculum for anoxic granulation and for denitrification in the USB reactor. The maximum level of Bv and gamma was remarkably higher with the use of anaerobic granulated inoculum, (19-22 kg COD m(-3)d(-1); 3.2-3.7 kg NO(3)-Nm(-3)d(-1); 2.8-3.2m(3)m(-2)h(-1); SVI=15 mL g(-1)) in comparison to inoculum from flocculate activated sludge (4.2-8.1 kg CO Dm(-3)d(-1); 0.7-1.4 kg NO(3)-Nm(-3)d(-1); 0.7-1.15m(3)m(-2)h(-1); SVI=40-95 mL g(-1)). PMID:19716692

  19. Granulation in saturnian rings and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    The third theorem of the wave planetary tectonics [1-3 & others] states: "Celestial bodies are granular". It means that inertia-gravity waves appearing in bodies due to their movements in non-circular keplerian orbits and propagating in them in four interfering orthogonal and diagonal directions produce tectonic granules. They are of three kinds: uprising (+), subsiding (-) and neutral (0). Their sizes are inversely proportional to bodies orbital frequencies. Higher frequency - smaller granule, lower frequency - larger granule. The inertia-gravity waves warp all spheres of celestial bodies: solid, liquid, gaseous, and act in stars, planets, asteroids, comets and satellites. The Cassini data provide numerous excellent images of saturnian rings and show that wave processes are ordinary also in them - in disperse solid environment. To illustrate dependence between orbital frequencies and granule sizes we provide the following geometrical representation of the planetary row starting from the solar photosphere also having a certain orbital frequency about the center of the Solar system (Fig. 1). This row can be extended in domain of the outer planets by the same algorithm: Jupiter 3πR, Saturn 7.5πR, Uranus 21πR, Neptune 41πR, Pluto 62πR. One cannot directly observe these huge waves in the planets but they are needed for wave modulation procedures very important for satellites and rings having two orbital frequencies: around the star and planets. A recent support for the wave structurization in the Solar system came from Saturn where 22 year long ground-based temperature observations discovered a wave-like oscillation: hotcold pattern switches every Saturn half-year = 15 Earth's years [4]. Like in the radio-wave physics the lower orbiting frequency of the Saturn's system around Sun modulates the higher orbiting frequencies of the system satellites, rings and the planet's upper atmosphere about the Saturn `s system center. . The higher frequency is multiplied and

  20. A Rapid Test for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating. The coating technology can be fine-tuned to change the duration (3 to 9 months) and rate of nutrient release, hence these products are termed as controlled release fertilizers (CRF). There is a need to develop a r...

  1. Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture. PMID:16295884

  2. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling. PMID:27016211

  3. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  4. Formulation of custom sized LX-15 granules

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, T.W.

    1980-04-01

    LX-15 is a booster explosive formulation consisting of 95% HNS I and 5% Kel F-800 developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The purpose of this effort was to develop formulation techniques for the production of custom size granules that are amenable for processing in automatic weighing equipment. This report details processes whereby 0.4 and 1.5 kg size batches are produced, meeting those requirements. Efforts to date have found that granule size is dependent on batch/vessel size, water-to-solvent ratio and the degree of vessel agitation.

  5. Process for producing zirconium based granules

    SciTech Connect

    Jade, S.S.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production f amorphous zirconium based granules. It comprises: adding about 2--15 wt % of a suitable phase stabilizer to an aqueous solutio, based upon the total weight of ZrO{sub 2} in solution, to produce an aqueous solution having a pH in the range of about 4 to 7 comprising a zirconium based complex and phase stabilizer and thereafter; drying the aqueous solution comprising the zirconium based complex and the phase stabilizer at a temperature below about 180{degrees} C. for a time sufficient to evaporate the aqueous solution thereby forming amorphous zirconium based granules containing the phase stabilizer.

  6. Toxoplasma secretory granules: one population or more?

    PubMed

    Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France

    2015-02-01

    In Toxoplasma gondii, dense granules are known as the storage secretory organelles of the so-called GRA proteins (for dense granule proteins), which are destined to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the PV-derived cyst wall. Recently, newly annotated GRA proteins targeted to the host cell nucleus have enlarged this view. Here we provide an update on the latest developments on the Toxoplasma secreted proteins, which to date have been mainly studied at both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages, and we point out that recent discoveries could open the issue of a possible, yet uncharacterized, distinct secretory pathway in Toxoplasma. PMID:25599584

  7. Granule size distributions after twin-screw granulation - Do not forget the feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Meier, R; Thommes, M; Rasenack, N; Moll, K-P; Krumme, M; Kleinebudde, P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of qualitatively different powder feeder performances on resulting granule size distributions after twin-screw granulation of a highly drug loaded, hydrophobic mixture and a mannitol powder. It was shown that powder feeder related problems usually cannot be identified by trusting in the values given by the feeder. Therefore, a newly developed model for the evaluation of the performance of powder feeders was introduced and it was tried to connect this model to residence time distributions in twin-screw granulation processes. The influence of feeder performances on resulting granule size distributions varied, depending on the applied screw configuration and the used powder. Regarding the hydrophobic and highly drug loaded formulation, which was granulated at an L/S-ratio of 0.5, a pure conveying screw and a medium kneading configuration, consisting of 60° kneading blocks were negatively influenced by poor feeder settings. For optimal settings more narrow distributions could be obtained. For an extensive kneading configuration good and poor settings resulted in mono-modal granule size distributions but were differing in the overall size. Mannitol, a model substance for a liquid sensitive formulation was granulated at an L/S-ratio of 0.075. It was even more important to maintain optimal feeding as mannitol was highly affected by poor feeder performances. Even an extensive kneading configuration could not level the errors in powder feeder performance, resulting in qualitatively different granule size distributions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of detailed knowledge about applied feeding systems to gain optimal performance in twin-screw granulation. PMID:27224854

  8. Continuous melt granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters upon granule and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Vancoillie, Jochem; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a growing interest in alternative manufacturing models allowing automation and continuous production in order to improve process efficiency and reduce costs. Implementing a switch from batch to continuous processing requires fundamental process understanding and the implementation of quality-by-design (QbD) principles. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between formulation-parameters (type binder, binder concentration, drug-binder miscibility), process-parameters (screw speed, powder feed rate and granulation temperature), granule properties (size, size distribution, shape, friability, true density, flowability) and tablet properties (tensile strength, friability, dissolution rate) of four different drug-binder formulations using Design of experiments (DOE). Two binders (polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Soluplus®) with a different solid state, semi-crystalline vs amorphous respectively, were combined with two model-drugs, metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and caffeine anhydrous (CAF), both having a contrasting miscibility with the binders. This research revealed that the granule properties of miscible drug-binder systems depended on the powder feed rate and barrel filling degree of the granulator whereas the granule properties of immiscible systems were mainly influenced by binder concentration. Using an amorphous binder, the tablet tensile strength depended on the granule size. In contrast, granule friability was more important for tablet quality using a brittle binder. However, this was not the case for caffeine-containing blends, since these phenomena were dominated by the enhanced compression properties of caffeine Form I, which was formed during granulation. Hence, it is important to gain knowledge about formulation behavior during processing since this influences the effect of process parameters onto the granule and tablet properties. PMID:27449628

  9. Pediatric drug formulation of sodium benzoate extended-release granules.

    PubMed

    Combescot, E; Morat, G; de Lonlay, P; Boudy, V

    2016-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inherited orphan diseases leading to hyperammonemia. Current therapeutic strategy includes high doses of sodium benzoate leading to three or four oral intakes per day. As this drug is currently available in capsules or in solution, children are either unable to swallow the capsule or reluctant to take the drug due to its strong bitter taste. The objective of the present study was to develop solid, multiparticulate formulations of sodium benzoate, which are suitable for pediatric patients (i.e. flavor-masked, easy to swallow and with a dosing system). Drug layering and coating in a fluidized bed were applied for preparing sustained-release granules. Two types of inert cores (GalenIQ® and Suglets®) and three different polymers (Kollicoat®, Aquacoat® and Eudragit®) were tested in order to select the most appropriate polymer and starter core for our purpose. Physical characteristics and drug release profiles of the pellets were evaluated. A Suglets® core associated with a Kollicoat® coating seems to be the best combination for an extended release of sodium benzoate. A curing period of 8 h was necessary to complete film formation and the resulting drug release pattern was found to be dependent of the acidity of the release medium. PMID:25582668

  10. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  11. α-granules: a story in the making.

    PubMed

    Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2012-12-13

    α-granules are by far the most abundant platelet granules. Yet little is known about how they are formed. In this issue of Blood, Urban et al now characterize platelets from patients with an inheritable α-granule defect, demonstrating a role for VPS16B in α-granule biogenesis and taking us one step closer to understanding how these elusive organelles are formed. PMID:23243155

  12. Starch Granule Variability in Wild Solanum Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most of the dry matter of potato tubers is starch, an understanding of starch properties is important in potato improvement programs. Starch granule size is considered to influence tuber processing quality parameters such as gelatinization temperature, viscosity, and water holding capacity. ...

  13. Mitochondrial RNA granules: Compartmentalizing mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Alexis A; Boehm, Erik; Maundrell, Kinsey; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-14

    In mitochondria, DNA replication, gene expression, and RNA degradation machineries coexist within a common nondelimited space, raising the question of how functional compartmentalization of gene expression is achieved. Here, we discuss the recently characterized "mitochondrial RNA granules," mitochondrial subdomains with an emerging role in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:26953349

  14. Next generation fluidized bed granulator automation.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, J; Känsäkoski, M; Suhonen, J; Tenhunen, J; Lehtonen, S; Rajalahti, T; Mannermaa, J P; Yliruusi, J

    2000-01-01

    A system for fluidized bed granulator automation with in-line multichannel near infrared (NIR) moisture measurement and a unique air flow rate measurement design was assembled, and the information gained was investigated. The multivariate process data collected was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The test materials (theophylline and microcrystalline cellulose) were granulated and the calibration behavior of the multichannel NIR set-up was evaluated against full Fourier Transform (FT) NIR spectra. Accurate and reliable process air flow rate measurement proved critical in controlling the granulation process. The process data describing the state of the process was projected in two dimensions, and the information from various trend charts was outlined simultaneously. The absorbence of test material at correction wavelengths (NIR region) and the nature of material-water interactions affected the detected in-line NIR water signal. This resulted in different calibration models for the test materials. Development of process analytical methods together with new data visualization algorithms creates new tools for in-process control of the fluidized bed granulation. PMID:14727843

  15. Microbial degradation of polyacrylamide by aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Zhiping; Lin, Kuangfei; Cai, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    To deal with polyacrylamide (PAM) wastewater, granular sludge formed in glucose-fed sequencing batch reactors (SBR) was employed to cultivate PAM-degrading granules. Three replicated SBRs were operated with increasing PAM concentration in the influent from 67 to 670 mg L(-1), and the hydraulic retention time was increased at the same time from 1 d to 6 d during the six-phase of the 43 d acclimation period. The well-acclimated PAM-degrading granules were different from the seeding granules in colour, mean diameter, biomass density and settle ability, and could use PAM as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. In the batch experiments, PAM degradation rate by granules was determined as 2.23 mg PAM g(-1) MLSS h(-1). According to the analysis of the intermediates of PAM biodegradation, PAM was degraded initially through hydrolysis of the amide group, and no acrylamide monomer was detected. With the help of LC/MS, the main intermediate was identified as polyacrylic acid with a low molecular weight. Therefore, the PAM-degrading granular sludge may be employed for removing PAM in the wastewater produced from tertiary oil recovery that uses polymeric flooding technology. PMID:22720433

  16. Evaluation of the film-coating properties of a hydroxyethyl cellulose/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymer system.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun Por; Martellucci, Stephen A; Bruce, Richard D; Kinyon, Adam C; Hay, Michael B; Higgins, John D

    2002-04-01

    The effect of different grades of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methllcellulose (HPMC) on the film-formation and taste-masking ability for ibuprofen granules was evaluated. Three batches of coated ibuprofen granules were prepared using a roto-granulator, each with a different coating composition. Two grades of HEC [MW300,000 (H) and MW90,000 (L)] were combined with three different grades of HPMC [MW 11,000 (L), MW 25,000 (M) and MW 35,000 (H)] to prepare the coating solutions. Mechanical strength and physical properties of the polymer films were evaluated. Films made from HPMC (L)/HEC (H), HPMC (M)/HEC (H), and HPMC (H)/HEC (H) were stronger and more flexible than the HPMC (L) HEC (L) films. The assay, dissolution, particle size distribution, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) data of the three batches of the coated ibuprofen granules were similar. PMID:12056532

  17. Imaging of zymogen granules in fully wet cells: evidence for restricted mechanism of granule growth.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Anaby, Debbie

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of wet SEM imaging technology permits electron microscopy of wet samples. Samples are placed in sealed specimen capsules and are insulated from the vacuum in the SEM chamber by an impermeable, electron-transparent membrane. The complete insulation of the sample from the vacuum allows direct imaging of fully hydrated, whole-mount tissue. In the current work, we demonstrate direct inspection of thick pancreatic tissue slices (above 400 mum). In the case of scanning of the pancreatic surface, the boundaries of intracellular features are seen directly. Thus no unfolding is required to ascertain the actual particle size distribution based on the sizes of the sections. This method enabled us to investigate the true granule size distribution and confirm early studies of improved conformity to a Poisson-like distribution, suggesting that the homotypic granule growth results from a mechanism, which favors the addition of a single unit granule to mature granules. PMID:17557275

  18. Proteoglycan modifications by granulation tissue in culture.

    PubMed

    Quintner, M I; Kollar, E J; Rossomando, E F

    1982-01-01

    To study the process of tissue remodeling that occurs during wound healing, radioactive proteoglycan ([35S]-PGS) was used to assay for enzymatic activities present in the extracellular fluid of healing tissue. Mice, wounded by removal of a 2 x 1.5 cm patch of skin from the dorsal surface, were sacrificed after 3 days of healing. Granulation tissue (1 cm2) was removed, spread onto a sterile wire mesh support and placed in the center well of an organ culture dish. To each well was added 1 ml MCDB medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics and 5-20 microliters of [35S]-PGS (100,000 cpm/10 microliters). Medium, removed from the well by aspiration after 24 and 48 h of culture, was boiled 5 min at 100 degrees C and stored frozen at -20 degrees C. Alterations of the PGS were assayed with a Sepharose 4B column (1 x 50 cm) which had an excluded and included volume of 17 and 46 ml, respectively. PGS, incubated without cells or with tissues from unwounded animals, eluted at 26 ml. PGS, incubated with granulation tissue and cultured for either 24 or 48 h, eluted from the Sepharose 4B at 29 ml, a 10% increase in elution volume, suggesting that the size or shape of the PGS has been altered by enzymes secreted by the cells of the granulation tissue. In contrast, PGS incubated with tissues from unwounded animals or without granulation tissue showed no changes. These data suggest that enzymatic activities secreted by cells of granulation tissue may be involved in remodeling during healing. PMID:6749574

  19. Experimental investigation of granule size and shape dynamics in twin-screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Bellandi, Giacomo; Gernaey, Krist V; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-11-20

    A twin-screw granulator (TSG), a promising equipment for continuous high shear wet granulation (HSWG), achieves the desired level of mixing by a combination of the appropriate screw configuration and a suitable set of process settings (e.g. feed rate, screw speed, etc.), thus producing a certain granule size and shape distribution (GSSD). However, the primary sizing and shaping mechanism behind the resulting distribution is not well understood due to the opacity of the multiphase system in the granulator. This study experimentally characterised the GSSD dynamics along the TSG barrel length in order to understand the function of individual screw modules and process settings, as well as their interaction. Particle size analysis of granules collected at the outlet of the TSG suggested significant interaction between the process and screw configuration parameters influencing the heterogeneity in the GSSD. By characterising the samples collected along the screw length, a variable influence of the screw modules at different process conditions was observed. At low liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), the first kneading module seemed to play a significant role in mixing, whereas the second kneading module was found to be more involved in reshaping the granules. At high L/S and high throughput, aggregation mainly took place in the second kneading module changing the GSSD. The results obtained from this study will be further used for the calibration and validation of a mechanistic model and, hence, support future development of a more detailed understanding of the HSWG process in a TSG. PMID:25234863

  20. Aerobic granulation of protein-rich granules from nitrogen-lean wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Ju, Sheau-Pyng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Proteins (PN)-rich granules are stable in structure in long-term reactor operations. This study proposed to cultivate PN-rich granules with PN/polysaccharides (PS) >20 from nitrogen lean wastewater, with ammonia-nitrogen as sole nitrogen source at chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N of 153.8. The yielded granules can sustain their structural stability in sequencing batch reactor mode for sufficient treatment of wastewaters up to 7000mg/L COD and with COD/N<500 and in continuous-flow reactor for successful 216-d treatment of wastewaters up to organic loading rate (OLR) of 39kg/m(3)-d. The produced granules were enriched with Firmicutes and β-proteobacteria as dominating strains. More than 58% of the nitrogen fed in the nitrogen-lean wastewater is converted to the PN in the granules. The replacement of ammonia by nitrate as sole nitrogen source led to granules enriched with γ-proteobacteria which are easily deteriorated at low OLR. PMID:27394992

  1. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule. PMID:19021791

  2. Wave granulation in the Venus' atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    In unique venusian planetary system the solid body rotates very slowly and the detached massive atmosphere very rapidly. However both together orbit Sun and their characteristic orbital frequency -1/ 0.62 year - places them in the regular row of planets assigning them characteristic only for Venus wave produced granulation with a granule size πR/6 [1& others]. Remind other bodies in the row with their granule sizes inversely proportional to their orbital frequencies: solar photosphere πR/60, Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2, asteroids πR/1 (R-a body radius). Three planets have atmospheres with wave granulations having sizes equal to their lithospheric granules. But Venus, unlike Earth and Mars, has the detached atmosphere that can be considered as a separate body with its own orbital frequency around the center of the Venus' system. According to the correlation between an orbital frequency and a wave granule size the venusian wave granule will be πR/338 (a scale can be Earth: orbital frequency 1/ 1year, granule size πR/4 or Sun: frequency 1/1month, granule size πR/60). So, πR/338 = 57 km. This theoretical size is rather close to that observed by Galileo SC through a violet filter "the filamentary dark features. . . are here revealed to be composed of several dark nodules, like beads on a string, each about 60 miles across" (PIA00072). Actually all Venus' disc seen from a distance ~1.7mln.miles is peppered with these fine features seen on a limit of resolution. So, the Venus' atmosphere has two main frequencies in the solar system with corresponding wave granulations: around Sun 1/225 days (granule πR/6) and around Venus 1/ 4 days (granule πR/338). As was done for the Moon, Phobos, Titan and other icy satellites of Saturn [2, 3, 4 & others] one can apply the wave modulation technique also for the atmosphere of Venus. The lower frequency modulates the higher one by dividing and multiplying it thus getting two side frequencies and

  3. Wave granulation in the Venus' atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    In unique venusian planetary system the solid body rotates very slowly and the detached massive atmosphere very rapidly. However both together orbit Sun and their characteristic orbital frequency -1/ 0.62 year - places them in the regular row of planets assigning them characteristic only for Venus wave produced granulation with a granule size πR/6 [1& others]. Remind other bodies in the row with their granule sizes inversely proportional to their orbital frequencies: solar photosphere πR/60, Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2, asteroids πR/1 (R-a body radius). Three planets have atmospheres with wave granulations having sizes equal to their lithospheric granules. But Venus, unlike Earth and Mars, has the detached atmosphere that can be considered as a separate body with its own orbital frequency around the center of the Venus' system. According to the correlation between an orbital frequency and a wave granule size the venusian wave granule will be πR/338 (a scale can be Earth: orbital frequency 1/ 1year, granule size πR/4 or Sun: frequency 1/1month, granule size πR/60). So, πR/338 = 57 km. This theoretical size is rather close to that observed by Galileo SC through a violet filter "the filamentary dark features. . . are here revealed to be composed of several dark nodules, like beads on a string, each about 60 miles across" (PIA00072). Actually all Venus' disc seen from a distance π1.7mln.miles is peppered with these fine features seen on a limit of resolution. So, the Venus' atmosphere has two main frequencies in the solar system with corresponding wave granulations: around Sun 1/225 days (granule πR/6) and around Venus 1/ 4 days (granule πR/338). As was done for the Moon, Phobos, Titan and other icy satellites of Saturn [2, 3, 4 & others] one can apply the wave modulation technique also for the atmosphere of Venus. The lower frequency modulates the higher one by dividing and multiplying it thus getting two side frequencies and

  4. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-12-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. PMID:16512212

  5. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-09-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. PMID:20549445

  6. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  7. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are available within ...

  8. Commercial Fertilizers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

  9. Effect of suspension property on granule morphology and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hae-Weon Lee, Guesup Song, In-Sik Suk

    1995-12-31

    Granule morphology is an important factor during dry pressing, since it has great influences on die flowability, compaction ratio, and resulting green microstructure. Granule morphology and packing structure of ultrafine Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the granule were optimized during spray drying by adjusting the suspension structure. The particle packing structure of spray-dried granule was investigated with suspension structure. The effects of granule morphology and its particle packing structure on compaction and resultant sintering behavior were evaluated.

  10. Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Wang, Qi; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-03-01

    Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y. The granule formulation increased the antimicrobial activity of CIN against Escherichia coli K88 slightly with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 450 μg/mL for CIN in lauric acid-based granules compared with 550-600 μg/mL for palmitic acid-based granules and free CIN, respectively. These results encourage the potential use of encapsulated CIN for control of animal enteric pathogens by oral in-feed administration. PMID:26886300

  11. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  12. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  13. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  14. Shigella flexneri modulates stress granule composition and inhibits stress granule aggregation.

    PubMed

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Campbell-Valois, François-Xavier; Dufour, Alexandre; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Schnupf, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Invasion and multiplication of the facultative, cytosolic, enteropathogen Shigella flexneri within the colonic epithelial lining leads to an acute inflammatory response, fever and diarrhea. During the inflammatory process, infected cells are subjected to numerous stresses including heat, oxidative stress and genotoxic stress. The evolutionarily conserved pathway of cellular stress management is the formation of stress granules that store translationally inactive cellular mRNAs and interfere with cellular signalling pathways by sequestering signalling components. In this study, we investigated the ability of S. flexneri-infected cells to form stress granules in response to exogenous stresses. We found that S. flexneri infection inhibits movement of the stress granule markers eIF3 and eIF4B into stress granules and prevents the aggregation of G3BP1 and eIF4G-containing stress granules. This inhibition occurred only with invasive, but not with non-invasive bacteria and occurred in response to stresses that induce translational arrest through the phosphorylation of eIF2α and by treating cells with pateamine A, a drug that induces stress granules by inhibiting the eIF4A helicase. The S. flexneri-mediated stress granule inhibition could be largely phenocopied by the microtubule-destabilizing drug nocodazole and while S. flexneri infection did not lead to microtubule depolymerization, infection greatly enhanced acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Our data suggest that qualitative differences in the microtubule network or subversion of the microtubule-transport machinery by S. flexneri may be involved in preventing the full execution of this cellular stress response. PMID:27282465

  15. Profilin 1 Associates with Stress Granules and ALS-Linked Mutations Alter Stress Granule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Matthew D.; Bieri, Gregor; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Taylor, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the PFN1 gene encoding profilin 1 are a rare cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Profilin 1 is a well studied actin-binding protein but how PFN1 mutations cause ALS is unknown. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has one PFN1 ortholog. We expressed the ALS-linked profilin 1 mutant proteins in yeast, demonstrating a loss of protein stability and failure to restore growth to profilin mutant cells, without exhibiting gain-of-function toxicity. This model provides for simple and rapid screening of novel ALS-linked PFN1 variants. To gain insight into potential novel roles for profilin 1, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide synthetic lethal screen with yeast cells lacking profilin (pfy1Δ). Unexpectedly, deletion of several stress granule and processing body genes, including pbp1Δ, were found to be synthetic lethal with pfy1Δ. Mutations in ATXN2, the human ortholog of PBP1, are a known ALS genetic risk factor and ataxin 2 is a stress granule component in mammalian cells. Given this genetic interaction and recent evidence linking stress granule dynamics to ALS pathogenesis, we hypothesized that profilin 1 might also associate with stress granules. Here we report that profilin 1 and related protein profilin 2 are novel stress granule-associated proteins in mouse primary cortical neurons and in human cell lines and that ALS-linked mutations in profilin 1 alter stress granule dynamics, providing further evidence for the potential role of stress granules in ALS pathogenesis. PMID:24920614

  16. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

    PubMed Central

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Stefanov, Vasily E.; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation. PMID:25322156

  17. Commercial fertilizers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    Fertilizer consumption information in the USA for 1992 submitted by state regulatory officials is presented. This includes total sales or shipments for farm and non-farm use. Liming materials were excluded. Materials used for manufacture or blending of reported fertilizers or for use in other fertilizers are excluded to avoid double-counting. The consumption of multiple-nutrient and single-nutrient fertilizers is listed. Dry bulk, fluid, and bagged classes are given. Typical fertilizers include: anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium nitrates, ammonium sulfates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates, potassium chlorides, and potassium sulfates.

  18. Biogenic calcite granules--are brachiopods different?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cusack, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Brachiopods are still one of the least studied groups of organisms in terms of biomineralization despite recent studies indicating the presence of highly complex biomineral structures, particularly in taxa with calcitic shells. Here, we analyze the nanostructure of calcite biominerals, fibers and semi-nacre tablets, in brachiopod shells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We demonstrate that basic mechanisms of carbonate biomineralization are not uniform within the phylum, with semi-nacre tablets composed of spherical aggregates with sub-rounded granules and fibers composed of large, triangular or rod-like particles composed of small sub-rounded granules (40-60 nm). Additionally, proteinaceous envelopes surrounding calcite fibers have been shown for the first time to have a dual function: providing a micro-environment in which granules are produced and acting as the organic template for particle orientation as fiber components. In summary, these new findings in brachiopod shells reveal a complex and distinctive style of biomineralization among carbonate-producing organisms. PMID:23026148

  19. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure

    PubMed Central

    LaSarge, Candi L.; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offset the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predicts a net increase in granule cell >> CA3 innervation. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell >> CA3 communication. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25600212

  20. Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively.

    PubMed Central

    Denyer, K; Waite, D; Motawia, S; Møller, B L; Smith, A M

    1999-01-01

    Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants. Other granule-bound isoforms of starch synthase, such as starch synthase II (SSII), are unable to synthesize amylose. The kinetic properties of GBSSI and SSII that are responsible for these functional differences have been investigated using starch granules from embryos of wild-type peas and rug5 and lam mutant peas, which contain, respectively, both GBSSI and SSII, GBSSI but not SSII and SSII but not GBSSI. We show that GBSSI in isolated granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter. Granule-bound SSII can elongate malto-oligosaccharides, but has a lower affinity for these than GBSSI and does not elongate processively. As a result of these properties GBSSI synthesizes longer malto-oligosaccharides than SSII. The significance of these results with respect to the roles of GBSSI and SSII in vivo is discussed. PMID:10229673

  1. Second Harmonic Generation Mediated by Aligned Water in Starch Granules.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Krouglov, Serguei; Steup, Martin; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-12-26

    The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) in starch granules was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical modeling and experimentally examined using polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation microscopy. Ab initio calculations revealed that the largest contribution to the SHG signal from A- and B-type allomorphs of starch originates from the anisotropic organization of hydroxide and hydrogen bonds mediated by aligned water found in the polymers. The hypothesis was experimentally tested by imaging maize starch granules under various hydration and heat treatment conditions that alter the hydrogen bond network. The highest SHG intensity was found in fully hydrated starch granules, and heat treatment diminished the SHG intensity. The PIPO SHG imaging showed that dried starch granules have a much higher nonlinear optical susceptibility component ratio than fully hydrated granules. In contrast, deuterated starch granules showed a smaller susceptibility component ratio demonstrating that SHG is highly sensitive to the organization of the hydroxyl and hydrogen bond network. The polarization SHG imaging results of potato starch granules, representing starch allomorph B, were compared to those of maize starch granules representing allomorph A. The results showed that the amount of aligned water was higher in the maize granules. Nonlinear microscopy of starch granules provides evidence that varying hydration conditions leads to significant changes in the nonlinear susceptibility ratio as well as the SHG intensity, supporting the hypothesis from ab initio calculations that the dominant contribution to SHG is due to the ordered hydroxide and hydrogen bond network. PMID:25427055

  2. Platelet α–granules: Basic biology and clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Price; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Summary α–Granules are essential to normal platelet activity. These unusual secretory granules derive their cargo from both regulated secretory and endocytotic pathways in megakaryocytes. Rare, inheritable defects of α–granule formation in mice and man have enabled identification of proteins that mediate cargo trafficking and α–granule formation. In platelets, α–granules fuse with the plasma membrane upon activation, releasing their cargo and increasing platelet surface area. The mechanisms that control α–granule membrane fusion have begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins that control α–granule secretion have been identified. Proteomic studies demonstrate that hundreds of bioactive proteins are released from α–granules. This breadth of proteins implies a versatile functionality. While initially known primarily for their participation in thrombosis and hemostasis, the role of α–granules in inflammation, atherosclerosis, antimicrobial host defense, wound healing, angiogenesis, and malignancy has become increasingly appreciated as the function of platelets in the pathophysiology of these processes has been defined. This review will consider the formation, release, and physiologic roles of α–granules with special emphasis on work performed over the last decade. PMID:19450911

  3. Evolution of structure and properties of granules containing microcrystalline cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone during high-shear wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Feng, Yushi; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2014-01-01

    Granulation behavior of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in the presence of 2.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was systematically studied. Complex changes in flowability and tabletability of lubricated MCC granules are correlated to changes in intragranular porosity, morphology, surface smoothness, size distribution, and specific surface area (SSA). With 2.5% PVP, the use of 45% granulation water leads to 84% reduction in tablet tensile strength and 76% improvement in powder flow factor. The changes in powder performance are explained by granule densification and surface smoothing. The granulating water level corresponding to the onset of overgranulation, 45%, is significantly lower than the 70% water required for unlubricated MCC granules without PVP. At more than 45% water levels, MCC-PVP granules flow well but cannot be compressed into intact tablets. Such changes in powder performance correspond to the rapid growth into large and dense spheres with smooth surface. Compared with MCC alone, the onset of the phase of fast granule size enlargement occurs at a lower water level when 2.5% PVP is used. Although the use of 2.5% PVP hastens granule nucleation and growth rate, the mechanisms of overgranulation are the same, that is, size enlargement, granule densification, surface smoothing, and particle rounding in both systems. PMID:24218097

  4. Validation for the determination of biuret in water-soluble, urea-based commercial inorganic fertilizer materials, urea solutions, and sulfur-coated urea products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation of an extension of AOAC official methods 2003.14.

    PubMed

    Hojjatie, Michael M; Abrams, Dean

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study for the LC determination of biuret in dry and liquid urea-based commercial fertilizers was conducted. A total of 23 samples were used: 11 commercial dry urea products, two urea ammonium nitrate products, eight liquid urea-based commercial fertilizers, and four sulfur-coated urea samples from different sources. In addition, one biuret standard from Aldrich and one sample from the Magruder check sample program were used as validation samples. The proposed method is an extension of AOAC Official Method 2003.14 and is based on dissolution of the test portion in the LC mobile phase and determination by HPLC. The system is linear over a concentration range of 1.00-4.50 mg/L biuret, with a correlation coefficient > or = 0.9999. The biuret was well- separated from urea in the commercial urea samples, and from other constituents in the commercial liquid fertilizer with no observed interferences. Recoveries were determined by spiking four of the validation materials with a known amount of biuret standard and measuring the biuret level according to the method. The averaged recovery was 97%. Method precision was determined by quadruplicate analyses of four of the liquid and six of the commercially available dry urea validation materials using three and four replicate analyses. For the liquid fertilizer analyses, the RSD ranged from 7.04 to 13.31%. For the dry urea analyses, the RSDs ranged from 5.68 to 14.34%. Instrument precision was evaluated at the test initiation by using seven injections of five biuret standard solutions. SD varied from 0.27 to 1.02%, with RSDs averaging 1.14%. The LOD was determined to be 0.009% biuret in material, while the LOQ was determined to be 0.031% biuret in material. In addition to the intralaboratory study, interlaboratory studies were performed by two other outside laboratories using this method. Over a concentration range of 0.2 to 0.9% biuret, the average SD was 0.11%, the average RSD was 21

  5. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. PMID:24211658

  6. Distinct stages in stress granule assembly and disassembly.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Joshua R; Matheny, Tyler; Jain, Saumya; Abrisch, Robert; Parker, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules are non-membrane bound RNA-protein (RNP) assemblies that form when translation initiation is limited and contain a biphasic structure with stable core structures surrounded by a less concentrated shell. The order of assembly and disassembly of these two structures remains unknown. Time course analysis of granule assembly suggests that core formation is an early event in granule assembly. Stress granule disassembly is also a stepwise process with shell dissipation followed by core clearance. Perturbations that alter liquid-liquid phase separations (LLPS) driven by intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDR) of RNA binding proteins in vitro have the opposite effect on stress granule assembly in vivo. Taken together, these observations argue that stress granules assemble through a multistep process initiated by stable assembly of untranslated mRNPs into core structures, which could provide sufficient high local concentrations to allow for a localized LLPS driven by IDRs on RNA binding proteins. PMID:27602576

  7. Fabrication and mechanical testing of porous calcium phosphate bioceramic granules.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y H; Turner, I G; Miles, A W

    2007-10-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) granules were fabricated by a novel technique of vacuum impregnation of reticulated polyurethane (PU) foams with ceramic slip. The resultant granules had 5-10% interconnected porosity with controlled pore sizes necessary to allow bone ingrowth combined with good mechanical properties. Using PU foams with a different number of pores per inch (ppi), porous HA/TCP granules in the size range of 2-8 mm were successfully manufactured. Dieplunger tests were used to compare the compression and relaxation properties of the granules with those of a commercially available bone graft product, BoneSave. The results of the die-plunger testing showed that the experimental granules were stiffer than the BoneSave materials and had less of a tendency to crumble to powder after testing. This therefore suggests that these experimental granules would be useful for impaction grafting and space filling applications. PMID:17554596

  8. Age-Dependent Labeling and Imaging of Insulin Secretory Granules

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Anna; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Dirkx, Ronald; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Michael; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Müller, Andreas; Liu, Yanmei; Andree, Cordula; Mulligan, Bernard; Münster, Carla; Kurth, Thomas; Bickle, Marc; Speier, Stephan; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Solimena, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is stored within the secretory granules of pancreatic β-cells, and impairment of its release is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Preferential exocytosis of newly synthesized insulin suggests that granule aging is a key factor influencing insulin secretion. Here, we illustrate a technology that enables the study of granule aging in insulinoma cells and β-cells of knock-in mice through the conditional and unequivocal labeling of insulin fused to the SNAP tag. This approach, which overcomes the limits encountered with previous strategies based on radiolabeling or fluorescence timer proteins, allowed us to formally demonstrate the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin and reveal that the motility of cortical granules significantly changes over time. Exploitation of this approach may enable the identification of molecular signatures associated with granule aging and unravel possible alterations of granule turnover in diabetic β-cells. Furthermore, the method is of general interest for the study of membrane traffic and aging. PMID:23929935

  9. Age-dependent labeling and imaging of insulin secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anna; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Dirkx, Ronald; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Michael; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Müller, Andreas; Liu, Yanmei; Andree, Cordula; Mulligan, Bernard; Münster, Carla; Kurth, Thomas; Bickle, Marc; Speier, Stephan; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Solimena, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Insulin is stored within the secretory granules of pancreatic β-cells, and impairment of its release is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Preferential exocytosis of newly synthesized insulin suggests that granule aging is a key factor influencing insulin secretion. Here, we illustrate a technology that enables the study of granule aging in insulinoma cells and β-cells of knock-in mice through the conditional and unequivocal labeling of insulin fused to the SNAP tag. This approach, which overcomes the limits encountered with previous strategies based on radiolabeling or fluorescence timer proteins, allowed us to formally demonstrate the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin and reveal that the motility of cortical granules significantly changes over time. Exploitation of this approach may enable the identification of molecular signatures associated with granule aging and unravel possible alterations of granule turnover in diabetic β-cells. Furthermore, the method is of general interest for the study of membrane traffic and aging. PMID:23929935

  10. [Effects of applying controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from a lateritic red soil].

    PubMed

    Du, Ya-qin; Zheng, Li-xing; Fan, Xiao-lin

    2011-09-01

    Static closed chamber technique and contrast method were adopted to study the effects of three coated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 19:8.6:10.5, high N; 14.4:14.4:14.4, balanced NPK; and 12.5:9.6:20.2, high K) on the NO2O emission from a lateritic red soil under the condition of no crop planting, taking uncoated compound fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O = 20:9:11, high N; 15:15:15, balanced NPK; and 13:10:21, high K) as the contrasts. Different formula of fertilizer NPK induced significant difference in the N2O emission. Under the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, the cumulative N2O emission was in the order of balanced NPK > or = high N > high K. Applying coated compound fertilizers decreased the N2O emission significantly, and the emission amount under the application of high N, balanced NPK, and high K was 34.4%, 30.5%, and 89.3% of the corresponding uncoated compound fertilizers, respectively. Comparing with the application of uncoated compound fertilizers, applying coated compound fertilizers also decreased the daily N2O flux significantly, and delayed and shortened the N2O peak, suggesting that coated fertilizers could reduce soil nitrogen loss and the global warming potential induced by N2O emission. PMID:22126050

  11. Aerobic granules: microbial landscape and architecture, stages, and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2014-06-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In "old" granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters "rooting" from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  12. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  13. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  14. Preparation and characterization of slow-release fertilizer encapsulated by starch-based superabsorbent polymer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongling; Liu, Hongsheng; Yu, Long; Bao, Xianyang; Simon, George P; Petinakis, Eustathios; Chen, Ling

    2016-08-20

    To enhance the effectiveness of fertilizers, a novel double-coated slow-release fertilizer was developed using ethyl cellulose (EC) as inner coating and starch-based superabsorbent polymer (starch-SAP) as outer coating. For starch-SAPs synthesized by a twin-roll mixer using starches from three botanical origins, a reduced grid size and an increased fractal gel size on nano-scale (i.e., increased stretch of 3D network) contributed to increasing the water absorbing capacity with a reduced absorbing rate and thus improving the slow-release property of fertilizer. The fertilizer particles coated with starch-SAP displayed well slow-release behaviors. In soil, compared to urea particles without and with EC coating, the particles further coated with starch-SAP showed reduced nitrogen release rate, and in particular, those with potato starch-SAP coating exhibited a steady release behavior for a period longer than 96h. Therefore, this work has demonstrated the potential of this new slow-release fertilizer system for improving the effectiveness of fertilizers. PMID:27178919

  15. Multiple Poliovirus Proteins Repress Cytoplasmic RNA Granules

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Jonathan D.; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. Loss of SG was linked to cleavage of G3BP1 by viral 3C proteinase (3Cpro), however dispersal of PBs was not strongly linked to cleavage of specific factors by viral proteinases, suggesting other viral proteins may play roles in inhibition of SG or PB formation. Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions with mCherry and expressing them individually in cells. Expression of viral proteins separately revealed that the capsid region P1, 2Apro, 3A, 3Cpro, the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. 2Apro, which cleaves eIF4GI, induced SGs as expected, and entered novel foci containing the SG nucleating protein G3BP1. Of the two forms of G3BP, only G3BP1 is cleaved by a virus proteinase, 3Cpro, whereas G3BP2 is not cleaved by 3Cpro or 2Apro. Surprisingly, 3CD, which contains proteinase activity, differentially repressed PBs but not SGs. Further, both 2Apro and 3Cpro expression dispersed PBs, however molecular targets were different since PB dispersal due to 2Apro and heat shock protein (Hsp)90 inhibition but not 3Cpro, could be rescued by application of oxidative stress to cells. The data indicate that PV repression of SGs and PBs is multifactorial, though protease function is dominant. PMID:26610553

  16. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Park, Chul; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed with 2% glucose and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and pH 5.0 ± 0.1 under a thermophilic condition (50°C). The mixed liquor in the CSTR was then transferred to an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The fermentation performance and granulation process were monitored with a gradual decrease of HRT from 8.0 to 0.17 h, corresponding to an increase in the substrate loading from 60 to 2,880 g glucose L(-1) d(-1) . As the operation continued, the accumulation of biomass in the UASB was clearly observed, which changed from flocculent to granular form with decrease in HRT. Up to the HRT decrease to 0.5 h, the LA concentration was maintained at 19-20 g L(-1) with over 90% of substrate removal efficiency. However, further decrease of HRT resulted in a decrease of LA concentration with increase in residual glucose. Nevertheless, the volumetric LA productivity continuously increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter (-1) h(-1) at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s(-1) and 0.39-0.92, respectively. PMID:25925200

  17. Granuphilin exclusively mediates functional granule docking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Fujita, Takuji; Gomi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    In regulated exocytosis, it is generally assumed that vesicles must stably “dock” at the plasma membrane before they are primed to become fusion-competent. However, recent biophysical analyses in living cells that visualize fluorescent secretory granules have revealed that exocytic behaviors are not necessarily uniform: some granules beneath the plasma membrane are resistant to Ca2+ -triggered release, while others are accelerated to fuse without a pause for stable docking. These findings suggest that stable docking is unnecessary, and can even be inhibitory or nonfunctional, for fusion. Consistently, pancreatic β cells deficient in the Rab27 effector, granuphilin, lack insulin granules directly attached to the plasma membrane in electron micrographs but nevertheless exhibit augmented exocytosis. Here we directly compare the exocytic behaviors between granuphilin-positive and -negative insulin granules. Although granuphilin makes granules immobile and fusion-reluctant beneath the plasma membrane, those granuphilin-positive, docked granules release a portion of granuphilin upon fusion, and fuse at a frequency and time course similar to those of granuphilin-negative undocked granules. Furthermore, granuphilin forms a 180-nm cluster at the site of each docked granule, along with granuphilin-interacting Rab27a and Munc18-1 clusters. These findings indicate that granuphilin is an exclusive component of the functional and fusion-inhibitory docking machinery of secretory granules. PMID:27032672

  18. Osseointegration of alumina bioceramic granules: A comparative experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rerikh, V. V.; Avetisyan, A. R.; Zaydman, A. M.; Anikin, K. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Nikulina, A. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Aronov, A. M.; Semantsova, E. S.

    2016-08-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of osseointegration of bioceramic alumina-based granules, hydroxyapatite-based granules, and deproteinized bone granules. The experiment was conducted on 52 adult male Kyoto-Wistar rats weighing 350 to 520 g. The animals were divided into five matched groups that differed only in the type of an implanted material. The granules were implanted in the lumbar vertebral bodies and in the distal right femur of each laboratory animal. Two months after surgery, the animals were euthanized, followed by tissue sampling for morphological studies. An examination of specimens from the groups with implanted alumina granules revealed the newly formed trabecular bone with remodeling signs. The bone tissue filled the intragranular space, tightly adhering to the granule surface. There was no connective tissue capsule on the border between bone tissue and alumina granules. Cylindrical bioceramic alumina-based granules with an open internal channel have a higher strength surpassing than that of analogs and the osseointegration ability close to that of hydroxyapatite and deproteinized bone granules.

  19. Automated kymograph analysis for profiling axonal transport of secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Amit; Jenkins, Brian; Fang, Cheng; Radke, Richard J; Banker, Gary; Roysam, Badrinath

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method to profile the velocity patterns of small organelles (BDNF granules) being transported along a selected section of axon of a cultured neuron imaged by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Instead of directly detecting the granules as in conventional tracking, the proposed method starts by generating a two-dimensional spatio-temporal map (kymograph) of the granule traffic along an axon segment. Temporal sharpening during the kymograph creation helps to highlight granule movements while suppressing clutter due to stationary granules. A voting algorithm defined over orientation distribution functions is used to refine the locations and velocities of the granules. The refined kymograph is analyzed using an algorithm inspired from the minimum set cover framework to generate multiple motion trajectories of granule transport paths. The proposed method is computationally efficient, robust to significant levels of noise and clutter, and can be used to capture and quantify trends in transport patterns quickly and accurately. When evaluated on a collection of image sequences, the proposed method was found to detect granule movement events with 94% recall rate and 82% precision compared to a time-consuming manual analysis. Further, we present a study to evaluate the efficacy of velocity profiling by analyzing the impact of oxidative stress on granule transport in which the fully automated analysis correctly reproduced the biological conclusion generated by manual analysis. PMID:21330183

  20. Carbon granule probe microphone for leak detection. [recovery boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microphone which is not subject to corrosion is provided by employing carbon granules to sense sound waves. The granules are packed into a ceramic tube and no diaphragm is used. A pair of electrodes is located in the tube adjacent the carbon granules and are coupled to a sensing circuit. Sound waves cause pressure changes on the carbon granules which results in a change in resistance in the electrical path between the electrodes. This change in resistance is detected by the sensing circuit. The microphone is suitable for use as a leak detection probe in recovery boilers, where it provides reliable operation without corrosion problems associated with conventional microphones.

  1. Apatite accumulation enhances the mechanical property of anammox granules.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y M; Lotti, T; Sharma, P K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-09-01

    The strength of granular sludge is essential for the mechanical stability of the granules. Inorganic precipitants form a major factor influencing the strength of the granules. To check the possibility of apatite accumulation in anammox granules, and study its contribution to the mechanical strength of granules, anammox granular sludge was collected from Dokhaven municipal wastewater treatment plant, the Netherlands. Mineral precipitation inside the granules was visualized by micro-computed tomography, and apatite was identified by electron probe microanalysis and X-ray powder diffraction. The mechanical strength of anammox granules was measured by a low load compression tester. The contribution of apatite to the mechanical strength was evaluated by the generalized Maxwell model. Ca-PO4 minerals are reported to accumulate in anammox granules. A transformation of Ca-PO4 happens, and apatite is the final stable form. The accumulation of apatite increases the mechanical strength of anammox granules. A fast method to monitor and evaluate the accumulation of minerals in anammox granules was proposed. PMID:23764605

  2. Identification of SNAREs that mediate zymogen granule exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, James A.; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Thomas, Paul; Edwardson, J. Michael . E-mail: jme1000@cam.ac.uk

    2007-08-03

    A secretagogue-stimulated pancreatic acinar cell releases digestive enzymes from its apical pole. We attempted to identify the SNAREs involved in zymogen granule exocytosis. Antibodies against syntaxins 2 and 3, SNAP-23 and VAMP 8, and the corresponding recombinant SNAREs, inhibited amylase secretion from streptolysin O-permeabilised acini; other anti-SNARE antibodies and SNAREs had no effect. Botulinum neurotoxin C, which cleaved syntaxin 2 and (to a lesser extent) syntaxin 3, but not syntaxins 4, 7 or 8, also inhibited exocytosis. We propose that syntaxin 2, SNAP-23 and VAMP 8 mediate primary granule-plasma membrane fusion. Syntaxin 3 may be involved in secondary granule-granule fusion.

  3. Ultrastructural similarity between bat and human mast cell secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Oliani, S M; Vugman, I; Jamur, M C

    1993-01-01

    Mast cells in the tongue of the bat (Artibeus lituratus) show a well-developed Golgi area and abundant mitochondria in the granule-free perinuclear cytoplasm. Rough endoplasmic reticulum profiles, free ribosomes, mitochondria, bundles of filaments and a great number of secretory granules are found throughout the remaining cytoplasm. The granules, of various shapes and sizes, are simple containing an electron-dense, homogeneous matrix, coarse particles or cylindrical scrolls, or combinations (cylindrical scrolls with either electron-dense, homogeneous matrix or coarse particle contents). Up to now, scroll-containing granules have been considered to be a unique feature of human mast cells. PMID:8453310

  4. The presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in chromaffin granules

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Gilbert; Sheltawy, Ayman

    1980-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine is thought to be a characteristic component of the chromaffin granules in adrenal glands. By the use of a t.l.c. system that resolves minor phospholipids satisfactorily, this subcellular location was confirmed in the present study in bovine glands. However, phospholipid degradation was demonstrated in homogenates of the adrenal medulla and cortex under conditions similar to those of subcellular fractionation (incubation at 4°C for 90min). Phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin were hydrolysed, but the concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine did not change, indicating that the latter was present in the medulla before this treatment. Attempts were made to decrease the time between death of the animal and the extraction of lipids. Lysophosphatidylcholine was easily demonstrable in lipid extracts of the dissected medulla and even in those of the whole bovine gland. For practical reasons it is not possible to decrease further the time lapse before extraction in the case of this animal. Adrenal glands were obtained from anaesthetized and untreated rabbits. These were frozen immediately in liquid N2 and the lipids were extracted. In a control experiment, the glands from rabbit were dissected and treated in the same manner as with those of ox, and then the lipids were extracted. No lysophosphatidylcholine was detected in the extracts from glands frozen in liquid N2 but lysophosphatidylcholine was observed in the controls. These results suggest that lysophosphatidylcholine is not a component of chromaffin granules, but is produced if the period between death of the animal and lipid extraction is unduly prolonged. To discover whether lysophosphatidylcholine affected the permeability barrier properties of chromaffin granules, sonicated liposomes of egg phosphatidylcholine alone or with lysophosphatidylcholine (15mol/100mol) were prepared. Both types were shown by electron microscopy to be largely made up of single bilayer vesicles. The exchange

  5. Observation of polyphosphate granules in cable bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.; Nielsen, L. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Cable bacteria are long filamentous bacteria that capable for long distance electron transport: transporting electrons derived from oxidizing sulfide in anoxic layers, to oxygen at the sediment surface, over a distance of centimeters. Cable bacteria are found in many types of freshwater and marine sediment all over the world, with density of approximately thousands of kilometers per square meter. These long filaments are composed by individual cells closely related to Desulfobulbaceae, connected with a shared outer membrane inside which the strings structure are presumed to be highly conductive. The observed doubling time of cells within the filament is about 20 min, which is among the shortest compare to other bacteria. In these cable cells, we constantly observed polyphosphate granules (poly-P), regardless of cell dimension and shape. This is very interesting since it has long been recognized that the microbial polyP content is low during rapid growth and increases under unfavorable conditions, for example, increasing sulfide concentration and anoxia resulted in a decomposition of poly-P in Beggiatoa. Here, we investigated marine cable bacteria from Netherland and Aarhus Bay, focusing on the poly-P dynamics under various redox conditions. In poly-P stained cells, typically there are two big poly-P granules locate at each polar. In dividing cells, however, the morphology of poly-P changed to six small granules precisely arranged to two row. Moreover, the cells seem be able to continuously divide more than one time without elongation step. These varied poly-P morphologies demonstrate that poly-P is closely related to the cell growth and cell division, by an unknown mechanism. Individual cable filaments were picked up and were exposed to different redox conditions; our primary data indicated the cable cells could suffer anoxic condition better than oxic condition. We also detected decomposition of poly-P under anoxia. These results call for an in-depth examination

  6. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  7. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hiroshi; TAKEO, Shun; ABE, Takahito; KIN, Airi; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts. PMID:26832309

  8. Liver condition of Holstein cows affects mitochondrial function and fertilization ability of oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takeo, Shun; Abe, Takahito; Kin, Airi; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to examine the fertilization ability and mitochondrial function of oocytes derived from cows with or without liver damage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of cows with damaged livers (DL) and those of cows with healthy livers (HL), subjected to in vitro maturation, and fertilized in vitro. A significantly high abnormal fertilization rate was observed for oocytes from DL cows compared to oocytes from HL cows. The time to dissolve the zona pellucida by protease before fertilization was similar between the two liver conditions, whereas after fertilization treatment this time was shorter for DL cows than for HL cows. The percentage of oocytes with equivalent cortical granule distributions underneath the membrane was greater for in vitro matured oocytes from HL cows, whereas an immature distribution pattern was observed for oocytes from DL cows. In addition, a greater percentage of oocytes derived from HL cows released cortical granules following fertilization compared with oocytes from DL cows. Mitochondrial function determined by ATP content and membrane potential were similar at the germinal vesicle stage, but post-in vitro maturation, the oocytes derived from HL cows showed higher values than DL cows. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes was similar between the two liver conditions for both the germinal vesicle and post-in vitro maturation oocytes. In conclusion, liver damage induces low fertilization, likely because of incomplete cortical granule distribution and release, and the maturation of oocytes from DL cows contain low-functioning mitochondria compared to their HL counterparts. PMID:26832309

  9. Conditional Knockout of Tumor Overexpressed Gene in Mouse Neurons Affects RNA Granule Assembly, Granule Translation, LTP and Short Term Habituation

    PubMed Central

    Barbarese, Elisa; Ifrim, Marius F.; Hsieh, Lawrence; Guo, Caiying; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Maggipinto, Michael J.; Korza, George; Tutolo, Jessica W.; Giampetruzzi, Anthony; Le, Hien; Ma, Xin-Ming; Levine, Eric; Bishop, Brian; Kim, Duck O.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Carson, John H.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, specific RNAs are assembled into granules, which are translated in dendrites, however the functional consequences of granule assembly are not known. Tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) is a granule-associated protein containing multiple binding sites for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2, another granule component that recognizes cis-acting sequences called hnRNP A2 response elements (A2REs) present in several granule RNAs. Translation in granules is sporadic, which is believed to reflect monosomal translation, with occasional bursts, which are believed to reflect polysomal translation. In this study, TOG expression was conditionally knocked out (TOG cKO) in mouse hippocampal neurons using cre/lox technology. In TOG cKO cultured neurons granule assembly and bursty translation of activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated (ARC) mRNA, an A2RE RNA, are disrupted. In TOG cKO brain slices synaptic sensitivity and long term potentiation (LTP) are reduced. TOG cKO mice exhibit hyperactivity, perseveration and impaired short term habituation. These results suggest that in hippocampal neurons TOG is required for granule assembly, granule translation and synaptic plasticity, and affects behavior. PMID:23936366

  10. Physico-chemical and technological properties of sodium naproxen granules prepared in a high-shear mixer-granulator.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Piera; Malaj, Ledjan; Censi, Roberta; Martelli, Sante

    2008-12-01

    In the present work, authors produced tablets of anhydrous sodium naproxen by wet granulation using a high-shear mixer-granulator. Drug hydrated to the tetrahydrated form, as observed by X-ray powder diffractometry. After wet granulation, authors then performed two different drying procedures, obtaining granules of different water content and crystallographic characteristics. The first procedure dried granules in the high-shear mixer-granulator by applying vacuum at room temperature (batch A), while the second employed the same apparatus and time, under vacuum at 40 degrees C (batch B). X-ray powder diffractometry revealed that the sodium naproxen (SN) contained in batch A granules was a mixture of dihydrated and tetrahydrated forms (as demonstrated by the coexistence of peaks typical of both hydrated forms), while that of batch B granules was a mixture of monohydrated and tetrahydrated forms. This means that differences in drying procedures could lead to products of different crystallographic properties. The behavior under compression was evaluated, revealing that batch A offered the best tabletability and compressibility. These results make it possible to conclude that differences in the crystallographic properties and water content of SN are such that different hydration/drying processes can alter the drug crystal form and thus the tabletability of the resulting granules. PMID:18398910

  11. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits. PMID:26615483

  12. Rheological and fractal hydrodynamics of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Tijani, H I; Abdullah, N; Yuzir, A; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-06-01

    The structural and hydrodynamic features for granules were characterized using settling experiments, predefined mathematical simulations and ImageJ-particle analyses. This study describes the rheological characterization of these biologically immobilized aggregates under non-Newtonian flows. The second order dimensional analysis defined as D2=1.795 for native clusters and D2=1.099 for dewatered clusters and a characteristic three-dimensional fractal dimension of 2.46 depicts that these relatively porous and differentially permeable fractals had a structural configuration in close proximity with that described for a compact sphere formed via cluster-cluster aggregation. The three-dimensional fractal dimension calculated via settling-fractal correlation, U∝l(D) to characterize immobilized granules validates the quantitative measurements used for describing its structural integrity and aggregate complexity. These results suggest that scaling relationships based on fractal geometry are vital for quantifying the effects of different laminar conditions on the aggregates' morphology and characteristics such as density, porosity, and projected surface area. PMID:25836036

  13. Commercial fertilizers 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1991-12-01

    This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

  14. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  15. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age. PMID:12336394

  16. Social mobility and fertility.

    PubMed

    Kasarda, J D; Billy, J O

    1985-01-01

    This review examines 4 possible causal links between social mobility and fertility: 1) fertility affects social mobility; 2) social mobility affects fertility; 3) fertility and social mobility simultaneously affect each other; and 4) social mobility and fertility are unrelated. Due to the lack of systematic theory guiding the research, conceptualizations and measures of social mobility and fertility vary markedly from study to study, leading to inconsistent findings. The review focuses on theoretical perspectives underpinning the research, causal operators proposed to interpret observed associations, and analytical methods used. The selectivity perspective is based on the contention that a family must be small in order to rise on the social scale. This has found little support, however. In fact, studies suggest that children induce slightly higher levels of status achievement and family responsibilities may stimulate the energy and ambition of some so that they achieve more than they would have done without a family. Most studies have concerned the hypothesis that social mobility affects fertility. 4 theoretical perspectives have emerged: status enhancement; relative economic status; social isolation; and stress and disorientation. At any time in a couple's reproductive life cycle the decision or actual experience of either social mobility or fertility may influence the decision or actual experience of the other variable. Mobility-fertility research has defined an individual's or couple's position in terms of income, education, or occupation with occupation used most often as a single index of social class and indexes of social mobility developed by comparing persons' changes in occupational position. A common theme in much of the research literature is that the existence of an effect of social mobility on fertility depends on the societal conditions of a given population. Most studies through the mid-60s used a common measurement method to assess whether a

  17. Consolidating nanoparticles in micron-sized granules using spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeløv, J. S.; Wahlberg, M.

    2011-07-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (SiO2, SiC, TiO2, CNT, Nanoclay and Hydroxyapatite) were spray dried to produce dry granulated products. The nanoparticles were consolidated in granules making them more convenient and safer to use in further processing compared to handling of nanopowders.

  18. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2473a - Tioxidazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tioxidazole granules. 520.2473a Section 520.2473a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2473a Tioxidazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of...

  20. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, (/sup 3/H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines.

  1. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  2. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fenbendazole granules. 520.905b Section 520.905b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905b Fenbendazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of...

  3. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fenbendazole granules. 520.905b Section 520.905b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905b Fenbendazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of...

  4. Use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate granules for spills of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Coates, D; Wilson, M

    1989-04-01

    The use of chlorine-containing granules for disinfecting body fluid spills has been evaluated by hospital trials and laboratory tests. Hospital trials were carried out by nurses using 'Presept' disinfectant granules according to a protocol. In general they preferred using granules to bleach and, in 50 tests using granules on natural and artificial spills in wards, no organisms were recovered from the floor by contact plates after using the granules. Laboratory tests were carried out on 'Haz-Tab' granules, 'Biospot' disinfectant powder, 'Presept' disinfectant granules, 'Virusorb' absorbent powder and 'Titan' Sanitizer SU 357 using a standardized surface test. Available chlorine levels varied from 57.8% to 1.0% and the performance of products in the surface test varied with the chlorine level present. Granules containing a relatively high level of chlorine have the advantages that spilled material is contained and that a contact time of only 2-3 min is required before the spill can be safely removed. PMID:2567753

  5. 21 CFR 520.2473a - Tioxidazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tioxidazole granules. 520.2473a Section 520.2473a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2473a Tioxidazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1330 - Meclofenamic acid granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid granules. 520.1330 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1330 Meclofenamic acid granules. (a) Chemical name. N-(2,6-Dichlorom-tolyl) anthranilic acid. (b) Specifications. The drug is...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1330 - Meclofenamic acid granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid granules. 520.1330 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1330 Meclofenamic acid granules. (a) Chemical name. N-(2,6-Dichlorom-tolyl) anthranilic acid. (b) Specifications. The drug is...

  8. Visualization of internal structure of banana starch granule through AFM.

    PubMed

    Peroni-Okita, Fernanda H G; Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew; Simão, Renata A; Soares, Claudinéia A; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R

    2015-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution technique for studying the external and internal structures of starch granules. For this purpose granules were isolated from bananas and embedded in a non-penetrating resin. To achieve image contrast of the ultrastructure, the face of the cut blocks were wetted in steam and force modulation mode imaging was used. Images of starch from green bananas showed large variation of height across the granule due to a locational specific absorption of water and swelling of amorphous regions; the data reveal that the center of the granules are structurally different and have different viscoelastic properties. Images of starches from ripe bananas showed an even greater different level of organization: absence of growth rings around the hilum; the central region of the granule is richer in amylose; very porous surface with round shaped dark structures; the size of blocklets are larger than the green fruits. PMID:26005137

  9. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (<10 s) independent of the mass of particles embedded was found for the solution consisting of sucrose and hydroxyethylstarch. Poloxamer 188, menthol flavor, naratriptan hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:24532095

  10. A highly sustainable and versatile granulation method of nanodrugs via their electrostatic adsorption onto chitosan microparticles as the granulation substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2013-08-16

    Nanodrugs play important roles in enhancing the sustainability of pharmaceutical manufacturing via their ability to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, resulting in less drug wastage and less mass/energy consumed in their manufacturing. Despite their sustainability enhancement capability, solid dosage form manufacturing of nanodrugs remains lacking from the sustainability perspective. One example is the granulation of nanodrugs prior to tablet preparation, where existing methods (e.g. wet granulation, spray granulation, spray drying) require high energy and time expenses, or are highly intricate often leading to product inconsistencies. Herein we present an alternative nanodrug granulation method via electrostatic adsorption of the nanodrugs onto chitosan microparticles acting as granulation substrates. The method is sustainable involving only mixing of aqueous suspensions of the nanodrugs and substrates under ambient conditions, followed by washing and drying. We investigate the effects of substrate's physical characteristics and nanodrug to substrate ratio on the nanodrug loading in the granules, content uniformity, nanodrug recovery, and granule flowability. Ciprofloxacin and curcumin nanoplexes prepared by drug-polyelectrolyte complexation are used as the model nanodrugs with neutrally, positively, and negatively charged chitosan microparticles as the substrates. Granules having 25% (w/w) nanodrug loading at 50% (w/w) recovery with good flowability have been successfully prepared. PMID:23727594

  11. Numerical experiments with flows of elongated granules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Harold G.; Brewe, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Theory and numerical results are given for a program simulating two dimensional granular flow (1) between two infinite, counter-moving, parallel, roughened walls, and (2) for an infinitely wide slider. Each granule is simulated by a central repulsive force field ratcheted with force restitution factor to introduce dissipation. Transmission of angular momentum between particles occurs via Coulomb friction. The effect of granular hardness is explored. Gaps from 7 to 28 particle diameters are investigated, with solid fractions ranging from 0.2 to 0.9. Among features observed are: slip flow at boundaries, coagulation at high densities, and gross fluctuation in surface stress. A videotape has been prepared to demonstrate the foregoing effects.

  12. Shock metamorphism of granulated lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Thompson, T. D.; Hoerz, F.; Bauer, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an extensive series of shock-recovery experiments performed on both nonporous crystalline basalt and its granulated and sieved counterpart to study the role of porosity and grain size in shock motomorphic effects under otherwise identical conditions. Shocked samples are compared with unshocked starting material in terms of textural and mineralogical modifications attributable to shock. A comparative petrographic and chemical characterization is presented of pulverized and sieved lunar basalt 75035 shocked between 6 and 75 GPa in comparison with holocrystalline disks of the same basalts shocked in 10 earlier experiments. Specifically, a petrographic classification of shock features is given, along with an estimation of relative amounts of shock glasses and a chemical characterization of shock glasses in each shocked granular basalt.

  13. The effect of the physical state of binders on high-shear wet granulation and granule properties: a mechanistic approach to understand the high-shear wet granulation process. part IV. the impact of rheological state and tip-speeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjiang; Tao, Li; Buckley, David; Tao, Jing; Gao, Julia; Hubert, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a mechanistic understanding concerning the effect of tip-speed on a granulation at various binder rheological states; the in situ rheological state of a binder was controlled by exposing a granulation blend to 96% relative humidity. This approach allowed us to investigate the impact of tip-speed on granule consolidation coupled with the in situ binder state, which was not possible using a conventional granulation approach. Experimentally, the rheological state of binders was characterized using a rheometer. Granule size and granule porosity were measured by Qicpic instrument and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, respectively. For the granulations containing binders at viscous state (PVP K17 and PVP K29/32), the granule size increased significantly with mixing time and the growth rate increased with tip-speed until 5.8 m/s; when binders were at viscoelastic state, tip-speed had no impact on granulation. Furthermore, the granule porosity was higher for granulation with binders at viscoelastic state (HPC and PVP K90), whereas it was lower for granulation with binders at viscous state. In addition, the impeller tip-speed had minimal impact on the porosity of the final granules. Finally, Ennis' model was used for interpreting results, providing mechanistic insights on granulation. PMID:24135976

  14. Magnetic loop emergence within a granule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gömöry, P.; Beck, C.; Balthasar, H.; Rybák, J.; Kučera, A.; Koza, J.; Wöhl, H.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the temporal evolution of magnetic flux emerging within a granule in the quiet-Sun internetwork at disk center. Methods: We combined IR spectropolarimetry of high angular resolution performed in two Fe i lines at 1565 nm with speckle-reconstructed G-band imaging. We determined the magnetic field parameters by a LTE inversion of the full Stokes vector using the SIR code, and followed their evolution in time. To interpret the observations, we created a geometrical model of a rising loop in 3D. The relevant parameters of the loop were matched to the observations where possible. We then synthesized spectra from the 3D model for a comparison to the observations. Results: We found signatures of magnetic flux emergence within a growing granule. In the early phases, a horizontal magnetic field with a distinct linear polarization signal dominated the emerging flux. Later on, two patches of opposite circular polarization signal appeared symmetrically on either side of the linear polarization patch, indicating a small loop-like structure. The mean magnetic flux density of this loop was roughly 450 G, with a total magnetic flux of around 3 × 1017 Mx. During the ~12 min episode of loop occurrence, the spatial extent of the loop increased from about 1 to 2 arcsec. The middle part of the appearing feature was blueshifted during its occurrence, supporting the scenario of an emerging loop. There is also clear evidence for the interaction of one loop footpoint with a preexisting magnetic structure of opposite polarity. The temporal evolution of the observed spectra is reproduced to first order by the spectra derived from the geometrical model. During the phase of clearest visibility of the loop in the observations, the observed and synthetic spectra match quantitatively. Conclusions: The observed event can be explained as a case of flux emergence in the shape of a small-scale loop. The fast disappearance of the loop at the end could possibly be due to magnetic

  15. Granulation, Irradiance and Diameter Solar Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Reis Neto, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    Though granulation forms the very face of sun’s photosphere, there are no long term registers of it. Observational and computational hardships to define and follow such highly variable “face” have so far prevented the realization of those registers. However, in recent years a large, coherent body of white light images became available. We retrieved white light, full solar disk images from the BBSO, to a total of 1104 treated ones and 1245 treated and compensated for limb darkening ones. The time coverage extends from the year 2000 to 2005, thus covering the rise and fall of the solar cycle 23. For the analysis, only the central 0.35R portion of the Sun was considered. The central portion was then divided into 100 subsectors, to average and discard the deviant results. The analysis goal is to derive the long term behavior of the photosphere granulation, in broad statistical sense. Three statistics were this way calculated: the standard deviation of the counts (that answers to the grains size); the counts difference between the maximum and minimum tenths (that answers to the grains brightness); the degree of the best fit polynomial along lines and columns (that answers to the grains numbers). According to the statistics, there is no significant variation in the number of grains. The grains sizes are the largest by the solar maximum, in excellent agreement with the maximum of the measured diameter. The grains brightness, on the contrary, is minimum at the solar maximum, and again an excellent agreement is verified with the maximum of the measured diameter.

  16. The effect of powder type, free moisture and deformation behaviour of granules on the kinetics of fluid-bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of two types of powder, lactose and corn starch, and of free moisture on the kinetics of fluid-bed granulation have been investigated using population balance modelling. A coalescence kernel that considered the deformation behaviour of the granules was used. The best fit of the experimental data was obtained for both materials by assuming that the granules underwent plastic deformation. The predicted cumulative number fractions were in very good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of free moisture (in the range of 5-10%) was investigated with lactose. The process was independent of the statistical distribution in free moisture within the approximate range 5-10%. The results suggest a local plasticity in fluid-bed spray granulation caused by the deposition of spray droplets onto the granules, with their subsequent absorption into the voids leading to regions of saturated voids. PMID:11677075

  17. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  18. Aluminide coatings

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  19. Fertilization and early development in Beroe ovata.

    PubMed

    Carré, D; Sardet, C

    1984-09-01

    Fertilization in the clear egg (1 mm in diameter) of the ctenophore Beroe ovata and, in particular, the positioning and movements of pronuclei, and their relationship to the larval oral-aboral axis have been observed. Fertilization can take place anywhere on the egg surface. The sperm pronucleus remains at its entry site and becomes surrounded by a specialized zone (30-50 micron in diameter) beneath the surface referred to as the sperm pronuclear zone or SPZ and devoid of large cortical granules. Polyspermy has been observed to be frequent; each pronucleus is surrounded by its own SPZ. Only the egg pronucleus migrates with a continuous velocity (averaging 18 micron/min) and moves beneath the surface directly toward the immobile sperm pronucleus. In polyspermic eggs, the egg pronucleus can probe several SPZ, each containing a single sperm nucleus, before it finally enters one SPZ and fuses with the chosen sperm pronucleus. These migrations of the egg pronucleus occur over several millimeters and take hours, but the mechanism underlying the motion or how the egg pronucleus decides which SPZ to enter is not yet known. Under our experimental conditions the mitotic apparatus and the first cleavage plane which defines the oral-aboral axis of the larva (see Reverberi (1971). "Experimental Embryology of Marine and Fresh-Water Invertebrates." North-Holland, Amsterdam. for review) pass through the point of sperm entry. During fertilization and cleavage, movements of a cortical autofluorescent material are clearly seen. This material is segregated into micromeres as cleavage progresses. PMID:6147287

  20. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

  1. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... and then use the sperm in conjunction with artificial insemination , IVF or ICSI . Fertility and Chemotherapy: The chemotherapy ... the high probability of an indefinite period of infertility following chemotherapy, we strongly recommend that men facing ...

  2. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  3. Weight and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence that obesity lowers the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Studies have shown lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates in obese women. Obese women are at an increased ...

  4. [Fertility and cancer].

    PubMed

    Poirot, Catherine; Sitbon, Leslie; Fortin, Anne; Berthaut, Isabelle; Jaudi, Suha; Anastacio, Amandine; Prades, Marie

    2013-11-01

    Information about chemo and/or radiotherapy gonadotoxicity and about fertility preservation is essential. Sperm cryopreservation has to be systematically offered before gonadotoxic treatments. Efficiency of ovarian function preservation with GnRH agonists is still debated. A controlled ovarian stimulation is necessary before oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. It is only feasible if the treatment is not urgent and if the tumor is not hormone-sensitive. If the treatment is highly gonadotoxic, an ovarian tissue cryopreservation may be appropriate. It is the only fertility preservation technique feasible for prepubertal girls. It is now possible to preserve the fertility of prepubertal boys by cryopreservation of testicular tissue. It is essential to send patients and/or their parents to a specialized fertility preservation center. PMID:24184281

  5. Bioremediation with oleophilic fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Basseres, A.; Ladousse, A.

    1993-12-31

    To enhance hydrocarbon breakdown by indigenous microbial communities, a fertilizer formulation that would keep nutrients in contact with oil, was designed ten years ago by ELF AQUITAINE. The fertilizer known as INIPOL EAP 22 is an oil soluble additive but also an easily biodegradable carbon source (oleic acid). Numerous experiments, in both laboratory and field, have shown that the application of this fertilizer increases the number of hydrocarbon degrading organisms and the extent and rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation Laboratory experiments with radiolabelled hydrocarbons have shown that in addition to its physico chemical role, oleic acid acts as a biological starter, increasing the biomass and the rate of biodegradation. A large bioremediation project in ALASKA has shown that it its possible to enhance the biodegradation of oil through the application of such a fertilizer, on coarse sediments. Recently, on sandy sediments, the use of INIPOL EAP 22 shown a clear development in hydrocarbon specific bacteria, and an increase of the rate of biodegradation.

  6. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... endometriosis Have uterine fibroids Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) Have been treated for cancer Have been treated ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  7. Cryptorchidism and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2015-12-01

    Congenital cryptorchidism, that is, undescended testis, is one of the most common urogenital abnormalities observed in newborn boys. In addition to the congenital form, there is also acquired form of cryptorchidism. Fertility potential of patients with cryptorchidism has been evaluated by testicular histology and volume, semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, time to conception, and paternity rates. Cryptorchidism is associated with abnormalities in testicular development, and early treatment is recommended to optimize the fertility potential of the patients. PMID:26568490

  8. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  9. Uncertainty Handling in Disaster Management Using Hierarchical Rough Set Granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhian, H.; Delavar, M. R.; Stein, A.

    2015-08-01

    Uncertainty is one of the main concerns in geospatial data analysis. It affects different parts of decision making based on such data. In this paper, a new methodology to handle uncertainty for multi-criteria decision making problems is proposed. It integrates hierarchical rough granulation and rule extraction to build an accurate classifier. Rough granulation provides information granules with a detailed quality assessment. The granules are the basis for the rule extraction in granular computing, which applies quality measures on the rules to obtain the best set of classification rules. The proposed methodology is applied to assess seismic physical vulnerability in Tehran. Six effective criteria reflecting building age, height and material, topographic slope and earthquake intensity of the North Tehran fault have been tested. The criteria were discretized and the data set was granulated using a hierarchical rough method, where the best describing granules are determined according to the quality measures. The granules are fed into the granular computing algorithm resulting in classification rules that provide the highest prediction quality. This detailed uncertainty management resulted in 84% accuracy in prediction in a training data set. It was applied next to the whole study area to obtain the seismic vulnerability map of Tehran. A sensitivity analysis proved that earthquake intensity is the most effective criterion in the seismic vulnerability assessment of Tehran.

  10. Modeling a granule-based anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (ANAMMOX) process.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Chen, You-Peng; Liu, Shao-Yang; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-06-15

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process in a granular upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. ANAMMOX granules were cultivated in the UASB reactor by seeding aerobic granules. The granule-based reactor had a great N-loading resistant capacity. The model simulation results on the 1-year reactor performance matched the experimental data well. The yield coefficient for the growth and the decay rate coefficient of the ANAMMOX granules were estimated to be 0.164 g COD g(-1) N and 0.00016 h(-1), respectively. With this model, the effects of process parameters on the reactor performance were evaluated. Results showed that the optimum granule diameter for the maximum N-removal should be between 1.0 and 1.3 mm and that the optimum N loading rate should be 0.8 kg N m(-3) d(-1). In addition, the substrate micro-profiles in the ANAMMOX granules were measured with a microelectrode to explore the diffusion dynamics within the granules, and the measured profiles matched the predicted results well. PMID:19280667