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Sample records for coated rhenium gasket

  1. Novel rhenium gasket design for nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Giefers, Hubertus; Nicol, Malcolm F.

    2008-02-15

    For the first time, a highly absorbing element, rhenium, has been proven to be a strong, reliable, and safe gasket material for achieving high pressure in nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) experiments. Rhenium foil was cut into rectangular slices and in order to reduce absorption, the elevated imprint due to preindenting of the gasket is removed using electrical discharge machining. By utilizing this novel gasket design, transmission losses were mitigated while performing NRIXS experiments conducted on the {sup 119}Sn and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer isotopes.

  2. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  3. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  4. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, John T.; Kazaroff, John M.; Appel, Marshall A.

    1988-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the meltimg temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  5. Development of Improved Rhenium Coatings for Fluorine Engine Thrust Chambers. [hydrazine-fluorine rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, K. J.; Yurkewycz, R.; Harada, Y.; Daniels, I.

    1981-01-01

    Coating trials were undertaken to evaluate the application of rhenium to carbon-carbon composite sheet by plasma spraying. Optimum spray parameters and coating thickness were identified for production of coatings free from continuous defects and with adequate adherence to the substrate. A tungsten underlayer was not beneficial and possibly detracted from coating integrity. Stress calculations indicated that the proposed operating cycle of the rocket engine would not cause spalling of the rhenium coating. Calculations indicated that permeation of gases through the coating would not be significant during the expected life of the thrust chamber. The feasibility of applying rhenium coatings by laser melting was also studied. Poor wetting of the composite surface by the liquid rhenium precluded production of uniform coatings. Borate/carborate fluxes did not improve wetting characteristics.

  6. Evaluation of oxide-coated iridium-rhenium chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) provides long life operation of radiation-cooled rockets at temperatures up to 2200 C. Ceramic oxide coatings could be used to increase Ir-Re rocket lifetimes and allow operation in highly oxidizing environments. Ceramic oxide coatings promise to serve as both thermal and diffusion barriers for the iridium layer. Seven ceramic oxide-coated Ir-Re, 22-N rocket chambers were tested with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GHz/G02) propellants. Five chambers had thick (over 10 mils), monolithic coatings of either hafnia (HfO2) or zirconia (ZrO2). Two chambers had coatings with thicknesses less than 5 mils. One of these chambers had a thin-walled coating of ZrO2 infiltrated with sol gel HfO2. The other chamber had a coating composed of an Ir-oxide composite. The purpose of this test program was to assess the ability of the oxide coatings to withstand the thermal shock of combustion initiation, adhere under repeated thermal cycling, and operate in aggressively oxidizing environments. All of the coatings survived the thermal shock of combustion and demonstrated operation at mixture ratios up to 11. Testing the Ir-oxide composite-coated chamber included over 29 min at mixture ratio 16. The thicker walled coatings provided the larger temperature drops across the oxide layer (up to 570 C), but were susceptible to macrocracking and eventual chipping at a stress concentrator. The cracks apparently resealed during firing, under compression of the oxide layer. The thinner walled coatings did not experience the macrocracking and chipping of the chambers that was seen with the thick, monolithic coatings. However, burn-throughs in the throat region did occur in both of the thin-walled chambers at mixture ratios well above stoichiometric. The burn-throughs were probably the result of oxygen diffusion through the oxide coating that allowed the underlying Ir and Re layers to be oxidized. The results of this test program indicated that the thin-walled oxide

  7. Evaluation of oxide-coated iridium-rhenium chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1994-03-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) provides long life operation of radiation-cooled rockets at temperatures up to 2200 C. Ceramic oxide coatings could be used to increase Ir-Re rocket lifetimes and allow operation in highly oxidizing environments. Ceramic oxide coatings promise to serve as both thermal and diffusion barriers for the iridium layer. Seven ceramic oxide-coated Ir-Re, 22-N rocket chambers were tested with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GHz/G02) propellants. Five chambers had thick (over 10 mils), monolithic coatings of either hafnia (HfO2) or zirconia (ZrO2). Two chambers had coatings with thicknesses less than 5 mils. One of these chambers had a thin-walled coating of ZrO2 infiltrated with sol gel HfO2. The other chamber had a coating composed of an Ir-oxide composite. The purpose of this test program was to assess the ability of the oxide coatings to withstand the thermal shock of combustion initiation, adhere under repeated thermal cycling, and operate in aggressively oxidizing environments. All of the coatings survived the thermal shock of combustion and demonstrated operation at mixture ratios up to 11. Testing the Ir-oxide composite-coated chamber included over 29 min at mixture ratio 16. The thicker walled coatings provided the larger temperature drops across the oxide layer (up to 570 C), but were susceptible to macrocracking and eventual chipping at a stress concentrator. The cracks apparently resealed during firing, under compression of the oxide layer. The thinner walled coatings did not experience the macrocracking and chipping of the chambers that was seen with the thick, monolithic coatings. However, burn-throughs in the throat region did occur in both of the thin-walled chambers at mixture ratios well above stoichiometric. The burn-throughs were probably the result of oxygen diffusion through the oxide coating that allowed the underlying Ir and Re layers to be oxidized. The results of this test program indicated that the thin-walled oxide

  8. Testing and evaluation of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium provides long life operation of radiation-cooled rockets at temperatures up to 2200 C. Ceramic oxide coatings could be used to increase iridium/rhenium rocket lifetimes and allow operation in highly oxidizing environments. Ceramic oxide coatings promise to serve as both thermal and diffusion barriers for the iridium layer. Seven ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium, 22 N rocket chambers were tested on gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen propellants. Five chambers had thick (over 10 mils), monolithic coatings of either hafnia or zirconia. Two chambers had coatings with thicknesses less than 5 mils. One of these chambers had a thin-walled coating of zirconia infiltrated with sol gel hafnia. The other chamber had a coating composed of an iridium/oxide composite. The purpose of this test program was to assess the ability of the oxide coatings to withstand the thermal shock of combustion initiation, adhere under repeated thermal cycling, and operate in aggressively oxidizing environments. All of the coatings survived the thermal shock of combustion and demonstrated operation at mixture ratios up to 11. The iridium/oxide composite coated chamber included testing for over 29 minutes at mixture ratio 16. The thicker-walled coatings provided the larger temperature drops across the oxide layer (up to 570 C), but were susceptible to macrocracking and eventual chipping at a stress concentrator. The cracks apparently resealed during firing, under compression of the oxide layer. The thinner-walled coatings did not experience the macrocracking and chipping of the chambers seen with the thick, monolithic coatings. However, burnthroughs in the throat region did occur in both of the thin-walled chambers at mixture ratios well above stochiometric. The burn-throughs were probably the result of oxygen-diffusion through the oxide coating that allowed the underlying iridium and rhenium layers to be oxidized. The results of this test program indicated that the thin

  9. Rhenium-coated glass beads for intracolonic administration attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Zatorski, Hubert; Pawlak, Wojciech; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    In search for novel effective treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases, a new strategy employing glass beads coated with rhenium nanolayer has been developed and validated in the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Briefly, mice were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups: control (vehicle alone, Group 1); control treated with rhenium-coated glass beads (Group 2); TNBS (Group 3); TNBS treated with rhenium-coated glass beads (Group 4); and TNBS treated with uncoated glass beads (Group 5). Mice from Group 2, 4 and 5 were treated with respective beads (once daily, 5 beads / animal, i.c.) between D3-D6 post-TNBS/vehicle and evaluation of colonic damage was performed on D7, based on macroscopic scoring and clinical parameters. Severe colonic inflammation developed in post-TNBS mice (Group 3) [P <0.001 vs. control (Group 1) for macroscopic score], which was significantly attenuated by treatment with rhenium-coated glass beads (Group 4) [P <0.01 vs. TNBS (Group 3), for macroscopic score]. Neither rhenium-coated glass beads had any effect in control animals (Group 2), nor uncoated glass beads influenced TNBS-induced colitis (Group 5). In conclusion, a novel and attractive strategy for the treatment of colonic inflammation has been proposed; therapy with rhenium-coated glass beads already proved effective in the mouse model of TNBS-induced colitis, now requires further characterization in clinical conditions. PMID:26867119

  10. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  11. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-11-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  12. Long Life Testing of Oxide-Coated Iridium/Rhenium Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    22-N class rockets, composed of a rhenium (Re) substrate, an iridium (Ir) coating, and an additional composite coating consisting of Ir and a ceramic oxide, were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) propellants. Two rockets were tested, one for nearly 39 hours at a nominal mixture ratio (MR) of 4.6 and chamber pressure (Pc) of 469 kPa, and the other for over 13 hours at a nominal MR of 5.8 and 621 kPa Pc. Four additional Ir/Re rockets, with a composite Ir-oxide coating fabricated using a modified process, were also tested, including one for 1.3 hours at a nominal MR of 16.7 and Pc of 503 kPa. The long lifetimes demonstrated on low MR GO2/GH2 suggest greatly extended chamber lifetimes (tens of hours) in the relatively low oxidizing combustion environments of Earth storable propellants. The oxide coatings could also serve as a protective coating in the near injector region, where a still-mixing flowfield may cause degradation of the Ir layer. Operation at MR close to 17 suggests that oxide-coated Ir/Re rockets could be used in severely oxidizing combustion environments, such as high MR GO2/GH2, oxygen/hydrocarbon, and liquid gun propellants.

  13. Characterization of Iridium Coated Rhenium Used in High-Temperature, Radiation-Cooled Rocket Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stulen, R. H.; Boehme, D. R.; Clift, W. M.; McCarty, K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials used for radiation-cooled rocket thrusters must be capable of surviving under extreme conditions of high-temperatures and oxidizing environments. While combustion efficiency is optimized at high temperatures, many refractory metals are unsuitable for thruster applications due to rapid material loss from the formation of volatile oxides. This process occurs during thruster operation by reaction of the combustion products with the material surface. Aerojet Technical Systems has developed a thruster cone chamber constructed of Re coated with Ir on the inside surface where exposure to the rocket exhaust occurs. Re maintains its structural integrity at high temperature and the Ir coating is applied as an oxidation barrier. Ir also forms volatile oxide species (IrO2 and IrO3) but at a considerably slower rate than Re. In order to understand the performance limits of Ir-coated Re thrusters, we are investigating the interdiffusion and oxidation kinetics of Ir/Re. The formation of iridium and rhenium oxides has been monitored in situ by Raman spectroscopy during high temperature exposure to oxygen. For pure Ir, the growth of oxide films as thin as approximately 200 A could be easily detected and the formation of IrO2 was observed at temperatures as low as 600 C. Ir/Re diffusion test specimens were prepared by magnetron sputtering of Ir on Re substrates. Concentration profiles were determined by sputter Auger depth profiles of the heat treated specimens. Significant interdiffusion was observed at temperatures as low as 1000 C. Measurements of the activation energy suggest that below 1350 C, the dominant diffusion path is along defects, most likely grain boundaries, rather than bulk diffusion through the grains. The phases that form during interdiffusion have been examined by x ray diffraction. Analysis of heated test specimens indicates that the Ir-Re reaction produces a solid solution phase of Ir dissolved in the HCP structure of Re.

  14. Rhenium Redefined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with NASA's Glenn Research Center, Rhenium Alloys, Inc., of Elyria, Ohio, developed a new method for producing rhenium combustion chambers. Using room temperature isostatic pressing, Rhenium Alloys, Inc., compacted rhenium powder to a high density and into the approximated end shape and dimension of the rocket thruster. The item was then subjected to sintering and containerless hot isostatic pressing, increasing the density of the powder metallurgy part. With the new manufacturing process, both production time and costs are reduced while quality is significantly increased. The method enabled the company to deliver two chemical rocket thrusters to Glenn Research Center. The company makes rhenium a practical choice in manufacturing fields, including the aerospace, nuclear, and electronic industries, with upcoming opportunities projected in medical instrumentation.

  15. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOEpatents

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore; Reece, Charles Edwin

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  16. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  17. Liquid-Oxygen-Compatible Cement for Gaskets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, N. L.; Neale, B. C.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorelastomer and metal bonded reliably by new procedure. To cure fluoroelastomer cement, metal plate/gasket assembly placed in vacuum bag evacuated to minimum vacuum of 27 inches (69 cm) of mercury. Vacuum maintained throughout heating process and until assembly returns to ambient room temperature. Used to seal gaskets and O-rings or used to splice layers of elastomer to form non-standard sized O-rings. Another possible use is to apply protective, liquid-oxygen-compatible coating to metal parts.

  18. Diffusion mechanisms in chemical vapor-deposited iridium coated on chemical vapor-deposited rhenium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, J. C.; Yang, N. Y. C.; Clift, W. M.; Boehme, D. R.; Mccarty, K. F.; Franklin, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-cooled rocket thruster chambers have been developed which use CVD Re coated with CVD Ir on the interior surface that is exposed to hot combustion gases. The Ir serves as an oxidation barrier which protects the structural integrity-maintaining Re at elevated temperatures. The diffusion kinetics of CVD materials at elevated temperatures is presently studied with a view to the prediction and extension of these thrusters' performance limits. Line scans for Ir and Re were fit on the basis of a diffusion model, in order to extract relevant diffusion constants; the fastest diffusion process is grain-boundary diffusion, where Re diffuses down grain boundaries in the Ir overlayer.

  19. 30 CFR 18.27 - Gaskets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gaskets. 18.27 Section 18.27 Mineral Resources... Gaskets. A gasket(s) shall not be used between any two surfaces forming a flame-arresting path except as follows: (a) A gasket of lead, elastomer, or equivalent will be acceptable provided the gasket does...

  20. 30 CFR 18.27 - Gaskets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gaskets. 18.27 Section 18.27 Mineral Resources... Gaskets. A gasket(s) shall not be used between any two surfaces forming a flame-arresting path except as follows: (a) A gasket of lead, elastomer, or equivalent will be acceptable provided the gasket does...

  1. Gasket with pushrod retainer

    DOEpatents

    Knudsen, Julian R.; Welch, Christopher B.

    2005-04-26

    In an engine having a rocker member adapted to rock about an axis intermediate the rocker member and a pushrod extending from a lower body to an upper body and engaging an end of the rocker member, a gasket for sealing the lower body to the upper body is provided. The gasket includes a sealing portion adapted to substantially seal at least a portion of the upper body to the lower body, and a pushrod support portion extending outwardly from the sealing portion adapted to engage the pushrod. At least a portion of the pushrod support portion engaging the pushrod is constructed from a material that is softer than the material of the pushrod.

  2. Recent developments in PVRC gasket testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.H.; Payne, J.R.; Derenne, M.

    1996-12-01

    For the past 15--20 years, a major research program aimed at solving the problem of leakage of gasketed flanged joints has been undertaken by the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC). This program has resulted in greatly enhanced understanding of the leakage phenomena of a flanged joint and improvements of the ASME Code design procedures. The PVRC bolted flanged program has been organized into six areas: (1) implement PVRC gasket constants and test procedure development; (2) issue a flange design guidelines report considering items such as modeling, tightness, transients, relaxation, etc.; (3) flange rating parameters for standard flanges; (4) design parameters for ASME joints; (5) gasket testing for temperature behavior data and test method developments; and (6) flanged joint assembly and interaction effects. This paper presents an update of the recent developments in the area of gasket testing; specifically, testing on flexible graphite gaskets, elastomeric sheet gaskets, and fugitive emissions gasket characteristics with various types of fluids are described.

  3. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  4. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  5. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  6. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  7. Rhenium-Foil Witness Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical portion of wall of combustion chamber replaced with rhenium foil mounted on holder. Rhenium oxidizes without melting, indicating regions of excess oxidizer in combustion-chamber flow. Rhenium witness foils also useful in detecting excess oxygen and other oxidizers at temperatures between 2,000 and 3,600 degrees F in burner cores of advanced gas-turbine engines.

  8. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  9. Rhenium Mechanical Properties and Joining Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets. Two issues that have arisen in the development of flight Ir/Re engines are the sparsity of rhenium (Re) mechanical property data (particularly at high temperatures) required for engineering design, and the inability to directly electron beam weld Re chambers to C103 nozzle skirts. To address these issues, a Re mechanical property database is being established and techniques for creating Re/C103 transition joints are being investigated. This paper discusses the tensile testing results of powder metallurgy Re samples at temperatures from 1370 to 2090 C. Also discussed is the evaluation of Re/C103 transition pieces joined by both, explosive and diffusion bonding. Finally, the evaluation of full size Re transition pieces, joined by inertia welding, as well as explosive and diffusion bonding, is detailed.

  10. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  11. Mineral of the month: rhenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magyar, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhenium, an exotic, heat-resistant metal, has grown in importance since its discovery nearly 80 years ago. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying a platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From then until the 1960s, only 2 metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. In 2004, worldwide production was 40 metric tons.

  12. Fiber gasket and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Alvin, Mary Anne; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2003-01-01

    A gasket (1) is made by repetitively spirally winding a fiber (3) back on itself in a closed path. The gasket (1) so made has a multi-layer spiral winding (1) formed in a loop (5). The fiber (3) can be wound at a constant wrap rate to form a gasket with a uniform cross-section around the loop. Alternatively, the wrap rate can be varied, increased to increase cross-sectional bulk, and decreased to reduce cross-section bulk around the loop (5). Also, the spiral winding (7) can be applied over a core (13) of either strands of the fiber (3) or a dissimilar material providing a desired property such as resiliency, stiffness or others. For high temperature applications, a ceramic fiber (3) can be used. The gasket (1) can have any of various geometric configurations with or without a core (13).

  13. Equation of state of rhenium and application for ultra high pressure calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Anzellini, Simone; Dewaele, Agnès; Occelli, Florent; Loubeyre, Paul; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2014-01-28

    The isothermal equation of state of rhenium has been measured by powder X-ray diffraction experiments up to 144 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell. A helium pressure transmitting medium was used to minimize the non-hydrostatic stress on the sample. The fit of pressure-volume data yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 352.6 GPa and a pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K′{sub 0}=4.56. This equation of state differs significantly from a recent determination [Dubrovinsky et al., Nat. Commun. 3, 1163 (2012)], giving here a lower pressure at a given volume. The possibility of using rhenium gasket X-ray diffraction signal, with the present equation of state, to evaluate multi-Mbar pressures in the chamber of diamond anvil cells is discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 64.23 - Gasket and lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasket and lining. 64.23 Section 64.23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.23 Gasket and lining. Each gasket and lining must be made...

  15. 46 CFR 98.30-8 - Gaskets and lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gaskets and lining. 98.30-8 Section 98.30-8 Shipping... Gaskets and lining. No person may transfer a hazardous material to or from a portable tank on board a vessel unless each gasket and the lining of the portable tank are made of a material that is—...

  16. 46 CFR 64.23 - Gasket and lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasket and lining. 64.23 Section 64.23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.23 Gasket and lining. Each gasket and lining must be made...

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-8 - Gaskets and lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gaskets and lining. 98.30-8 Section 98.30-8 Shipping... Gaskets and lining. No person may transfer a hazardous material to or from a portable tank on board a vessel unless each gasket and the lining of the portable tank are made of a material that is—...

  18. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr., R. William

    2000-01-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (a) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (b) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (c) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (d) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (e) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (f) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method. A preferred Mo--Re-ODS alloy contains 7-14 weight % rhenium and 2-4 volume % lanthanum oxide.

  19. Indium Foil Serves As Thermally Conductive Gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, G. Yale; Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    Indium foil found useful as gasket to increase thermal conductance between bodies clamped together. Deforms to fill imperfections on mating surfaces. Used where maximum temperature in joint less than melting temperature of indium. Because of low melting temperature of indium, most useful in cryogenic applications.

  20. Evaluation of Rhenium Joining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Morren, Sybil H.

    1995-01-01

    Coupons of rhenium-to-Cl03 flat plate joints, formed by explosive and diffusion bonding, were evaluated in a series of shear tests. Shear testing was conducted on as-received, thermally-cycled (100 cycles, from 21 to 1100 C), and thermally-aged (3 and 6 hrs at 1100 C) joint coupons. Shear tests were also conducted on joint coupons with rhenium and/or Cl03 electron beam welded tabs to simulate the joint's incorporation into a structure. Ultimate shear strength was used as a figure of merit to assess the effects of the thermal treatment and the electron beam welding of tabs on the joint coupons. All of the coupons survived thermal testing intact and without any visible degradation. Two different lots of as-received, explosively-bonded joint coupons had ultimate shear strengths of 281 and 310 MPa and 162 and 223 MPa, respectively. As-received, diffusion-bonded coupons had ultimate shear strengths of 199 and 348 MPa. For the most part, the thermally-treated and rhenium weld tab coupons had shear strengths slightly reduced or within the range of the as-received values. Coupons with Cl03 weld tabs experienced a significant reduction in shear strength. The degradation of strength appeared to be the result of a poor heat sink provided during the electron beam welding. The Cl03 base material could not dissipate heat as effectively as rhenium, leading to the formation of a brittle rhenium-niobium intermetallic.

  1. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, John Scott

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-cooled bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for ascent/ descent engines and reaction control systems on various NASA missions and spacecraft, such as the Mars Sample Return and Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, iridium (Ir)-lined rhenium (Re) combustion chambers are the state of the art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf Ir-Re chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet Rocketdyne, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, Re chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent electrochemical forming (EL-Form"TM") results have shown considerable promise for improving Re's mechanical properties by producing a multilayered deposit composed of a tailored microstructure (i.e., Engineered Re). The Engineered Re processing techniques were optimized, and detailed characterization and mechanical properties tests were performed. The most promising techniques were selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR-sized combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  2. Oxide strengthened molybdenum-rhenium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, William R. Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Provided is a method of making an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy which includes the steps of: (1) forming a slurry containing molybdenum oxide and a metal salt dispersed in an aqueous medium, the metal salt being selected from nitrates or acetates of lanthanum, cerium or thorium; (2) heating the slurry in the presence of hydrogen to form a molybdenum powder comprising molybdenum and an oxide of the metal salt; (3) mixing rhenium powder with the molybdenum powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium powder; (4) pressing the molybdenum-rhenium powder to form a molybdenum-rhenium compact; (5) sintering the molybdenum-rhenium compact in hydrogen or under a vacuum to form a molybdenum-rhenium ingot; and (6) compacting the molybdenum-rhenium ingot to reduce the cross-sectional area of the molybdenum-rhenium ingot and form a molybdenum-rhenium alloy containing said metal oxide. The present invention also provides an ODS molybdenum-rhenium alloy made by the method.

  3. Recent buckling experiences with spiral wound flexible graphite filled gaskets

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.T.

    1996-12-01

    Given the long and successful history of spiral wound asbestos filled gaskets as widely used in petrochemical plants and refineries, the evolution to flexible graphite filled spiral wound gaskets was expected to be relatively straightforward. For the most part, the transition to flexible graphite has occurred with relatively good success consistent with its improved sealing performance. However, recent experiences reported with buckling type instability problems of flexible graphite filled spiral wound gaskets warrants another look at the industry practices covering this type of gasket. The paper presents findings from 2 different but related instability problems involving spiral would flexible graphite filled gaskets. The first involved Class 1500 and 2500 spiral wound gaskets fitted with inner retaining rings which suffered severe inward buckling with initial boltup. The second experience pertains to Class 600 and lower gaskets supplied without inner retaining rings. Gaskets supplied in both cases complied fully with ASME B16.20 requirements, which highlights possible inadequacies in this standard for spiral wound gaskets. Efforts have been initiated to work with manufacturers in their assessment of fundamental design considerations and with appropriate Code committees to address apparent deficiencies discovered with the industry standards for this type of gasket.

  4. Flexible ceramic gasket for SOFC generator

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo; Prevish, Thomas

    2009-02-03

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (10) contains stacks of hollow axially elongated fuel cells (36) having an open top end (37), an oxidant inlet plenum (52), a feed fuel plenum (11), a combustion chamber (94) for combusting reacted oxidant/spent fuel; and, optionally, a fuel recirculation chamber (106) below the combustion chamber (94), where the fuel recirculation chamber (94) is in part defined by semi-porous fuel cell positioning gasket (108), all within an outer generator enclosure (8), wherein the fuel cell gasket (108) has a laminate structure comprising at least a compliant fibrous mat support layer and a strong, yet flexible woven layer, which may contain catalytic particles facing the combustion chamber, where the catalyst, if used, is effective to further oxidize exhaust fuel and protect the open top end (37) of the fuel cells.

  5. Experience with gasket testing according to new DIN standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelmann, H.; Bartonicek, J.; Hirschvogel, A.

    1996-12-01

    In 1995 new DIN standards were published containing gasket factor definitions, gasket testing procedures and requirements as a basis for technical delivery conditions. The gasket factors in DIN 28090 are consistent with those in the design rules for bolted flanged connections laid down in DIN EN 1591. Both standards together are an advanced and reliable tool for strength analysis and tightness assessment for bolted flanged connections. The new DIN standards contain new features in detail: gasket factors are related to tightness classes allowing tightness classification of flanged joints; time and temperature effects are regarded by means of high temperature longterm aging leakage tests; and gasket material degradation due to chemical attack is covered by means of chemical resistance tests. Verification of gasket testing according to the new DIN standards by means of tests on real flanged joints is under way.

  6. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Southerland, Jr., James M.; Barringer, Jr., Curtis N.

    1994-01-01

    A tool for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove.

  7. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Southerland, J.M. Jr.; Barringer, C.N. Jr.

    1994-09-06

    A tool is disclosed for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove. 6 figs.

  8. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Southerland, J.M., Sr.; Barringer, C.N., Sr.

    1993-08-23

    This invention is comprised of a tool for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove.

  9. Gasket Assembly for Sealing Mating Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A pair of substantially opposed mating surfaces are joined to each other and sealed in place by means of an electrically-conductive member which is placed in proximity to the mating surfaces. The electrically-conductive member has at least one element secured thereto which is positioned to contact the mating surfaces, and which softens when the electrically-conductive member is heated by passing an electric current therethrough. The softened element conforms to the mating surfaces, and upon cooling of the softened element the mating surfaces are joined together in an effective seal. Of particular significance is an embodiment of the electrically-conductive member which is a gasket having an electrically-conductive gasket base and a pair of the elements secured to opposite sides of the gasket base. This embodiment is positioned between the opposed mating surfaces to be joined to each other. Also significant is an embodiment of the electrically-conductive member which is an electrically-conductive sleeve having an element secured to its inner surface. This embodiment surrounds cylindrical members the bases of which are the substantially opposed mating surfaces to be joined, and the element on the inner surface of the sleeve contacts the outer surfaces of the cylindrical members.

  10. Rhenium and iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.

    1997-02-01

    Re is used together with Ir in a number of metallurgical applications. Ir has been used as coating for Re rocket thrusters and as an oxidation-resistant coating in a number of other applications. The high strength of Re at elevated temperature is combined with the oxidation resistance and high melting point of Ir. The use of the two metals together is advantageous due to absence of stable intermetallic compounds. Both Re and Ir alloying additions improve the ductility of W. The high solubility of Re in Ir is also taken advantage of to produce Ir-based alloys for structural applications. Uses of Re in conjunction with Ir are discussed.

  11. Diffusion in the nickel-rhenium system

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, C.M.; Mari, D.; Dunand, D.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    Most Ni-based metal matrix composites (MMC) studied to date were reinforced with ductile refractory metal fibers, mostly W or W-alloys. However, Ni embrittles and weakens cold-drawn W fibers by (1) forming intermetallic phases at the fiber-matrix interface and (2) inducing recrystallization of W at temperatures as low as 950 C by rapid grain-boundary diffusion. To prevent these problems, ceramic coatings with low solubility, reactivity, and diffusion coefficients for both W and Ni can be applied at the interface. However, ceramic coatings are brittle, and typically exhibit a large mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion with Ni; therefore, these coatings tend to crack when the composite is subjected to thermal cycling. To prevent cracking of the diffusion barrier, ductile, metallic coatings can be used. Rhenium is an attractive candidate for W fibers in a Ni matrix, since it exhibits high-temperature strength significantly higher than W, while retaining excellent ductility at all temperatures, even after recrystallization. Also, its coefficient of thermal expansion is between those of W and Ni. Diffusion in the Re-W system at the potential use temperatures of Ni-based MMC (1,200--1,500 K) is negligible due to the very high melting points of both W and Re (3,695 K and 3,459 K, respectively). Furthermore, Re additions have been found to improve the mechanical properties of both W and Ni. Finally, the Ni-Re phase diagram shows a simple peritectic system with no intermetallic present. However, one potential drawback is the relatively high solubility of each metal in the other. The authors present an experimental investigation of diffusion phenomena in the Ni-Re system. The parameters controlling diffusion (activation energy and frequency factor) of each metal into the other are determined in order to predict long-term diffusion behavior at elevated temperatures and to assess the suitability of Re diffusion coatings for W fibers in Ni-based matrices.

  12. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a) This section applied to pipe fittings...

  14. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 56.30-35 - Gasketed mechanical couplings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasketed mechanical couplings. 56.30-35 Section 56.30-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-35 Gasketed mechanical couplings. (a)...

  17. Partial-Vacuum-Gasketed Electrochemical Corrosion Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifas, Andrew P.; Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for making corrosion measurements has been designed to prevent or reduce crevice corrosion, which is a common source of error in prior such cells. The present cell (see figure) includes an electrolyte reservoir with O-ring-edged opening at the bottom. In preparation for a test, the reservoir, while empty, is pressed down against a horizontal specimen surface to form an O-ring seal. A purge of air or other suitable gas is begun in the reservoir, and the pressure in the reservoir is regulated to maintain a partial vacuum. While maintaining the purge and partial vacuum, and without opening the interior of the reservoir to the atmosphere, the electrolyte is pumped into the reservoir. The reservoir is then slowly lifted a short distance off the specimen. The level of the partial vacuum is chosen such that the differential pressure is just sufficient to keep the electrolyte from flowing out of the reservoir through the small O-ring/specimen gap. Electrochemical measurements are then made. Because there is no gasket (and, hence, no crevice between the specimen and the gasket), crevice corrosion is unlikely to occur.

  18. Directed light fabrication of rhenium components

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.O.; Thoma, D.J.; Lewis, G.K.

    1997-02-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a direct metal deposition process that fuses powder, delivered by gas into the focal zone of a high powered laser beam to form fully dense near-net shaped components. This is accomplished in one step without the use of molds, dies, forming, pressing, sintering or forging equipment. DLF is performed in a high purity inert environment free from the contaminants associated with conventional processing such as oxide and carbon pickup, lubricants, binding agents, cooling or cleaning agents. Applications using rhenium have historically been limited in part by its workability and cost. This study demonstrates the ability to fuse rhenium metal powder, using a DLF machine, into free standing rods and describes the associated parameter study. Microstructural comparisons between DLF deposited rhenium and commercial rhenium sheet product is performed. This research combined with existing DLF technology demonstrates the feasibility of forming complex rhenium, metal shapes directly from powder.

  19. Synthesis of magnetic rhenium sulfide composite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Naimei; Tu, Weixia

    2009-10-01

    Rhenium sulfide nanoparticles are associated with magnetic iron oxide through coprecipitation of iron salts with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Sizes of the formed magnetic rhenium sulfide composite particles are in the range 5.5-12.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays spectra demonstrate the coexistence of Fe 3O 4 and ReS 2 in the composite particle, which confirm the formation of the magnetic rhenium sulfide composite nanoparticles. The association of rhenium sulfide with iron oxide not only keeps electronic state and composition of the rhenium sulfide nanoparticles, but also introduces magnetism with the level of 24.1 emu g -1 at 14 kOe. Surface modification with monocarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-COOH) has the role of deaggregating the composite nanoparticles to be with average hydrodynamic size of 27.3 nm and improving the dispersion and the stability of the composite nanoparticles in water.

  20. Development and Evaluation of High Temperature Gaskets for Hypersonic and Reentry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of flexible gasket compositions were developed and tested at high temperatures. The gasket material system has high temperature capability. GRABER sealants were very effective in sealing machined ACC-4 composite surfaces. The gasket composition do not bond strongly with the ACC-4 substrate materials. The density of gasket materials can be tailored to show appropriate compressibility.

  1. 46 CFR 56.25-15 - Gaskets (modifies 108.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gaskets (modifies 108.4). 56.25-15 Section 56.25-15... APPURTENANCES Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-15 Gaskets (modifies 108.4). (a) Gaskets shall be made of materials which are not injuriously affected by the fluid or by temperature....

  2. 46 CFR 56.25-15 - Gaskets (modifies 108.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gaskets (modifies 108.4). 56.25-15 Section 56.25-15... APPURTENANCES Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-15 Gaskets (modifies 108.4). (a) Gaskets shall be made of materials which are not injuriously affected by the fluid or by temperature....

  3. Sealability of API R, RX, and BX ring gaskets

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents work done to determine the sealability limits of API R, RX, and BX gaskets. The work included finite element modeling and full scale testing. The research teaches that bolt stresses of 15 to 30 ksi are necessary to seat the gaskets. If these seating loads are not achieved, the gaskets will likely leak at design pressure, particularly for gas service. If the flanges are properly madeup, the sealability limits in API Bulletins 6AF and 6AF2 are too conservative and can be eliminated for non cyclic service.

  4. Properties of tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium with hafnium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Todd

    2009-07-01

    Historically, tungsten-25wt.% rhenium alloy has been manufactured into wire for the thermocouple market, but recent demands for high-temperature structural components have forced the development of novel processing techniques for tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium with hafnium carbide. With a melting temperature of 3,050°C, and a recrystallization temperature near 1,900°C, tungsten-rhenium alloys are being used in aerospace, temperature measuring, and friction stir welding applications. The mechanical properties and microstructures of tungsten-25wt.% rhenium and tungsten-25wt.% rhenium with hafnium carbide are reported at ambient temperature, 1,371°C, and 1,926°C, after processing by three methods: hot isostatic pressing, swaging, and extrusion.

  5. Rhenium/Oxygen Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Myers, Dwight; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of pure rhenium is examined from 600-1400 C in oxygen/argon mixtures. Linear weight loss kinetics are observed. Gas pressures, flow rates, and temperatures are methodically varied to determine the rate controlling steps. The reaction at 600 and 800 C appears to be controlled by a chemical reaction step at the surface; whereas the higher temperature reactions appear to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of oxygen to the rhenium surface. Attack of the rhenium appears to be along grain boundaries and crystallographic planes.

  6. REVIEW OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER GASKETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the significance of heat leakage through gaskets in household refrigerator/freezers, explores different design features, and suggests further study if necessary. The report gives results of an extensive literature review, interviews...

  7. REVIEW OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER GASKETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the significance of heat leakage through gaskets in household refrigerator/freezers, explores different design features, and suggests further study if necessary. he report gives results of an extensive literature review, interviews ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and

  9. Embedded strain gauges for condition monitoring of silicone gaskets.

    PubMed

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term. PMID:25014099

  10. Embedded Strain Gauges for Condition Monitoring of Silicone Gaskets

    PubMed Central

    Schotzko, Timo; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized strain gauge with a thickness of 5 µm is molded into a silicone O-ring. This is a first step toward embedding sensors in gaskets for structural health monitoring. The signal of the integrated sensor exhibits a linear correlation with the contact pressure of the O-ring. This affords the opportunity to monitor the gasket condition during installation. Thus, damages caused by faulty assembly can be detected instantly, and early failures, with their associated consequences, can be prevented. Through the embedded strain gauge, the contact pressure applied to the gasket can be directly measured. Excessive pressure and incorrect positioning of the gasket can cause structural damage to the material of the gasket, which can lead to an early outage. A platinum strain gauge is fabricated on a thin polyimide layer and is contacted through gold connections. The measured resistance pressure response exhibits hysteresis for the first few strain cycles, followed by a linear behavior. The short-term impact of the embedded sensor on the stability of the gasket is investigated. Pull-tests with O-rings and test specimens have indicated that the integration of the miniaturized sensors has no negative impact on the stability in the short term. PMID:25014099

  11. Mineral resource of the month: rhenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium, a silvery-white, heat resistant metal, has increased significantly in importance since its discovery in 1925. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From 1925 until the 1960s, only two metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. Since then, its uses have steadily increased, including everything from unleaded gasoline to jet engines, and worldwide annual production now tops 45 metric tons.

  12. Rhenium-Oxygen Interactions at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.; Zhu, Dongming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The reaction of pure rhenium metal with dilute oxygen/argon mixtures was studied from 600 to 1400 C. Temperature, oxygen pressure, and flow rates were systematically varied to determine the rate-controlling steps. At lower temperatures the oxygen/rhenium chemical reaction is rate limiting; at higher temperatures gas-phase diffusion of oxygen through the static boundary layer is rate limiting. At all temperatures post-reaction microstructures indicate preferential attack along certain crystallographic planes and defects.

  13. Coevolutionary extremal dynamics on gasket fractal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Eun; Sung, Joo Yup; Cha, Moon-Yong; Maeng, Seong Eun; Bang, Yu Sik; Lee, Jae Woo

    2009-11-01

    We considered a Bak-Sneppen model on a Sierpinski gasket fractal. We calculated the avalanche size distribution and the distribution of distances between subsequent minimal sites. To observe the temporal correlations of the avalanche, we estimated the return time distribution, the first-return time, and the all-return time distribution. The avalanche size distribution follows the power law, P(s)∼s, with the exponent τ=1.004(7). The distribution of jumping sites also follows the power law, P(r)∼r, with the critical exponent π=4.12(4). We observe the periodic oscillation of the distribution of the jumping distances which originated from the jumps of the level when the minimal site crosses the stage of the fractal. The first-return time distribution shows the power law, P(t)∼t, with the critical exponent τ=1.418(7). The all-return time distribution is also characterized by the power law, P(t)∼t, with the exponent τ=0.522(4). The exponents of the return time satisfy the scaling relation τ+τ=2 for τ⩽2.

  14. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A.

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  15. Liquid fluorine/hydrazine rhenium thruster update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, M. A.; Kaplan, R. B.; Tuffias, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The status of a fluorine/hydrazine thruster development program is discussed. A solid rhenium metal sea-level thrust chamber was successfully fabricated and tested for a total run duration of 1075 s with 17 starts. Rhenium fabrication methods are discussed. A test program was conducted to evaluate performance and chamber cooling. Acceptable performance was reached and cooling was adequate. A flight-type injector was fabricated that achieved an average extrapolated performance value of 3608 N-s/kg (368 lbf-s/lbm). Altitude thrust chambers were fabricated. One chamber incorporates a rhenium combustor and nozzle with an area ratio of 15:1, and a columbium nozzle extension with area ratios from 15:1 to 60:1. The other chamber was fabricated completely with a carbon/carbon composite. Because of the attributes of rhenium for use in high-temperature applications, a program to provide the materials and processes technology needed to reliably fabricate and/or repair vapor-deposited rhenium parts of relatively large size and complex shape is recommended.

  16. Application of gasket performance data for design and operation of low emissions, high-reliability gasketed joints

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, A.F. III

    1996-07-01

    The MTI project No. 47, Test Methods for Non-Asbestos Gasket Materials, opened everyone`s eyes to the breadth of performance and use information for gasket materials. What the MTI has started has resulted in a quiet revolution in gasketing, and just in time. Today`s emissions and reliability mandates have created a situation whereby gasket materials can no longer be selected and designed into systems simply through practicable experience and personnel judgment. A defined engineering approach is required. Based on the work initiated by the MTI and furthered by groups such as ASME and PVRC, there now exists extensive performance data for all gasketing materials. This presentation addresses the existence and usage of the various MTI and PVRC-type performance data as a tool for initial material selection. With this background, a novel simplification to the future ASME code procedure is introduced which allows for a simple yet accurate means of applying this widely available data to an emissions` control program at the plant level.

  17. Sealing Force Increasing of ACM Gasket through Electron Beam Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, D. J.; Batalha, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Rubber is an engineering material largely used as sealing parts, in form of O-rings, solid gaskets and liquid gaskets, materials applied in liquid state with posterior vulcanization and sealing. Stress relaxation is a rubber characteristic which impacts negatively in such industrial applications (rings and solid gaskets). This work has the purpose to investigate the use of electron beam radiation (EB) as a technology able to decrease the stress relaxation in acrylic rubber (ACM), consequently increasing the sealing capability of this material. ACM samples were irradiated with dose of 100 kGy and 250 kGy, its behavior was comparatively investigated using, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments. The results obtained by DMA shown an increase of Tg and changes in dynamic mechanical behavior.

  18. 33 CFR 183.536 - Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. 183.536 Section 183.536 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 183.536 Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. (a) (b) Each gasket and each...

  19. 33 CFR 183.536 - Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. 183.536 Section 183.536 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 183.536 Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. (a) (b) Each gasket and each...

  20. 33 CFR 183.536 - Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. 183.536 Section 183.536 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 183.536 Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. (a) (b) Each gasket and each...

  1. 33 CFR 183.536 - Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. 183.536 Section 183.536 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 183.536 Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. (a) (b) Each gasket and each...

  2. 33 CFR 183.536 - Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. 183.536 Section 183.536 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Standards § 183.536 Seals and gaskets in fuel filters and strainers. (a) (b) Each gasket and each...

  3. An analysis on diffusion of rhenium in Poco graphite at 1373 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinglong; Zee, Ralph H.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion is one of the major concerns for materials operating at high temperatures. Graphite is being considered as the prime candidate material for a receiver-absorber-converter used in Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS). One of the anticipated problems is the loss of graphite at high temperatures. Rhenium has been proposed as a diffusion barrier for graphite to prevent excessive loss of the material. The diffusion of rhenium in graphite is not well understood. A technique to study the diffusion of rhenium in graphite was developed based on the Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) technique. The graphite samples used in this experiment were Poco graphite purchased from Unocal. The sample coated with rhenium was given a diffusion anneal at a temperature of 1373 K in a vacuum electron beam furnace. The diffusion profiles were determined by examining the energy distribution of backscattered helium ions. It is therefore necessary to convert the RBS spectra into concentration profiles. RUMP (Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program) is a commercially available computer program which is limited to thin films with thicknesses of approximately 300 nm. When the thickness of the thin film is greater than 300 nm. RUMP simulated spectra differ significantly from the experimental data and it is not suitable for our diffusion study which requires thicker rhenium films. This limitation is possibly due to the incorrect approximation for the energy loss calculation. A new algorithm for interpreting RBS spectra was developed by comparing the calculated spectra with the experimental data. A better fit for RBS data was successfully obtained. The diffusion coefficients were obtained using the Matano method.

  4. Characterization of Rhenium Oxides Using ESCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak; Jones, Clyde S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium as an engineering material has the following properties: (1) high melting point (one of the refractory metals); (2) high strength at elevated temperatures; (3) excellent toughness at room temperature; (4) low vapor pressure at melting point; (5) low coefficient of thermal expansion; (6) high impact and wear resistance; (7) compatibility with elements such as carbon and platinum; (8) conservation of properties in the presence of hydrogen, water vapor, and nitrogen oxides; and (9) poor oxidation resistance. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of rhenium oxide characterization, including details on its history, experimental procedure using ESCA, and the analysis of the oxides (spectra and effects of ion sputtering).

  5. Size and shape of rhenium nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.; Mickelson, G. E.; Greenlay, N.; Kelly, S. D.; Vila, F. D.; Kas, J.; Rehr, J. J.; Bare, S. R.; X-Ray Science Division; UOP LLC; EXAFS; Univ. of Washington

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the results from a detailed XAFS characterization of supported rhenium nanoparticles are presented. The Re nanoparticles are formed by the reduction of dispersed supported rhenium oxide in the presence of moist hydrogen. The shape of the wet-reduced Re clusters is determined by comparing the EXAFS spectra of Re-metal to the Re-wet-reduced clusters to 6 {angstrom}. A decrease in the signal from the 4th and 7th Re shells is an indication of sheet-like rather than spherical-like particles.

  6. Size and Shape of Rhenium Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.; Mickelson, G. E.; Greenlay, N.; Bare, Simon R.; Kelly, S. D.; Vila, F. D.; Kas, J.; Rehr, J. J.

    2007-02-02

    In this paper the results from a detailed XAFS characterization of supported rhenium nanoparticles are presented. The Re nanoparticles are formed by the reduction of dispersed supported rhenium oxide in the presence of moist hydrogen. The shape of the wet--reduced Re clusters is determined by comparing the EXAFS spectra of Re-metal to the Re-wet-reduced clusters to 6 A. A decrease in the signal from the 4th and 7th Re shells is an indication of sheet-like rather than spherical-like particles.

  7. Testing of electroformed deposited iridium/powder metallurgy rhenium rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Dickerson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    High-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials offer the thermal margin for high performance and extended lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets. Rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (Ir) allow hours of operation at 2200 C on Earth-storable propellants. One process for manufacturing Ir/Re rocket chambers is the fabrication of Re substrates by powder metallurgy (PM) and the application of Ir coatings by using electroformed deposition (ED). ED Ir coatings, however, have been found to be porous and poorly adherent. The integrity of ED Ir coatings could be improved by densification after the electroforming process. This report summarizes the testing of two 22-N, ED Ir/PM Re rocket chambers that were subjected to post-deposition treatments in an effort to densify the Ir coating. One chamber was vacuum annealed, while the other chamber was subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP). The chambers were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants, at mixture ratios that simulated the oxidizing environments of Earth-storable propellants. ne annealed ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 24 firings and 4.58 hr at a mixture ratio of 4.2. After only 9 firings, the annealed ED Ir coating began to blister and spall upstream of the throat. The blistering and spalling were similar to what had been experienced with unannealed, as-deposited ED Ir coatings. The HIP ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 91 firings and 11.45 hr at mixture ratios of 3.2 and 4.2. The HIP ED Ir coating remained adherent to the Re substrate throughout testing; there were no visible signs of coating degradation. Metallography revealed, however, thinning of the HIP Ir coating and occasional pores in the Re layer upstream of the throat. Pinholes in the Ir coating may have provided a path for oxidation of the Re substrate at these locations. The HIP ED Ir coating proved to be more effective than vacuum annealed and as-deposited ED Ir. Further densification is still required to

  8. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence. 59. Rhenium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, M.M.; Debad, J.D.; Bard, A.J.; Striplin, D.R.; Crosby, G.A.

    1996-12-15

    Re(L)(CO){sub 3}Cl complexes (where L is 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2`-bipyridine, or a phenanthroline or bipyridine derivative containing methyl groups) are photoluminescent in fluid solution at room temperature. In acetonitrile solutions, these complexes display one chemically reversible one-electron reduction process and one chemically irreversible oxidation process. {lambda}{sub max} for the luminescence is dependent on the nature of L, and a linear relationship between {lambda}{sub max} and the difference in electrode potentials for oxidation and reduction is evident. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) was observed in acetonitrile solutions of these complexes (Bu{sub 4}NPF{sub 6} as electrolyte) by stepping the potential of a Pt disk working electrode between potentials sufficient to form the radical anionic and cationic species. The relative amount of light produced during the anodic and cathodic pulses was dependent on the potential limits and pulse duration. ECL was also generated in the presence of coreactants, i.e., with tri-n-propylamine upon stepping the potential sufficiently positive to form the deprotonated tri-n-propylamine radical and the cationic rhenium(II) species Re{sup II}(L)(CO){sub 3}Cl{sup +}. When S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} was present in solution, ECL was also observed for all of the complexes upon stepping to potentials sufficient to form (Re{sup I}(L)(CO){sub 3}Cl){sup -} and the strong oxidant SO{sub 4}{sup .-}. 44 refs., 8 figs.

  9. 10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of center hangar doors and canvas gasket, dock no. 493. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Elastic module of superhard rhenium diboride

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Michael R.; Keppens, Veerle; Sales, Brian C; Jin, Rongying; Mandrus, David

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of polycrystalline rhenium diboride are measured as a function of temperature between 5 and 325 K. The room temperature results show that ReB{sub 2} has very high values for both the bulk and shear modulus, confirming the incompressible and superhard nature of this material. With decreasing temperature, the moduli increase, with a hint of softening below 50 K.

  11. Nanograined Net-Shaped Fabrication of Rhenium Components by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2004-02-04

    Cost-effective net-shaped forming components have brought considerable interest into DoD, NASA and DoE. Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) offers flexibility in forming net-shaped components with tailored microstructure and chemistry. High purity rhenium (Re) components including rhenium-coated graphite balls, Re- plates and tubes have been successfully manufactured by EB-PVD. EB-PVD Re components exhibited sub-micron and nano-sized grains with high hardness and strength as compared to CVD. It is estimated that the cost of Re components manufactured by EB-PVD would be less than the current CVD and powder-HIP Technologies.

  12. Nanograined Net-Shaped Fabrication of Rhenium Components by EB-PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2004-02-01

    Cost-effective net-shaped forming components have brought considerable interest into DoD, NASA and DoE. Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) offers flexibility in forming net-shaped components with tailored microstructure and chemistry. High purity rhenium (Re) components including rhenium-coated graphite balls, Re- plates and tubes have been successfully manufactured by EB-PVD. EB-PVD Re components exhibited sub-micron and nano-sized grains with high hardness and strength as compared to CVD. It is estimated that the cost of Re components manufactured by EB-PVD would be less than the current CVD and powder-HIP Technologies.

  13. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  14. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  15. Rhenium ion beam for implantation into semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Alyoshin, M. E.; Kraevsky, S. V.; Yakushin, P. E.; Khoroshilov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.; Fedorov, P. A.; Temirov, A. A.

    2012-02-15

    At the ion source test bench in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics the program of ion source development for semiconductor industry is in progress. In framework of the program the Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc ion source for germanium and rhenium ion beam generation was developed and investigated. It was shown that at special conditions of ion beam implantation it is possible to fabricate not only homogenous layers of rhenium silicides solid solutions but also clusters of this compound with properties of quantum dots. At the present moment the compound is very interesting for semiconductor industry, especially for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, but there is no very developed technology for production of nanostructures (for example quantum sized structures) with required parameters. The results of materials synthesis and exploration are presented.

  16. Characterization of Rhenium Oxides Using ESCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak; Gentz, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High melting point and inherent ductility (toughness) over a wide range of temperature has made Rhenium an engineering material of choice for several thrust chambers in propulsion systems. Although the material remains tough at high temperatures, it still can readily transform to several oxides. As many as eight different oxides have been reported in literature. When characterized using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analyses) these oxides show large shifts in the Re 4f line positions. While this unique property could be used as a tool for oxide characterization, literature indicates that only a few of these oxides have been characterized. Current work focuses on characterizing oxides of Rhenium using ESCA. Spectral line Re 4f have been measured for various oxides and the results have been compared with the Re 4f line positions of real-time oxidation products from space hardware.

  17. The development and testing of asbestos-free gasket materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, W.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Of the 27 vendors contacted, 11 submitted asbestos-free gasket materials for thermal analysis followed by hydrostatic pressure testing, steam pressure testing, and fire testing. Virtually all were acceptable up to 400 C (air-free), and most were stable to 700 C. Several can be used to over 900 C in air or gases, since they are ceramic. Several graphitic gaskets are serviceable to 900 C in absence of air. Several performed well in steam pressure testing to 315 C, requiring a single adjustment in bolt/flange pressure after pressurization. Many acquired a compression set and consequent slight pressure loss, but responded well to bolt tightening. All except one are made of compressed ceramic or graphite fiber with 0-35 wt% binder, hence was inelastic but malleable/compressible. The large number of ceramic-and graphitic-based gasket materials obviated the need for further development; efforts were concentrated on critical evaluation of the off-the-shelf available materials, in comparison with asbestos.

  18. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  19. Experiences with new European standards for calculation of flanged joints including necessary gasket factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J.; Kockelmann, H.; Schoeckle, F.

    1996-12-01

    The correct function of a flanged joint in a given construction (flanges, bolts) and with given loads (pressure, temperature, additional forces) depends on the following: (1) choice of the gasket for the operation environment; (2) determination of the gasket stress for assembly conditions; and (3) gasket stress in operation, i.e., the conditions when leakage has to be minimized. For the correct choice of a gasket it is necessary to have gasket factors available, as given by DIN 28090 (Sept. 95) together with the test procedures. These gasket factors determine the tightening characteristics as well as the deformation capability of the gaskets. Furthermore, these gasket factors must be available for use in calculations. On the basis of calculations a stress analysis (i.e. a limitation of the stresses in flanges and bolts) must be possible as well as the determination of the bolt forces for the assembly state and of the gasket stress for operating conditions. This is one of the goals of the standard pr DIN EN 1591. The paper first introduces the actual European standards. Calculations are reviewed using test data from special test rigs and from real flanged joints. The calculations were made according to DIN 2505 (initial German standard for flanged joints) and pr DIN EN 1591. Additionally, 2D and 3D Finite Element analysis calculations were performed.

  20. Rhenium: a rare metal critical in modern transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Rhenium rarely occurs as a native element or as its own sulfide mineral—rheniite (ReS2)—and often occurs as a substitute for molybdenum in molybdenite (MoS2). Most extracted rhenium is a byproduct of copper mining, with about 80 percent recovered from flue dust during the processing of molybdenite concentrates from porphyry copper deposits.

  1. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  2. Windows based computer program for gasket determination based on two different calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, F.; Borovnicar, I.; Ghirlanda, M.

    1996-12-01

    The windows based computer program for gasket calculation was presented. C++ computer language was used. On the basis of experimental results and data sets available in the literature and calculated with the help of FSA and PVRC method, the assembly parameters were determined. The result is DONIT TESNITI Diskette, a smart tool to select gaskets on the basis of service conditions and tightness requirements.

  3. Rubber and alumina gaskets retain vacuum seal in high temperature EMF cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesson, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Silicone rubber gasket and an alumina gasket retain a vacuum inside a high temperature EMF cell in which higher and lower density liquid metal electrodes are separated by an intermediate density fused salt electrolyte. This innovation is in use on a sodium bismuth regenerable EMF cell in which the fused salts and metals are at about 500 deg to 600 deg C.

  4. Flame Arrival Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-04-10

    PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame arrival and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame arrival is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame arrival measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the time of peak pressure and the time to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore » the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less

  5. 46 CFR 42.15-30 - Hatchways closed by weathertight covers of steel or other equivalent material fitted with gaskets...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices. 42.15-30 Section 42.15-30 Shipping... equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices. (a) Hatchway coamings. At positions 1 and 2 the... equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices shall be as specified in § 42.15-25(a)(1)....

  6. 46 CFR 42.15-30 - Hatchways closed by weathertight covers of steel or other equivalent material fitted with gaskets...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices. 42.15-30 Section 42.15-30 Shipping... equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices. (a) Hatchway coamings. At positions 1 and 2 the... equivalent material fitted with gaskets and clamping devices shall be as specified in § 42.15-25(a)(1)....

  7. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  8. The characteristic of blind flanged bolted joints with full-face gaskets

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Toshiyuki

    1996-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of blind flanged bolted joints with full-face gaskets such as the contact stress distributions and the variation of axial bolt force are analyzed using axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. The effect of Young`s modulus of gaskets, the gasket thickness and the bolt pitch circle diameter on the contact stress distribution are clarified by the numerical calculations. In the experiments, the contact stress distributions were measured by sensitive films when the gasket is asbestos. Variations of axial bolt force are measured using strain gages. The internal pressure is observed when the internal fluid starts to leak. The numerical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results. Discussions are made on the sealing performance of gaskets used in these experiments.

  9. Gasket performance of SWG in ROTT and short term estimation at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Asahina, M.; Nishida, T.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This paper deals with the sealability at room temperature and the durability at elevated temperature of SWG (spiral wound gasket). The fillers in the gasket specimens are chosen as newly developed non-asbestos, asbestos and flexible graphite. The effects of inner and outer rings inserted in the gasket specimens on the new PVRC gaskets constants are examined by using the ROTT test procedure (room temperature tightness test). The durability of SWG at elevated temperature is estimated by using the weight loss of filler and the stress-deflection curve of SWG obtained after aging at elevated temperatures. As a result, the sealability and the durability of newly developed non-asbestos SWG is the same as asbestos SWG, and the durability of flexible graphite SWG at elevated temperatures in this method conform to the boundary temperature in field and it is shown that this method is available to estimate the durability of gaskets at elevated temperatures.

  10. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Iridium-Rhenium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    The life-limiting mechanism for radiation-cooled rockets made from iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) is the diffusion of Re into the Ir layer and the subsequent oxidation of the resulting Ir-Re alloy from the inner surface. In a previous study, a life model for Ir/Re rockets was developed. It incorporated Ir-Re diffusion and oxidation data to predict chamber lifetimes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Oxidation testing at 1540 deg C suggested that a 20-wt percent Re concentration at the inner wall surface should be established as the failure criterion. The present study was performed to better define Ir-oxidation behavior as a function of Re concentration and to supplement the data base for the life model. Samples ranging from pure Ir to Ir-40 wt percent Re (Ir-40Re) were tested at 1500 deg C, in two different oxygen environments. There were indications that the oxidation rate of the Ir-Re alloy increased significantly when it went from a single-phase solid solution to a two-phase mixture, as was suggested in previous work. However, because of testing anomalies in this study, there were not enough dependable oxidation data to definitively raise the Ir/Re rocket failure criterion from 20-wt percent Re to a Re concentration corresponding to entry into the two-phase region.

  11. Toward hypoxia-selective rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    North, Andrea J; Hayne, David J; Schieber, Christine; Price, Katherine; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J; Rigopoulos, Angela; O'Keefe, Graeme J; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Scott, Andrew M; White, Jonathan M; Ackermann, Uwe; Donnelly, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of preparing hypoxia-selective imaging and therapeutic agents, technetium(I) and rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with pyridylhydrazone, dipyridylamine, and pyridylaminocarboxylate ligands containing nitrobenzyl or nitroimidazole functional groups have been prepared. The rhenium tricarbonyl complexes were synthesized with short reaction times using microwave irradiation. Rhenium tricarbonyl complexes with deprotonated p-nitrophenyl pyridylhydrazone ligands are luminescent, and this has been used to track their uptake in HeLa cells using confocal fluorescent microscopy. Selected rhenium tricarbonyl complexes displayed higher uptake in hypoxic cells when compared to normoxic cells. A (99m)Tc tricarbonyl complex with a dipyridylamine ligand bearing a nitroimidazole functional group is stable in human serum and was shown to localize in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; SK-RC-52) tumor in a mouse. PMID:26375592

  12. Rhenium labeled peptides and antibodies for cancer therapy. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.; Rhodes, B. A.

    1996-08-12

    This CRADA involved development of optimal methods for attachment of rhenium radioisotopes to antibodies and peptides which can be used for cancer treatment. Rhenium-186 and the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators were provided from ORNL to RhoMed for peptide labeling studies. The rhenium-186 and carrier-free rhenium-188 were then used to optimize the labeling of various small peptides....A system has been developed at ORNL which provides the rhenium-188 radioisotope, which has excellent therapeutic properties for cancer treatment.

  13. Alumino-rhenium-sulphide catalysts in hydrogenation of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashentseva, M.A.; Minachev, Kh.M.; Yunusov, M.P.; Serodzhev, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Alumino-rhenium sulfide catalysts containing 1.5, 5 and 8% rhenium are active in hydrogenation of mono-, dicarboxylic acids (isobutyric, valeric, pelargonic and succinic) and a fraction of synthetic fatty acids to corresponding alcohols at 210 to 270/sup 0/C and a partial pressure of hydrogen of 25 MPa. These catalysts appear to be more selective and are more stable than other well-known oxide catalysts. 2 tables.

  14. The next step in chemical propulsion: Oxide-iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical propulsion systems are currently limited by materials issues. Until recently, the state-of-the-art material for liquid propellant combustion chambers was silicide-coated niobium. However, combustion chamber performance demands have exceeded the capabilities of this material system, requiring development of better materials. The iridium/rhenium combustion chamber, comprising a rhenium structural shell with an iridium inner liner for oxidation protection, represents the current state of the art in high-performance, high temperature, long-life propulsion systems using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine propellant. However, oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) and new ``green'' monopropellants under development to replace hydrazine will be significantly more oxidizing at operating temperature. For these more highly aggressive combustion environments, Ultramet has shown that substantial additional life can be obtained by lining the interior of the combustion chamber with a refractory metal oxide, which functions as a thermal and gas diffusion barrier and provides dramatically increased oxidation resistance. Ultramet has fabricated numerous 22-N (5-lbf) thrust chambers with this oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture that have been hot-fire tested at NASA Lewis Research Center in O2/H2 propellant at mixture ratios of 6 and 16, with steady-state exterior wall temperatures ranging from 2433 to 2899 K, comprising the most severe temperature and oxidizing conditions ever utilized. Of the seven chambers tested to date, three failed due to facility problems, and two never failed. The best-performing chamber was hot-fired for 13,595 seconds (227 minutes; 3.8 hours) and showed no visible signs of degradation. Additional chambers are being fabricated for future testing.

  15. The next step in chemical propulsion: Oxide-iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1999-01-22

    Chemical propulsion systems are currently limited by materials issues. Until recently, the state-of-the-art material for liquid propellant combustion chambers was silicide-coated niobium. However, combustion chamber performance demands have exceeded the capabilities of this material system, requiring development of better materials. The iridium/rhenium combustion chamber, comprising a rhenium structural shell with an iridium inner liner for oxidation protection, represents the current state of the art in high-performance, high temperature, long-life propulsion systems using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine propellant. However, oxygen/hydrogen (O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) and new 'green' monopropellants under development to replace hydrazine will be significantly more oxidizing at operating temperature. For these more highly aggressive combustion environments, Ultramet has shown that substantial additional life can be obtained by lining the interior of the combustion chamber with a refractory metal oxide, which functions as a thermal and gas diffusion barrier and provides dramatically increased oxidation resistance. Ultramet has fabricated numerous 22-N (5-lb{sub f}) thrust chambers with this oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture that have been hot-fire tested at NASA Lewis Research Center in O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} propellant at mixture ratios of 6 and 16, with steady-state exterior wall temperatures ranging from 2433 to 2899 K, comprising the most severe temperature and oxidizing conditions ever utilized. Of the seven chambers tested to date, three failed due to facility problems, and two never failed. The best-performing chamber was hot-fired for 13,595 seconds (227 minutes; 3.8 hours) and showed no visible signs of degradation. Additional chambers are being fabricated for future testing.

  16. Alloy 825 and 718 gasket corrosion in deep water (500 m) connections

    SciTech Connect

    Amen, C.; Howl, R.; Oldfield, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    Corrosion has been observed on a number of alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and alloy 825 (UNS N08825) gaskets from subsea connections. The gaskets were in contact with either weld overlaid alloy 625 (UNS N06625) or super duplex stainless steel hubs (UNS S32750). A few hubs also showed some limited corrosion in regions where severe gasket corrosion had occurred. Corrosion was more prevalent on jumpers that had been exposed to sea water for a few months at alloy 718 (UNS N07718) gaskets in contact with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay. General observations were that short term exposures of up to 20 days did not result in corrosion but longer exposures of 40--50 days resulted in severe attack. A program of work was carried out to determine the reason for the observed attack and to suggest ways of avoiding it in the future. This paper describes the findings of the study.

  17. Integrated-fin gasket for palm cubic-anvil high pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.-G.; Matsubayashi, K.; Nagasaki, S.; Hisada, A.; Hirayama, T.; Uwatoko, Y.; Hedo, M.; Kagi, H.

    2014-09-15

    We described an integrated-fin gasket technique for the palm cubic-anvil apparatus specialized for the high-pressure and low-temperature measurements. By using such a gasket made from the semi-sintered MgO ceramics and the tungsten-carbide anvils of 2.5 mm square top, we successfully generate pressures over 16 GPa at both room and cryogenic temperatures down to 0.5 K. We observed a pressure self-increment for this specific configuration and further characterized the thermally induced pressure variation by monitoring the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of chromium up to 12 GPa. In addition to enlarge the pressure capacity, such a modified gasket also improves greatly the surviving rate of electrical leads hanging the sample inside a Teflon capsule filled with the liquid pressure-transmitting medium. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced extrusion of gasket materials during the initial compression.

  18. Development of UHV compatible machined diamond profile gaskets for INDUS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, D. P.; Shiroman, R.; Shukla, S. K.; Kotaiah, S.

    2008-05-01

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible demountable joints are needed in Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300mA) electron storage ring for connecting Al-alloy vacuum chambers (homogeneous joints) as well as Al-alloy vacuum chambers to well proven stainless steel components like beam diagnostic components and RF-shielded bellow assemblies (heterogeneous joints). Bakeable & reliable diamond profile Al-alloy gaskets have been developed for Helium leak rate less than 2×10-10 Std. CC/sec, which eliminated the need of any Al to SS transition pieces onto the Aluminium vacuum chambers. Salient features of these gaskets are: high reliability, low cost, reduced flange thickness, self alignment, ease in installation, less torque requirement, formability to non-circular shape & ultra cleanliness. These diamond profile gaskets were machined from extruded Al-alloy 6061-T5 pipes using specially developed high-speed steel formed cutting tools. Thermal cyclic tests were carried to check the reliability of these gaskets. No leaks were found even after several bakeouts at 150°C. Non-circular metallic gaskets like the one used in UHV gate valve bonnet seal can also be manufactured using specially developed formed toolings. This paper describes basic design philosophy, manufacturing process and testing details of these gaskets.

  19. Investigation of extrusion failures of PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.R.; Keywood, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service typically fail in an extrusion mode, sometimes referred to as blowout. Test work previously published by Monsanto indicated that correctly installed PTFE-based gaskets have pressure performance far exceeding system pressure ratings. These results have since been confirmed by extensive testing at the Montreal based Ecole Polytechnique Tightness Testing and Research Laboratory (TTRL), funded by a consortium of gasket users and manufacturers. With the knowledge that properly installed gaskets can withstand system pressures in excess of 1,000 psig [6,894 kPa], failures at two chemical plants were re-examined. This analysis indicates that extrusion type failures can be caused by excessive internal pressures, associated with sections of pipe having an external source of heat coincident with a blocked flow condition. This results in high system pressures which explain the extrusion type failures observed. The paper discusses details of individual failures and examines methods to prevent them. Other causes for extrusion failures are reviewed, with a recommendation that stronger gasket materials not be utilized to correct problems until it is verified that excessive pressure build-up is not the problem. Also summarized are the requirements for proper installation to achieve the potential blowout resistance found in these gaskets.

  20. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence. A combined chemical-spectrometric technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solt, M.W.; Wahlberg, J.S.; Myers, A.T.

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 ??g of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods. ?? 1969.

  1. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  2. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  4. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR 421.210 - Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Molybdenum and Rhenium Subcategory § 421.210 Applicability: Description of the primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to... primary molybdenum and rhenium subcategory. 421.210 Section 421.210 Protection of...

  6. Effect of rhenium on the structure and properties of the weld metal of a molybdenum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyachenko, V. V.; Morozov, B. P.; Tylkina, M. A.; Savitskiy, Y. M.; Nikishanov, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and properties of welds made in molybdenum alloy VM-1 as a function of rhenium concentrations in the weld metal were studied. Rhenium was introduced into the weld using rhenium wire and tape or wires of Mo-47Re and Mo-52Re alloys. The properties of the weld metal were studied by means of metallographic techniques, electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, and autoradiography. The plasticity of the weld metal sharply was found to increase with increasing concentration of rhenium up to 50%. During welding, a decarburization process was observed which was more pronounced at higher concentrations of rhenium.

  7. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  8. Mechanical properties of electron-beam-melted molybdenum and dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of molybdenum and three dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys was undertaken to determine the effects of rhenium on the low temperature ductility and other mechanical properties of molybdenum. Alloys containing 3.9, 5.9, and 7.7 atomic percent rhenium exhibited lower ductile-brittle transition temperatures than did the unalloyed molybdenum. The maximum improvement in the annealed condition was observed for molybdenum - 7.7 rhenium, which had a ductile-brittle transition temperature approximately 200 C (360 F) lower than that for unalloyed molybdenum. Rhenium additions also increased the low and high temperature tensile strengths and the high temperature creep strength of molybdenum. The mechanical behavior of dilute molybdenum-rhenium alloys is similar to that observed for dilute tungsten-rhenium alloys.

  9. Mechanistic Study of Oxygen Atom Transfer Catalyzed by Rhenium Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaopeng Shan

    2003-08-05

    Two ionic and one neutral methyl(oxo)rhenium(V) compounds were synthesized and structurally characterized. They were compared in reactivity towards the ligands triphenylphosphane, pyridines, pyridine N-oxides. Assistance from Broensted bases was found on ligand displacement of ionic rhenium compounds as well as nucleophile assistance on oxidation of all compounds. From the kinetic data, crystal structures, and an analysis of the intermediates, a structural formula of PicH{sup +}3{sup -} and mechanisms of ligand displacement and oxidation were proposed.

  10. Rhenium-188--a generator-derived radioisotope for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Knapp, F F

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium-188 (188Re) is an important therapeutic radioisotope which is obtained on demand as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator system. With a half-life of 16.9 hours and emission of a high energy beta particle (maximal energy of 2.12 MeV) and a gamma photon (155 keV, 15%) for imaging, 188Re can be provided at reasonable costs for routine preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. PMID:10851424

  11. Gaskets of teflon-bonded EPDM halt leakage from acid lines - low sealing force design eliminates flange distress

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Gaines, A.

    1987-11-01

    The W.R. Grace Chemical Division plant in Lake Charles, LA had to stop producing catalysts for the oil refining industry whenever a piping system for 98% sulfuric acid developed a leak. Gaskets of a nonasbestos material were being used between the flanges of the steel pipe lined with TFE or polypropylene. The flange bolts were kept tight, but the gaskets usually failed to maintain a leaktight seal with the acid at 60 psi for more than a few weeks or months. The acid lines had to be drained before the faulty gasket could be replaced, and production downtime would range from one to three hours. In July 1986, the plant decided to try a chemical resistant gasket of Teflon molded and bonded to a core of Shore A 65-66 durometer EPDM rubber in the acid lines. The resilient gasket also has patented double convex rings on both faces for optimum sealing with only one-eighth the bolt tightening torque commonly required with flat-faced gaskets. The low sealing force requirement prolongs the life of the gasket, eliminates plastic cold flow at the flange of lined steel pipe, and avoids stresses that can damage thermoplastic and fiberglass piping systems. The gasket has a temperature range of {minus}4 to 210{degree}F and is available in 1/2 through 12 inch sizes that conform to ANSI B16.1 flange dimensions. Alternative gasket materials are Kynar PVDF-bonded EPDM and EPDM without a fluoropolymer laminate. The Teflon-bonded EPDM gaskets eliminated unscheduled catalyst production downtime due to leakage from the sulfuric acid piping system. The plant maintains an inventory of the low torque gasket, but has never had to replace any that have been in service since July 1986.

  12. Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Toshiyuki; Kotani, Kenichi

    1996-12-01

    This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young`s modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young`s modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness.

  13. Anvil cell gasket design for high pressure nuclear magnetic resonance experiments beyond 30 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are reported at up to 30.5 GPa of pressure using radiofrequency (RF) micro-coils with anvil cell designs. These are the highest pressures ever reported with NMR, and are made possible through an improved gasket design based on nano-crystalline powders embedded in epoxy resin. Cubic boron-nitride (c-BN), corundum (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), or diamond based composites have been tested, also in NMR experiments. These composite gaskets lose about 1/2 of their initial height up to 30.5 GPa, allowing for larger sample quantities and preventing damages to the RF micro-coils compared to precipitation hardened CuBe gaskets. It is shown that NMR shift and resolution are less affected by the composite gaskets as compared to the more magnetic CuBe. The sensitivity can be as high as at normal pressure. The new, inexpensive, and simple to engineer gaskets are thus superior for NMR experiments at high pressures.

  14. Anvil cell gasket design for high pressure nuclear magnetic resonance experiments beyond 30 GPa.

    PubMed

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are reported at up to 30.5 GPa of pressure using radiofrequency (RF) micro-coils with anvil cell designs. These are the highest pressures ever reported with NMR, and are made possible through an improved gasket design based on nano-crystalline powders embedded in epoxy resin. Cubic boron-nitride (c-BN), corundum (α-Al2O3), or diamond based composites have been tested, also in NMR experiments. These composite gaskets lose about 1/2 of their initial height up to 30.5 GPa, allowing for larger sample quantities and preventing damages to the RF micro-coils compared to precipitation hardened CuBe gaskets. It is shown that NMR shift and resolution are less affected by the composite gaskets as compared to the more magnetic CuBe. The sensitivity can be as high as at normal pressure. The new, inexpensive, and simple to engineer gaskets are thus superior for NMR experiments at high pressures. PMID:26724046

  15. Anvil cell gasket design for high pressure nuclear magnetic resonance experiments beyond 30 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Thomas; Haase, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are reported at up to 30.5 GPa of pressure using radiofrequency (RF) micro-coils with anvil cell designs. These are the highest pressures ever reported with NMR, and are made possible through an improved gasket design based on nano-crystalline powders embedded in epoxy resin. Cubic boron-nitride (c-BN), corundum (α-Al2O3), or diamond based composites have been tested, also in NMR experiments. These composite gaskets lose about 1/2 of their initial height up to 30.5 GPa, allowing for larger sample quantities and preventing damages to the RF micro-coils compared to precipitation hardened CuBe gaskets. It is shown that NMR shift and resolution are less affected by the composite gaskets as compared to the more magnetic CuBe. The sensitivity can be as high as at normal pressure. The new, inexpensive, and simple to engineer gaskets are thus superior for NMR experiments at high pressures.

  16. Rhenium Disulfide Depletion-Load Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, Connor; Corbet, Chris; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-03-01

    Many semiconducting Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have been effectively used to create Field-Effect Transistor (FET) devices but have yet to be used in logic designs. We constructed a depletion-load voltage inverter using ultrathin layers of Rhenium Disulfide (ReS2) as the semiconducting channel. This ReS2 inverter was fabricated on a single micromechanically-exfoliated flake of ReS2. Electron beam lithography and physical vapor deposition were used to construct Cr/Au electrical contacts, an Alumina top-gate dielectric, and metal top-gate electrodes. By using both low (Aluminum) and high (Palladium) work-function metals as two separate top-gates on a single ReS2 flake, we create a dual-gated depletion mode (D-mode) and enhancement mode (E-mode) FETs in series. Both FETs displayed current saturation in the output characteristics as a result of the FET ``pinch-off'' mechanism and On/Off current ratios of 105. Field-effect mobilities of 23 and 17 cm2V-1s-1 and subthreshold swings of 97 and 551 mV/decade were calculated for the E-mode and D-mode FETs, respectively. With a supply voltage of 1V, at low/negative input voltages the inverter output was at a high logic state of 900 mV. Conversely with high/positive input voltages, the inverter output was at a low logic state of 500 mV. The inversion of the input signal demonstrates the potential for using ReS2 in future integrated circuit designs and the versatility of depletion-load logic devices for TMD research. NRI SWAN Center and ARL STTR Program.

  17. Discovery of tantalum, rhenium, osmium, and iridium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen by rhenium(I) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchinov, A. N.; Kiselev, V. M.; Penni, A. A.; Khistyaeva, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen in solutions of rhenium(I) complex fac-[Re(bipy)(CO)3NCCH3]+OTf-, where bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, in chloride methylene and carbon tetrachloride under continuous LED irradiation in the UV and visible ranges has been investigated.

  19. Application of rhenium-188 HEDP in bone metastases therapy.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Justyna; Derejko, Mirosława; Bandurski, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Grzegorz

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide bone metastases therapy is a major achievement of nuclear medicine. Development of less radiotoxic and more effective radiopharmaceuticals is therefore a challenge for radiopharmacists and industry. This paper reviews the application of rhenium-188 HEDP as a reactor- or generator-produced nuclide for bone metastases therapy. PMID:14600935

  20. Development and Evaluation of Rhenium-188-labeled Radioactive Stents for Restenosis Therapy and Development of Strategies for Radiolabeling Brachytherapy Sources with Palladium-103 CRADA FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F. F.

    1998-06-01

    This project involved collaboration between InnerDyne, Inc., and radiopharmaceutical research programs at ORNL and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which explored new strategies for the development and animal testing of radioactive rhenium-188-labeled implantable stent sources for the treatment of coronary restenosis after angioplasty and the development of chemical species radiolabeled with the palladium-103 radioisotope for the treatment of cancer. Rhenium-l 88 was made available for these studies from radioactive decay of tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Stent activation and coating technology was developed and provided by InnerDyne, Inc., and stent radiolabeling technology and animal studies were conducted by InnerDyne staff in conjunction with investigators at BNL. Collaborative studies in animals were supported at sites by InnerDyne, Inc. New chemical methods for attaching the palladium-103 radioisotope to bifunctional chelate technologies were developed by investigators at ORNL.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Rhenium-188-labeled Radioactive Stents for Restenosis Therapy and Development of Strategies for Radiolabeling Brachytherapy Sources with Palladium-103

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F.

    2001-04-27

    This project involved collaboration between InnerDyne, Inc., and radiopharmaceutical research programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which explored new strategies for the development and animal testing of radioactive rhenium-188-labeled implantable stent sources for the treatment of coronary restenosis after angioplasty and the development of chemical species radiolabeled with the palladium-103 radioisotope for the treatment of cancer. Rhenium-188 was made available for these studies from radioactive decay of tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Stent activation and coating technology was developed and provided by InnerDyne, Inc., and stent radiolabeling technology and animal studies were conducted by InnerDyne staff in conjunction with investigators at BNL. Collaborative studies in animals were supported at sites by InnerDyne, Inc. New chemical methods for attaching the palladium-103 radioisotope to bifunctional chelate technologies were developed by investigators at ORNL.

  2. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Marchetti, George A.

    2003-01-03

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  3. Substitute materials to replace asbestos in refinery-service gaskets and packings

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.F.; McKillop, G.R.

    1986-05-26

    Refiners have been able to successfully replace asbestos in many packing and gasket applications. The changeover has been driven by health concerns, refusal of product liability insurance to suppliers, and supplier concern over long-term availability of asbestos. A great deal of purchasing and engineering effort is currently being expended to qualify and convert nonasbestos materials for gaskets and packings. The task has been complicated by a lack of objective performance criteria in existing industry standards. The majority of industry standards has specified the use of asbestos-based products because operating experience has shown they work. The specification criteria which do exist typically are valid for comparing competitive asbestos products only, and do not correlate well when applied to unrelated materials. The task of reliably and safely operating a refinery without asbestos-based gasketing and packing is progressing on three fronts: 1. Replacement with products based on materials such as flexible graphite and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). Performance characteristics are well known, and sufficient historical operating data exist. The initial cost of these materials is typically higher than asbestos-based products. 2. Trials and replacement with ''new'' materials such as Aramid or glass-fiber-based sheet materials and braided packing, or mica/graphite-filled, spiral-wound gaskets. The performance characteristics of these materials are not well known in comparison to asbestos.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1210 - Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers. 177.1210 Section 177.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1210 - Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers. 177.1210 Section 177.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1210 - Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Viscometer),” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers. 177.1210 Section 177.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1210 - Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers. 177.1210 Section 177.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1210 - Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers. 177.1210 Section 177.1210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc. PMID:16730109

  10. Syntheses, crystal structure, and photochromic properties of rhenium(I) complexes containing the spironaphthoxazine moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Yam, V.W.W.; Ko, C.C.; Wu, L.X.; Wong, K.M.C.; Cheung, K.K.

    2000-05-15

    A series of novel spironaphthoxazine-containing rhenium(1) tricarbonyl diimine complexes, which show interesting photoluminescence behavior involving intramolecular photosensitization, have been synthesized and their photochromic properties studied.

  11. Necroptosis-Inducing Rhenium(V) Oxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Awuah, Samuel G.; Bruno, Peter M.; Johnstone, Timothy C.; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Yao-Rong; Page, Julia E.; Hemann, Michael T.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Rhenium(V) oxo complexes of general formula [ReO(OMe)(N^N)Cl2], where N^N = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 1, or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 2, effectively kill cancer cells by triggering necroptsosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death. Both complexes evoke necrosome (RIP1-RIP3)-dependent intracellular ROS production and propidium iodide uptake. The complexes also induce mitochondrial membrane potential depletion, a possible downstream effect of ROS production. Apparently, 1 and 2 are the first rhenium complexes to evoke cellular events consistent with programmed necrosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, 1 and 2 display low acute toxicity in C57BL/6 mice and reasonable stability in fresh human blood. PMID:25698398

  12. Microwave spectra and quadrupole coupling measurements for methyl rhenium trioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickafoose, S. M.; Wikrent, P.; Drouin, B. J.; Kukolich, S. G.

    1996-12-01

    Microwave rotational transitions for J' ← J = 1 ← 0 and 2 ← 1 were measured in the 6-14 GHz range for methyl rhenium trioxide using a Flygare-Balle type, pulsed-beam spectrometer. The rotational constants for the most abundant isotopomers are B( 187Re) = 3466.964(2) MHz and B( 185Re) = 3467.049(3) MHz. The quadrupole coupling strengths are eQq( 187Re) = 716.55(2) MHz and eQq( 185Re) = 757.19(3) MHz. Transitions were also observed for 13C isotopomers and 18O isotopomers. The value for the ReC bond length obtained from a Kraitchman analysis is R( ReC) = 2.080 Å. The rhenium quadrupole coupling strengths are about 20% smaller than those obtained for HRe(CO) 5.

  13. Migration of rhenium and osmium interstitials in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzudo, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Hasegawa, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten is expected to be a promising plasma-facing material for future fusion devices, but radiation-induced precipitation (RIP), which leads the material to hardening, is a concern at their practical use. One of the keys to accurate prediction of the emergence of RIP is migration of solute atoms, rhenium and osmium, that are produced by nuclear transmutation through irradiation. We conduct a series of numerical simulations using an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo method and investigate the migration of these solute atoms in the form of tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-osmium mixed dumbbells, considered to be the most efficient "carriers" of the solute atoms. We find that the low rotation energy barrier of these mixed dumbbells leading to three-dimensional migration greatly influences their diffusivities. The result also suggests that, although these dumbbells have three-dimensional motion, one cannot simply reduce their migration behavior to that of vacancy-like spherical objects.

  14. Rhenium complexes with visible-light-induced anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Anja; Dieckmann, Sandra; Wähler, Kathrin; Völker, Timo; Kastl, Lena; Merkel, Anna Lena; Vultur, Adina; Shannan, Batool; Harms, Klaus; Ocker, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J; Herlyn, Meenhard; Meggers, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Shedding light on the matter: Rhenium(I) indolato complexes with highly potent visible-light-triggered antiproliferative activity (complex 1: EC50 light=0.1 μM vs EC50 dark=100 μM) in 2D- and 3D-organized cancer cells are reported and can be traced back to an efficient generation of singlet oxygen, causing rapid morphological changes and an induction of apoptosis. PMID:23568508

  15. Prototype Rhenium Component for Stirling Engine Power Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Ritzert, Frank

    2005-02-01

    The Stirling engine power conversion concept is a candidate to provide electrical power for deep space missions. A key element for qualifying potential flight hardware is the long-term durability assessment for critical hot section components of the power converter. One such critical component is the power converter heater head, which is a high-temperature pressure vessel that transfers heat to the working gas medium of the converter. Rhenium is a candidate material for the heater head application because of its high melting point (3453 K), high elastic modulus (420 GPa), high yield and ultimate tensile strengths at both ambient and elevated temperatures, excellent ductility, and exceptional creep properties. Rhenium is also attractive due to the potential of near-net-shape (NNS) manufacturing techniques that allow components to be produced using less material, which lowers the overall cost of the component. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the manufacturing method using rhenium for this high-temperature power conversion application to provide space power system designers with generally applicable technology for future applications.

  16. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  17. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  18. [X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of high rhenium content in rhenium-tungsten alloys used in traveling wave tube].

    PubMed

    Bao, Sheng-xiang; Wang, Shou-xu; Ma, Li-li; Zhao, Deng-hua; Fan, Rong-kui; Li, Jian

    2005-03-01

    The matrix effect, spectral overlap and background were investigated for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometric determination of rhenium content according to the analysis requirement of rhenium-tungsten alloys, a key material used in traveling wave tube. The reason for causing the calibration curve nonlinear was explained theoretically when binary ratio technique of XRF was used. Both theoretical and experimental results show that linear calibration curve can be obtained if the curve is plotted by Re% vs. Re Lalpha X-ray intensity instead of binary ratio technique. The method is rapid and accurate and the results obtained in this work are in good agreement with those of chemical analysis. The method has been successfully applied to product quality control. PMID:16013333

  19. Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

  20. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  1. Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of the Distribution of Rhenium in Nickel Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mottura, A.; Warnken, N; Miller, Michael K; Reed, R. C.; Finnis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to characterise the distributions of rhenium in a binary Ni-Re alloy and the nickel-based single-crystal CMSX-4 superalloy. A purpose-built algorithm is developed to quantify the size distribution of solute clusters, and applied to the APT datasets to critique the hypothesis that rhenium is prone to the formation of clusters in these systems. No evidence is found to indicate that rhenium forms solute clusters above the level expected from random fluctuations. In CMSX-4, enrichment of Re is detected in the matrix phase close to the matrix/precipitate ({gamma}/{gamma}{prime}) phase boundaries. Phase field modelling indicates that this is due to the migration of the {gamma}/{gamma}{prime} interface during cooling from the temperature of operation. Thus, neither clustering of rhenium nor interface enrichments can be the cause of the enhancement in high temperature mechanical properties conferred by rhenium alloying.

  2. “Pop-slide” patterning: Rapid fabrication of microstructured PDMS gasket slides for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramji, Ramesh; Khan, Nafeesa T; Muñoz-Rojas, Andrés; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We describe a “pop-slide” patterning approach to easily produce thin film microstructures on the surface of glass with varying feature sizes (3 μm – 250 μm) and aspect ratios (0.066 – 3) within 45 minutes. This low cost method does not require specialized equipment while allowing us to produce micro structured gasket layers for sandwich assays and could be readily applied to many biological applications. PMID:26949529

  3. Estimate for the fractal dimension of the Apollonian gasket in d dimensions.

    PubMed

    Farr, R S; Griffiths, E

    2010-06-01

    We adapt a recent theory for the random close packing of polydisperse spheres in three dimensions [R. S. Farr and R. D. Groot, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 244104 (2009)] in order to predict the Hausdorff dimension dA of the Apollonian gasket in dimensions 2 and above. Our approximate results agree with published values in two and three dimensions to within 0.05% and 0.6%, respectively, and we provide predictions for dimensions 4-8. PMID:20866417

  4. Z-Pinch Wire-Electrode Contact Resistance Studies Using Weighted and Soft Metal Gasket Contacts*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Thurtell, A. F.; French, D. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Tang, W.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2008-11-01

    The contact made between z-pinch wires and electrodes has a significant effect on both the energy deposited in the wires and the uniformity of the expansion profile of the wires. We have shown that using soft metal gaskets can improve wire-electrode contact significantly over typical weighted contacts. Images of wire expansion profile and wire plasma emission will be presented for single and double wire shots on a 16 kA, 100 kV 4-stage Marx bank with 150 ns risetime. Bench resistance measurements for aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten wires with diameters ranging from 7.5 um to 30 um will be presented. These measurements utilized both soft metal gasket contacts (gaskets include: indium, silver, aluminum, tin, and lead) and double-ended wire weight contacts (weights ranged from 0.4 g to 1.9 g). *This research was supported by U. S. DoE through Sandia National Laboratories award document numbers 240985, 768225, 790791 and 805234 to the University of Michigan. MRG supported by NNSA Fellowship and JCZ supported by NPSC Fellowship sponsored by Sandia National Labs.

  5. Determination of design gasket assembly stress with the new constants -- Exact Method

    SciTech Connect

    Guizzo, A.C.

    1996-12-01

    The PVRC task force, working to determine the new design procedure for bolted flange connections, has done a great job in developing a theory based on extensive experimental work, but they are still striving to determine an adequate way to establish a calculation procedure, using the concepts behind the new gasket constants. The current draft of the new code describes the Convenient Method for doing a calculation. The results obtained by using this procedure are different from the ones obtained with the Flexible Method, an alternative calculation procedure that requires iteration to find what would be the lowest and therefore the optimum bolt load. As in some situations this iterative procedure shows no convergence, attempts are being made to modify the Convenient Method so that it would result in design bolt load figures closer to the optimum. This paper proposes and describes a direct approach for calculating the assembly stress to be applied on the gasket using the new constants concept. It proposes also the introduction of ``d`` the Tp exponent as a fourth constant and the utilization of the actual gasket diameter in the Tp calculation. Comparisons are made between these proposals and the current calculation procedure.

  6. Qualification of tungsten coatings on plasma-facing components for JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H.; Neu, R.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Balden, M.; Lindig, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Rasinski, M.; Wienhold, P.; Wiltner, A.

    2009-12-01

    This contribution summarizes the work that has been performed to establish the industrial production of tungsten coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC) for application within the ITER-like Wall Project at JET. This comprises the investigation of vacuum plasma-sprayed coatings, physical vapour deposited tungsten/rhenium multilayers, as well as coatings deposited by combined magnetron-sputtering and ion implantation. A variety of analysis tools were applied to investigate failures and oxide and carbide formation in these systems.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of heparin-grafted poly-L-lactic acid-chitosan core-shell nanofibers scaffold for vascular gasket.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Ji, Xuyuan; Jin, Lin; Feng, Zhangqi; Wu, Jinghang; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Hongyin; Xu, Zhe-Wu; Guo, Lingling; He, Nongyue

    2013-05-01

    Electrospun nanofibers were widely studied to be applied as potential materials for tissue engineering. A new technology to make poly-l-lactic acid/chitosan core/shell nanofibers from heterologous solution by coaxial electrospinning technique was designed for vascular gasket. Chitosan surface was cross-linked by genipin and modified by heparin. Different ratios of PLA/CS in heterologous solution were studied to optimize the surface morphology of fibers. Clean core-shell structures formed with a PLA/CS ratio at 1:3. Superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties were obtained by optimizing the core-shell structure morphology and surface cross-linking of chitosan. UE7T-13 cells grew well on the core-shell structure fibers as indicated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) results and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Compared with the pure PLA fiber meshes and commercial vascular patch, PLA/CS core-shell fibers had better mechanical strength. The elastic modulus was as high as 117.18 MPa, even though the yield stress of the fibers was lower than that of the commercial vascular patch. Attachment of red blood cell on the fibers was evaluated by blood anticoagulation experiments and in vitro blood flow experiments. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) value from PLA/CS nanofibers were significantly longer than that of pure PLA fibers. SEM images indicated there were hardly any red blood cells attached to the fibers with chitosan coating and heparin modification. This type of fiber mesh could potentially be used as vascular gasket. PMID:23586670

  8. Molecular Engineering of Technetium and Rhenium Based Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Zubieta, J.

    2003-06-30

    The research was based on the observation that despite the extraordinarily rich coordination chemistry of technetium and rhenium and several notable successes in reagent design, the extensive investigations by numerous research groups on a variety of N{sub 2}S{sub 2} and N{sub 3}S donor type ligands and on HYNIC have revealed that the chemistries of these ligands with Tc and Re are rather complex, giving rise to considerable difficulties in the development of reliable procedures for the development of radiopharmaceutical reagents.

  9. Functionalization of Rhenium Aryl Bonds by O-Atom Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, Steven M.; Cheng, Mu-Jeng; Nielsen, Robert J.; Gunnoe, T. Brent; Goddard, William A.; Periana, Roy A.

    2011-03-29

    Aryltrioxorhenium (ArReO3) has been demonstrated to show rapid oxy-functionalization upon reaction with O-atom donors, YO, to selectively generate the corresponding phenols in near quantitative yields. 18O-Labeling experiments show that the oxygen in the products is exclusively from YO. DFT studies reveal a 10.7 kcal/mol barrier (Ar = Ph) for oxy-functionalization with H2O2 via a Baeyer-Villiger type mechanism involving nucleophilic attack of the aryl group on an electrophilic oxygen of YO coordinated to rhenium.

  10. Preparation and properties of polytetrafluoroethylene impregnated with rhenium oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Easter, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results of tests carried out to determine the properties of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) impregnated with rhenium oxides are presented. The tests included measurement of physical properties of the impregnated material and investigation of the effects of preparation process variables. Based on the latter tests a mechanism to describe the permeation process is postulated which identifies the rate controlling step to be diffusion of ReF6 molecules into the solid during the initial ReF6 soak. Physical property tests indicated that the electronic conductance is increased by many orders of magnitude while the desirable properties of the PTFE remain virtually unchanged.

  11. Ultra-small rhenium clusters supported on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Orlando; Bonafé, Franco; Santiago, Ulises; Larios-Rodriguez, Eduardo; Velázquez-Salazar, Jesús J.; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Yacaman, Miguel José

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of very small rhenium clusters (2 – 13 atoms) supported on graphene was studied with high annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The atomic structure of the clusters was fully resolved with the aid of density functional calculations and STEM simulations. It was found that octahedral and tetrahedral structures work as seeds to obtain more complex morphologies. Finally, a detailed analysis of the electronic structure suggested that a higher catalytic effect can be expected in Re clusters when adsorbed on graphene than in isolated ones. PMID:25721176

  12. Evaluation of properties and special features for high-temperature applications of rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryskin, Boris D.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-six years have passes since rhenium was discovered in June 1925 by husband-and-wife team Walter and Ida Noddack. The rapid development of rhenium is due to the unique properties of the metal and its alloys. Rhenium has a hexagonal close packed structure as opposed to the body centered cubic structure of other refractory metals. Rhenium does not have a ductile to brittle transition temperature and retains its ductility from sub zero to elevated temperatures. Rhenium work-hardens at a higher rate and to a greater degree than any other unalloyed metal known. Hot deformation is feasible only in a non-oxidizing shielding atmosphere. Refractory metal alloys have found use as heating elements, compact electromagnet coils, high temperature thermocouples, anti-friction and low wear parts, and high temperature elastic elements. One major development area for pure rhenium is in the aerospace industry, as in the SP-100 Program. Due to their unique properties, rhenium and its alloys are being considered for many areas in space applications.

  13. Strain-induced phase transformation under compression in a diamond anvil cell: Simulations of a sample and gasket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Biao; Levitas, Valery I.; Ma, Yanzhang

    2014-04-01

    Combined high pressure phase transformations (PTs) and plastic flow in a sample within a gasket compressed in diamond anvil cell (DAC) are studied for the first time using finite element method. The key point is that phase transformations are modelled as strain-induced, which involves a completely different kinetic description than for traditional pressure-induced PTs. The model takes into account, contact sliding with Coulomb and plastic friction at the boundaries between the sample, gasket, and anvil. A comprehensive computational study of the effects of the kinetic parameter, ratio of the yield strengths of high and low-pressure phases and the gasket, sample radius, and initial thickness on the PTs and plastic flow is performed. A new sliding mechanism at the contact line between the sample, gasket, and anvil called extrusion-based pseudoslip is revealed, which plays an important part in producing high pressure. Strain-controlled kinetics explains why experimentally determined phase transformation pressure and kinetics (concentration of high pressure phase vs. pressure) differ for different geometries and properties of the gasket and the sample: they provide different plastic strain, which was not measured. Utilization of the gasket changes radial plastic flow toward the center of a sample, which leads to high quasi-homogeneous pressure for some geometries. For transformation to a stronger high pressure phase, plastic strain and concentration of a high-pressure phase are also quasi-homogeneous. This allowed us to suggest a method of determining strain-controlled kinetics from experimentation, which is not possible for weaker and equal-strength high-pressure phases and cases without a gasket. Some experimental phenomena are reproduced and interpreted. Developed methods and obtained results represent essential progress toward the understanding of PTs under compression in the DAC. This will allow one optimal design of experiments and conditions for synthesis of new

  14. Redox reactivity of mononuclear and binuclear rhenium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Six different classes of monomeric and dimeric rhenium complexes containing substituted nitriles, substituted pyridines, dithiocarbamates, and substituted phosphines as ligands were synthesized. Monomers had the general formula ReCl{sub 3} (NCR) (PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, ReCl{sub 3}-(NCCH{sub 3})(P-(aryl-R){sub 3}){sub 2}, and ReOCl{sub 3} (P-(aryl-R){sub 3}){sub 2}. Dimers had the general formula Re{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} (dppm){sub 2} (NCR) and (Re{sub 2}Cl{sub 3}(dppm){sub 2}-(NCR){sub 2}){sup +} (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) and Re{sub 2}O{sub 3}Cl{sub 4}-(py){sub 4}, where R was an alkyl or halogenated substituent chosen to systematically vary the donor-acceptor properties of the nitrile, pyridine, or phosphine ligand. The effects of this structural change on the function of the molecule was monitored both spectrally and electrochemically. Rate constants for addition of nitriles to the metal-metal bridged dimeric complex were found to vary linearly with the identity of the substitutent. Spectroscopic data followed these trends as well. The structure-function relationships derived from this work will aid in the design of future Technetium and Rhenium-based organ selective radioimaging agents.

  15. Magnetron-Sputtered Amorphous Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Mehra, M.; Khanna, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous coatings of refractory metal/metalloid-based alloys deposited by magnetron sputtering provide extraordinary hardness and wear resistance. Sputtering target fabricated by thoroughly mixing powders of tungsten, rhenium, and boron in stated proportions and pressing at 1,200 degrees C and 3,000 lb/in. to second power (21 MPa). Substrate lightly etched by sputtering before deposition, then maintained at bias of - 500 V during initial stages of film growth while target material sputtered onto it. Argon gas at pressure used as carrier gas for sputter deposition. Coatings dense, pinhole-free, extremely smooth, and significantly resistant to chemical corrosion in acidic and neutral aqueous environments.

  16. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  17. Metal-Ligand Misfits: Facile Access to Rhenium-Oxo Corroles by Oxidative Metalation.

    PubMed

    Einrem, Rune F; Gagnon, Kevin J; Alemayehu, Abraham B; Ghosh, Abhik

    2016-01-11

    With the exception of a single accidental synthesis, rhenium corroles are unknown, but of great interest as catalysts and potential radiopharmaceuticals. Oxidative metalation of meso-triarylcorroles with [Re2 (CO)10 ] in refluxing decalin has provided a facile and relatively high-yielding route to rhenium(V)-oxo corroles. The complexes synthesized could all be fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analyses. PMID:26639951

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D

    2007-11-27

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  19. Spectrophotometric catalytic determination of small amounts of rhenium in mineralized rocks and molybdenite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, F.O.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1962-01-01

    Rhenium is determined by spectrophotometry of the tellurium sol formed by the reduction of tellurate by stannous chloride under the catalytic influence of rhenium. A detailed investigation of the conditions for high sensitivity and stability at lowest concentration levels of rhenium is presented as well as the behavior of 26 ions. The method is applied to the determination of some tenths of 1 p.p.m. or more of rhenium in a 1-mg. aliquot of mineralized rocks, mixtures of molybdenite and rocks, and molybdenite concentrates. The practical quantity limit of detection is 2 ?? 10-10 gram of rhenium. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of CaO, CaCl2, and MgO. On leaching, most constituents of the sample are precipitated either as calcium salts or hydroxides, except for rhenium and a small amount of molybdenum which pass into the filtrate. Residual molybdenum is removed by extraction with 8-quinolinol in chloroform. Better than 95% recoveries are obtained with two fusions with flux.

  20. Raman scattering from superhard rhenium diboride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Miao; Winkler, Björn; Mao, Zhu; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. E-mail: tolbert@chem.ucla.edu; Kavner, Abby E-mail: tolbert@chem.ucla.edu

    2014-01-06

    Lattice vibrational properties of superhard rhenium diboride (ReB{sub 2}) were examined up to 8 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using Raman spectroscopy techniques. Linear pressure coefficients and mode Grüneisen parameters are obtained. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical calculated Grüneisen parameters. Examination of the calculated mode Grüneisen parameters reveals that both B-B and Re-B covalent bonds play a dominant role in supporting the applied load under pressure. A comparison of vibrations parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis indicates that bonds along the c-axis tend to take greater loads. Our results agree with observations of elastic lattice anisotropy obtained from both in situ X-ray diffraction measurements and ultrasonic resonance spectra.

  1. Organometallic Rhenium Complexes Divert Doxorubicin to the Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Imstepf, Sebastian; Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Felber, Michael; Fox, Thomas; Gasser, Gilles; Alberto, Roger

    2016-02-18

    Doxorubicin, a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, is known to accumulate in the cell nucleus. By using ICP-MS, we show that the conjugation of two small organometallic rhenium complexes to this structural motif results in a significant redirection of the conjugates from the nucleus to the mitochondria. Despite this relocation, the two bioconjugates display excellent toxicity toward HeLa cells. In addition, we carried out a preliminarily investigation of aspects of cytotoxicity and present evidence that the conjugates disrupt the mitochondrial membrane potential, are strong inhibitors of human Topoisomerase II, and induce apoptosis. Such derivatives may enhance the therapeutic index of the aggressive parent drug and overcome drug resistance by influencing nuclear and mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:26799241

  2. Lattice Dynamics of the Rhenium and Technetium Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Wolverson, Daniel; Hart, Lewis S

    2016-12-01

    The rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides are layered van der Waals semiconductors which show a large number of Raman-active zone-centre phonon modes as a result of their unusually large unit cells and deviation from hexagonal symmetry. They thus offer the possibility of introducing in-plane anisotropy into composite heterostructures based on van der Waals materials, and Raman spectroscopy is generally used to determine their in-plane orientation. We show that first-principles calculations give a good description of the lattice dynamics of this family of materials and thus predict the zone-centre phonon frequencies and Raman activities of TcS2. We consider the distribution of the phonon modes in frequency and their atomic displacements and give a unified understanding of the phonon frequencies and Raman spectra of ReS2, TcS2 and ReSe2 in terms of the scaling of Raman frequency with the chalcogen mass. PMID:27178055

  3. Molecular Epoxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kück, Jens W; Reich, Robert M; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-02-01

    Epoxidations are of high relevance in many organic syntheses, both in industry and academia. In this personal account, the development of rhenium, molybdenum, and iron complexes in molecular epoxidation catalysis is presented. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) is the benchmark catalyst for these reactions, with a thoroughly investigated mechanism and reactivity profile. More recently, highly active molecular molybdenum and iron catalysts have emerged, challenging the extraordinary role of MTO in epoxidation catalysis with high turnover frequencies (TOFs). This development is highlighted in its use of cheaper, more readily available metals, and the challenges of using base metals in catalysis are discussed. These results show the promise that relatively cheap and abundant metals, such as molybdenum and iron, hold for the future of epoxidation catalysis. PMID:26776087

  4. Lattice Dynamics of the Rhenium and Technetium Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverson, Daniel; Hart, Lewis S.

    2016-05-01

    The rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides are layered van der Waals semiconductors which show a large number of Raman-active zone-centre phonon modes as a result of their unusually large unit cells and deviation from hexagonal symmetry. They thus offer the possibility of introducing in-plane anisotropy into composite heterostructures based on van der Waals materials, and Raman spectroscopy is generally used to determine their in-plane orientation. We show that first-principles calculations give a good description of the lattice dynamics of this family of materials and thus predict the zone-centre phonon frequencies and Raman activities of TcS2. We consider the distribution of the phonon modes in frequency and their atomic displacements and give a unified understanding of the phonon frequencies and Raman spectra of ReS2, TcS2 and ReSe2 in terms of the scaling of Raman frequency with the chalcogen mass.

  5. Nitrogen concentration driving the hardness of rhenium nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Bao, Kuo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Tian, Fubo; Jin, Xilian; Chen, Changbo; Huang, Xiaoli; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The structures and properties of rhenium nitrides are studied with density function based first principle method. New candidate ground states or high-pressure phases at Re:N ratios of 3:2, 1:3, and 1:4 are identified via a series of evolutionary structure searches. We find that the 3D polyhedral stacking with strong covalent N-N and Re-N bonding could stabilize Re nitrides to form nitrogen rich phases, meanwhile, remarkably improve the mechanical performance than that of sub-nitrides, as Re3N, Re2N, and Re3N2. By evaluating the trends of the crystal configuration, electronic structure, elastic properties, and hardness as a function of the N concentration, we proves that the N content is the key factor affecting the metallicity and hardness of Re nitrides. PMID:24762713

  6. Flash heating in the diamond cell: melting curve of rhenium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liuxiang; Karandikar, Amol; Boehler, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    A new method for measuring melting temperatures in the laser-heated diamond cell is described. This method circumvents previous problems associated with the sample instability, thermal runaway, and chemical reactions. Samples were heated with a single, 20 milliseconds rectangular pulse from a fiber laser, monitoring their thermal response with a fast photomultiplier while measuring the steady state temperature with a CCD spectrometer. The samples were recovered and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Focused ion beam milling allowed to examine both the lateral and the vertical solid-liquid boundaries. Ambient pressure tests reproducibly yielded the known melting temperatures of rhenium and molybdenum. Melting of Re was measured to 50 GPa, a 5-fold extension of previous data. The refractory character of Re is drastically enhanced by pressure, in contrast to Mo. PMID:22755641

  7. Testing the influence of various conditions on the migration of epoxidised soybean oil from polyvinylchloride gaskets.

    PubMed

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Rajchl, Aleš; Votavová, Lenka; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Steiner, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticiser and stabiliser mainly in food contact materials on the base of polyvinylchloride (PVC), especially in the gaskets of jar lids. PVC gaskets containing 10-37% of ESBO were prepared by the baking of PVC plastisols at various process temperatures (180-240°C) in the laboratory. ESBO migration into olive oil and 3% acetic acid was studied at various temperatures (4°C, 25°C, 40°C and 60°C) during a storage time up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of food processing, i.e. pasteurisation (80°C and 100°C) and sterilisation (125°C) on ESBO migration was also evaluated. The results were critically assessed with respect to the test conditions of specific migration in accordance with the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). The levels of ESBO migration found confirmed that the test conditions (i.e. 40°C or 60°C, 10 days) representing contact in the worst foreseeable use scenario seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage and thus do not provide satisfactory objective results. PMID:23978228

  8. An analysis of pipe flange connections using epoxy adhesives/anaerobic sealant instead of gaskets

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, T.; Sasaki, R.; Yoneno, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper deals with the strength and the sealing performance of pipe flange connections combining the bonding force of adhesives with the clamping force of bolts. The epoxy adhesives or anaerobic sealants are bonded at the interface partially instead of gaskets in pipe flange connections. The stress distribution in the epoxy adhesives (anaerobic sealant), which governs the sealing performance, and the variations in axial bolt force are analyzed, using an axisymmetrical theory of elasticity, when an internal pressure is applied to a connection in which two pipe flanges are clamped together buy bolts and nuts with an initial clamping force after being joined by epoxy adhesives or anaerobic sealant. In addition, a method for estimating the strength of the combination connection is demonstrated. Experiments are performed and the analytical results are consistent with the experimental results concerning the variation in axial bolt force and the strength of combination connections. It can be seen that the strength of connections increases with a decrease in the bolt pitch circle diameter. Furthermore, it is seen that the sealing performance of such combination connections in which the interface is bonded partially is improved over that of pipe flange connections with metallic gaskets.

  9. Initial Assessment of Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Prometheus Project

    SciTech Connect

    M. Frederick

    2005-12-15

    Depending upon final design and materials selections, a variety of engineering solutions may need to be considered to avoid chemical degradation of components in a notional space nuclear power plant (SNPP). Coatings are one engineered approach that was considered. A comprehensive review of protective coating technology for various space-reactor structural materials is presented, including refractory metal alloys [molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb)], nickel (Ni)-base superalloys, and silicon carbide (Sic). A summary description of some common deposition techniques is included. A literature survey identified coatings based on silicides or iridium/rhenium as the primary methods for environmental protection of refractory metal alloys. Modified aluminide coatings have been identified for superalloys and multilayer ceramic coatings for protection of Sic. All reviewed research focused on protecting structural materials from extreme temperatures in highly oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that some of these coatings may not be protective in the high-temperature, impure-He environment expected in a Prometheus reactor system. Further research is proposed to determine extensibility of these coating materials to less-oxidizing or neutral environments.

  10. Supported Rhenium Complexes: Almost Uniform Rhenium Tricarbonyls Synthesized from CH[subscript 3]Re(CO)[subscript 5] and HY Zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2010-12-07

    Supported rhenium complexes were prepared from CH{sub 3}Re(CO){sub 5} and dealuminated HY zeolite or NaY zeolite, each with a Si/Al atomic ratio of 30. The samples were characterized with infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. EXAFS data characterizing the sample formed by the reaction of CH{sub 3}Re(CO){sub 5} with dealuminated HY zeolite show that the rhenium complexes were bonded to the zeolite frame, incorporating, on average, three carbonyl ligands per Re atom (as shown by Re-C and multiple-scattering Re-O EXAFS contributions). The IR spectra, consistent with this result, show that the supported rhenium carbonyls were bonded near aluminum sites of the zeolite, as shown by the decrease in intensity of the IR bands characterizing the acidic silanol groups resulting from the reaction of the rhenium carbonyl with the zeolite. This supported metal complex was characterized by narrow peaks in the {nu}{sub CO} region of the IR spectrum, indicating highly uniform species. In contrast, the species formed from CH{sub 3}Re(CO){sub 5} on NaY zeolite lost fewer carbonyl ligands than those formed on HY zeolite and were significantly less uniform, as indicated by the greater breadth of the {nu}{sub CO} bands in the IR spectra. The results show the importance of zeolite H{sup +} sites for the formation of uniform supported rhenium carbonyls from CH{sub 3}Re(CO){sub 5}; the formation of such uniform complexes did not occur on the NaY zeolite.

  11. Rhenium-catalysed dehydrogenative borylation of primary and secondary C(sp3)-H bonds adjacent to a nitrogen atom.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masahito; Omura, Tetsuya; Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-18

    Rhenium-catalysed C(sp(3))-H bond borylation in the absence of any oxidant, hydrogen acceptor, or external ligand, with the generation of H2 as the sole byproduct is described. The transformation, which represents a rare example of rhenium-catalysed C(sp(3))-H bond functionalisation, features high atom efficiency and simple reaction conditions. PMID:25688385

  12. Isotopic determinations of rhenium and osmium in meteorites by using fusion, distillation and ion-exchange separations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A stable isotope-dilution method using resonance ionization mass spectrometry is suitable for the determination of rhenium and osmium abundances and osmium isotopic composition in carbonaceous chondrites and iron meteorites. The chemical procedure involves sodium peroxide fusion, followed by distillation of osmium from sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide and subsequent anion-exchange separation of rhenium from the same solution. ?? 1989.

  13. Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complexes of meso-Tetraaryl-21,23-diheteroporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejinder; Lee, Way-Zen; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-06-01

    The dithia/diselena meso-tetraarylporphyrins have a lesser tendency to form metal complexes because of the larger size of the heteroatom(s), which shrinks the cavity size, and the heteroatoms also have poor coordinating ability to bind metal ions. The first example of a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complex of 21,23-diselenaporphyrin was synthesized by treating 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolyl-21,23-diselenaporphyrin with Re(CO)5Cl in chlorobenzene at reflux temperature and its structural properties were compared with our earlier reported rhenium(I) complex of tetraaryl-21,23-dithiaporphyrin. The crystal structures of rhenium(I) complexes of diheteroporphyrins revealed that the Re(I) ion binds to both the Se/S atoms and one of the N atoms of the porphyrin core along with three terminal carbonyl groups in an octahedral fashion. The rhenium(I) complexes of 21,23-diheteroporphyrins are stabilized by a large counterion, the trichloro-bridged dirhenium(I) ion. We also present a detailed account of the spectral and redox properties of rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes of 21,23-diheteroporphyrins. PMID:27214498

  14. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Craft; R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. C. King

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  15. Structural evaluation of Marman V-band coupling and flange with conoseal gasket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are described of a development test program directed at evaluating the structural capabilities of the Marman V-band coupling and flange with conoseal gasket. The intended end use was for the 75K NERVA flight engine propellant lines. Of major importance in the structural evaluation was the ability to predict stresses throughout the assembly for a variety of loading conditions. Computer finite element analysis was used to predict these stresses but, for the subject configuration, large uncertainties were introduced in modeling the complex geometry and boundary conditions. The purpose of the structural tests was to obtain actual stresses and deflections for correlation with, and updating of the finite element model. Results of the incomplete test program are inconclusive with respect to determining suitability for use on the NERVA engine.

  16. Polymer Photovoltaic Cells with Rhenium Oxide as Anode Interlayer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jinyu; Bai, Dongdong; Yang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a new transition metal oxide, rhenium oxide (ReO3), on the performance of polymer solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend as buffer layer was investigated. The effect of the thickness of ReO3 layer on electrical characteristics of the polymer solar cells was studied. It is found that insertion of ReO3 interfacial layer results in the decreased performance for P3HT: PCBM based solar cells. In order to further explore the mechanism of the decreasing of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to investigate the ReO3 oxidation states. Kelvin Probe method showed that the work function of the ReO3 is estimated to be 5.13eV after thermal evaporation. The results indicated the fact that a portion of ReO3 decomposed during thermal evaporation process, resulting in the formation of a buffer layer with a lower work function. As a consequence, a higher energy barrier was generated between the ITO and the active layer. PMID:26226439

  17. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of eight carbonaceous chondrites, one LL3 ordinary chondrite, and two iron meteorites were determined by resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Iron meteorite 187Re/186Os and 187OS/186Os ratios plot on the previously determined iron meteorite isochron, but most chondrite data plot 1 to 2 percent above this meteorite isochron. This suggests either that irons have significantly younger Re-Os closure ages than chondrites or that chondrites were formed from precursor materials with different chemical histories from the precursors of irons. Some samples of Semarkona (LL3) and Murray (C2M) meteorites plot 4 to 6 percent above the iron meteorite isochron, well above the field delineated by other chondrites. Murray may have lost Re by aqueous leaching during its preterrestrial history. Semarkona could have experienced a similar loss of Re, but only slight aqueous alteration is evident in the meteorite. Therefore, the isotopic composition of Semarkona could reflect assembly of isotopically heterogeneous components subsequent to 4.55 billion years ago or Os isotopic heterogeneities in the primordial solar nebula.

  18. Rhenium uptake and distribution in phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus

    PubMed Central

    Racionero-Gómez, B.; Sproson, A. D.; Selby, D.; Gröcke, D. R.; Redden, H.; Greenwell, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to Rhenium (Re) having no known biological role, it is not fully understood how Re is concentrated in oil kerogens. A commonly held assumption is that Re is incorporated into decomposing biomass under reducing conditions. However, living macroalgae also concentrate Re to several orders of magnitude greater than that of seawater. This study uses Fucus vesiculosus to assess Re uptake and its subsequent localization in the biomass. It is demonstrated that the Re abundance varies within the macroalgae and that Re is not located in one specific structure. In F. vesiculosus, the uptake and tolerance of Re was evaluated via tip cultures grown in seawater of different Re(VII) compound concentrations (0–7450 ng g−1). A positive correlation is shown between the concentration of Re-doped seawater and the abundance of Re accumulated in the tips. However, significant differences between Re(VII) compounds are observed. Although the specific cell structures where the Re is localized is not known, our findings suggest that Re is not held within chloroplasts or cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, metabolically inactivated F. vesiculosus does not accumulate Re, which indicates that Re uptake is via syn-life bioadsorption/bioaccumulation and that macroalgae may provide a source for Re phytomining and/or bioremediation. PMID:27293798

  19. Rhenium uptake and distribution in phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Racionero-Gómez, B; Sproson, A D; Selby, D; Gröcke, D R; Redden, H; Greenwell, H C

    2016-05-01

    Owing to Rhenium (Re) having no known biological role, it is not fully understood how Re is concentrated in oil kerogens. A commonly held assumption is that Re is incorporated into decomposing biomass under reducing conditions. However, living macroalgae also concentrate Re to several orders of magnitude greater than that of seawater. This study uses Fucus vesiculosus to assess Re uptake and its subsequent localization in the biomass. It is demonstrated that the Re abundance varies within the macroalgae and that Re is not located in one specific structure. In F. vesiculosus, the uptake and tolerance of Re was evaluated via tip cultures grown in seawater of different Re(VII) compound concentrations (0-7450 ng g(-1)). A positive correlation is shown between the concentration of Re-doped seawater and the abundance of Re accumulated in the tips. However, significant differences between Re(VII) compounds are observed. Although the specific cell structures where the Re is localized is not known, our findings suggest that Re is not held within chloroplasts or cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, metabolically inactivated F. vesiculosus does not accumulate Re, which indicates that Re uptake is via syn-life bioadsorption/bioaccumulation and that macroalgae may provide a source for Re phytomining and/or bioremediation. PMID:27293798

  20. Graphite-Conjugated Rhenium Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokjoon; Gallagher, James R; Miller, Jeffrey T; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2016-02-17

    Condensation of fac-Re(5,6-diamino-1,10-phenanthroline)(CO)3Cl to o-quinone edge defects on graphitic carbon surfaces generates graphite-conjugated rhenium (GCC-Re) catalysts that are highly active for CO2 reduction to CO in acetonitrile electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopies establish the formation of surface-bound Re centers with well-defined coordination environments. GCC-Re species on glassy carbon surfaces display catalytic currents greater than 50 mA cm(-2) with 96 ± 3% Faradaic efficiency for CO production. Normalized for the number of Re active sites, GCC-Re catalysts exhibit higher turnover frequencies than that of a soluble molecular analogue, fac-Re(1,10-phenanthroline)(CO)3Cl, and turnover numbers greater than 12,000. In contrast to the molecular analogue, GCC-Re surfaces display a Tafel slope of 150 mV/decade, indicative of a catalytic mechanism involving rate-limiting one-electron transfer. This work establishes graphite-conjugation as a powerful strategy for generating well-defined, tunable, heterogeneous electrocatalysts on ubiquitous graphitic carbon surfaces. PMID:26804469

  1. Human TTR conformation altered by rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Lidia; Policar, Clotilde; Stura, Enrico A; Shepard, William

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a 54 kDa homotetrameric serum protein that transports thyroxine (T4) and retinol. TTR is potentially amyloidogenic due to homotetramer dissociation into monomeric intermediates that self-assemble as amyloid deposits and insoluble fibrils. Most crystallographic structures, including those of amyloidogenic variants show the same tetramer without major variations in the monomer-monomer interface nor in the volume of the interdimeric cavity. Soaking TTR crystals in a solution containing rhenium tris-carbonyl derivatives yields a TTR conformer never observed before. Only one of the two monomers of the crystallographic dimer is significantly altered, and the inner part of the T4 binding cavity is expanded at one end and shrunk at the other. The result redefines the mechanism of allosteric communication between the two sites, suggesting that negative cooperativity is a function of dimer asymmetry, which can be induced through internal or external binding. An aspect that remains unexplained is why the conformational changes are ubiquitous throughout the crystal although the heavy metal content of the derivatized crystals is relatively low. The conformational changes observed, which include Leu(82), may represent a form of TTR better at scavenging β-Amyloid. At a resolution of 1.69Å, with excellent refinement statistics and well defined electron density for all parts of the structure, it is possible to envisage answering important questions that range from protein cooperative behavior to heavy atom induced protein conformational modifications that can result in crystallographic non-isomorphism. PMID:27402536

  2. Rhenium Dichalcogenides: Layered Semiconductors with Two Vertical Orientations.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis; Dale, Sara; Hoye, Sarah; Webb, James L; Wolverson, Daniel

    2016-02-10

    The rhenium and technetium diselenides and disulfides are van der Waals layered semiconductors in some respects similar to more well-known transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) such as molybdenum sulfide. However, their symmetry is lower, consisting only of an inversion center, so that turning a layer upside-down (that is, applying a C2 rotation about an in-plane axis) is not a symmetry operation, but reverses the sign of the angle between the two nonequivalent in-plane crystallographic axes. A given layer thus can be placed on a substrate in two symmetrically nonequivalent (but energetically similar) ways. This has consequences for the exploitation of the anisotropic properties of these materials in TMD heterostructures and is expected to lead to a new source of domain structure in large-area layer growth. We produced few-layer ReS2 and ReSe2 samples with controlled "up" or "down" orientations by micromechanical cleavage and we show how polarized Raman microscopy can be used to distinguish these two orientations, thus establishing Raman as an essential tool for the characterization of large-area layers. PMID:26799768

  3. Polymer Photovoltaic Cells with Rhenium Oxide as Anode Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinyu; Bai, Dongdong; Yang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a new transition metal oxide, rhenium oxide (ReO3), on the performance of polymer solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend as buffer layer was investigated. The effect of the thickness of ReO3 layer on electrical characteristics of the polymer solar cells was studied. It is found that insertion of ReO3 interfacial layer results in the decreased performance for P3HT: PCBM based solar cells. In order to further explore the mechanism of the decreasing of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to investigate the ReO3 oxidation states. Kelvin Probe method showed that the work function of the ReO3 is estimated to be 5.13eV after thermal evaporation. The results indicated the fact that a portion of ReO3 decomposed during thermal evaporation process, resulting in the formation of a buffer layer with a lower work function. As a consequence, a higher energy barrier was generated between the ITO and the active layer. PMID:26226439

  4. Ductility and impact resistance of P/M molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Leichtfried, Gerhard; Schneibel, Joachim H; Heilmaier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mo-Re alloys containing between 5 and 47.5 wt pct Re were fabricated from Mo and Mo-Re powders by sintering and hot radial forging. The mechanical properties of as-forged, stress-relieved, and recrystallized specimens were examined. Up to a concentration of 41 wt pct Re, the Charpy ductile-to-brittle transition temperature decreased monotonically with increasing rhenium concentration. Consistent with this, bend angles for fracture at T = -100 C increased monotonically with increasing rhenium concentration. Between 10 and 41 wt pct rhenium, the room-temperature tensile ductility of recrystallized Mo-Re remained nearly constant with values on the order of 35 to 45 pct. This result differs from the low ductility values observed previously by Lundberg (1997) for compositions on either side of Mo-13 wt pct Re.

  5. Electric quadrupole interaction of 100Rh in antimony, hafnium and rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, W. J.; Abiona, A. A.; Kessler, P.; Timmers, H.

    2013-05-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy in beryllium, zinc, rhodium, antimony, hafnium and rhenium was performed with the 100Pd/100Rh probe using four-detector arrays with relative detector orientations of 90° and 180°. The probe was synthesized using the 92Zr(12C,4n)100Pd fusion evaporation reaction, with evaporation residues recoiling into specimens of the metals. The quadrupole coupling constant for 100Rh has been determined for the first time for antimony, hafnium and rhenium, while results for the other elements agree with known values. The coupling constants for the measured hexagonal lattices of the period VI transition metals, hafnium and rhenium, show the same trend with increasing atomic number as those of period V.

  6. Methods for the separation of rhenium, osmium and molybdenum applicable to isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Golightly, D.W.; Dorrzapf, A.F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Effective methods are described for the chemical separation of rhenium, osmium and molybdenum. The methods are based on distillation and anion-exchange chromatography, and have been the basis for rhenium-osmium isotope studies of ore deposits and meteorites. Successful anion-exchange separation of osmium requires both recognition and careful control of the osmium species in solution; thus, distillation of osmium tetroxide from a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide is preferred to anion-exchange. Distribution coefficients measured for perrhenate in sulfuric acid media are sufficiently high (Kd > 500) for rhenium to be directly loaded onto an ion-exchange column from a distillation residue and subsequently eluted with nitric acid. Polymerization of molybdenum species during elution is prevented by use of a solution that is 1M in hydrochloric acid and 1M in sodium chloride. ?? 1991.

  7. Effect of rhenium irradiations on the mechanical properties of tungsten for nuclear fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; Elliman, Robert; Corr, Cormac; Lim, Joven J. H.; Forrest, Andrew; Mummery, Paul; Evans, Llion M.

    2016-08-01

    As-received and annealed tungsten samples were irradiated at a temperature of 400 °C with Re and W ions to peak concentrations of 1600 appm (atomic parts per million) and damage levels of 40 dpa (displacements per atom). Mechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation, and the orientation and depth dependence of irradiation damage was investigated using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). Following irradiation there was a 13% increase in hardness in the as received sheet and a 23% increase in the annealed material for both tungsten and rhenium irradiation. The difference between the tungsten and rhenium irradiated samples was negligible, suggesting that for the concentrations and damage levels employed, the presence of rhenium does not have a significant effect on the hardening mechanism. Energy dependent EBSD of annealed samples provided information about the depth distribution of the radiation damage in individual tungsten grains and confirmed that the radiation damage is orientation dependant.

  8. Thermodynamic stability and unusual strength of ultra-incompressible rhenium nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R. F.; Lin, Zhijun; Mao, Ho-kwang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2011-02-11

    We report on a comprehensive study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties as well as a bond-deformation mechanism on ultra-incompressible Re{sub 2} N and Re{sub 3} N. The introduction of nitrogen into the rhenium lattice leads to thermodynamic instability in Re{sub 2} N at ambient conditions and enhanced incompressibility and strength for both rhenium nitrides. Rhenium nitrides, however, show substantially lower ideal shear strength than hard ReB{sub 2} and superhard c -BN, suggesting that they cannot be intrinsically superhard. An intriguing soft “ionic bond mediated plastic deformation” mechanism is revealed to underline the physical origin of their unusual mechanical strength. These results suggest a need to reformulate the design concept of intrinsically superhard transition-metal nitrides, borides, and carbides.

  9. Thermocouples of tantalum and rhenium alloys for more stable vacuum-high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Thermocouples of the present invention provide stability and performance reliability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums by employing a bimetallic thermocouple sensor wherein each metal of the sensor is selected from a group of metals comprising tantalum and rhenium and alloys containing only those two metals. The tantalum, rhenium thermocouple sensor alloys provide bare metal thermocouple sensors having advantageous vapor pressure compatibilities and performance characteristics. The compatibility and physical characteristics of the thermocouple sensor alloys of the present invention result in improved emf, temperature properties and thermocouple hot junction performance. The thermocouples formed of the tantalum, rhenium alloys exhibit reliability and performance stability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums and are adaptable to space propulsion and power systems and nuclear environments.

  10. A study of scandia and rhenium doped tungsten matrix dispenser cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinshu; Li, Lili; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Meiling

    2007-10-01

    Scandia and rhenium doped tungsten powders were prepared by solid-liquid doping combined with two-step reduction method. The experimental results show that scandia was distributed evenly on the surface of tungsten particles. The addition of scandia and rhenium could decrease the particle size of doped tungsten, for example, the tungsten powders doped with Sc 2O 3 and Re had the average size of about 50 nm in diameter. By using this kind of powder, scandia and rhenium doped tungsten matrix with the sub-micrometer sized tungsten grains was obtained. This kind of matrix exhibited good anti-bombardment insensitivity at high temperature. The emission property result showed that high space charge limited current densities of more than 60 A/cm 2 at 900 °C could be obtained for this cathode. A Ba-Sc-O multilayer about 100 nm in thickness formed at the surface of cathode after activation led to the high emission property.

  11. Neutron irradiation embrittlement of molybdenum rhenium alloys and their improvement by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Ueda, Kazukiyo; Satou, Manabu; Abe, Katsunori

    1998-10-01

    Irradiation-induced embrittlement is one of the major problems with molybdenum alloys, which have been considered as one of the candidates for divertor structural materials. The effects of rhenium content, heat-treatment and irradiation condition on mechanical properties and microstructural development of molybdenum rhenium alloys were studied after neutron exposure by FFTF/MOTA up to high fluence (˜1 × 10 27 n/m 2, En>0.1 MeV). Appreciable plastic deformation was observed in a bending test on stress-relieved Mo-5 wt% Re irradiated at high temperatures. Fine, dense precipitates were observed in Mo-41 wt% Re, resulting in large hardening and embrittlement.

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of super-stable rhenium(V)porphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichan, N. G.; Tyulyaeva, E. Yu.; Khodov, I. A.; Lomova, T. N.

    2014-03-01

    The preparation of rhenium(V) porphyrin complexes {μ-oxo-bis[(oxo)(5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V)] [OReTPP]2O (1), (oxo)(phenoxo)(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-5-monophenyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V) ORe(PhO)MPOEP (2), (cloro)(oxo)(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-5,15-diphenyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V) ORe(Cl)5,15DPOEP (4), and (oxo)(phenoxo)(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V) ORe(PhO)OEP (5)} by the interaction of H2ReCl6 with corresponding porphyrin in boiling phenol is described. (Cloro)(oxo)(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-5-monophenyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V) ORe(Cl)MPOEP (3) and (oxo)(chloro)(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphinato)rhenium(V) ORe(Cl)OEP (6) have been prepared by the reaction of axial-ligand substitution from (2) and (5), respectively. Compounds (2-4) were newly synthesized. Characterization of the compounds (1-6) reported herein was made mainly by UV-Visible, IR, 1Н NMR, 1H1H 2D COSY, 1H1H 2D DOSY, 1H1H 2D ROESY, 1H1H 2D TOCSY spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The stability of the complexes in solutions when exposed to strong acids at the presence of atmospheric oxygen has been estimated. Compounds (2-4) and (6) show them super-stable since they do not undergo dissociation along MN bonds in concentrated H2SO4 under heating up to 363 K. Compounds (3) and (4) undergo one-electron oxidation to form stable π-cation radicals ORe(HSO)P under these conditions. The products of the reaction between all studied porphyrins and concentrated H2SO4 were isolated in CHCl3 by reprecipitation onto ice and proved to be rhenium(V) complexes ORe(HSO4)P.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a novel heterobimetallic rhenium(IV)-dysprosium(III) chain.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Carolina; Guedes, Guilherme P; Novak, Miguel A; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Chiozzone, Raúl; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Vaz, Maria G F; González, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The use of the mononuclear rhenium(IV) precursor [ReBr5 (H2 pydc)](-) (H2 pydc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) as a metalloligand towards dysprosium(III) afforded the first heterobimetallic Re(IV) -Dy(III) complex. Crystal structures and static and dynamic magnetic properties of both rhenium-containing species are reported herein. The 5d-4f compound shows an extended 1D structure and the AC magnetic measurements reveal frequency dependence at low temperature suggesting slow relaxation of the magnetization. PMID:25916407

  14. Hydrostatic low-range pressure applications of the Paris–Edinburgh cell utilizing polymer gaskets for diffuse X-ray scattering measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Kurtz, Charles A.; Locke, Darren R.; Parise, John B.; Hriljac, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a polymeric Torlon (polyamide–imide) gasket material in a Paris–Edinburgh pressure cell for in situ high-pressure X-ray scattering measurements is demonstrated. The relatively low bulk modulus of the gasket allows for fine control of the sample pressure over the range 0.01–0.42 GPa. The quality of the data obtained in this way is suitable for Bragg and pair distribution function analysis. PMID:19461850

  15. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study of flange and valve repair work and an assessment of exposure variables.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Devlin, Kathryn D; Perez, Angela L; Hollins, Dana M; Cowan, Dallas M; Scott, Paul K; White, Katherine; Cheng, Thales J; Henshaw, John L

    2015-02-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate worker and area exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the replacement of asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials from flanges and valves and assess the influence of several variables previously not investigated. Additionally, potential of take home exposures from clothing worn during the study was characterized. Our data showed that product type, ventilation type, gasket location, flange or bonnet size, number of flanges involved, surface characteristics, gasket surface adherence, and even activity type did not have a significant effect on worker exposures. Average worker asbestos exposures during flange gasket work (PCME=0.166 f/cc, 12-59 min) were similar to average worker asbestos exposures during valve overhaul work (PCME=0.165 f/cc, 7-76 min). Average 8-h TWA asbestos exposures were estimated to range from 0.010 to 0.062 f/cc. Handling clothes worn during gasket and packing replacement activities demonstrated exposures that were 0.71% (0.0009 f/cc 40-h TWA) of the airborne asbestos concentration experienced during the 5 days of the study. Despite the many variables considered in this study, exposures during gasket and packing replacement occur within a relatively narrow range, are below current and historical occupational exposure limits for asbestos, and are consistent with previously published data. PMID:25445297

  16. Compositional GC-FID analysis of the additives to PVC, focusing on the gaskets of lids for glass jars.

    PubMed

    Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Biedermann, Maurus; Fiselier, Katell; Grob, Koni

    2005-12-01

    A gas chromatographic (FID) method is described which aims at the quantitative compositional analysis of the additives in plasticized PVC, particularly the plastisols used as gaskets for lids of glass jars. An extract of the PVC is analysed directly as well as after transesterification to ethyl esters. Transesterification enables the analysis of epoxidized soya bean and linseed oil (ESBO and ELO) as well as polyadipates. For most other additives, the shifts in the chromatogram resulting from transesterification is used to confirm the identifications made by direct analysis. In the gaskets of 69 lids from the European market used for packaging oily foods, a broad variety of plastisol compositions was found, many or possibly all of which do not comply with legal requirements. In 62% of these lids, ESBO was the principal plasticizer, whereas in 25% a phthalate had been used. PMID:16356892

  17. Reinforced polyquinoxaline gasket and method of preparing the same. [resistant to ionizing radiation and liquid hydrogen temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanauken, R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A gasket or seal resistant to ionizing radiation and liquid hydrogen temperatures is made up of a laminated polyquinoxaline resin-fiberglass cloth body portion and a molded polyquinoxaline encapsulating film. The laminated body is prepared by stacking thin sheets of the resin alternately with fiberglass cloth and heating the assembly under pressure with the temperature, pressure and resin film thickness being controlled so that only partial impregnation of the fiberglass cloth is produced. The encapsulating resin film is preheated at about 300 f and applied to the laminate body by molding at a temperature of about 625 F. The molded gasket is then deflashed and post-cured by heating at 675 to 700 F.

  18. Inorganic photoisomerization: the case study of rhenium(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Kayanuma, Megumi; Gindensperger, Etienne; Daniel, Chantal

    2012-11-14

    The mechanism of photoisomerization of stilbene-like ligands coordinated to rhenium polypyridine or α-diimine carbonyls is deciphered in the light of recent theoretical results obtained at various levels of theory, density functional theory (DFT, time-dependent DFT) and state-of-the-art ab initio methods, complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-state CAS perturbation theory 2nd Order (MS-CASPT2). On the basis of the electronic absorption spectra and potential energy profiles (PEF) associated to the low-lying singlet and triplet intra-ligand (IL) and metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) excited states, coupled by spin-orbit interactions and calculated for the series [Re(CO)(3)(N,N)(L)](+) with N,N = bpy, phen and ph(2)phen (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; ph(2)phen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) and L = stpy or bpe (stpy = 4-styrylpyridine; bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene) it is shown that the dynamics of the isomerization process are controlled by several features: (i) the occurrence of a (1)IL(L)/(1)MLCT(NN) conical intersection in the vicinity of the (1)MLCT(NN) absorption domain (ii) the kinetics of (1)MLCT(NN)/(3)MLCT(NN) intersystem crossings; (iii) the kinetics of (3)MLCT(NN)/(3)IL(L) internal conversion. The branching ratio between the two main isomerization pathways, namely along the (1)IL(L) PEF via(1)MLCT(NN)/(1)IL(L) internal conversion at the conical intersection or along the (3)IL(L) PEF after (3)MLCT(NN)/(3)IL(L) charge transfer is largely influenced by the nature of the N,N antenna and L isomerizable ligands. PMID:23011444

  19. Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra from laser produced rhenium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Liu, Luning; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged rhenium ions were observed in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a number of laser power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2.6 × 1014 W cm-2 for the former and 5.5 × 1012 W cm-2 for the latter. The Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and unresolved transition array (UTA) approach were used to calculate and interpret the emission properties of the different spectra obtained. The results show that n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 UTAs lead to two intense quasi-continuous emission bands in the 4.3-6.3 nm and 1.5-4.3 nm spectral regions. As a result of the different ion stage distributions in the plasmas induced by ps and ns laser irradiation the 1.5-4.3 nm UTA peak moves to shorter wavelength in the ps laser produced plasma spectra. For the ns spectrum, the most populated ion stage during the lifetime of this plasma that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 transitions was Re23+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was demonstrated. For the n = 4-n = 4 4p64dN-4p54dN+1 + 4p64dN-14f transitions, the 4d-4f transitions contribute mainly in the most intense 4.7-5.5 nm region while the 4p-4d subgroup gives rise to a weaker feature in the 4.3-4.7 nm region. A number of previously unidentified spectral features produced by n = 4-n = 5 transitions in the spectra of Re XVI to Re XXXIX are identified.

  20. Organometallic rhenium(III) chalcogenide clusters: coordination of N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jessica L; Wilson, Wade B; Huh, Daniel N; McDonald, Robert; Szczepura, Lisa F

    2015-07-01

    The preparation of rhenium based octahedral clusters containing N-heterocyclic carbenes is described. These represent the first examples of [M6(μ3-Q)8](n+) or [M6(μ3-X)8](n+) clusters to contain a carbene ligand of any type (NHC, Fischer or Schrock). Surprisingly, the NHC ligands attenuate their luminescent properties. PMID:26041404

  1. Rhenium solubility in borosilicate nuclear waste glass: implications for the processing and immobilization of technetium-99.

    PubMed

    McCloy, John S; Riley, Brian J; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Hrma, Pavel; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W; Kruger, Albert A

    2012-11-20

    The immobilization of technetium-99 ((99)Tc) in a suitable host matrix has proven to be a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. In this context, the present work reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, in a sodium borosilicate glass. Glasses containing target Re concentrations from 0 to 10,000 ppm [by mass, added as KReO(4) (Re(7+))] were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampules to minimize the loss of Re from volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found as Re(7+) in all of the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. At higher rhenium concentrations, additional rhenium was retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of alkali perrhenates detected with X-ray diffraction. Since (99)Tc concentrations in a glass waste form are predicted to be <10 ppm (by mass), these Re results implied that the solubility should not be a limiting factor in processing radioactive wastes, assuming Tc as Tc(7+) and similarities between Re(7+) and Tc(7+) behavior in this glass system. PMID:23101883

  2. Unprecedented staining of polar lipids by a luminescent rhenium complex revealed by FTIR microspectroscopy in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bader, C A; Carter, E A; Safitri, A; Simpson, P V; Wright, P; Stagni, S; Massi, M; Lay, P A; Brooks, D A; Plush, S E

    2016-06-21

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and confocal imaging have been used to demonstrate that the neutral rhenium(i) tricarbonyl 1,10-phenanthroline complex bound to 4-cyanophenyltetrazolate as the ancillary ligand is able to localise in regions with high concentrations of polar lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin, sphingosphine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in mammalian adipocytes. PMID:27170554

  3. [Spectrophotometric study of the interaction between rhenium complexes and phosphatidylcholine during liposome formation].

    PubMed

    Shtemenko, O V; Zeleniuk, M A; Shtemenko, N I; Verbyts'ka, Ia S

    2002-01-01

    The electron absorption spectra of halogenides and halogencarboxylate complex compounds of rhenium (III) having cluster structure with phosphatydilcholine and their lyposome forms were investigated. Some results which evidence for the interaction of these compounds with phosphatydilcholine were obtained. The possible mechanism of this interaction is discussed. PMID:12924020

  4. XPS investigations of tribolayers formed on TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktay, Serkan; Kahraman, Zafer; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2015-02-01

    TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings were deposited on high-speed-steel substrates by a hybrid coating system composed of cathodic arc PVD and magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to keep rhenium content low (8 ± 1.9 at.%) in the coating, magnetron sputtering technique was utilized to evaporate rhenium. The (Ti,Re)N coating consisted of TiN and ReNx (x > 1.33) phases. The hardness of TiN and (Ti,Re)N were 31 GPa and 29 GPa (± 2 GPa), respectively. Tribological behaviors of the samples were tested against Al2O3 balls at 21 °C (RT) and 150 °C (HT) by reciprocating wear technique. The tribolayers were analyzed by XPS technique. Friction coefficients of TiN were 0.56, 0.35 for 21 °C and 150 °C tests, respectively. Rhenium addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.22 and 0.17 for RT and HT samples. Rhenium addition also improved the wear resistance of the coating at both test temperatures. For TiN, main oxide component of the tribolayers was Ti2O3 for RT tests and TiO2 for HT tests. The oxide layer formed on (Ti,Re)N were the mixture of TiO2, Tisbnd Osbnd N, ReO2 and Re2O7 for both test temperatures. Re2O7 provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N. The findings are consistent with the crystal chemistry approach.

  5. 2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium

    SciTech Connect

    A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov

    2010-09-01

    The 2 × 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 ½ units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 × 2 × 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 × 2 × 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 × 2 × 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 × 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

  6. Survey of phthalate levels in Italian oily foods contained in glass jars with PVC gaskets.

    PubMed

    Sannino, A

    2009-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of twelve phthalates in 50 samples of oily foods packed in glass jars with metal closure obtained from a retail market. The amounts of di-methyl phthalate, di-ethyl phthalate, di-propyl phthalate, di-butyl phthalate, di-pentyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, di-cyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate in all samples analysed were less than the limit of quantification (LOQ). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was detected in 20 samples in the range from 0.1 to 6 mg kg(-1) with an average of 1.0 mg kg(-1), and it exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) of 1.5 mg kg(-1) in five cases with an average of 3.0 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate was found in four samples at 0.1-0.4 mg kg(-1). The PVC gaskets used for the lids were negative for all tested phthalates, suggesting that the contamination of the foods originated from other sources, e.g. olive oil. PMID:24785180

  7. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  8. Effect of soft metal gasket contacts on contact resistance, energy deposition, and plasma expansion profile in a wire array Z pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; French, D. M.; Tang, W.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2008-09-01

    Soft metal gaskets (indium and silver) were used to reduce contact resistance between the wire and the electrode in an aluminum wire Z pinch by more than an order of magnitude over the best weighted contact case. Clamping a gasket over a Z-pinch wire compresses the wire to the electrode with a greater normal force than possible with wire weights. Average contact resistance was reduced from the range of 100-3000 Ω (depending on wire weight mass) to 1-10 Ω with soft metal gaskets. Single wire experiments (13 μm Al 5056) on a 16 kA, 100 kV Marx bank showed an increase in light emission (97%) and emission volume (100%) of the plasma for the reduced contact resistance cases. The measured increases in plasma volume and light emission indicate greater energy deposition in the ablated wire. Additionally, dual-wire experiments showed plasma edge effects were significantly decreased in the soft metal gasket contact case. The average height of the edge effects was reduced by 51% and the width of the edge effects was increased by 40%, thus the gasket contact case provided greater axial uniformity in the plasma expansion profile of an individual wire.

  9. Practical Usage of Effect of Cold Weldability of Metals in Joint of Plastically Deformable Gasket and Flanges of Detachable Joint of Fuel Pipe-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchenko, V. G.

    2002-01-01

    The performed investigations of the character of changing the leakage of control gas through flange connections in the process of drawing- up the bolts in to calculation moment and subsequent lowering of bolt loading to zero have shown the following. Gradual reduction of leakage through a gasket occurs in the process of increasing the tightening torque up to its complete absence. But there is no leakage through the unloaded gasket after untwisting all nuts and removal of fastening bolts from flanges. The performed analysis has shown that this effect is caused by cold weldability of the gasket with flanges; this is a result of flowing of its material into microrough holes of contact surfaces of flanges at plastic deformation with formation of strong and dense contact. Some technological methods of formation of undetachable joint have been developed for practical application of this effect. According to one of those methods, drawing- up the gasket is performed with the help of flanges preliminarily. Those bolts are substituted by less strong standard bolts for drawing- up by less moment after achievement of stress needed. Method of pressurization of the joint is more effective when technological detachable flanges and bolts are used for reduction of the gasket up to its plastic state. Those flanges and bolts are removed after drawing- up; after that standard flanges are loaded by the moment used for reception of effort only from pressure of operational medium in the pipe- line (Qoper.m.) because drawing- up of the gasket by effort (Qeff.) that provides its plastic state, is already achieved. Then we exclude the first component (Qeff.) in dependence which is known from technical literature: Qdraw. = Qeff . + Qoper .m. = qFgas. + PFpip. (1), and the final formula for calculation of the effort of drawing- up the joint (in which drawing- up the gasket with provision of cold weldability is carried out preliminarily before drawing- up the standard bolts) is expressed in

  10. Bond Percolation on a NON-P.C.F. SIERPIŃSKI Gasket, Iterated Barycentric Subdivision of a Triangle, and Hexacarpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougee, D.; Steinhurst, B.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate bond percolation on the iterated barycentric subdivision of a triangle, the hexa-carpet, and the non-p.c.f. Sierpinski gasket. With the use of known results on the diamond fractal, we are able to bound the critical probability of bond percolation on the non-p.c.f. gasket and the iterated barycentric subdivision of a triangle from above by 0.282. We then show how both the gasket and hexacarpet fractals are related via the iterated barycentric subdivisions of a triangle: the two spaces exhibit duality properties although they are not themselves dual graphs. Finally, we show the existence of a non-trivial phase transition on all three graphs.

  11. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI.

    PubMed

    Watson, W T; Murphy, F V; Gould, T A; Jambeck, P; Val, D L; Cronan, J E; Beck von Bodman, S; Churchill, M E

    2001-12-01

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 A. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 A and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified. PMID:11717525

  12. Electrotransport and diffusivity of molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten, and zirconium in beta-thorium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, F. A.; Beck, M. S.; Rehbein, D. K.; Conzemius, R. J.; Carlson, O. N.

    1984-01-01

    The electric mobilities, diffusivities, and effective valences were determined for molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten, and zirconium in beta-thorium. All four solutes migrated in the same direction as the electron flow. Rhenium and molybdenum were found to be very mobile, with tungsten somewhat slower. Zirconium was found to move at a rate near that of the self-diffusion of beta-thorium, viz., about 10 to the -11th sq m/s at 1500 C. The electromigration velocities showed a similar trend. A comparison was made between experimental data obtained by scanning laser mass spectrometry and theoretical transport equations for two purification experiments. Good agreement was obtained with both the concentration profile predicted by DeGroot and the purification ratio predicted by Verhoeven.

  13. Rhenium-osmium isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately ??31 million years for meteorites ???4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of 187Re, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  14. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A.

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  15. Efficient photovoltaic cells with wide photosensitization range fabricated from rhenium benzathiazole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Hei Ling; Mak, Chris S. K.; Chan, Wai Kin; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.

    2007-02-01

    Bulk heterojunction ITO/CuPc/sensitizer:C60/C60/Al (ITO denotes indium tin oxide; CuPc denotes copper phthalocyanine) photovoltaic cells were fabricated by using rhenium(I) complexes with benzathiazole ligands as the sensitizers. The complexes enhance the photosensitivity in the region of 450-550nm in which CuPc and C60 have little absorption. The devices exhibited high fill factors in excess of 0.6, and the power conversion efficiency of the best device 1.72%. A device based on pure CuPc :C60 mixed layer was fabricated for comparison. The external quantum efficiency of the devices remained higher than 10% in the entire visible region, which clearly demonstrated the importance of rhenium complexes as sensitizers.

  16. Vibrational studies of interstitial carbide atoms in nickel and rhenium carbonyl carbide clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Stanghellini, P.L.; Rossetti, R.; D'Alfonso, G.; Longoni, G.

    1987-08-26

    A vibrational spectroscopy study of the interstitial carbon atom in a series of Re and Ni carbide clusters enabled the M-C vibrational modes to be assigned and the effect of the metal atoms capping the Re/sub 6/(..mu../sub 6/-C) and Ni/sub 8/(..mu../sub 8/-C) cores to be investigated. The assignment of the M-C vibrational modes has been confirmed by /sup 13/C isotopic labeling of the interstitial carbide atom. A single force constant value accounts for the observed frequencies in the nickel carbide clusters, whether capped or uncapped, and in the uncapped rhenium carbide clusters. In contrast, the vibrational analysis for the capped rhenium clusters indicates that the force field around the carbon atom should be described by slightly different axial and equatorial force constants. A rationalization of the capping effect in terms of structural and electronic effects is proposed.

  17. Slip casting and extruding shapes of rhenium with metal oxide additives. 1: Feasibility demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, F. A.; Page, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating small rhenium parts with metal oxide additives by means of slip casting and extrusion techniques is described. The metal oxides, ZrO2 and HfO2 were stabilized into the cubic phase with Y2O3. Additions of metal oxide to the rhenium of up to 15 weight percent were used. Tubes of 17 mm diameter with 0.5 mm walls were slip cast by adapting current ceramic oxide techniques. A complete cast double conical nozzle demonstrated the ability to meet shapes and tolerances. Extrusion of meter long tubing lengths of 3.9 mm o.d. x 2.3 mm i.d. final dimension is documented. Sintering schedules are presented to produce better than 95% of theoretical density parts. Finished machining was found possible were requried by electric discharge machining and diamond grinding.

  18. Rhenium-osmium-isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Walker, R. J.; Grossman, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately +/-31 million years for meteorites about 4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of Re-187, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  19. Containment of fluid samples in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell without the use of metal gaskets: Performance and advantages for in situ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, I.-M.; Bassett, W.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Mayanovic, R.A.; Shang, L.

    2009-03-25

    Metal gaskets (Re, Ir, Inconel, or stainless steel) normally used to contain fluid samples in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) are sometimes undesirable due to possible contamination and to gasket deformation at high pressures and temperatures resulting in nonisochoric behavior. Furthermore, in x-ray spectroscopic experiments, metal gaskets may attenuate the incident x-ray beam and emitted fluorescence x-rays, and the interaction of scattered radiation with the gasket may produce fluorescence that interferes with the x-ray spectrum of the sample. New arrangements and procedures were tested for the operation of the HDAC without using the metal gaskets. Distilled, de-ionized water was loaded into the sample chamber, a laser-milled recess 300 {micro}m in diameter and - 50 {micro}m deep centered in the 1.0 mm face of the lower diamond anvil, and sealed by pressing the top diamond anvil face directly against the lower one without a metal gasket in between. A maximum sample pressure of 202 MPa at 617 C was maintained for a duration of 10 min without evidence of leakage. A small change in fluid density was observed in one experiment where the sample was held at 266 MPa at 708 C for 10 min. The gasketless HDAC was also employed in x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments, where, in addition to the sample chamber in the lower diamond, two grooves were milled at a 90{sup o} angle to each other around the sample chamber to minimize the attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays. With a minimum distance between the sample chamber and the grooves of 80 {micro}m, a pressure of 76 MPa at 500 C was maintained for 2 h with no change in the original fluid density.

  20. Effects of gasket on coupled plastic flow and strain-induced phase transformations under high pressure and large torsion in a rotational diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Biao; Levitas, Valery I.

    2016-01-01

    Combined plastic flow and strain-induced phase transformations (PTs) under high pressure in a sample within a gasket subjected to three dimensional compression and torsion in a rotational diamond anvil cell (RDAC) are studied using a finite element approach. The results are obtained for the weaker, equal-strength, and stronger high-pressure phases in comparison with low-pressure phases. It is found that, due to the strong gasket, the pressure in the sample is relatively homogenous and the geometry of the transformed zones is mostly determined by heterogeneity in plastic flow. For the equal-strength phases, the PT rate is higher than for the weaker and stronger high-pressure phases. For the weaker high-pressure phase, transformation softening induces material instability and leads to strain and PT localization. For the stronger high-pressure phase, the PT is suppressed by strain hardening during PT. The effect of the kinetic parameter k that scales the PT rate in the strain-controlled kinetic equation is also examined. In comparison with a traditional diamond anvil cell without torsion, the PT progress is much faster in RDAC under the same maximum pressure in the sample. Finally, the gasket size and strength effects are discussed. For a shorter and weaker gasket, faster plastic flow in radial and thickness directions leads to faster PT kinetics in comparison with a longer and stronger gasket. The rates of PT and plastic flows are not very sensitive to the modest change in a gasket thickness. Multiple experimental results are reproduced and interpreted. Obtained results allow one to design the desired pressure-plastic strain loading program in the experiments for searching new phases, reducing PT pressure by plastic shear, extracting kinetic properties from experiments with heterogeneous fields, and controlling homogeneity of all fields and kinetics of PTs.

  1. Elasto-Plastic FEM Stress Analysis and Mechanical Characteristics of Pipe Flange Connections with Non-Asbestos Gaskets under Internal Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yoshio; Omiya, Yuya; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sawa, Toshiyuki

    The effects of the nominal diameter of pipe flange connections with non-asbestos spiral wound gaskets(SWG) under internal pressure on the mechanical characteristics such as the contact gasket stress distribution which governs the sealing performance, the load factor and the hub stress of the connections were evaluated. The stresses in the connections with the nominal diameters from 3” to 24” under internal pressure are analyzed using the elasto-plastic(EP) FEM analysis taking account the hysteresis and non-linearity of deformation behavior of the non-asbestos SWG. As a result, it is found that the variations in the contact gasket stress distributions are substantial due to the flange rotation in the connections with the larger nominal diameter. Leakage tests were conducted to measure the axial bolt forces (the load factor) and the hub stress. The results obtained from the EP-FEM analyses are fairly consistent with the experimental results concerning the variation in the axial bolt forces (the load factor) and the hub stress. Using the obtained contact gasket stress distributions and the fundamental relationship between the amount of leakage and the contact gasket stress, the amount of the leakage of the connections is estimated. It is observed that the sealing performance of the connections with larger nominal diameter is worse than that of the connection with smaller nominal diameter because of the flange rotation. The estimated results are in a fairly good agreement with the measured results. The difference in the hub stress between the EP-FEM and ASME code is demonstrated and the differences in the load factor and the sealing performance of the connections are shown between the asbestos and non-asbestos gaskets.

  2. Containment of fluid samples in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell without the use of metal gaskets: Performance and advantages for in situ analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bassett, William A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Shang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Metal gaskets (Re, Ir, Inconel, or stainless steel) normally used to contain fluid samples in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) are sometimes undesirable due to possible contamination and to gasket deformation at high pressures and temperatures resulting in nonisochoric behavior. Furthermore, in x-ray spectroscopic experiments, metal gaskets may attenuate the incident x-ray beam and emitted fluorescence x-rays, and the interaction of scattered radiation with the gasket may produce fluorescence that interferes with the x-ray spectrum of the sample. New arrangements and procedures were tested for the operation of the HDAC without using the metal gaskets. Distilled, de-ionized water was loaded into the sample chamber, a laser-milled recess 300 ??m in diameter and ???50 ??m deep centered in the 1.0 mm face of the lower diamond anvil, and sealed by pressing the top diamond anvil face directly against the lower one without a metal gasket in between. A maximum sample pressure of 202 MPa at 617 ??C was maintained for a duration of 10 min without evidence of leakage. A small change in fluid density was observed in one experiment where the sample was held at 266 MPa at 708 ??C for 10 min. The gasketless HDAC was also employed in x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments, where, in addition to the sample chamber in the lower diamond, two grooves were milled at a 90?? angle to each other around the sample chamber to minimize the attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays. With a minimum distance between the sample chamber and the grooves of 80 ??m, a pressure of 76 MPa at 500 ??C was maintained for 2 h with no change in the original fluid density. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Rhenium Solubility in Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glass: Implications for the Processing and Immobilization of Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-10-26

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved to be an arduous task for the researchers in nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State, the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is ~1300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility/retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of the similarity between their ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing Re (0 – 10,000 ppm by mass) were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules in order to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found to predominantly exist as Re (VII) in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of crystalline inclusions that were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The implications of these results on the immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses have been discussed.

  4. Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by comparing with conventional MoS2 devices. This study demonstrates a very high performance ReSe2 photodetector with high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms), and broad photodetection range (possible above 1064 nm). PMID:27167366

  5. Sulfur-bonded thiophenes in organometallic rhenium complexes and adsorption of isocyanides on gold

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    This dissertation contains results of research conducted in two different areas: (1) organometallic synthesis and reactivity, and (2) organometallic surface chemistry. In the synthesis and reactivity studies, sulfur coordination of thiophene and benzo[b]thiophene to the metal center in organometallic rhenium complexes is examined. In the surface chemistry studies, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is used to analyze the adsorption of several isocyanides on the surface of gold powder. Results are compared and contrasted to known organometallic chemistry.

  6. Mechanisms for CO production from CO2 using reduced rhenium tricarbonyl catalysts.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jay; Fujita, Etsuko; Schaefer, Henry F; Muckerman, James T

    2012-03-21

    The chemical conversion of CO(2) has been studied by numerous experimental groups. Particularly the use of rhenium tricarbonyl-based molecular catalysts has attracted interest owing to their ability to absorb light, store redox equivalents, and convert CO(2) into higher-energy products. The mechanism by which these catalysts mediate reduction, particularly to CO and HCOO(-), is poorly understood, and studies aimed at elucidating the reaction pathway have likely been hindered by the large number of species present in solution. Herein the mechanism for carbon monoxide production using rhenium tricarbonyl catalysts has been investigated using density functional theory. The investigation presented proceeds from the experimental work of Meyer's group (J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.1985, 1414-1416) in DMSO and Fujita's group (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2003, 125, 11976-11987) in dry DMF. The latter work with a simplified reaction mixture, one that removes the photo-induced reduction step with a sacrificial donor, is used for validation of the proposed mechanism, which involves formation of a rhenium carboxylate dimer, [Re(dmb)(CO)(3)](2)(OCO), where dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine. CO(2) insertion into this species, and subsequent rearrangement, is proposed to yield CO and the carbonate-bridged [Re(dmb)(CO)(3)](2)(OCO(2)). Structures and energies for the proposed reaction path are presented and compared to previously published experimental observations. PMID:22364649

  7. Characterization of rhenium compounds obtained by electrochemical synthesis after aging process

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro; Mosquera, Edgar; López-Encarnación, Juan M.; Chornik, Boris; Katiyar, Ram S.; Cifuentes, Luis

    2014-12-15

    The proper identification of the molecular nature of the aged rhenium compound obtained by means of electrodeposition from an alkaline aqueous electrolyte was determined. Chemical, structural and vibrational experimental characterization of the aged Re compound showed agreement with quantum-computations, thereby allowing the unambiguous identification of the Re compound as H(ReO{sub 4})H{sub 2}O. - Graphical abstract: Rhenium oxides were electrodeposited on a copper surface and after environmental aging was formed the H(ReO{sub 4})H{sub 2}O compound. The characterization of the synthesized material was made through the comparison of experimental evidence with quantum mechanical computations carried out by means of density functional theory (DFT). - Highlights: • Aged rhenium compound obtained by means of electrodeposition was studied. • The study was made by combining experimental and DFT-computational information. • The aged electrodeposited material is consistent with the H(ReO{sub 4})H{sub 2}O compound.

  8. Mono- and Dinuclear Phosphorescent Rhenium(I) Complexes: Impact of Subcellular Localization on Anticancer Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Rong; Tan, Cai-Ping; Chen, Mu-He; Hao, Liang; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-06-01

    Elucidation of relationship among chemical structure, cellular uptake, localization, and biological activity of anticancer metal complexes is important for the understanding of their mechanisms of action. Organometallic rhenium(I) tricarbonyl compounds have emerged as potential multifunctional anticancer drug candidates that can integrate therapeutic and imaging capabilities in a single molecule. Herein, two mononuclear phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes (Re1 and Re2), along with their corresponding dinuclear complexes (Re3 and Re4), were designed and synthesized as potent anticancer agents. The subcellular accumulation of Re1-Re4 was conveniently analyzed by confocal microscopy in situ in live cells by utilizing their intrinsic phosphorescence. We found that increased lipophilicity of the bidentate ligands could enhance their cellular uptake, leading to improved anticancer efficacy. The dinuclear complexes were more potent than the mononuclear counterparts. The molecular anticancer mechanisms of action evoked by Re3 and Re4 were explored in detail. Re3 with a lower lipophilicity localizes to lysosomes and induces caspase-independent apoptosis, whereas Re4 with higher lipophilicity specially accumulates in mitochondria and induces caspase-independent paraptosis in cancer cells. Our study demonstrates that subcellular localization is crucial for the anticancer mechanisms of these phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes. PMID:27106876

  9. Diverse roles of hydrogen in rhenium carbonyl chemistry: hydrides, dihydrogen complexes, and a formyl derivative.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-11-01

    Rhenium carbonyl hydride chemistry dates back to the 1959 synthesis of HRe(CO)₅ by Hieber and Braun. The binuclear H₂Re₂(CO)₈ was subsequently synthesized as a stable compound with a central Re₂(μ-H)₂ unit analogous to the B₂(μ-H)₂ unit in diborane. The complete series of HRe(CO)(n) (n = 5, 4, 3) and H₂Re₂(CO)(n) (n = 9, 8, 7, 6) derivatives have now been investigated by density functional theory. In contrast to the corresponding manganese derivatives, all of the triplet rhenium structures are found to lie at relatively high energies compared with the corresponding singlet structures consistent with the higher ligand field splitting of rhenium relative to manganese. The lowest energy HRe(CO)₅ structure is the expected octahedral structure. Low-energy structures for HRe(CO)(n) (n = 4, 3) are singlet structures derived from the octahedral HRe(CO)₅ structure by removal of one or two carbonyl groups. For H₂Re₂(CO)₉ a structure HRe₂(CO)₉(μ-H), with one terminal and one bridging hydrogen atom, lies within 3 kcal/mol of the structure Re₂(CO)₉(η²-H₂), similar to that of Re₂(CO)₁₀. For H₂Re₂(CO)(n) (n = 8, 7, 6) the only low-energy structures are doubly bridged singlet Re₂(μ-H)₂(CO)(n) structures. Higher energy dihydrogen complex structures are also found. PMID:20942474

  10. Leakage Through a Channel Formed by a Gasket, a Sealing Surface, and a Filament Trapped Between Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John; Adams, Frederick

    1996-01-01

    Plumbing for the transport of liquid Hydrogen or liquid Oxygen at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is very critical. Every piece of hardware for handling such a hazardous cryogen is subject to testing prior to installation and use. Safe, realistic testing of all such hardware is prohibitively expensive, which leads, perforce, to expidients such as: (1) lead testing with non-flammable tracer fluids (e.g, liquid nitrogen) and (2) leak testing with room temperature tracer fluids (e.g. liquid helium). Such expedients undermine the realism of the tests. If however, one could apply rational fluid dynamics methods to derive a general analytical expression with which one could relate the throughput of gaseous Helium through a given leak channel to the throughput of liquid Hydrogen through the same channel, then one could recover much of the information that one would otherwise forfeit through these expedients. These facts lead to the following questions: (1) What would be an example of a generic flaw in a gasket?; and (2) How can one calculate the flow of fluid in it? The report addresses these questions. It considers a particular leak geometry, namely one formed by a gasket, a sealing surface, and a filament trapped between them (so that the cross section of the leak channel is a flat bottomed curvilinear triangle, two sides of which are circular arcs and which has cusps on all three corners).

  11. Preparation and properties of metallic, superhard rhenium diboride crystals.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jonathan B; Nguyen, Sandy L; Rasool, Haider I; Wright, Jeffrey A; Brown, Stuart E; Kaner, Richard B

    2008-12-17

    Single crystals of ReB(2) have been prepared from an aluminum flux under inert gas flow. The crystals are typically 1-3 mm in diameter and 500 microm thick, growing along the [002] direction with a distinct hexagonal morphology. Vickers microhardness and nanoindentation testing indicate that the (002) plane possesses the highest hardness with measured values of 40.5 and 36.4 GPa, respectively. The elastic anisotropy was examined and the indentation moduli of the basal plane and an (hk0) plane of unknown indices are 675 and 510 GPa, respectively. Four-probe electrical resistivity measurements demonstrate that ReB(2) is the hardest material known to exhibit metallic behavior. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the crystals are stable in air up to 1000 degrees C due to the formation of a protective boron oxide coating. PMID:19053446

  12. A reusable unsupported rhenium nanocrystalline catalyst for acceptorless dehydrogenation of alcohols through γ-C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jing; Miller, Jeffrey T; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Zhang, Ruihong; Dietrich, Paul J; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Suslov, Sergey; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2014-01-13

    Rhenium nanocrystalline particles (Re NPs), of 2 nm size, were prepared from NH4ReO4 under mild conditions in neat alcohol. The unsupported Re NPs convert secondary and benzylic alcohols to ketones and aldehydes, respectively, through catalytic acceptorless dehydrogenation (AD). The oxidant- and acceptor-free neat dehydrogenation of alcohols to obtain dihydrogen gas is a green and atom-economical process for making carbonyl compounds. Secondary aliphatic alcohols give quantitative conversion and yield. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Re K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirmed the characterization of the Re NPs as metallic rhenium with surface oxidation to rhenium(IV) oxide (ReO2). Isotope labeling experiments revealed a novel γ-CH activation mechanism for AD of alcohols. PMID:24282107

  13. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation over rhenium-iron oxide catalysts and their characterization by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Komlyama, M.; Tsunoda, T.; Ogino, Y.

    1986-03-01

    Rhenium-iron oxide catalysts, prepared by the conventional impregnation technique and activated by reduction under various conditions, gave higher selectivities to oxygenates (mainly alcohols) in carbon monoxide hydrogenation than the control iron oxide (magnetite) catalysts. Bulk-sensitive soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS) along with X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy found that in rhenium-iron oxide catalysts iron oxide is in the form of an intermediate phase represented as (1 - x)Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/.xFe/sub 8/3/O/sub 4/; between Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2//O/sub 3/. The extent of the formation of this intermediate phase was correlated with the oxygenate selectivities of the rhenium-iron oxide catalysts. The usefulness of SXS in characterizing bulk of solid catalysts was demonstrated.

  14. High heat flux properties of pure tungsten and plasma sprayed tungsten coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.; Yang, L.; Xu, Z.

    2004-08-01

    High heat flux properties of pure tungsten and plasma sprayed tungsten coatings on carbon substrates have been studied by annealing and cyclic heat loading. The recrystallization temperature and an activation energy QR=126 kJ/mol for grain growth of tungsten coating by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) were estimated, and the microstructural changes of multi-layer tungsten and rhenium interface pre-deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) with anneal temperature were investigated. Cyclic load tests indicated that pure tungsten and VPS-tungsten coating could withstand 1000 cycles at 33-35 MW/m 2 heat flux and 3 s pulse duration, and inert gas plasma spray (IPS)-tungsten coating showed local cracks by 300 cycles but did not induce failure by further cycles. However, the failure of pure tungsten and VPS-tungsten coating by fatigue cracking was observed under higher heat load (55-60 MW/m 2) for 420 and 230 cycles, respectively.

  15. The chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states. Synthesis and characterization of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin dimers containing metal-metal multiple bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Collmann, J.P.; Garner, J.M.; Woo, L.K. )

    1989-10-11

    The coordination chemistry of rhenium and tungsten porphyrin complexes in low oxidation states is presented. W{sup IV}(Por)(Cl){sub 2}, W{sup II}(Por)(H{sub 5}C{sub 6}C{identical to}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) and W{sup II}(OEP)(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2} complexes (Por = 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP) or 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin (OEP) dianions) were found to be similar to the analogous molybdenum porphyrin complexes by spectroscopic and magnetic measurements. UV-visible and vibrational spectroscopies indicate that these oxidations occur at the metal-metal bond rather than the porphyrin ligand.

  16. Lattice strains in gold and rhenium under nonhydrostatic compression to 37 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Thomas S.; Shen, Guoyin; Heinz, Dion L.; Shu, Jinfu; Ma, Yanzhang; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J.; Singh, Anil K.

    1999-12-01

    Using energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction techniques together with the theory describing lattice strains under nonhydrostatic compression, the behavior of a layered sample of gold and rhenium has been studied at pressures of 14-37 GPa. For gold, the uniaxial stress component t is consistent with earlier studies and can be described by t=0.06+0.015P where P is the pressure in GPa. The estimated single-crystal elastic moduli are in reasonable agreement with trends based on extrapolated low-pressure data. The degree of elastic anisotropy increases as α, the parameter which characterizes stress-strain continuity across grain boundaries, is reduced from 1.0 to 0.5. For rhenium, the apparent equation of state has been shown to be strongly influenced by nonhydrostatic compression, as evidenced by its dependence on the angle ψ between the diffracting plane normal and the stress axis. The bulk modulus obtained by inversion of nonhydrostatic compression data can differ by nearly a factor of 2 at angles of 0° and 90°. On the other hand, by a proper choice of ψ, d spacings corresponding to quasihydrostatic compression can be obtained from data obtained under highly nonhydrostatic conditions. The uniaxial stress in rhenium over the pressure range from 14-37 GPa can be described by t=2.5+0.09P. The large discrepancy between x-ray elastic moduli and ultrasonic data and theoretical calculations indicates that additional factors such as texturing or orientation dependence of t need to be incorporated to more fully describe the strain distribution in hexagonal-close-packed metals.

  17. Superconducting molybdenum-rhenium electrodes for single-molecule transport studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudenzi, R.; Island, J. O.; Bruijckere, J. de; Burzurí, E.; Zant, H. S. J. van der; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that electronic transport through single molecules or molecular ensembles, commonly based on gold (Au) electrodes, can be extended to superconducting electrodes by combining gold with molybdenum-rhenium (MoRe). This combination induces proximity-effect superconductivity in the gold to temperatures of at least 4.6 K and magnetic fields of 6 T, improving on previously reported aluminum based superconducting nanojunctions. As a proof of concept, we show three-terminal superconductive transport measurements through an individual Fe{sub 4} single-molecule magnet.

  18. Theoretical Investigations on the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Rhenium Phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qun; Yan, Haiyan; Zhu, Xuanmin; Lin, Zhengzhe; Yao, Ronghui

    2016-01-01

    Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of orthorhombic rhenium phosphide (Re2P) are systematically investigated by using first principles calculations. The elastic constants and anisotropy of elastic properties are obtained. The metallic character of Re2P is demonstrated by density of state calculations. The quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to the study of the thermodynamic properties. The thermal expansion, heat capacities, and Grüneisen parameter on the temperature and pressure have been determined as a function of temperature and pressure in the pressure range from 0 to 100 GPa and the temperature range from 0 to 1600 K.

  19. Semicarbazide is a minor thermal decomposition product of azodicarbonamide used in the gaskets of certain food jars.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H; Mottier, Pascal; Guy, Philippe; Gremaud, Eric; Varga, Natalia; Lalljie, Sam; Whitaker, Richard; Kintscher, Jurgen; Dudler, Vincent; Read, Wendy A; Castle, Laurence

    2004-03-01

    Evidence is presented for the first time showing that semicarbazide (SEM) is a minor thermal decomposition product of the blowing agent azodicarbonamide (ADC). A novel direct analytical method based on liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS/MS) has been developed to determine SEM in foamed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) seals of metal lids, as well as in commercially available ADC. The direct LC-MS/MS method for gaskets entails extraction of the gaskets in hot water, addition of ((15)N(2)(13)C)-SEM as internal standard, and injection of an aliquot directly into the LC-MS system, achieving good sensitivity (S/N = 348 for 2 ng injected on-column) and monitoring three characteristic mass transitions (m/z 76-->31; 76 -->44; 76-->59). Semicarbazide can be detected in thermally treated ADC, reaching up to 0.93 mmol mol(-1) at 220 degrees C, as determined by the direct LC-MS/MS method. This new method is also compared to the classical derivatization method using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (2-NBA) that is routinely employed to determine SEM as an indicator of the usage of the antimicrobial drug nitrofurazone, the use of which is not authorized in the European Union (EU). Both methods revealed proportional results, with approx. 3-fold higher levels recorded by the direct SEM approach, probably due to differences in the extraction procedures used. A limited survey of plastic seals from used press twist and twist-off metal lids on food jars (non-foamed and foamed) revealed levels of SEM ranging from 2 to 8689 microg kg(-1)(average = 1593 microg kg(-1), n= 57 determinations). PMID:14978533

  20. Electrochemical synthesis, structural characterization, and decomposition of rhenium oxoethoxide, Re4O4(OEt)12. Ligand influence on the structure and bonding in the high-valent tetranuclear planar rhenium alkoxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Nikonova, Olesya A; Jansson, Kjell; Kessler, Vadim G; Sundberg, Margareta; Baranov, Alexei I; Shevelkov, Andrei V; Drobot, Dmitrii V; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A

    2008-02-18

    Anodic oxidation of rhenium in ethanol in the presence of LiCl as a conductive additive results with high yield in formation of a new oxoethoxide cluster, Re(4)O(4)(OEt)(12). The structure of the planar centrosymmetric metal-oxygen core of this molecule is composed of four edge-sharing Re(V)O(6) octahedra. Eight electrons are available for the formation of metal-metal bonds indicated by five relatively short Re-Re distances within the Re 4-rhombus, a "planar butterfly" type cluster. The theoretical calculations are indicating relatively low contribution of metal-metal bonding in the stability of the core. The stability of the +V-oxidation state, unusual for rhenium alkoxides can be at least partially attributed to the size effects in the packing of ligands. The X-ray powder study indicates that treatment of Re(4)O(4)(OEt)(12). in ambient atmosphere rapidly transforms it into a mixed-valence derivative Re(4)O(6)(OEt)(10) with a structure related to the earlier investigated cluster Re(4)O(6)(O(i)Pr)(10). Thermal decomposition of the latter rhenium oxoethoxide results in reduction to rhenium metal at as low temperatures as 380 degrees C, producing aggregates of metal nanoparticles with the average size of 3 nm. PMID:18220343

  1. Unusual molecular hydrogen complex of rhenium: A long hydrogen-hydrogen bond and inertness to substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youhyuk; Deng, Haibin; Meek, D.W.; Wojcicki, A. )

    1990-03-28

    Since the discovery of M(H{sub 2})(CO){sub 3}(PR{sub 3}){sub 2} (M = Mo, W; R = i-Pr or Cy) by Kubas and co-workers, transition-metal polyhydrido complexes have been the subject of intensive research and close scrutiny with respect to the nature of metal-hydrogen bonding, e.g., M-(H){sub 3} (classical), H-M-(H{sub 2}) (nonclassical), or possibly M-(H{sub 3}). In this context, the question of the bonding in the rhenium pentahydrides ReH{sub 5}L{sub 3} has been particularly intriguing, since initially {sup 1}H NMR (T{sub 1} values) and x-ray results pointed to different conclusions when L = PPh{sub 3}. Here the authors report that protonation of an analogous rhenium pentahydride containing a tridentate phosphine ligand, viz., ReH{sub 5}(Cyttp) (1, Cyttp = PhP(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PCy{sub 2}){sub 2}), affords an unusual dihydrogen complex, (Re(H{sub 2})H{sub 4}(Cyttp))SbF{sub 6} (2).

  2. Characterization of rhenium oxide films and their application to liquid crystal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzanelli, E.; Castriota, M.; Marino, S.; Scaramuzza, N.; Purans, J.; Kuzmin, A.; Kalendarev, R.; Mariotto, G.; Das, G.

    2009-06-01

    Rhenium trioxide exhibits high electronic conductivity, while its open cubic crystal structure allows an appreciable hydrogen intercalation, generating disordered solid phases, with protonic conductivity. Rhenium oxide thin films have been obtained by thermal evaporation of ReO{sub 3} powders on different substrates, maintained at different temperatures, and also by reactive magnetron sputtering of a Re metallic target. A comparative investigation has been carried out on these films, by using micro-Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Two basic types of solid phases appear to grow in the films: a red metallic H{sub x}ReO{sub 3} compound, with distorted perovskite structures, like in the bulk material, and ordered HReO{sub 4} crystals based on tetrahedral perrhenate ions. Because of its conduction properties, the electrical and electro-optical behaviors of ReO{sub 3} films deposited on standard indium tin oxide/glass substrate have been tested inside asymmetric nematic liquid crystal cells, showing an appreciable capability of rectification of their electro-optical response, in similar way to tungsten trioxide.

  3. Computer acquired performance data from a chemically vapor-deposited-rhenium, niobium planar diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manista, E. J.; Morris, J. F.; Smith, A. L.; Lancashire, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Performance data from a chemically vapor-deposited-rhenium, niobium thermionic converter are presented. The planar converter has a guard-ringed collector and a nominal fixed spacing of 0.25 mm (10 mils). The data were obtained by using a computerized acquisition system and are available on request to one of the authors on microfiche as individual and composite parametric current, voltage curves. The parameters are the temperatures of the emitter T sub E collector T sub C, and cesium reservoir T sub R. The composite plots have constant T sub E and varying T sub C or T sub R, or both. Current, voltage envelopes having constant T sub E with and without fixed T sub C appear in the present report. The diode was tested at increments between 1600 and 2000 K for the emitter Hohlraum, 800 to 1100 K for the collector, and 540 and 650 K for the reservoir. A total of 312 current, voltage curves were obtained in the present performance evaluation. Current, voltage envelopes from three rhenium emitter converters evaluated in the present program are also given. The data are compared at commom emitter Hohlraum temperatures.

  4. Rhenium volatilisation as caesium perrhenate from simulated vitrified high level waste from a melter crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.A.; Short, R.J.; Gribble, N.R.; Roe, J.I.; Steele, C.J.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) converts Highly Active Liquor (HAL) from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing into a stable vitrified product. Recently WVP have been experiencing accumulation of solids in their primary off gas (POG) system leading to potential blockages. Chemical analysis of the blockage material via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown it to exclusively consist of caesium, technetium and oxygen. The solids are understood to be caesium pertechnetate (CsTcO{sub 4}), resulting from the volatilisation of caesium and technetium from the high level waste glass melt. Using rhenium as a chemical surrogate for technetium, a series of full scale experiments have been performed in order to understand the mechanism of rhenium volatilisation as caesium perrhenate (CsReO{sub 4}), and therefore technetium volatilisation as CsTcO{sub 4}. These experiments explored the factors governing volatilisation rates from the melt, potential methods of minimising the amount of volatilisation, and various strategies for mitigating the deleterious effects of the volatile material on the POG. This paper presents the results from those experiments, and discusses potential methods to minimise blockages that can be implemented on WVP, so that the frequency of the CsTcO{sub 4} blockages can be reduced or even eradicated altogether. (authors)

  5. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

  6. Aluminide coatings

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  7. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  8. Rhenium(I)-Catalyzed Generation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbene Complex Intermediates from Propargyl Ethers for the Preparation of Cycloheptadiene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Hideyuki; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-08-16

    The rhenium(I)-catalyzed generation of α,β-unsaturated carbene complex intermediates from easily available propargyl ethers was achieved for the concise construction of cycloheptadiene derivatives through the formal [4+3] cycloaddition reaction with siloxydienes. PMID:27391557

  9. Glass coated compressible solid oxide fuel cell seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautanen, M.; Thomann, O.; Himanen, O.; Tallgren, J.; Kiviaho, J.

    2014-02-01

    With the growing footprint of solid oxide fuel cell stacks, there is a need to extend the operating range of compressible gaskets towards lower stress levels. This article describes a method to manufacture SOFC seals by coating a compressible sealing material (Thermiculite 866) with glass to obtain good sealing performance even at compression stresses as low as 0.1 MPa. Glass layer can be coated using an organic carrier consisting of terpineol, ethanol and ethyl cellulose. The coated seals can be heat treated by simply ramping the temperature up to operating temperature at 60 Kh-1 and therefore no extra steps, which are typical to glass seals, are required. Coated seals were manufactured using this route and evaluated both ex-situ and in a real stack. Leak rates of 0.1-0.3 ml (m min)-1 were measured at 2-25 mbar overpressure using 50/50 H2/N2. A 30-cell stack was manufactured and tested using coated seals. At nominal operating conditions of 0.25 A cm-2 and 650 °C average cathode temperature, 46% fuel utilization and 20% air utilization the stack had a total hydrogen cross leak of 60 ml min-1 corresponding to 0.7% of the inlet hydrogen flow rate.

  10. Effect of Iron and Carbonation of the Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Clayton, Libby N.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-07-31

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 cement wasteforms and accurate prediction for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). A set of sediment-concrete half-cell diffusion experiments was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by weight moisture content) using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half-cells. Results indicate the behavior of rhenium and iodine release was comparable within a given half-cell test. Diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content; a 3% increase in moisture content affords a one to two order of magnitude increase in diffusivity. Release of iodine and rhenium was 1 to 3 orders of magnitude less from non-carbonated, relative to carbonated, concrete monoliths. Inclusion of iron in non-carbonate monoliths resulted in the lowest concrete diffusivity values for both iodine and rhenium. This suggests that in the presence of iron, iodine and rhenium are converted to reduced species, which are less soluble and better retained within the concrete monolith. The release of iodine and rhenium was greatest from iron-bearing, carbonated concrete monoliths, suggesting carbonation negates the effect of iron on the retention of iodine and rhenium within concrete monoliths. This is likely due to enhanced formation of microcracks in the presence of iron, which provide preferential paths for contaminant migration. Although the release of iodine and rhenium were greatest from carbonated concrete monoliths containing iron, the migration of iodine and rhenium within a given half-cell is dependent on the moisture content, soil diffusivity, and diffusing species.

  11. Quantitative experimental determination of the solid solution hardening potential of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum in single-crystal nickel-based superalloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fleischmann, Ernst; Miller, Michael K.; Affeldt, Ernst; Glatzel, Uwe

    2015-01-31

    Here, the solid-solution hardening potential of the refractory elements rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum in the matrix of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys was experimentally quantified. Single-phase alloys with the composition of the nickel solid-solution matrix of superalloys were cast as single crystals, and tested in creep at 980 °C and 30–75 MPa. The use of single-phase single-crystalline material ensures very clean data because no grain boundary or particle strengthening effects interfere with the solid-solution hardening. This makes it possible to quantify the amount of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum necessary to reduce the creep rate by a factor of 10. Rhenium is moremore » than two times more effective for matrix strengthening than either tungsten or molybdenum. The existence of rhenium clusters as a possible reason for the strong strengthening effect is excluded as a result of atom probe tomography measurements. If the partitioning coefficient of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum between the γ matrix and the γ' precipitates is taken into account, the effectiveness of the alloying elements in two-phase superalloys can be calculated and the rhenium effect can be explained.« less

  12. Quantitative experimental determination of the solid solution hardening potential of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum in single-crystal nickel-based superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischmann, Ernst; Miller, Michael K.; Affeldt, Ernst; Glatzel, Uwe

    2015-01-31

    Here, the solid-solution hardening potential of the refractory elements rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum in the matrix of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys was experimentally quantified. Single-phase alloys with the composition of the nickel solid-solution matrix of superalloys were cast as single crystals, and tested in creep at 980 °C and 30–75 MPa. The use of single-phase single-crystalline material ensures very clean data because no grain boundary or particle strengthening effects interfere with the solid-solution hardening. This makes it possible to quantify the amount of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum necessary to reduce the creep rate by a factor of 10. Rhenium is more than two times more effective for matrix strengthening than either tungsten or molybdenum. The existence of rhenium clusters as a possible reason for the strong strengthening effect is excluded as a result of atom probe tomography measurements. If the partitioning coefficient of rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum between the γ matrix and the γ' precipitates is taken into account, the effectiveness of the alloying elements in two-phase superalloys can be calculated and the rhenium effect can be explained.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Lanthanide Aluminotungstates and Rhenium Polyoxometalates: Potential Application in Molecular Information Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Polyoxometalates (abbreviated as POMs) are metal-oxide clusters with frameworks built from group 5 or 6 transition metals linked by shared oxide ions. The Keggin structure is one of the most famous structural forms of POMs. Keggin anions have a general formula of [XM12O40 ]n-, where X is a p-block atom and M is a transition metal atom such as W or Mo. Upon removal of one MO4+ unit from the Keggin anion, the monovacant structure [XM11O39] n- is formed. Those POMs that have lost one or more metal center are called lacunary POMs, which are very nice building blocks for the fabrication of coordination polymers. My research focuses on two facets of POM chemistry: 1) Lanthanide chemistry of aluminum tungstate monovacant Keggin and 2) Rhenium chemistry of aluminum tungstate Keggin and Wells-Dawson POM alpha1 -P2W17O61. In lanthanide POM research area, we obtained the following results: 1) The starting material aluminum tungstate monovacant Keggin α-K 9AlW12O39 was synthesized. Its single crystal was firstly identified by multinuclear NMR and X-ray crystallography. Its redox properties on the nano-scale solid state were determined by Conducting Electrostatic Force Mode (EFM) probes. It is well known that for POMs, a number of varies redox states are normally stable and reversible. Thus we estimated that POMs can potentially be used in molecular information storage applications, which we refer to as "redox disk drives". 2) Eight lanthanide aluminum tungstate Keggin complexes were synthesized. In their molecular structures (identified by multinuclear NMR and X-ray crystallography), each α-AlW11O39 is connected by lanthanide (III) cations to form 1D and 2D networks. All AlW11O39 Keggin POMs are regularly aligning on a flat plane. Microscopic data also verified that there is layer-by-layer morphology in this series of compounds. Overall, we postulate that aluminum tungstate Keggin POMs are a very promising materials for making future information storage device because they

  14. Rhenium-osmium concentration and isotope systematics in group IIAB iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium abundances, and osmium isotopic compositions were measured by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry in thirty samples, including replicates, of five IIA and eight IIB iron meteorites. Log plots of Os vs. Re abundances for IIA and IIB irons describe straight lines that approximately converge on Lombard, which has the lowest Re and Os abundances and highest 187Re/188Os measured in a IIA iron to date. The linear IIA trend may be exactly reproduced by fractional crystallization, but is not well fitted using variable partition coefficients. The IIB iron trend, however, cannot be entirely explained by simple fractional crystallization. One explanation is that small amounts of Re and Os were added to the asteroid core during the final stages of crystallization. Another possibility is that diffusional enrichment of Os may have occurred in samples most depleted in Re and Os. -from Authors

  15. Osmium isotopes in Ivory Coast tektites: Confirmation of a meteoritic component and rhenium depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

    1993-03-01

    The sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry method was used for the measurement of concentrations and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium in four Ivory Coast tektites. These tektites have crustal major and trace element composition, as well as large negative epsilonNd(-20) and positive epsilonSr(+260 to +300) which are characteristic for old continental crust. Os concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.30 ppb were found, clearly much higher than average crustal values, Os-187/Os-186 ratios of about 1.2-1.7, and low Re-187/Os-186 ratios. These results show unambiguously the existence of a meteoritic component (on the order of 0.06%) in the Ivory Coast tektites. Low Re abundances are the result of fractionation of Re during the impact.

  16. Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2006-12-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

  17. Molybdenum-rhenium alloy based high-Q superconducting microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vibhor Schneider, Ben H.; Bosman, Sal J.; Merkx, Evert P. J.; Steele, Gary A.

    2014-12-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators (SMRs) with high quality factors have become an important technology in a wide range of applications. Molybdenum-Rhenium (MoRe) is a disordered superconducting alloy with a noble surface chemistry and a relatively high transition temperature. These properties make it attractive for SMR applications, but characterization of MoRe SMR has not yet been reported. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of SMR fabricated with a MoRe 60–40 alloy. At low drive powers, we observe internal quality-factors as high as 700 000. Temperature and power dependence of the internal quality-factors suggest the presence of the two level systems from the dielectric substrate dominating the internal loss at low temperatures. We further test the compatibility of these resonators with high temperature processes, such as for carbon nanotube chemical vapor deposition growth, and their performance in the magnetic field, an important characterization for hybrid systems.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium and rhenium dyes with phosphonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Braumüller, Markus; Schulz, Martin; Staniszewska, Magdalena; Sorsche, Dieter; Wunderlin, Markus; Popp, Jürgen; Guthmuller, Julien; Dietzek, Benjamin; Rau, Sven

    2016-05-31

    , a series of rhenium(i) tricarbonyl chloride complexes with bpy-R2 derivatives (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, R represents the substitution at the 4- and 4'-positions), and their corresponding trishomoleptic as well as heteroleptic ruthenium(ii) complexes and have been synthesized and characterized. Their applicability as immobilizable metal-organic chromophores in solar and photosynthesis cells is enabled by R, since it includes phosphonic ester groups as precursors for potent phosphonate anchoring groups. Conjugated linkers (phenylene and triazole moieties) serve as distance control between bpy and the anchor. Photophysical and electrochemical studies reveal pronounced effects of the aryl substitution. These effects were further investigated using resonance Raman experiments and supported by theoretical calculations. After hydrolysis the triazole containing was successfully immobilized on NiO, suggesting that its application in photovoltaic cells is feasible. The solid state structures of , , and are reported in this paper, enabling the determination of the distances and intermolecular interactions. PMID:27172842

  19. Incorporation and distribution of rhenium in a borosilicate glass melt heat treated in a sealed ampoule

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2013-07-25

    We investigated a mass balance of rhenium (used as a surrogate for technetium-99) in a borosilicate glass that was mixed with excess Re source (KReO4) beyond its solubility and heat treated in a vacuum-sealed fused silica ampoule. Distribution of Re in the bulk of the glass, in a salt phase formed on the melt surface, and in condensate material deposited on the ampoule wall was evaluated to understand the Re migration into different phases during the reaction between the molten glass and KReO4. The information gained from this study will contribute to an effort to understand the mechanism of technetium retention in or escape from glass melt during early stages of glass batch melting, which is a goal of the present series of studies.

  20. Computer acquired performance data from an etched-rhenium, molybdenum planar diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manista, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Performance data from an etched-rhenium, molybdenum thermionic converter are presented. The planar converter has a guard-ringed collector and a fixed spacing of 0.254 mm (10 mils). The data were acquired by using a computer and are available on microfiche as individual or composite parametric current, voltage curves. The parameters are the temperatures of the emitter T sub E, collector T sub C and cesium reservoir T sub R. The composite plots have constant T sub E, and varying T sub C or T sub R, or both. The envelope and composite plots having constant I sub E are presented. The diode was tested at increments between 1500 and 2000 K for the emitter, 750 and 1100 K for the collector, and 540 and 640 K for the reservoir. In all, 774 individual current, voltage curves were obtained.

  1. Cationic rhenium complexes ligated with N-heterocyclic carbenes - an overview.

    PubMed

    Hille, Claudia; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the currently known cationic rhenium NHC complexes. Synthesis, structures and properties are described. The title compounds are potential candidates for both catalytic and medical applications. Besides the variety of ancillary ligands, which are in some cases easily substituted, functionalization can be carried out in the side chain or at the backbone of the carbene ligand as well as - in the case of biscarbene ligands - at the bridging moiety. Cationic Re NHC complexes are promising precursors for radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostics - not only because of the possibility to radiolabel the metal (steps in this direction have been made and described already) - but rather the opportunity to link the complexes to biomolecules via the different possibilities provided by the ligands. The development of OLEDs based on luminescent Re(i) carbene complexes renders another potential application. PMID:26587970

  2. Compatibility of rhenium in garnet during mantle melting and magma genesis

    PubMed

    Righter; Hauri

    1998-06-12

    Measurements of the partitioning of rhenium (Re) between garnet and silicate liquid from 1.5 to 2.0 gigapascals and 1250 degrees to 1350 degreesC show that Re is compatible in garnet. Oceanic island basalts (OIBs) have lower Re contents than mid-ocean ridge basalt, because garnet-bearing residues of deeper OIB melting will retain Re. Deep-mantle garnetite or eclogite may harbor the missing Re identified in crust-mantle mass balance calculations. Oceanic crust recycled into the upper mantle at subduction zones will retain high Re/Os (osmium) ratios and become enriched in radiogenic 187Os. Recycled eclogite in a mantle source should be easily traced using Re abundances and Os isotopes. PMID:9624048

  3. Effect of rhenium doping on various physical properties of single crystals of MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Mihir M.; Vora, Aditya M.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of rhenium doping is examined in single crystals of MoSe2 viz. MoRe0.005Se1.995, MoRe0.001Se1.999 and Mo0.995Re0.005Se2, which is grown by using the direct vapor transport (DVT) technique. The grown crystals are structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, by determining their lattice parameters a and c, and X-ray density. Also, the Hall effect and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements show that the single crystals exhibit a p-type semiconducting nature. The direct and indirect band gap measurements are also undertaken on these semiconducting materials.

  4. Hot rocket plume experiment - Survey and conceptual design. [of rhenium-iridium bipropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jerry M.; Luan, Taylor W.; Dowdy, Mack W.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a space-borne engine plume experiment study to fly an experiment which will both verify and quantify the reduced contamination from advanced rhenium-iridium earth-storable bipropellant rockets (hot rockets) and provide a correlation between high-fidelity, in-space measurements and theoretical plume and surface contamination models. The experiment conceptual design is based on survey results from plume and contamination technologists throughout the U.S. With respect to shuttle use, cursory investigations validate Hitchhiker availability and adaptability, adequate remote manipulator system (RMS) articulation and dynamic capability, acceptable RMS attachment capability, adequate power and telemetry capability, and adequate flight altitude and attitude/orbital capability.

  5. Osmium isotopes in Ivory Coast tektites: Confirmation of a meteoritic component and rhenium depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    The sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry method was used for the measurement of concentrations and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium in four Ivory Coast tektites. These tektites have crustal major and trace element composition, as well as large negative epsilon(sub Nd)(-20) and positive epsilon(sub Sr)(+260 to +300) which are characteristic for old continental crust. Os concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.30 ppb were found, clearly much higher than average crustal values, Os-187/Os-186 ratios of about 1.2-1.7, and low Re-187/Os-186 ratios. These results show unambiguously the existence of a meteoritic component (on the order of 0.06%) in the Ivory Coast tektites. Low Re abundances are the result of fractionation of Re during the impact.

  6. Formation, characterization and computational studies of mono- and dinuclear rhenium(I) chromone compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinumoliseh, Ifeoma; Booysen, Irvin Noel; Akerman, Matthew Piers; Xulu, Bheki

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we report the formation and characterization of a novel dinuclear rhenium(I) compound, fac-(Re(CO)3Br)2(μ-chret) (1) [chret = N, N'-bis(2-amino-3-imino)methylenechromone-1,2-ethane] and a mononuclear metal complex, fac-[Re(CO)3(bzch)Br] (2) [bzch = 2-benzimidazole-4H-chromen-4-one]. The metal complexes were characterized by 1H NMR-, IR-, UV-Vis, melting point and conductivity measurements. The solid-state structures for 1 and 2 were confirmed via single crystal X-ray analysis. X-ray studies of 2 revealed the transformation of the chb diimine into the bzch chelator (in 2). The simulated IR spectra for the respective metal complexes provided insight in the interpretation of their corresponding experimental spectra.

  7. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of multiply charged polynuclear rhenium(I)-ruthenium(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Argazzi, R., Bignozzi, C.A.; Bortolini, O. ); Traldi, P. )

    1993-03-31

    The fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometric behavior of some involatile polynuclear rhenium(I)-ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Re(CO)[sub 3](phen)(CN)-[Ru(bpy)[sub 2](CN)]n-Ru(bpy)[sub 2](CN)][sup (n+1)+] (n = 0-2, bpy = 2,2[prime]-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) is presented. Singly, double, and, for n = 2, also triply charged ions were detected, and the fragmentation patterns of these ionic species were determined by studying unimolecular dissociation reactions. The decomposition pathways involve losses of CO and bpy neutral ligands, oxidative addition of coordinated bpy with expulsion of HX (X = CN[sup [minus

  8. Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A black chrome coating, originally developed for spacecraft solar cells, led to the development of an efficient flat plate solar collector. The coating, called Chromonyx, helps the collector absorb more heat. Olympic Solar Corporation was formed to electroplate the collector. The coating technique allows 95% of the sun's energy to be utilized. The process is widely used.

  9. Rhenium-188: Availability from the W-188/Re-188 Generator and Status of Current Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting - particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 KeV, 15.1%). The 188W/188Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) 188Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent 188W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of 188Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade 188W/188Re generator. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<5 Ci/g), the eluted 188ReO4- can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful 188ReO4-. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability, and use of188Re including a discussion of why broader use of 188Re has not progressed as ecpected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  10. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp(2) carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes. PMID:25404788

  11. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes. PMID:25404788

  12. Catalytic Activity of Platinum Monolayer on Iridium and Rhenium Alloy Nanoparticles for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, Hiroko I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kuttiyiel, Kurian; Farberow, Carrie A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2012-05-04

    A new type of electrocatalyst with a core–shell structure that consists of a platinum monolayer shell placed on an iridium–rhenium nanoparticle core or platinum and palladium bilayer shell deposited on that core has been prepared and tested for electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon-supported iridium–rhenium alloy nanoparticles with several different molar ratios of Ir to Re were prepared by reducing metal chlorides dispersed on Vulcan carbon with hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 h. These catalysts showed specific electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction comparable to that of platinum. The activities of PtML/PdML/Ir2Re1, PtML/Pd2layers/Ir2Re1, and PtML/Pd2layers/Ir7Re3 catalysts were, in fact, better than that of conventional platinum electrocatalysts, and their mass activities exceeded the 2015 DOE target. Our density functional theory calculations revealed that the molar ratio of Ir to Re affects the binding strength of adsorbed OH and, thereby, the O2 reduction activity of the catalysts. The maximum specific activity was found for an intermediate OH binding energy with the corresponding catalyst on the top of the volcano plot. The monolayer concept facilitates the use of much less platinum than in other approaches. Finally, the results with the PtML/PdML/Ir2Re electrocatalyst indicate that it is a promising alternative to conventional Pt electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells.

  13. Rhenium-188: availability from the (188)W/(188)Re generator and status of current applications.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F

    2012-07-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting β(-) particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 keV, 15.1%). The (188)W/(188)Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) (188)Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent (188)W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of (188)Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade (188)W/(188)Re generators. Since the specific activity of (188)W used in the generator is relatively low 185 GBq( < 5 Ci)/g], the eluted (188)ReO(4)(-) can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful (188)ReO(4)(-) solutions. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on (188)Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability and use of (188)Re including a discussion of why broader use of (188)Re has not progressed as expected as a popular radionuclide for therapy. PMID:22642385

  14. Indentation strength of ultraincompressible rhenium boride, carbide, and nitride from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Chenpeng; Sun, Hong; Tse, John S.; Chen, Changfeng

    2012-07-01

    Using a recently developed first-principles approach for determining indentation strength [Z. Pan, H. Sun, and C. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-9007 PRLTAO10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.135505 98, 135505 (2007); Z. Pan, H. Sun, and C. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-9007 PRLTAO10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.055503 102, 055503 (2009)], we performed calculations of the ideal strength of hexagonal Re, Re3N, Re2N, Re2C, Re2B, and ReB2 in various shear deformation directions beneath the Vickers indentor. Our results show that the normal compressive pressure beneath the indentor weakens the strength of these electron-rich rhenium boride, carbide, and nitride compounds that belong to a distinct class of ultraincompressible and ultrahard materials. The reduction of indentation strength in these materials stems from lateral bond and volume expansions driven by the normal compressive pressure mediated by the high-density valence electrons in these structures. We compare the calculated indentation strength to the Poisson's ratio, which measures the lateral structural expansion, for the rhenium boride, carbide, and nitride compounds as well as diamond and cubic boron nitride. Our analysis indicates that although the normal pressure beneath the indentor generally leads to more significant reduction of indentation strength in materials with larger Poisson's ratios, crystal and electronic structures also play important roles in determining the structural response under indentation. The present study reveals structural deformation modes and the underlying atomistic mechanisms in transition-metal boride, carbide, and nitride compounds under the Vickers indentation. The results are distinctive from those of the traditional covalent superhard materials. The insights obtained from this work have important implications for further exploration and design of ultrahard materials.

  15. Identification of rhenium donors and sulfur vacancy acceptors in layered MoS2 bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, F. D.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Vaz, P. H.; González, J. C.; Krambrock, K.

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) direct semiconductor material with an energy gap of 1.9 eV, offer many opportunities to be explored in different electronic devices. Defects often play dominant roles in the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor devices. However, little experimental information about intrinsic and extrinsic defects or impurities is available for this 2D system, and even for macroscopic 3D samples for which MoS2 shows an indirect bandgap of 1.3 eV. In this work, we evaluate the nature of impurities with unpaired spins using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in different geological macroscopic samples. Regarding the fact that monolayers are mostly obtained from natural crystals, we expect that the majority of impurities found in macroscopic samples are also randomly present in MoS2 monolayers. By EPR at low temperatures, rhenium donors and sulfur vacancy acceptors are identified as the main impurities in bulk MoS2 with a corresponding donor concentration of about 108-12 defects/cm2 for MoS2 monolayer. Electrical transport experiments as a function of temperature are in good agreement with the EPR results, revealing a shallow donor state with an ionization energy of 89 meV and a concentration of 7 × 1015 cm-3, which we attribute to rhenium, as well as a second deeper donor state with ionization energy of 241 meV with high concentration of 2 × 1019 cm-3 and net acceptor concentration of 5 × 1018 cm-3 related to sulfur vacancies.

  16. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  18. Monte Carlo Criticality Analysis of Simple Geometrics COntaining Tungsten Rhenium Alloys Engrained with Uranium Dioxide and Uranium Mononitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan A. Webb; Indrajit Charit

    2011-08-01

    The critical mass and dimensions of simple geometries containing highly enriched uraniumdioxide (UO2) and uraniummononitride (UN) encapsulated in tungsten-rhenium alloys are determined using MCNP5 criticality calculations. Spheres as well as cylinders with length to radius ratios of 1.82 are computationally built to consist of 60 vol.% fuel and 40 vol.% metal matrix. Within the geometries the uranium is enriched to 93 wt.% uranium-235 and the rhenium content within the metal alloy was modeled over a range of 0 to 30 at.%. The spheres containing UO2 were determined to have a critical radius of 18.29 cm to 19.11 cm and a critical mass ranging from 366 kg to 424 kg. The cylinders containing UO2 were found to have a critical radius ranging from 17.07 cm to 17.844 cm with a corresponding critical mass of 406 kg to 471 kg. Spheres engrained with UN were determined to have a critical radius ranging from 14.82 cm to 15.19 cm and a critical mass between 222 kg and 242 kg. Cylinders which were engrained with UN were determined to have a critical radius ranging from 13.811 cm to 14.155 cm with a corresponding critical mass of 245 kg to 267 kg. The critical geometries were also computationally submerged in a neutronaically infinite medium of fresh water to determine the effects of rhenium addition on criticality accidents due to water submersion. The monte carlo analysis demonstrated that rhenium addition of up to 30 at.% can reduce the excess reactivity due to water submersion by up to $5.07 for UO2 fueled cylinders, $3.87 for UO2 fueled spheres and approximately $3.00 for UN fueled spheres and cylinders.

  19. Ligand effects in supported metal carbonyls: X-ray absorption spectroscopy of rhenium subcarbonyls on magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Honji, A.; Gron, L.U.; Chang, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    [HRe(CO){sub 5}] reacted with the surfaces of MgO powders, one being partially dehydroxylated (about 55%) and the other almost fully dehydroxylated (about 93%). The initial surface species were molecularly absorbed [HRe(CO){sub 5}], which, upon heating to 80{degrees}C in H{sub 2} or under vacuum, gave rhenium subcarbonyls with three CO ligands and three oxygen-containing ligands provided by the MgO surface. Infrared spectra are consistent with C{sub 3{upsilon}} symmetry in both structures, with bands at 2011 (vs), 1895 (vs), and 1862 (sh) cm{sup -1} for rhenium subcarbonyl on the partially dehydroxylated MgO and at 2017 (vs), 1908 (vs), and 1867 (sh) cm{sup -1} for the rhenium subcarbonyl on the almost fully dehydroxylated MgO. The average bond distances were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy: On the partially dehydroxylated MgO, the Re-C, Re-O* (O* is a carbonyl oxygen), and Re-O{sub s} (O{sub s} is a surface oxygen) distances were 1.87, 3.11, and 2.13 {Angstrom}, respectively. These distances indicate chemical bonding of the rhenium carbonyl to oxygens of the MgO surface. They also demonstrate greater electron donation (backbonding) from the Re to the CO on the partially dehydroxylated MgO than from the Re to the CO on the almost fully dehydroxylated MgO surface, suggesting electron transfer from the MgO to the Re. The MgO surface is thus modeled as a rigid multidentate electron donor analogous to a molecular ligand. The X-ray absorption near edge data confirm a higher electron density on the Re atoms bonded to the oxygens of partially dehydroxylated MgO than on Re atoms bonded to almost fully dehydroxylated MgO. 27 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Morbus Coats

    PubMed Central

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.

    2010-01-01

    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  1. Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma using technetium-99m rhenium colloid: the London experience.

    PubMed

    Temple, C L; Scilley, C G; Engel, C J; Shum, D T; Lohmann, R C; Mattar, A G; Zabel, P L

    2000-11-01

    Nodal metastases in patients with melanoma identify a reduction of survival by 50%; however, elective lymph node dissection (ELND) has not been shown clearly to improve survival. Morton's technique of sentinel node biopsy, using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative blue dye, addresses elegantly the controversy regarding ELND. Sentinel node biopsy has been shown to stage the patient accurately because metastases from melanoma follow an orderly progression from the sentinel node to the remainder of the basin. Fifty-six consecutive patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 1b or 2 melanoma seen at the London Health Sciences Center between July 1998 and January 2000 were enrolled prospectively to undergo sentinel node biopsy. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was conducted in the nuclear medicine department. A total of 10 to 15 MBq (0.27-0.41 mCi) of technetium 99m (99mTc) rhenium colloid or filtered sulfur colloid was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. Images were obtained to localize all draining nodal basins. The location of the sentinel node was marked on the skin. The patient was taken to the operating room and anesthetized. Isosulfan blue dye was injected intradermally around the biopsy scar. A hand-held gamma probe was used intraoperatively as a guide to the first draining node. Blue-stained lymphatic channels aided in the dissection. Sentinel node localization was successful in 55 of 56 patients, for an overall success rate of 98%. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy identified a sentinel node in an unpredictable location in 32% of patients. On average, 2.3 sentinel nodes per patient were identified on the initial scan, and 2.2 sentinel nodes per patient were recovered at surgery. Both 99mTc rhenium and filtered sulfur colloid showed no substantial differences in tracer uptake and retention in the sentinel node. Twelve patients had a positive sentinel node on routine histology, and 11 patients subsequently underwent completion

  2. Coatings Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coatings Guide is a free online information resource that focuses on alternative, low-emission coatings for metal, plastic, and architectural substrates. Developed cooperatively by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Interna...

  3. Rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT). Rhenium(I)-promoted methoxylation of the triazine ring carbon atom in dinuclear rhenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Femia, F J; Babich, J W; Zubieta, J A

    2001-06-01

    2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT) bridged dinuclear rhenium(I) tricarbonyl halide complexes with the composition (mu-TPT)[ReX(CO)(3)](2) (3, X = Cl; 4, X = Br) can be made either by one-pot reaction of TPT with 2 equiv of [ReX(CO)(5)] (X = Cl and Br) in chloroform or by reacting mononuclear [ReX(CO)(3)(TPT)] (2) (1, X = Cl; 2, X = Br) with an excess amount of [ReX(CO)(5)]. Crystal data are as follows. 1: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 11.751(1) A, b = 11.376(1) A, c = 15.562(2) A, beta = 103.584(2) degrees, V = 2022.0(4) A(3), Z = 4. 2: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 11.896(1) A, b = 11.396(1) A, c = 15.655(1) A, beta = 104.474(2) degrees, V = 2054.9(3) A(3), Z = 4. 3: triclinic, P1, a = 11.541(2) A, b = 12.119(2) A, c = 13.199(2) A, alpha = 80.377(2) degrees, beta = 76.204(3) degrees, gamma = 66.826(2) degrees, V = 1642.5(4) A(3), Z = 2. Crystals of 4 crystallized from acetone: triclinic, P1, a = 11.586(5) A, b = 12.144(5) A, c = 13.364(6) A, alpha = 80.599(7) degrees, beta = 76.271(8) degrees, gamma = 67.158(8) degrees, V = 1678.0(12) A(3), Z = 2. Crystals of 4' are obtained from CH(2)Cl(2)-pentane solution: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.555(4) A, b = 15.277(3) A, c = 13.093(3) A, beta = 111.179(3) degrees, V = 3274.0(12) A(3), Z = 4. By contrast, similar reactions in the presence of methanol yielded complexes with the composition [mu-C(3)N(3)(OMe)(py)(2)(pyH)][ReX(CO)(3)](2) (5, X = Cl; 6, X = Br). Crystal data for 5: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 26.952(2) A, b = 16.602(1) A, c = 14.641(1) A, beta = 116.147(1) degrees, V = 5880.5(8) A(3), Z = 8. 6: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 27.513(3) A, b = 16.740(2) A, c = 14.837(2) A, beta = 116.925(2) degrees, V = 6092.8(10) A(3), Z = 8. An unusual metal-induced methoxylation at the carbon atom of the triazine ring of the bridging TPT ligand was observed. The nucleophilic attack of MeO(-) on C(3) results in a tetrahedral geometry around the carbon atom. Concomitantly, the uncoordinated pyridyl ring is protonated and rotated into a perpendicular

  4. Detection of a meteoritic component in ivory coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, C; Shirey, S B

    1993-07-30

    Measurement of rhenium (Re) and osmium (Os) concentrations and Os isotopic compositions in Ivory Coast tektites (natural glasses with upper crustal compositions that are ejected great distances during meteorite impact) and rocks from the inferred source crater, Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, show that these tektites incorporate about 0.6 percent of a meteoritic component. Analysis of elemental abundances of noble metals alone gives equivocal results in the detection of meteoritic components because the target rocks already have relatively large amounts of noble metals. The Re-Os system is ideally suited for the study of meteorite impacts on old continental crust for three reasons. (i) The isotopic compositions of the target rocks and the meteoritic impactor are significantly different. (ii) Closed-system mixing of target rocks and meteorites is linear on Re-Os isochron diagrams, which thus permits identification of the loss of Re or Os. (iii) Osmium isotopic compositions are not likely to be altered during meteorite impact even if Re and Os are lost. PMID:17758170

  5. Detection of a meteoritic component in Ivory Coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

    1993-07-01

    Measurement of rhenium (Re) and osmium (Os) concentrations and Os isotopic compositions in Ivory Coast tektites (natural glasses with upper crustal compositions that are ejected great distances during meteorite impact) and rocks from the inferred source crater, Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, show that these tektites incorporate about 0.6 percent of a meteoritic component. Analysis of elemental abundances of noble metals alone gives equivocal results in the detection of meteoritic components because the target rocks already have relatively large amounts of noble metals. The Re-Os system is ideally suited for the study of meteorite impacts on old continental crust for three reasons. The isotopic compositions of the target rocks and the meteoritic impactor are significantly different. Closed-system mixing of target rocks and meteorites is linear on Re-Os isochron diagrams, which thus permits identification of the loss of Re or Os. Osmium isotopic compositions are not likely to be altered during meteorite impact even if Re and Os are lost.

  6. SPS Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys in Support of NTR Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan A. Webb; Indrajit Charit; Cory Sparks; Darryl P. Butt; Megan Frary; Mark Carroll

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. Tungsten metal slugs were fabricated via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of powdered metals at temperatures ranging from 1575 K to 1975 K and hold times of 5 minutes to 30 minutes, using powders with an average diameter of 7.8 ?m. Sintered tungsten specimens were found to have relative densities ranging from 83 % to 94 % of the theoretical density for tungsten. Consolidated specimens were also tested for their Vickers Hardness Number (VHN), which was fitted as a function of relative density; the fully consolidated VHN was extrapolated to be 381.45 kg/mm2. Concurrently, tungsten and rhenium powders with average respective diameters of 0.5 ?m and 13.3 ?m were pre-processed either by High-Energy-Ball-Milling (HEBM) or by homogeneous mixing to yield W-25at.%Re mixtures. The powder batches were sintered at temperatures of 1975 K and 2175 K for hold times ranging from 0 minutes to 60 minutes yielding relative densities ranging from 94% to 97%. The combination of HEBM and sintering showed a significant decrease in the inter-metallic phases compared to that of the homogenous mixing and sintering.

  7. Evaluation of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with rhenium-186-HEDP: Guidelines for individual dosage recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Klerk, J.M.H. de; Schip, A.D. van het; Zonnenberg, B.A

    1994-09-01

    A potential limitation of rhenium-186-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate ({sup 186}Re-HEDP) therapy in patients with painful bone metastases is thrombocytopenia. Given the palliative character of this therapy, it is essential to be able to predict the degree of thrombocytopenia before therapy. Thus far, 39 prostatic cancer patients with multiple painful bone metastases were treated. Twenty-one patients underwent the therapy twice, resulting in 60 therapies. From the pre-therapy {sup 99m}Tc-HDP scintigram, the bone scan index (BSI) was determined as an index of the extent of bone involvement. The administered activity ranged from 1104 to 3479 MBq {sup 186}Re-HEDP. The platelet count was lowest 4 wk following therapy. From this value and the pretreatment level, the percentage decrease in the platelet count was determined (47%{+-}19%, range 14%-89%). The BSI ranged from 8 to 93. Regression analysis showed a functional relation (R = 0.78; p < 0.001) of the percentage of platelet decrease with BSI and administered activity normalized to standard body surface area. Using this relation, it is possible to predict thrombocytopenia by pretreatment bone scintigraphy and to adjust the dosage to each patient to avoid unacceptable toxicity. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Synthesis of Ultra-Incompressible Superhard Rhenium Diboride at Ambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chung,H.; Weinberger, M.; Levine, J.; Kavner, A.; Yang, J.; Tolbert, S.; Kaner, R.

    2007-01-01

    The quest to create superhard materials rarely strays from the use of high-pressure synthetic methods, which typically require gigapascals of applied pressure. We report that rhenium diboride (ReB{sub 2}), synthesized in bulk quantities via arc-melting under ambient pressure, rivals materials produced with high-pressure methods. Microindentation measurements on ReB{sub 2} indicated an average hardness of 48 gigapascals under an applied load of 0.49 newton, and scratch marks left on a diamond surface confirmed its superhard nature. Its incompressibility along the c axis was equal in magnitude to the linear incompressibility of diamond. In situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements yielded a bulk modulus of 360 gigapascals, and radial diffraction indicated that ReB{sub 2} is able to support a remarkably high differential stress. This combination of properties suggests that this material may find applications in cutting when the formation of carbides prevents the use of traditional materials such as diamond.

  9. {sup 188}Rhenium-HEDP in the Treatment of Pain in Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiano, J.; Savio, E.; Robles, A.; Muniz, S.; Leon, A.; Verdera, S.; Martinez, G.; Hermida, J.C.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.

    1999-01-18

    Systemic use of radiopharmaceuticals is a recognized alternative method for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple bone metastasis. A new option, {sup 188}Re-HEDP is proposed, using generator-obtained {sup 188}Rhenium ({beta} energy = 2.1 MeV, {gamma} energy = 155 keV, half-life = 16.9 hours). After establishing parameters of biodistribution, dosimetry and image acquisition in mice, rats and rabbits, Phase I and II studies were conducted on 12 patients with multiple metastasis from carcinomas, with pain surpassing other analgesic options. More than 50% pain relief was found in 91% of the patients, with total relief during a variable period in 41% of them allowing opiate and other analgesic drugs to be decreased or withdrawn, and showing a lower bone marrow contribution to total absorbed dose than that reported for other similar radiopharmaceuticals. Further study of this option is recommended in order to determine higher dose protocols without toxic bone marrow reaction possibilities.

  10. Laser desorption ionization of small molecules assisted by tungsten oxide and rhenium oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Matthew C; Wysocki, Vicki H; Dagan, Shai

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic metal oxides have shown potential as matrices for assisting in laser desorption ionization with advantages over the aromatic acids typically used. Rhenium and tungsten oxides are attractive options due to their high work functions and relative chemical inertness. In this work, it is shown that ReO3 and WO3 , in microparticle (μP) powder forms, can efficiently facilitate ionization of various types of small molecules and provide minimized background contamination at analyte concentrations below 1 ng/µL. This study shows that untreated inorganic WO3 and ReO3 particles are valid matrix options for detection of protonatable, radical, and precharged species under laser desorption ionization. Qualitatively, the WO3 μP showed improved detection of apigenin, sodiated glucose, and precharged analyte choline, while the ReO3 μP allowed better detection of protonated cocaine, quinuclidine, ametryn, and radical ions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons at detection levels as low as 50 pg/µL. For thermometer ion survival yield experiments, it was also shown that the ReO3 powder was significantly softer than α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnaminic acid. Furthermore, it provided higher intensities of cocaine and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, at laser flux values equal to those used with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnaminic acid. PMID:26349643

  11. Laser Desorption Ionization of small molecules assisted by Tungsten oxide and Rhenium oxide particles

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Matthew; Wysocki, Vicki; Dagan, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic metal oxides have shown potential as matrices for assisting in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with advantages over the aromatic acids typically used. Rhenium and tungsten oxides are an attractive option due to their high work functions and relative chemical inertness. In this work, it is shown that ReO3 and WO3, in microparticle (μP) powder forms, can efficiently ionize various types of small molecules and provide minimized background contamination at analyte concentrations below 1 ng/μL. This study shows that untreated inorganic WO3 and ReO3 particles are valid matrix options for detection of protonatable, radical, and precharged species under LDI. Qualitatively, the WO3 μP showed an improved detection of apigenin, sodiated glucose, and the precharged analyte choline, while the ReO3 μP allowed detection of protonated cocaine, quinuclidine, ametryn, and radical ions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons at detection levels as low as 50 pg/μL. For thermometer ion survival yield experiments, it was also shown that the ReO3 powder was significantly softer than CCA. Furthermore, it provided higher intensities of cocaine and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, at laser flux values equal to that used with CCA. PMID:26349643

  12. Radiation-Damage in Molybdenum-Rhenium Alloys for Space Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Leonard, Keith J; Zinkle, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    Various Mo-Re alloys are attractive candidates for use as fuel cladding and core structural materials in spacecraft reactor applications. Molybdenum alloys with rhenium contents of 41% to 47.5% (wt%), in particular, have good creep resistance and ductility in both base metal and weldments. However, irradiation-induced changes such as transmutation and radiation-induced segregation could lead to precipitation and, ultimately, radiation-induced embrittlement. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of Mo-41Re and Mo-47.5Re after irradiation at space reactor relevant temperatures. Tensile specimens of Mo-41Re and Mo-47.5Re alloys were irradiated to ~ 0.7 dpa at 1073, 1223, and 1373 K and ~1.4 dpa at 1073 K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Following irradiation, the specimens were strained to failure at a rate of 1 x 10-3 s-1 in vacuum at the irradiation temperature. In addition, unirradiated specimens and specimens aged for 1100 hours at each irradiation temperature were also tested. Fracture mode of the tensile specimens was determined.

  13. Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Girard, S. N.; Meng, F.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Jin, S; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, J. S.; Shi, L

    2014-01-01

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) made of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are regarded as promising p-type thermoelectric materials because their complex crystal structure results in low lattice thermal conductivity. It is shown here that the already low thermal conductivity of HMS can be reduced further to approach the minimum thermal conductivity via partial substitu- tion of Mn with heavier rhenium (Re) to increase point defect scattering. The solubility limit of Re in the obtained RexMn1 xSi1.8 is determined to be about x = 0.18. Elemental inhomogeneity and the formation of ReSi1.75 inclusions with 50 200 nm size are found within the HMS matrix. It is found that the power factor does not change markedly at low Re content of x 0.04 before it drops considerably at higher Re contents. Compared to pure HMS, the reduced lattice thermal conductivity in RexMn1 xSi1.8 results in a 25% increase of the peak figure of merit ZT to reach 0.57 0.08 at 800 K for x = 0.04. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the pure RexMn1 xSi1.8 can enable further investigations of the ZT limit of this system by exploring different impurity doping strategies to optimize the carrier concentration and power factor.

  14. Regulatory Aspects of Coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a history of the development and uses of edible coating regulations, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The chapter also...

  15. Migration of epoxidised soybean oil from PVC gaskets of commercial lids: simulation of migration under various conditions and screening of food products from Czech markets.

    PubMed

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Vrbík, Karel; Rajchl, Aleš; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Sosnovcová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a large number of polyvinylchloride (PVC) lid gaskets exceed the existing migration limits for epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) and correct prediction of ESBO release into food therefore appears to be a difficult issue. ESBO migration from PVC gaskets of metal closures into food simulants and food products from the Czech market is evaluated during a survey in 2009 and subsequently one in 2012 to assess progress in lid manufacturing and official testing conditions. ESBO migration from lids into various food simulants was studied at various temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C) during storage times up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants or food products was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by GC-MS. The levels of ESBO migration in foodstuffs in 2012 exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) in fewer products in comparison with the previous survey. However, most of the products were analysed at a time far from the expiry date and exceedance of the SML at the end of the product shelf life is not therefore excluded. More severe test conditions (60°C for 10 days) for specific migration given by the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011) still seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage. PMID:25685888

  16. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ameron International Protective Coatings Group developed a special coating for NASA that would withstand the high temperatures generated by the Space Shuttle rocket engines. The coating remains intact for at least 10 minutes, and insulates the launch pad so that it does not exceed 150 degrees and buckle. The NASA formulation was from Ameron's Engineered Siloxane (PSX) chemistry, which employs an inorganic silicon-oxygen structure which the company states is stronger and more reliable than organic polymers. Some of Ameron's PSX product line is based on the NASA technology, used for everything from industrial equipment to bridges.

  17. Sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  18. Versatile Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A radome at Logan Airport and a large parabolic antenna at the Wang Building in Massachusetts are protected from weather, corrosion and ultraviolet radiation by a coating, specially designed for antennas and radomes, known as CRC Weathertite 6000. The CRC 6000 line that emerged from Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. is a solid dispersion of fluorocarbon polymer and polyurethane that yields a tough, durable film with superior ultraviolet resistance and the ability to repel water and ice over a long term. Additionally, it provides resistance to corrosion, abrasion, chemical attacks and impacts. Material can be used on a variety of substrates, such as fiberglass, wood, plastic and concrete in addition to steel and aluminum. In addition Boyd Coatings sees CRC 6000 applicability as an anti-icing system coated on the leading edge of aircraft wings.

  19. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  20. Synthesis and structures of doubly-bridged dicyclopentadienyl dinuclear rhenium complexes, and their photochemical reactions with aromatic halides in benzene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bolin; Huang, Xinwei; Hao, Xiaoting

    2014-11-28

    Reaction of the doubly-bridged biscyclopentadienes (C5H4(EMe2))(C5H4(SiMe2)) (E = Si(1a), or C(1b)) with Re2(CO)10 in refluxing mesitylene gave the corresponding dirhenium carbonyl complexes [(η(5)-C5H3)2(EMe2)(SiMe2)][Re(CO)3]2 (trans-2a,b and cis-2a,b), and the desilylated products [(η(5)-C5H4)2(EMe2)][Re(CO)3]2 (3a,b). Photolysis of trans-2a,b with a series of aryl halides in benzene results in the formation of biphenyl, together with the corresponding rhenium dihalide complexes trans-[(η(5)-C5H3)2(EMe2)(SiMe2)][Re(CO)3][Re(CO)2X2] (X = Cl, Br, I) (4, 6, 8, or 10) and trans-[(η(5)-C5H3)2(EMe2)(SiMe2)][Re(CO)2X2]2 (5, 7, or 9). Additional experiments indicate that one phenyl ring in the resulting biphenyl comes from aryl halides and the other phenyl ring comes from the solvent benzene. However, photolysis of trans-2a with benzyl chloride and n-hexyl chloride in benzene afforded the corresponding bibenzyl and n-dodecane, as well as the rhenium dichlorides 8 and 9. In addition, complex trans-2a can also activate the C-F bond on C6F6 to form the pentafluorophenyl rhenium fluoride trans-[(η(5)-C5H3)2(SiMe2)2][Re(CO)3][Re(CO)2(C6F5)F] (11). Molecular structures of cis-2a, cis-2b, trans-2b, 3b, 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12 determined by X-ray diffraction are also presented. PMID:25274024

  1. Fac-Re(bpy)(CO){sub 3}(COOMe): A model metallocarboxylate complex of rhenium with a bipyridyl ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.H.; Sleadd, B.A.; Vij, A.

    1999-05-01

    The title compound fac-(2,2{prime}-bipyridyl)(carbomethoxy)rhenium tricarbonyl, crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c with the following crystal data: a = 8.37551(1), b = 6.6934(1), c = 26.2098(1) {angstrom}, V({angstrom}{sup 3}) = 1,535.93(3), Z = 4, and {beta} = 90.0971(2). The metal environment is slightly distorted octahedral with a chelating bipyridyl ligand and a facial arrangement of the carbon monoxide ligands.

  2. Facile rhenium-peptide conjugate synthesis using a one-pot derived Re(CO)3 reagent.

    PubMed

    Chanawanno, Kullapa; Kondeti, Vinay; Caporoso, Joel; Paruchuri, Sailaja; Leeper, Thomas C; Herrick, Richard S; Ziegler, Christopher J

    2016-03-21

    We have synthesized two Re(CO)3-modified lysine complexes (1 and 2), where the metal is attached to the amino acid at the Nε position, via a one-pot Schiff base formation reaction. These compounds can be used in the solid phase synthesis of peptides, and to date we have produced four conjugate systems incorporating neurotensin, bombesin, leutenizing hormone releasing hormone, and a nuclear localization sequence. We observed uptake into human umbilical vascular endothelial cells as well as differential uptake depending on peptide sequence identity, as characterized by fluorescence and rhenium elemental analysis. PMID:26863280

  3. Abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium in pyrite samples from the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Peng, Z.; Yang, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two pyrite samples from the Shihezi Formation (Lower Permian), Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China, have been analyzed for abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry. The Re-Os ages of the pyrites are 64.4 and 226 Ma, which are younger than the formation age of the coal seam. The pyrite samples may consist of pyrite formed at various stages during the history of coal formation. The ??Osvalues of the two pyrite samples are +17 and +18, respectively. Such high ??Osvalues are reported for the first time for recycles crustal materials from a sedimentary basin. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  4. Two-Electron Carbon Dioxide Reduction Catalyzed by Rhenium(I) Bis(imino)acenaphthene Carbonyl Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Kianfar, Elham; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes carrying substituted bis(arylimino)acenaphthene ligands (BIAN-R) have been tested as potential catalysts for the two-electron reduction of carbon dioxide. Cyclic voltammetric studies as well as controlled potential electrolysis experiments were performed using CO2-saturated solutions of the complexes in acetonitrile and acetonitrile–water mixtures. Faradaic efficiencies of more than 30 % have been determined for the electrocatalytic production of CO. The effects of ligand substitution patterns and water content of the reaction medium on the catalytic performance of the new catalysts are discussed. PMID:24737649

  5. Radiofluorinated rhenium cyclized α-MSH analogues for PET imaging of melanocortin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Ren, Gang; Liu, Shuanlong; Liu, Hongguang; Miao, Zheng; Cheng, Zhen

    2010-12-15

    In order to accomplish in vivo molecular imaging of melanoma biomarker melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), several α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues have been labeled with N-succinimidyl-4-¹⁸F-fluorobenzoate (¹⁸)F-SFB) and studied as positron emission tomography (PET) probes in our recent studies. To further pursue a radiofluorinated α-MSH peptide with high clinical translation potential, we utilized 4-nitrophenyl 2-¹⁸F-fluoropropionate (¹⁸F-NFP) to radiofluorinate the transition metal rhenium cyclized α-MSH metallopeptides for PET imaging of MC1R positive malignant melanoma. Metallopeptides Ac-d,Lys-ReCCMSH(Arg¹¹) (two isomers, namely RMSH-1 and RMSH-2) were synthesized using conventional solid phase peptide synthesis chemistry and rhenium cyclization reaction. The two isomers were then conjugated with ¹⁹F-NFP or ¹⁸F-NFP. The resulting cold or radiofluorinated metallopeptides, (¹⁸/¹⁹)F-FP-RMSH-1 and (¹⁸/¹⁹)F-FP-RMSH-2, were further evaluated for their in vitro receptor binding affinities, in vivo biodistribution, and small-animal PET imaging properties. The binding affinities of ¹⁹F-FP-RMSH-1 and ¹⁹F-FP-RMSH-2 were determined to be within low nanomolar range. In vivo studies revealed that both F-labeled metallopeptides possessed good tumor uptake in the B16F10 murine model with high MC1R expression, while possessing much lower uptake in A375M human melanoma xenografts. Moreover, ¹⁸F-FP-RMSH-1 displayed more favorable in vivo performance in terms of higher tumor uptake and much lower accumulation in the kidney and liver, when compared to that of ¹⁸F-FP-RMSH-2 at 2 h postinjection (p.i.). ¹⁸F-FP-RMSH-1 also displayed lower liver and lung uptake when compared with that of the same peptide labeled with ¹⁸F-SFB (named as ¹⁸F-FB-RMSH-1). Small animal PET imaging of ¹⁸F-FP-RMSH-1 in mice bearing B16F10 tumors at 1 and 2 h showed good tumor imaging quality. As expected, much lower tumor uptake and

  6. Rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chung Ying; Pellegrini, Paul A; Greguric, Ivan; Barnard, Peter J

    2014-10-20

    A strategy for the conjugation of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to biomolecules via amide bond formation is described. Both 1-(2-pyridyl)imidazolium or 1-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazolium salts functionalized with a pendant carboxylic acid group were prepared and coupled to glycine benzyl ester using 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide. A series of 10 rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes of the form [ReX(CO)3(ĈN)] (ĈN is a bidentate NHC ligand, and X is a monodentate anionic ligand: Cl(-), RCO2(-)) were synthesized via a Ag2O transmetalation protocol from the Re(I) precursor compound Re(CO)5Cl. The synthesized azolium salts and Re(I) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures for one imidazolium salt and seven Re(I) complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry studies for an acetonitrile-d3 solution of [ReCl(CO)3(1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolylidene)] show that the monodentate chloride ligand is labile and exchanges with this solvent yielding a cationic acetonitrile adduct. For the first time the labeling of an NHC ligand with technetium-99m is reported. Rapid Tc-99m labeling was achieved by heating the imidazolium salt 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolium iodide and Ag2O in methanol, followed by the addition of fac-[(99m)Tc(OH2)3(CO)3](+). To confirm the structure of the (99m)Tc-labeled complex, the equivalent (99)Tc complex was prepared, and mass spectrometric studies showed that the formed Tc complexes are of the form [(99m/99)Tc(CH3CN)(CO)3(1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolylidene)](+) with an acetonitrile molecule coordinated to the metal center. PMID:25280253

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation and biological evaluation of 188-Rhenium colloids for radiosynovectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ures, Ma Cristina; Savio, Eduardo; Malanga, Antonio; Fernández, Marcelo; Paolino, Andrea; Gaudiano, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Background Radiosynovectomy is a type of radiotherapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, 188-Rhenium (188Re) colloids were characterized by physical and biological methodologies. This was used to assess which parameters of the kit formulation would be the basis in the development of a more effective radiopharmaceutical for synovectomy. Intraarticular injection in knees of rabbits assessed cavity leakage of activity. Methods The physical characteristics of tin (Sn) and sulphur (S) colloids were determined to assess the formulation with suitable properties. Particles were grouped in three ranges for analyzing their distribution according to their number, volume and surface. The ideal particle size range was considered to be from 2 to 10 microns. Membrane filtration and laser diffraction characterization methodologies were used. Results While membrane filtration could give misleading data, laser diffraction proportions more reliable results. The Sn colloid showed a better distribution of particle volume and surface than S colloid, in the 2 to 10 microns range. The 188Re-Sn colloid was obtained with a radiochemical purity higher than 95% after 30 minutes of autoclaving. While Sn colloid kit stability was verified for 60 days, the 188Re-Sn preparation was stable in the first 24 hrs. No significant intrabatch variability (n = 3) was detected. Biodistribution and scintigraphic studies in rabbits after intraarticular injection showed relevant activity only in knee, being 90% at 48 hours. Conclusion The 188Re-Sn colloid is easy to prepare, is stable for 24 hours and shows minimal cavity leakage after intraarticular injection into rabbit knees, suggesting this radiotherapeutical agent has suitable physical properties for evaluation for joint treatment in humans. PMID:12379158

  8. Geological respiration of a mountain belt revealed by the trace element rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Robert G.; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Calmels, Damien; Birck, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Oxidation of rock-derived, petrogenic, organic carbon (OCpetro) during weathering of sedimentary rocks is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. This geological respiration is thought to be enhanced by physical erosion, suggesting that mountain belts could release large amounts of CO2 to counter the CO2 sequestration achieved by the erosion, riverine transfer and oceanic burial of organic carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. However, OCpetro oxidation rates in mountain belts have not been quantified. Here we use rhenium (Re) as a proxy to track OCpetro oxidation in mountain river catchments of Taiwan, where existing measurements of physical erosion rate allow the controls on OCpetro oxidation to be assessed. Re has been shown to be closely associated with OCpetro in rocks and following oxidation during chemical weathering forms a soluble oxyanion (ReO4-) which contributes to the dissolved load of rivers. Soils on meta-sedimentary rocks in Taiwan show that Re loss is coupled to OCpetro loss during weathering, confirming previous observations from soil profiles on sedimentary rocks elsewhere. In Taiwan rivers, dissolved Re flux increases with the catchment-average sediment yield, suggesting that physical erosion rate is a major control on OCpetro oxidation. Based on our current understanding of Re mobility during weathering, the dissolved Re flux can be used to quantify an upper bound on the OCpetro oxidation rate and the associated CO2 transfer. The estimated CO2 release from this mountain belt by OCpetro oxidation does not negate estimates of CO2 sequestration by burial of biospheric OC offshore. The findings are compared to OC transfers estimated for the Himalaya, where OCpetro oxidation in the mountain belt remains unconstrained. Together, these cases suggest that mountain building in the tropics can result in a net sink of OC which sequesters atmospheric CO2.

  9. Therapeutic efficiency of rhenium-188-HEDP in human prostate cancer skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Liepe, K; Kropp, J; Runge, R; Kotzerke, J

    2003-08-18

    Rhenium-188-HEDP ((188)Re-HEDP) is a new and attractive radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of metastatic bone pain. As a product of (188)W/(188)Re generator, it is convenient for clinical therapeutic use with a short physical half-life of 16.9 h and a maximal beta-energy of 2.1 MeV. We investigated the effect of (188)Re-HEDP on pain relief, analgesic intake and impairment of bone marrow function in 27 patients with bone metastases induced from prostate cancer. All patients were interviewed using a standardised set of questions before, and after therapy for 12 weeks. The patients were treated with 2700-3459 MBq of (188)Re-HEDP. Blood samples were taken weekly for 12 weeks, and a blood count was performed. Patients described an improvement on the Karnofsky performance scale from 74+/-7 to 85+/-9% 12 weeks after therapy (P=0.001). The pain score showed a maximum decrease from 44+/-18 to 27+/-20% in the third to the eight week after therapy (P=0.009). Seventy-six percent of the patients described a pain relief without increase of analgesic intake. Twenty percent of the patients could discontinue their analgesics and were pain free. Mean platelet count decreased from (286+/-75)*10(3) microl(-1) to (215+/-92)*10(3) microl(-1), and mean leucocyte count from (7.7+/-1.5)*10(3) microl(-1) to (6.0+/-1.9)*10(3) microl(-1) in the second to the fourth week after therapy. The maximal differences between the values of platelets and leucocytes before and after therapy were not statistically significant (P=0.021 and 0.094). In conclusion, (188)Re-HEDP is an effective radiopharmaceutical used in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain in prostate cancer and shows minimal bone marrow toxicity. PMID:12915868

  10. Rhenium complexes of bidentate, bis-bidentate and tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chung Ying; Barnard, Peter J

    2015-11-28

    A series of eight Rhenium(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of the general form [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)] (where C^C is a bis(NHC) bidentate ligand), [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)]2 (where C^C is a bis-bidentate tetra-NHC ligand) and [Re(CO)3(C^N^C)](+)[X](-) (where C^N^C is a bis(NHC)-amine ligand and the counter ion X is either the ReO4(-) or PF6(-)) have been synthesised using a Ag2O transmetallation protocol. The novel precursor imidazolium salts and Re(I) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the molecular structures for two imidazolium salt and six Re(I) complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These NHC ligand systems are of interest for possible applications in the development of Tc-99m or Re-186/188 radiopharmaceuticals and as such the stability of two complexes of the form [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)] and [Re(CO)3(C^N^C)][ReO4] were evaluated in ligand challenge experiments using the metal binding amino acids L-histidine or L-cysteine. These studies showed that the former was unstable, with the chloride ligand being replaced by either cysteine or histidine, while no evidence for transchelation was observed for the latter suggesting that bis(NHC)-amine ligands of this type may be suitable for biological applications. PMID:26477971

  11. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  12. Discovery of rhenium and masurium (technetium) by Ida Noddack-Tacke and Walter Noddack. Forgotten heroes of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Biersack, H-J; Stelzner, F; Knapp, F F

    2015-01-01

    The history of the early identification of elements and their designation to the Mendeleev Table of the Elements was an important chapter in German science in which Ida (1896-1978) and Walter (1893-1960) Noddack played an important role in the first identification of rhenium (element 75, 1925) and technetium (element 43, 1933). In 1934 Ida Noddack was also the first to predict fission of uranium into smaller atoms. Although the Noddacks did not for some time later receive the recognition for the first identification of technetium-99m, their efforts have appropriately more recently been recognized. The discoveries of these early pioneers are even more astounding in light of the limited technologies and resources which were available during this period. The Noddack discoveries of elements 43 and 75 are related to the subsequent use of rhenium-188 (beta/gamma emitter) and technetium-99m (gamma emitter) in nuclear medicine. In particular, the theranostic relationship between these two generator-derived radioisotopes has been demonstrated and offers new opportunities in the current era of personalized medicine. PMID:26478117

  13. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CO using Rhenium Bipyridine Platforms Containing Ancillary Phenyl or BODIPY Moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Gabriel; Pistner, Allen; Yapp, Glenn P. A.; Lutterman, Daniel A; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing of solar energy to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels requires the development of efficient catalysts that absorb sunlight. In this work, we detail the synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical properties of a set of homologous fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes containing either an ancillary phenyl (8) or BODIPY (12) substituent. These studies demonstrate that both the electronic properties of the rhenium center and BODIPY chromophore are maintained for these systems. Photolysis studies demonstrate that both assemblies 8 and 12 are competent catalysts for the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in DMF using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial reductant. Both these systems display TOFs for photocatalytic CO production upon irradiation with light ( ex 400 nm) of ~5 hr 1 with TON values of approximately 20. Although structural and photophysical measurements demonstrate that electronic coupling between the BODIPY and fac-ReI(CO)3 units is limited for complex 12, this work clearly shows that the photoactive BODIPY moiety is tolerated during catalysis and does not interfere with the observed photochemistry. When taken together, these results provide a clear roadmap for the development of advanced rhenium bipyridine complexes bearing ancillary BODIPY groups for the efficient photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using visible light.

  14. Hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol over rhenium catalyst supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ung Gi; Park, Hai Woong; Lee, Joongwon; Hwang, Sunhwan; Kwak, Jimin; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu

    2013-11-01

    Copper-containing mesoporous carbon (Cu-MC) was prepared by a single-step surfactant-templating method. For comparison, copper-impregnated mesoporous carbon (Cu/MC) was also prepared by a surfactant-templating method and a subsequent impregnation method. Rhenium catalysts supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon and copper-impregnated mesoporous carbon (Re/Cu-MC and Re/Cu/MC, respectively) were then prepared by an incipient wetness method, and they were applied to the liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol (BDO). It was observed that copper in the Re/Cu-MC catalyst was well incorporated into carbon framework, resulting in higher surface area and larger pore volume than those of Re/Cu/MC catalyst. Therefore, Re/Cu-MC catalyst showed higher copper dispersion than Re/Cu/MC catalyst, although both catalysts retained the same amounts of copper and rhenium. In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic acid to BDO, Re/Cu-MC catalyst showed a better catalytic activity than Re/Cu/MC catalyst. Fine dispersion of copper in the Re/Cu-MC catalyst was responsible for its enhanced catalytic activity. PMID:24245272

  15. Effect of Rhenium Addition on Wear Behavior of Cr-Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Marcin; Piątkowska, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Materials for applications in the automotive industry are required to be strong, stiff, hard, light weight, and wear resistant, which is very difficult to achieve in the case of conventional materials. To meet all these diverse requirements, it is necessary to combine various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics). In the present study, the chromium and chromium-rhenium matrices were reinforced with aluminum oxide to obtain composite materials with improved wear resistance. The composites were fabricated by a powder metallurgy method. The effects of the rhenium addition and volume fraction of aluminum oxide on the wear rate and the friction coefficient of the composites at room temperature were examined in a ball-on-surface apparatus under dry conditions. The worn surfaces and debris were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The final values of the friction coefficient were 0.9 and 0.8 for the Cr-25%Al2O3 and Cr-40%Al2O3 composites, respectively. Alloying Cr matrix with Re improved wear resistance of composite but, at the same time, it caused an increase in its coefficient of friction.

  16. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CO using Rhenium Bipyridine Platforms Containing Ancillary Phenyl or BODIPY Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Gabriel A.; Pistner, Allen J.; Yap, Glenn P.A.; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing of solar energy to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels requires the development of efficient catalysts that absorb sunlight. In this work, we detail the synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical properties of a set of homologous fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes containing either an ancillary phenyl (8) or BODIPY (12) substituent. These studies demonstrate that both the electronic properties of the rhenium center and BODIPY chromophore are maintained for these complexes. Photolysis studies demonstrate that both assemblies 8 and 12 are competent catalysts for the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in DMF using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial reductant. Both compounds 8 and 12 display TOFs for photocatalytic CO production upon irradiation with light (λex ≥ 400 nm) of ~5 hr−1 with TON values of approximately 20. Although structural and photophysical measurements demonstrate that electronic coupling between the BODIPY and fac-ReI(CO)3 units is limited for complex 12, this work clearly shows that the photoactive BODIPY moiety is tolerated during catalysis and does not interfere with the observed photochemistry. When taken together, these results provide a clear roadmap for the development of advanced rhenium bipyridine complexes bearing ancillary BODIPY groups for the efficient photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using visible light. PMID:24015374

  17. Re-Ir coating effect of molding core (WC) surface for aspheric glass lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Uk; Kim, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2007-10-01

    Recently, with increasing lightness and miniaturization of high resolution camera phones, the demand for aspheric glass lens has increased because plastic and spherical lenses are unable to satisfy the required performance. An aspheric glass lens is fabricated by high temperature and pressure molding using a tungsten carbide molding core, so precision grinding and coating technology for the molding core surface is required. In this paper, the optimal grinding condition of the tungsten carbide molding core was found after applying DOE to the development of the aspheric glass lens for the 3 mega pixel and 2.5 magnifications optical zoom for camera phone module. Also, the ultra precision grinding process was investigated under this condition by experiment. Rhenium-Iridium(Re-Ir) coating was applied on the ground surface of the tungsten carbide molding core. The influence of Re-Ir coating on the form accuracy and surface roughness was compared and evaluated. The form accuracy and surface roughness of the molding core were improved by application of Re-Ir coating on the surface of the tungsten carbide molding core. Aspheric lenses were also molded with the non-coated molding core and the Re-Ir coated molding core. Form accuracy(PV) and surface roughness(Ra) were measured. The form accuracy of the aspheric glass lens improved about 0.01 μm (aspheric surface) and the surface roughness by about 0.5 nm (aspheric surface).

  18. The spectral emittance and stability of coatings and textured surfaces for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.; Hollenbeck, J.L.

    2000-11-01

    Coatings or surface modifications are needed to improve the surface emissivity of materials under consideration for TPV radiator applications to a value of 0.8 or higher. Vacuum plasma spray coatings (ZrO{sub 2} + 18% TiO{sub 2} + 10% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrC, Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}, ZrTiO{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 2% HfO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2}) and a chemical vapor deposited coating of rhenium whiskers were used to increase the surface emissivity of refractory metal and nickel-base materials. Emittance measurements following 4000 hours of vacuum annealing at 1100 C show that only the ZrO{sub 2} + 18% TiO{sub 2} + 10% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrC, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} coatings have the desired thermal stability, and maintain emissivity values higher than 0.8. These coatings are graybody emitters, and provide a high emissivity value in the wavelength range that is relevant to the TPV cells. The highest emissivity values were observed for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiO{sub 2} coatings, with post-anneal values higher than graphite.

  19. Sequential bottom-up and top-down processing for the synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets: the case of rhenium disulfide (ReS2).

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaimi, Naktal; Lewis, Edward A; Lewis, David J; Howell, Simon K; Haigh, Sarah J; O'Brien, Paul

    2016-06-14

    Bottom-up (aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition, AACVD) and top-down (liquid phase exfoliation, LPE) processing methodologies are used in tandem to produce colloids of few-layer thick rhenium disulfide (ReS2) in N-methyl pyrrolidone. The processing route we use is a potentially robust and scalable pathway to manufacture useful 2D materials. PMID:27250595

  20. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

  1. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  2. Gold Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Epner Technology Inc. responded to a need from Goddard Space Flight Center for the ultimate in electroplated reflectivity needed for the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Made of beryllium, the MOLA mirror was coated by Epner Technology Laser Gold process, specially improved for the project. Improved Laser Gold- coated reflectors have found use in an epitaxial reactor built for a large semiconductor manufacturer as well as the waveguide in Braun-Thermoscan tympanic thermometer and lasing cavities in various surgical instruments.

  3. [Clinical experience with rhenium-188 HEDP therapy for metastatic bone pain].

    PubMed

    Róka, R; Séra, T; Pajor, L; Thurzó, L; Láng, J; Csernay, L; Pávics, L

    2000-05-01

    Rhenium-188 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (Re-188 HEDP) is a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of metastatic bone pain. Re-188 is a generator-produced radionuclide emitting high energy beta and gamma rays and having a relative short physical half-life makes it of especially interesting for therapeutic purpose. Seven patients (pts) with multiple painful bone metastases were treated with Re-188 HEDP. Five pts with prostate cancer and 2 pts with breast cancer received a fixed activity of 3000 MBq of Re-188 HEDP intravenously in two steps. Complete blood counts were determined, blood chemistry examinations and urine-analysis were performed before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks following the treatment. A visual analogue score, a verbal rating scale, the Spitzer index and the Karnofsky score were used to assess pain and performance status. Three hours after Re-188 HEDP administration at 1 m from the anterior mid-trunk of the pts gamma and at the patient body surface beta-radiation dose measurements were made, together with urine radioactivity measurements. Three pts become pain-free, 2 pts exhibited partial pain improvement and 1 patient gave no response to the Re-188 HEDP therapy. In 1 patient due to central nervous system metastasis the modification of the pain intensity could not be evaluated. Three pts displayed a flare reaction within 1 week after the treatment. Transient decreases in platelet and white blood cell counts were observed. There were no significant changes in the liver and renal functions. Radiation dose rate values of 6.3 +/- 1.0 microSv/h for gamma, and of 183 +/- 40 s-1 for beta-radiation were found. 25-32% of the administered dose was eliminated via the urinary tract in the first three hours. The preliminary data suggests that Re-188 HEDP is an effective radiopharmaceutical in treatment for metastatic bone pain. An administered activity of 3000 MBq can bring about a pain reduction without causing any clinically significant bone marrow toxicity

  4. Energy-effective frost-free coatings based on superhydrophobic aligned nanocones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Li, Juan; Tian, Jian; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2014-06-25

    We demonstrate the feasibility of superhydrophobic aligned nanocones as energy-effective frost-free coatings. Exemplified by Co(OH)2 nanocone films with condensed microdrop self-removal ability, their edge and whole-surface frosting time can be delayed to about 10 and 150 min, respectively. By using a Teflon gasket to shield edges, the samples can keep frost-free state over 90 min. Further, the lasting frost-free state can be realized by intermittent weak airflow heating, which is energy-effective in contrast to usual high-power heating for defrosting flat surfaces. These findings are significant to develop antifrosting nanotechnologies for energy-effective heat exchangers such as heat pumps and refrigerators. PMID:24912381

  5. Engine Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperature of turbine engines reduces fuel consumption and increases engine efficiency. However, engine components must be protected from excessive heat. Lewis Research Center has successfully developed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which are deposited on the components. They insulate, offer oxidation and corrosion resistance and increase adherence. Surface temperatures can be reduced by 200 degrees centigrade or more. G. E. Aircraft Engines, a Lewis contractor, now uses a TBC based on the one developed at Lewis, on production engines. The system, which consists of a bond and a top coat extends component life from 1.3 to 2 times. The company is also testing TBCs on components that operate at higher temperatures.

  6. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  7. Swelling, irradiation creep and growth of pure rhenium irradiated with fast neutrons at 1030-1330°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, F. A.; Toloczko, M. B.; Greenwood, L. R.; Eiholzer, C. R.; Paxton, M. M.; Puigh, R. J.

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses the results of two series of experiments conducted on pure hcp rhenium in the EBR-II and FFTF fast reactors. In FFTF, density change data were derived from open tubes and solid rods irradiated at temperatures and fluences in the range of 1020-1250°C and 4.4-8.3×1022 n cm-2, respectively (E > 0.1 MeV). Both density change and diametral change data were obtained from pressurized tubes irradiated in EBR-II to ∼0.65 and ∼5.1×1022 n cm-2 at temperatures between 1030°C and 1330°C. Analysis of the data shows that four concurrent processes contribute to the radiation-induced strains observed in these experiments. These are void swelling, transmutation-induced densification via production of osmium, irradiation creep and irradiation growth.

  8. A systematic study of proton, alpha and cluster decays in Rhenium isotopes using the effective liquid drop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Deepthy Maria; Ashok, Nithu; Joseph, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Employing the effective liquid drop model (ELDM), half-lives of proton and alpha decays and probable cluster decays are computed and analyzed for different proton-rich and neutron-rich isotopes of Rhenium. The investigation fortifies the phenomenon of cluster radioactivity (CR) in rare earth nuclei and also affirms the pivotal role played by neutron magicity in cluster decays. ELDM data is compared with that of universal decay law (UDL) model and found to be more efficient than the latter one. Apparently, cluster emissions slacken as the neutron number of daughter nucleus goes up and the linear nature of Geiger-Nuttall (G-N) plots stays unaltered even if the surface potential is incorporated.

  9. The Role of Rhenium on the Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure of a Model Ni-Al-Cr-Re Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Kevin E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Rhenium (2 at.%) additions to a model Ni-8.5 at.% Cr-10 at.% Al alloy are studied with respect to its effects on the temporal evolution of the nanostructure and the partitioning behavior of the four elements between the gamma (fcc) and gamma' (L1(sub 2)) phases. Chemical evolution of this quaternary alloy aged at 1073 K from 0.25 to 264 h, is investigated by three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy. The morphology of gamma'-precipitates remains spheroidal, even at an aging time of 264 h. The results demonstrate that Re slows the coarsening of gamma'-precipitates, in comparison to the ternary Ni-10 at.% A1-8.5 at.% Cr alloy at 1073 K.

  10. Triphenylamine-functionalized rhenium (I) complex as a highly efficient yellow-green emitter in electrophosphorescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunbo; Li, Jiang; Li, Bin; Hong, Ziruo; Zhao, Feifei; Liu, Shiyong; Li, Wenlian

    2006-12-01

    A complex (3-ethyl-2-(4'-triphenylamino)imidazo[4,5-f] 1,10-phenanthroline) Re(CO)3Br functionalized by a hole-transport group triphenylamine was used to fabricate organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). A current efficiency up to 17.6cd/A corresponding to a power efficiency of 9.2ml/W and a peak brightness as high as 6500cd/m2 were obtained. These results represent the best values reported for OLEDs based on rhenium complexes. Enhanced carrier injection capability of Re complex and efficient charge-trapping formation followed by triplet exciton confinement in the emissive layer make for the outstanding electrophosphorescent performances.

  11. A surface site as polydentate ligand of a metal complex: Density functional studies of rhenium subcarbonyls supported on magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, A.; Neyman, K.M.; Staufer, M.; Belling, T.; Gates, B.C.; Roesch, N.

    1999-05-12

    Notwithstanding the importance of supported organometallic species as industrial catalysts, most are nonuniform mixtures, with only a few being well-characterized at the atomic level. Rhenium subcarbonyls on MgO, in contrast, consist of nearly uniform surface species and are among the best-studied organometallic complexes on oxides. EXAFS and infrared spectra showed that decomposition of the precursors [HRe(CO){sub 5}], [H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}], and [Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}] on MgO powder results in fragments, assigned as Re(CO){sub 3}{sup n+}, coordinated to surface ligands. The concept of a surface site as a polydentate ligand evokes the remarkable circumstance in which the adsorbate-substrate bonds are as strong as metal-ligand bonds in common transition metal complexes, as shown by the present investigation.

  12. Low driving voltage and high stability organic light-emitting diodes with rhenium oxide-doped hole transporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Hyung-Dol; Kang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2007-07-01

    The authors report a promising metal oxide-doped hole transporting layer (HTL) of rhenium oxide (ReO3)-doped N ,N'-diphenyl-N ,N'-bis (1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic light-emitting diodes with ReO3-doped NPB HTL exhibit driving voltage of 5.2-5.4V and power efficiency of 2.2-2.3lm/W at 20mA/cm2, which is significantly improved compared to those (7.1V and 2.0lm/W, respectively) obtained from the devices with undoped NPB. Furthermore, the device with ReO3-doped NPB layer reveals the prolonged lifetime than that with undoped NPB. Details of ReO3 doping effects are described based on the UV-Vis absorption spectra and characteristics of hole-only devices.

  13. Tetra-μ3-hydroxido-tetra­kis­[tricarbonyl­rhenium(I)] pyridine tetra­solvate

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, M.; Brink, A.; Visser, H. G.; Roodt, A.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Re4(μ3-OH)4(CO)12]·4C5H5N, crystallizes with one tetranuclear rhenium(I) cubane-like molecule and four pyridine mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The coordination environment of each ReI atom is distorted octahedral. Four intra­molecular O—H⋯N and four inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter­actions are observed. Relatively strong hydrogen bonds are found between the hydrogen-bond donor (μ3-OH) and acceptor (basic N atom of pyridine), with N⋯O distances between 2.586 (10) and 2.628 (10) Å. Inter­cube distances of 9.873 (2) and 12.376 (3) Å are observed. PMID:22969493

  14. Synthesis, characterization and binding affinities of rhenium(I) thiosemicarbazone complexes for the estrogen receptor (α/β).

    PubMed

    Núñez-Montenegro, Ara; Carballo, Rosa; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel M

    2014-11-01

    The binding affinities towards estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β of a set of thiosemicarbazone ligands (HL(n)) and their rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes [ReX(HL(n))(CO)3] (X=Cl, Br) were determined by a competitive standard radiometric assay with [(3)H]-estradiol. The ability of the coordinated thiosemicarbazone ligands to undergo deprotonation and the lability of the ReX bond were used as a synthetic strategy to obtain [Re(hpy)(L(n))(CO)3] (hpy=3- or 4-hydroxypyridine). The inclusion of the additional hpy ligand endows the new thiosemicarbazonate complexes with an improved affinity towards the estrogen receptors and, consequently, the values of the inhibition constant (Ki) could be determined for some of them. In general, the values of Ki for both ER subtypes suggest an appreciable selectivity towards ERα. PMID:25061691

  15. Effects of diffusion on energy transfer in solution using a microsecond decay time rhenium metal ligand complex as the donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuśba, Józef; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Johnson, Michael L.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2000-03-01

    We used resonance energy transfer and frequency-domain fluorometry to measure slow donor to acceptor diffusion in viscous media. The frequency-domain RET data were analyzed using a new numerical algorithm for predicting the donor intensity decay in the presence of diffusion occurring within the donor decay time. By the use of a rhenium metal-ligand complex as a microsecond decay time donor we were able to measure mutual donor-to-acceptor diffusion coefficients as low as 2×10 -8 cm 2/s. The availability of microsecond decay time luminophores and appropriate theory suggests the use of diffusion-enhanced energy transfer for measurement of diffusive processes and structural dynamics in biological systems.

  16. Transport of Technetium and Rhenium into Refractory Materials during Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Matyas, J.; Pierce, E.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Schweiger, M.J.; Beck, A.E.; Campbell, B.E.

    2006-07-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected as a potential supplemental waste treatment process to support the commitment for cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) stored in large waste storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. In the BV process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed within a castable refractory block (CRB) and sand, all within a metal box. Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed and produces a durable glass waste form. During engineering-scale tests of By, a small fraction of radioactive technetium-99 (Tc) and rhenium (Re) (a nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the CRB. Tc is a primary risk driver for long-term performance of immobilized LAW; therefore, even small fractions of Tc present in a readily leachable form rather than immobilized in a glass matrix can impact long-term performance of the immobilized waste. Laboratory and engineering-scale studies were undertaken to reduce or eliminate the readily leachable Tc in the CRB. These studies focused on 1) understanding the mechanisms of the transport of Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification, and 2) evaluating various means of protecting the CRB against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used either Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc, or Re and Tc together. A conceptual Tc/Re transport model was developed based on observed laboratory experiments to attempt to explain the transport behavior seen in engineering-scale tests. At temperatures below 650 deg. C, molten ionic salt (MIS) containing Tc and Re penetrates by capillarity from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 650 to 750 deg. C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NO{sub x}, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na{sub 2}O formed during decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the

  17. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  18. Thermally induced atomic diffusion at the interface between release agent coating and mould substrate in a glass moulding press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Jun; Yan, Jiwang; Zhou, Tianfeng; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Fukase, Yasushi

    2011-06-01

    In a glass moulding press (GMP) for refractive/diffractive hybrid lenses, to improve the service life of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) plated moulds, it is necessary to control the diffusion of constituent elements from the mould into the release agent coating. In this study, diffusion phenomena of constituents of Ni-P plating are investigated for two types of release agent coatings, iridium-platinum (Ir-Pt) and iridium-rhenium (Ir-Re), by cross-sectional observation, compositional analysis and stress measurements. The results show that Ni atoms in the plating layer flow from regions of compressive stress to regions of tensile stress. In the case of the Ir-Pt coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is promoted from the grain boundaries between the Ni and Ni3P phases in the plating towards the surface of the Ir-Pt coating. However, in the Ir-Re coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is suppressed because the diffusion coefficient of Ni in the Ir-Re alloy is smaller than that in the Ir-Pt alloy, although the stress state is similar in both cases. By controlling the diffusion of Ni atoms, the use of Ir-Re alloy as a release agent coating for Ni-P plated moulds is expected to lead to a high degree of durability.

  19. RHENIUM SOLUBILITY IN BOROSILICATE NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROCESSING AND IMMOBILIZATION OF TECHNETIUM-99 (AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION WITH GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT)

    SciTech Connect

    AA KRUGER; A GOEL; CP RODRIGUEZ; JS MCCLOY; MJ SCHWEIGER; WW LUKENS; JR, BJ RILEY; D KIM; M LIEZERS; P HRMA

    2012-08-13

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State in the U.S., the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is {approx} 1,300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW sodium borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of previously established similarities in ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing target Re concentrations varying from 0 to10,000 ppm by mass were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 DC. The rhenium was found to be present predominantly as Re7 + in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be {approx}3,000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of alkali perrhenate crystalline inclusions detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Assuming justifiably substantial similarities between Re7 + and Tc 7+ behavior in this glass system, these results implied that the processing and immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes should not be limited by the solubility of 99Tc in borosilicate LAW glasses.

  20. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  1. Characterization and thermolysis reactions of CO{sub 2} bridged iron-tin and rhenium-tin complexes. Structure-reactivity correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.H.; Ye, M.; Sleadd, B.A.; Mehta, J.M.; Mbadike, O.P.; Richardson, J.F.; Mashuta, M.S.

    1995-03-01

    We report here our studies of the thermolysis behavior of iron-tin complexes and related rhenium-tin complexes and new structural data which allow further correlations to be made between thermolysis activity and bonding parameters involving the CO{sub 2} ligand. All compounds have been characterized by solid-state IR spectral methods which allow a determination of the {mu}{sub 2}-{eta}{sup 2} or {mu}{sub 2}-{eta}{sup 3} bonding mode in each compound when compared with structural data on representative compounds of each type. Factors which control the ease of thermolysis and the mode of decomposition are the bonding type, the presence of electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups on the tin atom as well as those on iron or rhenium, metal-carbon bond strength, the orientation of the bridging CO{sub 2} ligand between the two metal centers, and, most importantly, the stability of the corresponding metal (iron or rhenium) anion. Reaction mechanisms are proposed which are consistent with structural and electronic differences that lead to separate thermolysis paths. 17 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Slip casting and extruding shapes of rhemium with metal oxide additives. Part 2: Development of grain stabilized rhenium parts for resistojets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Francis A.; Page, Russell J.

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of the powdered particle process used for pure metal oxides to the coprocessing of rhenium oxides suitable to produce pure miniature resistojet hardware has been successful. Both slip casting and extrusion processes were used. The metal oxide ZrO2 was stabilized into the cubic phase with Y2O3, for use as a potentially grain stabilizing additive to rhenium. Straight meter long tubing in two sizes are reported. Tubing suitable for resistojet ohmic heater use of fully fired dimensions of nominally 3.8 mm o.d. x 2.2 mm i.d.. and 1.26 mm o.d. x .45 mm i.d. with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0% zirconia additives were produced for further study. Photomicrographs of these are discussed. The addition of the metal oxide zirconia to rhenium resulted in more dense and less porous parts. The additions of phase stabilized zirconia most likely act as a sintering aid. Tubes of varying diameter were slip cast which were representative of miniature pressure cases.

  3. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  4. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  5. A design of backing seat and gasket assembly in diamond anvil cell for accurate single crystal x-ray diffraction to 5 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.; Kagi, H.; Yasuzuka, T.; Koizumi, T.; Iizuka, R.; Sugiyama, K.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We designed a new cell assembly of diamond anvil cells for single crystal x-ray diffraction under pressure and demonstrate the application of the cell to the crystallographic studies for ice VI and ethanol high-pressure (HP) phase at 0.95(5) GPa and 1.95(2) GPa, respectively. The features of the assembly are: (1) the platy anvil and unique-shaped backing seat (called as "Wing seat") allowing the extremely wide opening angle up to ±65°, (2) the PFA-bulk metallic glass composite gasket allowing the easy attenuation correction and less background. Thanks to the designed assembly, the Rint values after attenuation corrections are fairly good (0.0125 and 0.0460 for ice VI and ethanol HP phase, respectively), and the errors of the refined parameters are satisfactory small even for hydrogen positions, those are comparable to the results which obtained at ambient conditions. The result for ice VI is in excellent agreement with the previous study, and that for ethanol HP phase has remarkable contributions to the revision to its structure; the H12 site, which makes gauche molecules with O1, C2, and C3 sites, may not exist so that only trans conformers are present at least at 1.95(2) GPa. The accurate intensities using the cell assembly allow us to extract the electron density for ethanol HP phase by the maximum entropy method.

  6. The Chemistry of Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of natural and synthetic polymeric "coatings" are reviewed, including examples and uses of such coatings as cellulose nitrate lacquers (for automobile paints), polyethylene, and others. (JN)

  7. Luminescent Rhenium(I) and Iridium(III) Polypyridine Complexes as Biological Probes, Imaging Reagents, and Photocytotoxic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2015-12-15

    Although the interactions of transition metal complexes with biological molecules have been extensively studied, the use of luminescent transition metal complexes as intracellular sensors and bioimaging reagents has not been a focus of research until recently. The main advantages of luminescent transition metal complexes are their high photostability, long-lived phosphorescence that allows time-resolved detection, and large Stokes shifts that can minimize the possible self-quenching effect. Also, by the use of transition metal complexes, the degree of cellular uptake can be readily determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For more than a decade, we have been interested in the development of luminescent transition metal complexes as covalent labels and noncovalent probes for biological molecules. We argue that many transition metal polypyridine complexes display triplet charge transfer ((3)CT) emission that is highly sensitive to the local environment of the complexes. Hence, the biological labeling and binding interactions can be readily reflected by changes in the photophysical properties of the complexes. In this laboratory, we have modified luminescent tricarbonylrhenium(I) and bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes of general formula [Re(bpy-R(1))(CO)3(py-R(2))](+) and [Ir(ppy-R(3))2(bpy-R(4))](+), respectively, with reactive functional groups and used them to label the amine and sulfhydryl groups of biomolecules such as oligonucleotides, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Additionally, using a range of biological substrates such as biotin, estradiol, and indole, we have designed luminescent rhenium(I) and iridium(III) polypyridine complexes as noncovalent probes for biological receptors. The interesting results generated from these studies have prompted us to investigate the possible applications of luminescent transition metal complexes in intracellular systems. Thus, in the past few years, we have developed an interest

  8. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  9. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  10. Coating life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Gedwill, Michael A.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation combines both experimental studies and numerical modeling to predict coating life in an oxidizing environment. The experimental work provides both input to and verification of two numerical models. The coatings being examined are an aluminide coating on Udimet 700 (U-700), a low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS) Ni-18Co-17Cr-24Al-0.2Y overlay coating also on U- 700, and bulk deposits of the LPPS NiCoCrAlY coating.

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of rhenium(I) complexes: Influence of the extended π-conjugated connectors and proton abstraction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ling; Hong, Bo; Yang, Ning; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer chemistry is very crucial to the development of nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with large first hyperpolarizability contrast. We have performed a systematic investigation on the geometric structures, NLO switching, and simulated absorption spectra of rhenium(I) complexes via density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the first hyperpolarizabilities (βvec) increase remarkably with further extending of the organic connectors. In addition, the solvent leads to a slight enhancement of the hyperpolarizability and frequency dependent hyperpolarizability. Furthermore, the proton abstraction plays an important role in tuning the second-order NLO response. It is found that deprotonation not only increases the absolute value of βvec but also changes the sign of βvec from positive to negative. This different sign can be explained by the opposite dipole moments. The efficient enhancement of first hyperpolarizability is attributed to the better delocalization of the π-electron system and the more obvious degree of charge transfer. Therefore, these kinds of complexes might be promising candidates for designed as proton driven molecular second-order NLO switching. PMID:26280687

  12. Photo-reduction of CO2 Using a Rhenium Complex Covalently Supported on a Graphene/TiO2 Composite.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shi-Cong; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2016-07-01

    One of the promising solutions for decreasing atmospheric CO2 is artificial photosynthesis, in which CO2 can be photoconverted into solar fuels. In this study, a rhenium complex Re(PyBn)(CO)3 Cl (PyBn=1-(2-picolyl)-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole) was covalently grafted onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). This was further combined with TiO2 to fabricate a novel catalyst composite TiO2 -rGO-Re(PyBn)(CO)3 Cl for CO2 photo-reduction. This hybrid composite demonstrated high selectivity conversion of CO2 into CO under xenon-lamp irradiation. Compared with the unsupported homogeneous catalyst Re(PyBn)(CO)3 Cl, the covalent immobilized catalyst composite TiO2 -rGO-Re(PyBn)(CO)3 Cl enhanced the turnover number six times and significantly improved catalyst stability. During the process of CO2 photo-reduction, intermediate species with lifetimes longer than hundreds of microseconds were observed and the formation of CO products was revealed using timeresolved infrared spectroscopy. A plausible mechanism for CO2 photo-reduction by the TiO2 -rGO-Re(PyBn)(CO)3 Cl catalyst composite has been suggested. The obtained results have implications for the future design of efficient catalyst composites for CO2 photo-conversion. PMID:27254666

  13. Combined in situ XRD and in situ XANES studies on the reduction behavior of a rhenium promoted cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin; Payzant, E A; Jothimurugesan, K; Spivey, J J

    2011-08-28

    A 10% Co-4% Re/(2% Zr/SiO(2)) catalyst was prepared by co-impregnation using a silica support modified by 2% Zr. The catalyst was characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), in situ XRD and in situ XANES analysis where it was simultaneously exposed to H(2) using a temperature programmed ramp. The results showed the two step reduction of large crystalline Co(3)O(4) with CoO as an intermediate. TPR results showed that the reduction of highly dispersed Co(3)O(4) was facilitated by reduced rhenium by a H(2)-spillover mechanism. In situ XRD results showed the presence of both, Co-hcp and Co-fcc phases in the reduced catalyst at 400 °C. However, the Co-hcp phase was more abundant, which is thought to be the more active phase as compared to the Co-fcc phase for CO hydrogenation. CO hydrogenation at 270 °C and 5 bar pressure produces no detectable change in the phases during the time of experiment. In situ XANES results showed a decrease in the metallic cobalt in the presence of H(2)/CO, which can be attributed due to oxidation of the catalyst by reaction under these conditions. PMID:21743918

  14. Temperature dependence of thermal positive ion production from sodium bromide molecules incident upon a glowing rhenium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Kenpō, Tsutomu

    1984-08-01

    Emission current of Na+ ions produced from NaBr molecules impinging with a flux of 6.55×1013 molecules cm-2 s-1 upon a heated polycrystalline rhenium surface in the residual gas pressure of about 2×10-7 Torr was measured as a function of surface temperature (T) in the range of about 900-2100 K, thereby indicating that the sticking probability of NaBr to the surface is virtually unity and that the ionization efficiency ( β+) is ˜1 and 0.23 for T≂1100-1500 and 1800-2100 K, respectively. These results are explained reasonably by our previous theory that the degree (γ) of dissociation of incident molecules generally depends upon the ionization coefficient (α+) and hence upon the effective work function (φ+) for the positive ionization unless α+ is much smaller than unity. The value of φ+ was 5.45-5.51 eV for T≳1800 K, below which φ+ gradually increased up to ˜6.8 eV according to a decrease in T. By this increase both β+ and γ were kept at virtually unity even at a low temperature down to about 1100 K, at which they began to decrease sharply with a reduction in T because φ+ had already turned to a decrease at about 1200 K.

  15. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  16. A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative as a model molecule for incorporation into phospholipid assemblies for skin applications.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Rodríguez, Gelen; Hostachy, Sarah; Clède, Sylvain; Cócera, Mercedes; Sandt, Christophe; Lambert, François; de la Maza, Alfonso; Policar, Clotilde; López, Olga

    2015-07-01

    A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative (fac-[Re(CO)3Cl(2-(1-dodecyl-1H-1,2,3,triazol-4-yl)-pyridine)]) was incorporated into phospholipid assemblies, called bicosomes, and the penetration of this molecule into skin was monitored using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR). To evaluate the capacity of bicosomes to promote the penetration of this derivative, the skin penetration of the Re(CO)3 derivative dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a typical enhancer, was also studied. Dynamic light scattering results (DLS) showed an increase in the size of the bicosomes with the incorporation of the Re(CO)3 derivative, and the FTIR microspectroscopy showed that the Re(CO)3 derivative incorporated in bicosomes penetrated deeper into the skin than when dissolved in DMSO. When this molecule was applied on the skin using the bicosomes, 60% of the Re(CO)3 derivative was retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and 40% reached the epidermis (Epi). Otherwise, the application of this molecule via DMSO resulted in 95% of the Re(CO)3 derivative being in the SC and only 5% reaching the Epi. Using a Re(CO)3 derivative with a dodecyl-chain as a model molecule, it was possible to determine the distribution of molecules with similar physicochemical characteristics in the skin using bicosomes. This fact makes these nanostructures promising vehicles for the application of lipophilic molecules inside the skin. PMID:25969419

  17. Effects of rhenium alloying on the microstructures and mechanical properties of directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Wu, Z.L.; Gibala, R.

    1997-12-31

    Low ductility of the reinforcing bcc metal phase at room temperature and weak interfaces can limit the intrinsic toughness and ductility of NiAl-bcc metal eutectic composites. The potential of rhenium (Re) addition, which is known to solid solution soften and lower the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of various bcc metals, to enhance the ductility and toughness of a directionally solidified NiAl-9 at.% Mo eutectic alloy was investigated. Re partitioned to the bcc metal phase and formed a substitutional solid solution. The interface morphology was changed from a faceted to a non-faceted one. Re alloying caused softening of the Mo fibers, and as a result NiAl-Mo(Re) alloys were softer in compression and flexure and had {approximately}20% higher fracture toughness values as compared to the transverse orientation toughness of NiAl-9Mo alloy. The toughness of the NiAl-Mo(Re) alloys was lower than the longitudinal orientation toughness of the NiAl-9Mo alloy due to the poor alignment of the Mo(Re) phase with the growth direction. The toughening mechanisms have been evaluated and schemes for processing NiAl-Mo(Re) alloys for higher toughness in the longitudinal orientation are suggested. The role of the residual interstitial impurities and partitioning of Ni and Al to Mo fibers on the mechanical properties are highlighted.

  18. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with rhenium-186 using the MAG3 chelate for radioimmunotherapy of cancer: a technical protocol.

    PubMed

    Visser, G W; Gerretsen, M; Herscheid, J D; Snow, G B; van Dongen, G

    1993-11-01

    A detailed technical protocol is provided for reproducible and aseptical production of stable 186Re-monoclonal antibody conjugates. Labeled Mab E48 IgG and its F(ab')2 fragment which are promising candidates for radioimmunotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were used for evaluation. S-benzoylmercaptoacetyltriglycine (S-benzoyl-MAG3) was used as a precursor. Rhenium-186-MAG3 was prepared via a unique solid-phase synthesis, after which known strategies for esterification and conjugation to Mab IgG/F(ab')2 were applied. The biodistribution of 186Re-E48 F(ab')2 in tumor-bearing nude mice was found to be comparable to that of analogously labeled 99mTc-E48 F(ab')2 or 131I-E48 F(ab')2, indicating that the intrinsic behavior of the antibody remains preserved when using this labeling technique. Radiolytic decomposition of 186Re-E48 IgG/F(ab')2 solutions of 10 mCi.ml-1 was effectively reduced by the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Upon increase of the Re-MAG3 molar amount, a conjugation of seven to eight Re-MAG3 molecules per Mab molecule was generally the maximum ratio that could chemically be obtained. Such a ratio did not impair the immunoreactivity or alter the in vivo biodistribution characteristics of the immunoconjugate, making this labeling procedure suitable for general clinical application. PMID:8229241

  19. Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance in metallic powders in the presence of strong quadrupole interaction: Rhenium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitropoulos, C.; Maglione, M.; Borsa, F.

    1988-03-01

    The nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR-NMR) spectra of /sup 187/Re and /sup 185/Re in a powder of rhenium metal were measured in the temperature range 5--10 K both in zero field and with an external magnetic field. The zero-field NQR spectrum is severely broadened by a nonuniform distribution of quadrupole interactions. The average quadrupole coupling frequencies measured at 5 K are, for the two isotopes, ..nu../sub Q/ = 39 +- 0.2 MHz (/sup 187/Re) and ..nu../sub Q/ = 40.8 +- 0.3 MHz (/sup 185/Re). The spectra obtained in the presence of an external magnetic field can be interpreted satisfactorily in terms of transitions among the eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian (Zeeman plus quadrupolar). Measurements of relaxation rates yield T/sub 1/T = 0.03 sK, indicating a relaxation mechanism driven by the hyperfine interaction with the conduction electrons. The feasibility of NQR-NMR studies in small metal particles in the presence of strong inhomogeneous quadrupole interactions is assessed

  20. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  1. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    SciTech Connect

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  2. Apparatus for coating powders

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  3. Coated laser mirror and method of coating

    SciTech Connect

    Shuskus, A.J.; Cowher, M.E.

    1984-04-24

    A method of applying an intermediate bond coat on a laser mirror substrate is described comprising surface polishing the mirror substrate followed by depositing a layer of amorphous silicon, amorphous germanium, or mixtures thereof on the mirror surface, and polishing the thus coated mirror surface to a substantially void-free surface finish. Laser mirror substrates such as graphite fiber reinforced glass, molybdenum and silicon carbide coated by such process are also described.

  4. Experimental determination of the hydrothermal solubility of ReS2 and the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wood, Scott A

    2002-01-01

    To understand the aqueous species important for transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions, we conducted a series of solubility experiments on the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and ReS2. In these experiments, pH was buffered by the K–feldspar–muscovite–quartz assemblage; in sulfur-free systems was buffered by the Re–ReO2 assemblage; and and in sulfur-containing systems were buffered by the magnetite–pyrite–pyrrhotite assemblage. Our experimental studies indicate that the species ReCl40 is dominant at 400°C in slightly acidic to near-neutral, and chloride-rich (total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 M) environments, and ReCl3+ may predominate at 500°C in a solution with total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The results also demonstrate that the solubility of ReS2 is about two orders of magnitude less than that of ReO2. This finding not only suggests that ReS2 (or a ReS2 component in molybdenite) is the solubility-controlling phase in sulfur-containing, reducing environments but also implies that a mixing process involving an oxidized, rhenium-containing solution and a solution with reduced sulfur is one of the most effective mechanisms for deposition of rhenium. In analogy with Re, TcS2 may be the stable Tc-bearing phase in deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes.

  5. Nitrosyl complexes of rhenium. 2. Neutral and cationic monohydride complexes of rhenium(I) resulting from the reaction of ReH/sub 2/(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/ with perchloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grundy, K.R.; Robertson, K.N.

    1985-11-06

    The rhenium dihydride complex ReH/sub 2/(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/ reacts with HClO/sub 4/ in the presence of CO with the cleavage of only one hydride ligand. Control of the degree of acidity and the solvent system leads to isolation of compounds such as ReH(OR)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (R = Me, Et) and (ReH(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/)ClO/sub 4/. The alkoxide complexes are protonated by HClO/sub 4/ to yield alcohol complexes ReH(ROH.OClO/sub 3/)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/. Heating ReH(MeOH.OClO/sub 3/)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ in methanol results in the formal 1,2-elimination of dihydrogen with formation of Re(OMe)(OClO/sub 3/)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/. A similar elimination reaction occurs when the alcohol complexes are reacted with halide ions to give ReX(OR)(CO)(NO(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (X = Cl, Br, I). Reacting the alcohol complexes with base or NaBH/sub 4/ however, regenerates ReH(OR)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The perchlorate complex, Re(OMe)(OClO/sub 3/)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ reacts with NaBH/sub 4/ to give ReH/sub 2/(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ via a borohydride complex. The chloro-alkoxy complexes ReCl(OR)(CO)(NO)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ also react with HClO/sub 4/ to give alcohol complexes. All structural assignments have been made on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy, and deuteration studies. 14 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Rhenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 1,3-Diiminoisoindolines via Insertion of Carbodiimides into a C-H Bond of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Imidates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijia; Sueki, Shunsuke; Kanai, Motomu; Kuninobu, Yoichiro

    2016-05-20

    The rhenium-catalyzed synthesis of 1,3-diiminoisoindolines and their related compounds from aromatic or heteroaromatic imidates and carbodiimides are reported via C-H bond activation. This reaction is the first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed insertion of carbodiimides into an aromatic or heteroaromatic C-H bond and a novel method for synthesizing 1,3-diiminoisoindolines and their related compounds. Unsymmetrical 1,3-diiminoisoindolines were easily obtained using this method. The reaction proceeded in good to excellent yield using a variety of substrates. PMID:27153181

  7. Photodetectors: Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine (PPh3 ) and (3-amino-propyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by J.-H. Park and co-workers on page 6711 in comparison with a conventional MoS2 device. A very high performance ReSe2 photodetector is demonstrated, which has a broad photodetection range, high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), and fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms). PMID:27511529

  8. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  9. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

  10. ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cleaner coating removal technologies are developing rapidly to meet a variety of industrial needs to replace solvent strippers having toxic properties. his guide describes cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce waste in coating removal operations. nformation is presented...

  11. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  12. Impact of Rhenium-188, Gemcitabine, and 5-Fluorouracil on Cholangiocellular Carcinoma Cells: An In Vitro Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesinger, Benjamin Farkas, Emese; Kehlbach, Rainer; Bantleon, Ruediger; Werner, Matthias; Wiskirchen, Jakub

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effects of radioactive stents and radioactive stents plus additional chemotherapy in the palliative treatment of cholangiocellular carcinomas. Cholangiocellular carcinoma cells (TFK-1 cells) were treated either with 8 Gy (RTB group) or 16 Gy (RTA group) {sup 188}Re or with {sup 188}Re irradiation (8 Gy) combined with either gemcitabine (8 Gy/Gem) or 5-fluorouracil (8 Gy/5-FU) at a dosage of 20 {mu}g/ml medium for 4 days and subsequently compared with an untreated control group. Proliferation kinetics were assessed on days 4, 7, 11, 18, 25, and 32. Colony formation assays were performed on days 7, 18, and 32 and cell cycle distribution was examined on days 4, 7, 11, 15, 25, and 39. Cell proliferation kinetics showed the lowest cell numbers in the 8 Gy/5-FU group (control, 15,390,000; RTA group, 8,394,000; RTB group, 5,609,000; 8 Gy/Gem group, 423,000; and 8 Gy/5-FU group, 297,667). In contrast, clonogenic activity on day 32 was lower in the 8 Gy/Gem group (control, 29.3 colonies; RTB group, 23.1 colonies; 8 Gy/5-FU group, 21.5 colonies; 8 Gy/Gem, 3.3 colonies; and even augmented in the RTA group, with 37.7 colonies). Cell cycle distribution showed similar curves for all groups on slightly different levels except for the 8 Gy/5-FU group, which showed a relatively augmented percentage of cells on day 7 in the G2 M cycle phase and on day 4 in the S phase. In conclusion, irradiation (8 Gy) with {sup 188}Re administered, e.g., via coated stents, combined with Gem could be a valid option for the treatment of CCCs.

  13. Investigation of molybdenum-44.5%rhenium as cell wall material in an AMTEC based space power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Ruhkamp, Joe D.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Howell, Edwin I.; Williams, Melvin K.; McDougal, James R.; Booher, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of radioisotope space power systems based on AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal to Electrical Conversion) technology is presently being developed. The future application of this technology, as the electrical power system for outer planet deep space missions, is ultimately dependent on it being robust enough to withstand the mission's operational environments (high temperatures, dynamic loadings, long mission durations etc). One of the critical material selections centers on the cell wall whose physical and chemical properties must provide it with sufficient strength and material compatibility to successfully complete the mission. Niobium-1%zirconium has been selected as the baseline cell wall material with a molybdenum/rhenium alloy being the cell wall backup material. While these refractory materials have been commercially available for a number of years, several of their physical and mechanical properties have not been completely characterized especially within the expected operating parameters of an AMTEC based space power system. Additional characterization of the selected refractory alloys was initiated by fabricating mechanical test specimens out of ~0.5 mm (0.020'') thick sheets of material. Test specimens were heat treated at 1073K and 1198K for up to 150 hours under an argon cover gas containing small concentrations of oxygen. Room temperature and high temperature (1073K/1198K) mechanical tests were performed to determine the effect of time, temperature, and atmosphere on the mechanical properties of the refractory alloys. In addition, since the fabrication of AMTEC cell walls requires the welding of sheet material into a cylindrical shape, preliminary electron beam welding studies were performed. Comparison of the various test results obtained on Mo-44.5%Re and Nb-1%Zr samples are discussed. .

  14. Contrasting photophysical properties of rhenium(i) tricarbonyl complexes having carbazole groups attached to the polypyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L D; Sampaio, R N; de Assis, F F; de Oliveira, K T; Homem-de-Mello, P; Patrocinio, A O T; Frin, K P M

    2016-07-19

    In the present work, new rhenium(i) polypyridyl compounds, fac-[Re(L)(CO)3(cbz2phen)](+/0) where cbz2phen = 4,7-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline and L = Cl(-), pyridine (py) or 2-aminomethylpyridine (ampy) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Their photophysical properties were investigated by steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. These compounds show a strong and broad absorption band around 350-500 nm that, also by TD-DFT, corresponds to the carbazol → phenanthroline intraligand charge transfer transition, (1)ILCTcbz2phen, with some contribution of the Re(i) → phenanthroline metal-to-ligand charge transfer transition, (1)MLCTRe→cbz2phen. In contrast to typical Re(i) polypyridyl complexes, cbz2phen-based Re(i) compounds exhibit two emission maxima in CH3CN solution and relatively low emission quantum yields, 10(-3)-10(-2). Solution phase time-resolved photoluminescence and excited state quenching experiments provided meaningful information on the presence of multiple emitter states after light excitation, which were identified as an (1)ILCTcbz2phen excited state deactivation at higher energies and a long-lived phosphorescence attributed to the (3)MLCTRe→cbz2phen excited state. When embedded into a PMMA matrix, the radiative decay from the singlet state is inhibited and the contribution of both (3)MLCT and (3)ILCTcbz2phen to the luminescence is observed. The photophysics of these Re(i) compounds reported herein provide new insights into the understanding of substitutional groups on the polypyridyl ligands that are relevant to practical and fundamental development of photo-induced molecular devices. PMID:27192346

  15. The effect of reduction on rhenium(I) complexes with binaphthyridine and biquinoline ligands: a spectroscopic and computational study.

    PubMed

    Howell, Sarah L; Scott, Sonya M; Flood, Amar H; Gordon, Keith C

    2005-04-28

    A number of rhenium complexes with binaphthyridine and biquinoline ligands have been synthesized and studied. These are [Re(L)(CO)3Cl] where L = 3,3'-dimethylene-2,2'-bi-1,8-naphthyridine (dbn), 2,2'-bi-1,8-naphthyridine (bn), 3,3'-dimethylene-2,2'-biquinoline (dbq), and 3,3'-dimethyl-2,2'-biquinoline (diq). This series represents ligands in which the electronic properties and steric preferences are tuned. These complexes are modeled using density functional theory (DFT). An analysis of the resonance Raman spectra for these complexes, in concert with the vibrational assignments, reveals that the accepting molecular orbital (MO) in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition is the LUMO and causes bonding changes at the inter-ring section of the ligand. The electronic absorption spectroelectrochemistry for the reduced complexes of [Re(dbn)(CO)3Cl], [Re(dbq)(CO)3Cl], and [Re(diq)(CO)3Cl] suggest that the singly occupied MO is delocalized over the entire ligand structure despite the nonplanar nature of the diq ligand in [Re(diq)(CO)3Cl]. The IR spectroelectrochemistry for [Re(dbn)(CO)3Cl], [Re(dbq)(CO)3Cl], and [Re(bn)(CO)3Cl] reveal that reduction lowers the CO ligand vibrational frequencies to a similar extent in all three complexes. The substitution of naphthyridine for quinoline has little effect on the nature of the singly occupied MO. These data are supported by DFT calculations on the reduced complexes, which reveal that the ligands are flattened out by reduction: This may explain the similarity in the properties of the reduced complexes. PMID:16839043

  16. χ and σ phases in binary rhenium-transition metal systems: a systematic first-principles investigation.

    PubMed

    Crivello, Jean-Claude; Breidi, Abedalhasan; Joubert, Jean-Marc

    2013-04-01

    The Frank-Kasper phases, known as topologically close-packed (tcp) phases, are interesting examples of intermetallic compounds able to accommodate large homogeneity ranges by atom mixing on different sites. Among them, the χ and σ phases present two competing complex crystallographic structures, the stability of which is driven by both geometric and electronic factors. Rhenium (Re) is the element forming the largest number of binary χ and σ phases. Its central position among the transition metals in the periodic table plays an important role in the element ordering in tcp phases. Indeed, it has been shown that Re shows an opposite site preference depending on which elements it is alloyed with. In the present work, χ- and σ-phase stability in binary Re-X systems is systematically studied by a first-principles investigation. The heats of formation of the complete set of ordered configurations (16 for χ and 32 for σ) have been calculated in 16 well-chosen systems to identify stability criteria. They include not only the systems in which χ-Re-X (X = Ti, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) or σ-Re-X (X = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta, W) exist but also the systems in which both phases are not stable, including systems in which X is a 3d element from Ti to Ni, a 4d element from Zr to Ru, and a 5d element from Hf to Os. Careful analysis is done of the energetic tendencies as a function of recomposition, size effect, and electron concentration. Moreover, the site preference and other crystallographic properties are discussed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relative stability of the two phases in comparison with the available experimental knowledge on the systems. PMID:23477863

  17. Ultra-small rhenium nanoparticles immobilized on DNA scaffolds: An excellent material for surface enhanced Raman scattering and catalysis studies.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, S; Sakthikumar, K; Elangovan, Ayyapan; Ravi, G; Karthik, T; Kundu, Subrata

    2016-12-01

    Highly Sensitive and ultra-small Rhenium (Re) metal nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully stabilized in water by the staging and fencing action of the versatile biomolecule DNA that resulted in two distinct aggregated chain-like morphologies with average grain sizes of 1.1±0.1nm and 0.7±0.1nm for the very first time within a minute of reaction time. Re NPs are formed by the borohydride reduction of ammonium perrhenate (NH4ReO4) in the presence of DNA at room temperature (RT) under stirring. The morphologies were controlled by carefully monitoring the molar ratio of NH4ReO4 and DNA. The synthesized material was employed in two potential applications: as a substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies and as a catalyst for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. SERS study was carried out by taking methylene blue (MB) as the probe and the highest SERS enhancement factor (EF) of 2.07×10(7) was found for the aggregated chain-like having average grain size of 0.7±0.1nm. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitro phenol (4-NP), 2-nitro phenol (2-NP) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) with a rate constant value of 6×10(-2)min(-1), 33.83×10(-2)min(-1) and 37.4×10(-2)min(-1) have testified the excellent catalytic performance of our Re NPs immobilized on DNA. The overall study have revealed the capability of DNA in stabilizing the highly reactive Re metal at nanoscale and made them applicable in practice. The present route can also be extended to prepare one dimensional (1-D), self-assembled NPs of other reactive metals, mixed metals or even metal oxides for specific applications in water based solutions. PMID:27571687

  18. Ceramic with zircon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  19. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  20. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  1. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. Evaluate the ability of hexavalent chrome free pretreated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals, and maintain that seal while being subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Assess the performance of trivalent chromium pretreatments against a known control hexavalent chrome pretreatment before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. It is known that environmental testing causes a decrease in shielding effectiveness when hexavalent chrome pretreatments are used (Alodine 1200s). Need to determine how shielding effectiveness will be affected with the use of hexavalent chrome free pretreatments. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings. The formation of corrosion will be evaluated between the mating surfaces and gasket to assess the corrosion resistant properties of the pretreatments, comparing the hexavalent control to the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments.

  2. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.; Leibert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A coating system which contains a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating is applied to metal surfaces such as turbine blades and provides both low thermal conductivity and improved adherence when exposed to high temperature gases or liquids. The bond coating contains NiCrAlY and the thermal barrier coating contains a reflective oxide. The reflective oxides ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-MgO have demonstrated significant utility in high temperature turbine applications.

  3. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  4. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  5. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  6. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  7. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  8. Coating Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Gedwill, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Hot-section gas-turbine components typically require some form of coating for oxidation and corrosion protection. Efficient use of coatings requires reliable and accurate predictions of the protective life of the coating. Currently engine inspections and component replacements are often made on a conservative basis. As a result, there is a constant need to improve and develop the life-prediction capability of metallic coatings for use in various service environments. The purpose of this present work is aimed at developing of an improved methodology for predicting metallic coating lives in an oxidizing environment and in a corrosive environment.

  9. Theoretical studies on the electronic structures and photoelectron spectra of tri-rhenium oxide clusters: Re3On- and Re3On (n = 1-6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qi; Gong, Wei-Chao; Xie, Lu; Zheng, Cun-Gong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yong-Fan; Huang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to study the structural and electronic properties of tri-rhenium oxide clusters Re3On-/0 (n = 1-6). Generalized Koopmans' theorem is applied to predict the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and simulate the photoelectron spectra (PES). Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP level are carried out to search for the global minima for both the anions and the neutrals. For the anions, the first two O atoms prefer the same corner position of a Re3 triangle. Whereas, Re3O3- possesses a C2v symmetry with one bridging and two terminal O atoms. The next three O atoms (n = 4-6) are adding sequentially on the basis of Re3O3- motif, i.e., adding one terminal O atom for Re3O4-, one terminal and one bridging O atoms for Re3O5-, and one terminal and two bridging O atoms for Re3O6-, respectively. Their corresponding neutral species are similar to the anions in geometry except Re3O4 and Re3O5. Molecular orbital analyses are employed to investigate the chemical bonding and structural evolution in these tri-rhenium oxide clusters.

  10. Rhenium tetrazolato complexes coordinated to thioalkyl-functionalised phenanthroline ligands: synthesis, photophysical characterisation, and incubation in live HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Werrett, Melissa V; Wright, Phillip J; Simpson, Peter V; Raiteri, Paolo; Skelton, Brian W; Stagni, Stefano; Buckley, Alysia G; Rigby, Paul J; Massi, Massimiliano

    2015-12-21

    Three new complexes of formulation fac-[Re(CO)3(diim)L], where diim is either 1,10-phenanthroline or 1,10-phenanthroline functionalised at position 5 by a thioalkyl chain, and L is either a chloro or aryltetrazolato ancillary ligand, were synthesised and photophysically characterised. The complexes exhibit phosphorescent emission with maxima around 600 nm, originating from triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer states with partially mixed ligand-to-ligand charge transfer character. The emission is relatively long-lived, within the 200-400 ns range, and with quantum yields of 2-4%. The complexes were trialed as cellular markers in live HeLa cells, along with two previously reported rhenium tetrazolato complexes bound to unsubstituted 1,10-phenanthroline. All five complexes exhibit good cellular uptake and non-specific perinuclear localisation. Upon excitation at 405 nm, the emission from the rhenium complexes could be clearly distinguished from autofluorescence, as demonstrated by spectral detection within the live cells. Four of the complexes did not appear to be toxic, however prolonged excitation could result in membrane blebbing. No major sign of photobleaching was detected upon multiple imaging on the same cell sample. PMID:26563409

  11. Spectral interferences in the determination of rhenium in molybdenum and copper concentrates by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadjov, Metody; Velitchkova, Nikolaya; Veleva, Olga; Velichkov, Serafim; Markov, Pavel; Daskalova, Nonka

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with spectral interferences of complex matrix containing Mo, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca and Cu in the determination of rhenium in molybdenum and copper concentrates by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). By radial viewing 40.68 MHz ICP equipped with a high resolution spectrometer (spectral bandwidth = 5 pm) the hyperfine structure (HFS) of the most prominent lines of rhenium (Re II 197.248 nm, Re II 221.426 nm and Re II 227.525 nm) was registered. The HFS components under high resolution conditions were used as separate prominent line in order to circumvent spectral interferences. The Q-concept was applied for quantification of spectral interferences. The quantitative databases for the type and the magnitude of the spectral interferences in the presence of above mentioned matrix constituents were obtained by using a radial viewing 40.68 MHz ICP with high resolution and an axial viewing 27.12 MHz ICP with middle resolution. The data for the both ICP-OES systems were collected chiefly with a view to spectrochemical analysis for comparing the magnitude of line and wing (background) spectral interference and the true detection limits with spectroscopic apparatus with different spectral resolution.

  12. Förster resonance energy transfer studies of luminescent gold nanoparticles functionalized with ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes: modulation via esterase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Tam, Anthony Yiu-Yan; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Li, Mei-Jin; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-05-14

    A number of ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) bipyridine complexes functionalized with lipoic acid moieties have been synthesized and characterized. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles with these chromophoric ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes has resulted in interesting supramolecular assemblies with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties that could be modulated via esterase hydrolysis. The luminescence of the metal complex chromophores was turned on upon cleavage of the ester bond linkage by esterase to reduce the efficiency of FRET quenching. The prepared nanoassembly conjugates have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism has also been studied by transient absorption and time-resolved emission decay measurements. The FRET efficiencies were found to vary with the nature of the chromophores and the length of the spacer between the donor (transition metal complexes) and the acceptor (gold nanoparticles). PMID:24754668

  13. Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium-osmium sulfide geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Ryan M.; Bell, Chris C.; Creaser, Robert A.; Simonetti, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium-osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events in the northern Black Hills. Arsenopyrite yields a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) age of 1,736 ± 8 Ma (mean squared weighted deviation = 1.6), consistent with existing age constraints for gold mineralization, whereas Re-Os pyrrhotite data are highly scattered and do not yield a meaningful mineralization age. This is taken to indicate that the Re-Os arsenopyrite chronometer is robust to at least 400°C, whereas the Re-Os pyrrhotite chronometer is likely disturbed by temperatures of 300-350°C. The Re-Os arsenopyrite age and initial Os ratio (0.28 ± 0.15) are interpreted to indicate that gold was introduced at ca. 1,730 Ma, coincident with the onset of exhumation of crustal blocks and, possibly, the earliest intrusive phases of Harney Peak granite magmatism. New in situ U-Pb monazite analyses from an aplite dike in the east-central Black Hills indicate that granite magmatism was a protracted event, persisting until at least ca. 1,690 Ma.

  14. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  15. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

  16. Coated Aerogel Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  17. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Beta emitters rhenium-188 and lutetium-177 are equally effective in radioimmunotherapy of HPV-positive experimental cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Phaeton, Rebecca; Jiang, Zewei; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Fisher, Darrell R; Goldberg, Gary L; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer caused by the infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains the fourth leading killer of women worldwide. Therefore, more efficacious treatments are needed. We are developing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of HPV-positive cervical cancers by targeting E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins expressed by the cancer cells with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To investigate the influence of different radionuclides on the RIT efficacy-we performed RIT of experimental cervical cancer with Rhenium-188 ((188) Re) and Lutetium-177 ((177) Lu)-labeled mAb C1P5 to E6. The biodistribution of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled C1P5 was performed in nude female mice bearing CasKi cervical cancer xenografts and the radiation dosimetry calculations for the tumors and organs were carried out. For RIT the mice were treated with 7.4 MBq of either (188) Re-C1P5 or (177) Lu-C1P5 or left untreated, and observed for their tumor size for 28 days. The levels of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-C1P5 mAbs-induced double-strand breaks in CasKi tumors were compared on days 5 and 10 post treatment by staining with anti-gamma H2AX antibody. The radiation doses to the heart and lungs were similar for both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5. The dose to the liver was five times higher for (177) Lu-C1P5. The doses to the tumor were 259 and 181 cGy for (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5, respectively. RIT with either (177) Lu-C1P5 or (188) Re-C1P5 was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth when each was compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.001). On day 5 there was a pronounced staining for gamma H2AX foci in (177) Lu-C1P5 group only and on day 10 it was observed in both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5 groups. (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled mAbs were equally effective in arresting the growth of CasKi cervical tumors. Thus, both of these radionuclides are candidates for the clinical trials of this approach in patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. PMID:26625938

  20. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  1. Optical coating in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunner, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technological appraisal of the steps required to approach the goal of in-situ optical coating, cleaning and re-coating the optical elements of a remote telescope in space is reported. Emphasis is placed on the high ultraviolet throughput that a telescope using bare aluminum mirrors would offer. A preliminary design is suggested for an Orbital Coating Laboratory to answer basic technical questions.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  4. Thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  6. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  7. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  8. Oxide coating development

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  9. Coatings for Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  10. Innovations in coating technology.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Sharareh S; Toegel, Stefan; Viernstein, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Despite representing one of the oldest pharmaceutical techniques, coating of dosage forms is still frequently used in pharmaceutical manufacturing. The aims of coating range from simply masking the taste or odour of drugs to the sophisticated controlling of site and rate of drug release. The high expectations for different coating technologies have required great efforts regarding the development of reproducible and controllable production processes. Basically, improvements in coating methods have focused on particle movement, spraying systems, and air and energy transport. Thereby, homogeneous distribution of coating material and increased drying efficiency should be accomplished in order to achieve high end product quality. Moreover, given the claim of the FDA to design the end product quality already during the manufacturing process (Quality by Design), the development of analytical methods for the analysis, management and control of coating processes has attracted special attention during recent years. The present review focuses on recent patents claiming improvements in pharmaceutical coating technology and intends to first familiarize the reader with the available procedures and to subsequently explain the application of different analytical tools. Aiming to structure this comprehensive field, coating technologies are primarily divided into pan and fluidized bed coating methods. Regarding pan coating procedures, pans rotating around inclined, horizontal and vertical axes are reviewed separately. On the other hand, fluidized bed technologies are subdivided into those involving fluidized and spouted beds. Then, continuous processing techniques and improvements in spraying systems are discussed in dedicated chapters. Finally, currently used analytical methods for the understanding and management of coating processes are reviewed in detail in the last section of the review. PMID:19075909

  11. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  12. Hermetically coated specialty optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semjonov, Sergey L.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Malinin, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    Manufacturing processes for different types of hermetically coated fibers are described. Optical and mechanical properties of metal and carbon coated fibers are compared. Prospects of application of both types of hermetically coated fibers in special applications are discussed.

  13. Platinum and rhenium extraction from a spent refinery catalyst using Bacillus megaterium as a cyanogenic bacterium: statistical modeling and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Motaghed, M; Mousavi, S M; Rastegar, S O; Shojaosadati, S A

    2014-11-01

    The present study evaluated the potential of Bacillus megaterium as a cyanogenic bacterium to produce cyanide for solubilization of platinum and rhenium from a spent refinery catalyst. Response surface methodology was applied to study the effects and interaction between two main effective parameters including initial glycine concentration and pulp density. Maximum Pt and Re recovery was obtained 15.7% and 98%, respectively, under optimum conditions of 12.8 g/l initial glycine concentration and 4% (w/v) pulp density after 7 days. Increasing the free cyanide concentration to 3.6 mg/l, varying the pH from 6.7 to 9, and increasing the dissolved oxygen from 2 to 5mg/l demonstrated the growth characteristics of B. megaterium during bioleaching process. The modified shrinking core model was used to determine the rate limiting step of the process. It was found that diffusion through the product layer is the rate controlling step. PMID:25226056

  14. Dual Esterase- and Steroid-Responsive Energy Transfer Modulation of Ruthenium(II) and Rhenium(I) Complex Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Au, Vonika Ka-Man; Song, Hai-Ou; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-11-01

    A number of adamantane-containing ruthenium(II) and rhenium(I) complexes have been synthesized, characterized, and noncovalently functionalized with β-cyclodextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (β-CD-GNPs) through the host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and adamantane. The resultant nanoconjugates have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and 2D ROESY (1) H NMR experiments. The Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties of the nanoconjugates can be modulated by both esterase-accelerated hydrolysis and competitive displacement of steroid, by monitoring the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime. The FRET efficiencies are found to vary with the nature of the chromophores and the length of the spacer between the transition metal complexes and the GNPs. This work constitutes a "proof-of-principle" assay method for the dual-functional detection of important classes of biomolecules, such as enzymes and steroids. PMID:26395881

  15. Studying the Effect of a Composition of the Cluster Core in High-Radiopacity Cluster Complexes of Rhenium on Their Acute Toxicity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Pozmogova, T N; Krasil'nikova, A A; Ivanov, A A; Shestopalov, M A; Gyrylova, S N; Shestopalova, L V; Shestopaloiv, A M; Shkurupy, V A

    2016-05-01

    An in vivo study was performed to evaluate the dependence of acute toxicity of high-radiopacity and luminescent octahedral cluster complexes of rhenium after intravenous injection on a composition of the cluster core. Changes in mouse body weight, water and food consumption, degree of intoxication, and morphological changes in the visceral organs were studied after intravenous injection of the following cluster complexes with various internal ligands (S, Se, or Te): Na4[{Re 6 Te 8 }(CN)6], Na4[{Re 6 Se 8 }(CN)6], and Na4[{Re 6 S 8 }(CN)6]. The Na4[{Re 6 S 8 } (CN)6] cluster complex was shown to be the safest for animals. PMID:27270936

  16. Fast-drying coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Nontoxic coating has excellent optical properties and can be pigmented in many different colors. It bonds well, can be applied by conventional methods, weathers well, and is self-extinguishing. Coating composition comprises latex blends of fluorocarbons, acrylic resins, stabilizers, modifiers, variety of inorganic pigments, and other additives. Suitable latex primers have also been developed from acrylic latex base.

  17. RADIATION-CURABLE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of radiation-curable coatings as a technology for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating operations. urvey of the literature was conducted to assess the state of the technology and emissions from radiation...

  18. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  19. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  20. Thermal barrier coating

    DOEpatents

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  1. Duplex aluminized coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  2. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA-Goddard developed a zinc-rich coating with a special binder that exhibits longer life and booths with the air purifiers. superior adhesion characteristics-so that only a single coat is required. Unlike conventional coatings, . the NASA compound is easy to mix and it requires no straining before application; its materials also cost less. Thus the new coating offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span. The NASA coating is now undergoing test on a number of coastal area structures. In a cooperative effort with the Philadelphia Mayor's Science and Technology Council, the coating has been applied to sample sections of the Frankford Elevated System's steel support structure. On the West Coast, it is being tested on facilities of the Pillar Point Satellite Tracking Station, Pillar Point, Cat. and on segments of the Golden Gate Bridge. It is also undergoing evaluation as an undercoating to protect road equipment against de-icing salts; the coating was applied to the underside of a truck and its performance is being recorded periodically by the Vermont Department of Highways. NASA has issued patent licenses to two paint companies and the coating is expected to be commercially available this year.

  3. Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has used Aerocoat 7 (AR-7) to protect stainless-steel flex hoses at Launch Complex (LC-39) and hydraulic lines of the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) because it provides excellent corrosion protection in low-temperature applications. The Sovereign Company produced AR-7 exclusively for NASA but discontinued production because the coating released high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and had a significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate potential replacement coatings for AR-7 that would be more environmentally sound. The physical and mechanical properties of commercially available coatings were investigated through the Internet. The ideal coating would be fluid enough to penetrate the outer mesh of a stainless-steel flex hose and coat the inner hose, and flexible enough to withstand the movement of the hose, as well as the expansion and contraction of its metal caused by changes in temperature.

  4. Fiber coating with suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Nunes, Janine K.; Stone, Howard A.

    2003-11-01

    The basic features of fiber coating with Newtonian fluids are well characterized at low capillary numbers by the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin analysis. Several extensions have been reported including studies of the influence of polymers, surfactants, and emulsions. Here we present an experimental study of fiber coating with suspensions of micron-sized particles where we perform direct visualization of the coating process using fluorescent particles. The addition of particles to the coating liquid produce several novel effects including (a) accumulation of particles in the neighborhood of the meniscus, which changes the dynamics of the coating process, and (b) crystallization can occur on the fiber, in some cases in the form of a continuous film that is at most a few particles thick, and which depends on capillary number. These results using continuous withdrawal will be contrasted with those reported in the literature for colloidal cystallization produced by evaporative processes.

  5. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  6. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  8. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  9. Characterization of Oxide Scales Formed on High-Velocity Oxyfuel-Sprayed Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y + ReTa Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. B.; Ko, J. H.; Yi, J. H.

    2005-09-01

    A high-velocity oxyfuel-sprayed 30 wt.% Ni-20 wt.% Co-30 wt.% Cr-10 wt.% Al-2 wt.% Y-4 wt.% Re-4 wt.% Ta coating was oxidized between 1000 and 1200 °C for up to 200 h in air, and the oxide scales were examined. The dense, sprayed coating consisted mainly of Cr3Ni2, Ni3Al, Ni3Ta, Ni, NiO, Al5Y3O12, and Cr2O3. Intermetallics and some oxides formed during spraying. During oxidation, mainly αAl2O3, along with some Al5Y3O12, CoAl2O4, CoCr2O4, Ta2O5, and Ta2O2.2 formed on the coating. The preferential oxidation of Al to form the Al-rich scales resulted in the formation of an Al-depleted region beneath the scales. Rhenium, being the most noble element, was distributed throughout the oxide scale and the coating, without forming any independent oxides.

  10. Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, δ13C and δ34S values, and biomarker distributions. The δ34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os

  11. Rhenium - osmium heterogeneity of enriched mantle basalts explained by composition and behaviour of mantle-derived sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Dale, C. W.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Analyses of enriched mantle (EM) -basalts, using lithophile element-based isotope systems have long provided evidence for discrete, but variable mantle reservoirs [1]. Upon partial melting, the isotopic fingerprint of each reservoir is imparted upon the partial melt produced. However, recent work involving the Re-Os isotope systematics of EM-basalts [2] suggests that it may not be so simple to delimit these previously well defined mantle reservoirs; the “mantle zoo” [3] may contain more reservoirs than previously envisaged. However, a simple model, with varying contributions from two populations of compositionally distinct mantle sulfides can readily account for the observed heterogeneities in Re-Os isotope systematics of such basalts without additional mantle reservoirs. Rhenium-osmium elemental and isotopic analyses of individual sulfide grains separated from spinel lherzolites from Kilbourne Hole, NM, USA demonstrate that two discrete populations of mantle sulfide exist in terms of both Re-Os systematics and textural relationship with co-existing silicates. One population, with a rounded morphology, is preserved in silicate grains and typically possesses high [Os], low [Re] with unradiogenic, typically sub-chondritic, 187Os/188Os attributable to long term isolation in a low-Re environment. By contrast, irregular-shaped sulfides, preserved along silicate grain boundaries, possess low [Os], higher [Re] and a wider range of, but generally supra-chondritic, 187Os/188Os ([Os] typically ≤ 1-2 ppm, 187Os/188Os ≤ 0.3729; this study). This population is thought to represent metasomatic sulfide (e.g. [4,5]). Uncontaminated silicate phases contain negligible Os (<100 ppt) therefore the Os elemental and isotope composition of basalts is dominated by volumetrically insignificant sulfide ([Os] ≤ 37 ppm, this study). During the early stages of partial melting, supra-chondritic interstitial sulfides are mobilized and incorporated into the melt, adding their radiogenic

  12. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  13. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

  14. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  15. COATING URANIUM FROM CARBONYLS

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Storrs, S.S.

    1959-07-14

    Methods are described for making adherent corrosion resistant coatings on uranium metal. According to the invention, the uranium metal is heated in the presence of an organometallic compound such as the carbonyls of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, niobium, and tungsten at a temperature sufficient to decompose the metal carbonyl and dry plate the resultant free metal on the surface of the uranium metal body. The metal coated body is then further heated at a higher temperature to thermally diffuse the coating metal within the uranium bcdy.

  16. Synthesis of rhenium-alkene complexes from the reaction of the heterobimetallic dihydride C sub 5 H sub 5 (CO) sub 2 HRe-PtH(PPh sub 3 ) sub 2 with alkynes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.; Rutter, E.W. Jr. )

    1989-11-22

    Heterobimetallic compounds hold great promise as catalysts since the 2 different metals have the potential of acting cooperatively. The authors report that the new heterobimetallic dihydride C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}HRe-PtH(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} (I){sup 2} acts as a catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and reacts stoichiometrically with alkynes to produce rhenium-alkene complexes.

  17. Oxygen atom transfer between rhenium, sulfur, and phosphorus. Characterization and reactivity of Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/S)(OPPh/sub 3/) and Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(CNCMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Stenkamp, R.E.; Tulip, T.H.; Mayer, J.M.

    1987-07-15

    Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (I) reacts with Me/sub 2/SO to form OPPh/sub 3/ and Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/S)(OPPh/sub 3/) (II), not Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/SO)(PPh/sub 3/) as had been previously reported. Compounds I and II are catalysts for oxygen atom transfer from Me/sub 2/SO to PPh/sub 3/. The mechanism of these oxygen atom transfer reactions has been studied with oxygen-18 labeling experiments. The rhenium oxo group does not appear to be involved; rather, the rhenium center acts as a Lewis acid activator for a Me/sub 2/SO ligand. The rhenium oxo group does, however, exchange oxygen atoms with Me/sub 2/S/sup 18/O, probably by a similar mechanism. Compound II is an excellent starting material for compounds of the form Re(O)Cl/sub 3/L/sub 2/, with L = isonitriles, phosphines, bipyridine, etc. The compounds Re(O)Cl/sub 3/-(CNR)/sub 2/ (R = CMe/sub 3/ (IV), CHMe/sub 2/, C/sub 6/H/sub 11/) are rare examples of high-valent isonitrile complexes. Data from an X-ray crystal structure of IV are reported. 36 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  19. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Video Gallery

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  20. 'Mazatzal's' Many Coats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager shows a section of the hole drilled into the rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' after the hole was ground for a second time. The first drilling by the rover's rock abrasion tool left an incomplete hole, so a second one was performed. The blue arrow points to leftover portions of the dark rind that coats Mazatzal and the scrape marks left by the rock abrasion tool. The yellow arrow highlights the bright edges surrounding the leftover rind. The crack in the rock may have once contained fluids out of which minerals precipitated along its walls (red arrows). Mazatzal is a highly coated rock, containing at least four 'cake layers': a top coat of dust, a pinking coating, a dark rind and its true interior. The observed area is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. This image was taken on sol 85.

  1. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  2. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  3. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  4. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  5. Intumescent coating development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayler, I. O.; Griffen, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    A program was completed at the University of Dayton Research Institute in which polyimide and phenolic intumescent coatings were evaluated as supplemental thermal insulation for the sprayed-on foam insulation on the aft bulkhead of the space shuttle external tank. The purpose of the intumescent coating was to provide additional thermal protection during lift-off in order to replace the ablative heat resistant layer with a lighter weight material for increased payload in the shuttle.

  6. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  7. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  8. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  9. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  10. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  11. Coated particle waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  12. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  13. Protective coatings for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    NAGY, KATHRYN L.; CYGAN, RANDALL T.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; SELLINGER, ALAN

    2000-05-01

    The new two-layer protective coating developed for monuments constructed of limestone or marble was applied to highway cement and to tobermorite, a component of cement, and tested in batch dissolution tests. The goal was to determine the suitability of the protective coating in retarding the weathering rate of concrete construction. The two-layer coating consists of an inner layer of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) applied as a 25% solution in methanol and an outer layer of A2** sol-gel. In previous work, this product when applied to calcite powders, had resulted in a lowering of the rate of dissolution by a factor of ten and was shown through molecular modeling to bind strongly to the calcite surface, but not too strongly so as to accelerate dissolution. Batch dissolution tests at 22 C of coated and uncoated tobermorite (1.1 nm phase) and powdered cement from Gibson Blvd. in Albuquerque indicated that the coating exhibits some protective behavior, at least on short time scales. However, the data suggest that the outer layer of sol-gel dissolves in the high-pH environment of the closed system of cement plus water. Calculated binding configuration and energy of AEAPS to the tobermorite surface suggests that AEAPS is well-suited as the inner layer binder for protecting tobermorite.

  14. White coat, patient gown.

    PubMed

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. PMID:24687912

  15. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  16. METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

  17. Segmented Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The article has a macro-segmented thermal barrier coating due to the presence of a pattern of three-dimensional features. The features may be a series of raised ribs formed on the substrate surface and being spaced from 0.05 inches to 0.30 apart. The ribs have a width ranging from 0.005 inches to 0.02 inches, and a height ranging from 25% to 100% of the thickness of the barrier coating. Alternately, the features may be a similar pattern of grooves formed in the surface of the substrate. Other embodiments provide segmentation by grooves or ribs in the bond coat or alternately grooves formed in the thermal barrier layer.

  18. Electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Tushar

    Pulse electrodeposition (PC) and pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRC) bring a new era in improving the surface properties of metals. These processes are associated with many advantages, such as reduction in porosity, low level of inclusions, and higher deposition rates compared to direct current (DC) electrodeposition process. There is much more flexibility in varying three basic parameters which are, pulse current density, on time, and off time in pulse electrodeposition resulting in unique composition and microstructure of coating being deposited. In this work, nickel matrix composite coatings were synthesized by co-depositing nano particles (Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2) from Watts bath. To get detailed insight into effect of processing parameters on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the composite coatings, the coatings were also fabricated using DC, PC, and PRC techniques. Also, the effect of bath loading on the level of reinforcement in the coating was investigated for Ni-Al2O 3 composite coatings. Furthermore an attempt was made to produce Ni-CNT coatings by pulse electrodeposition method. Pure nickel coatings were also prepared for comparison. Composite coatings deposited using PC and PRC techniques exhibited significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance. The presence of nanoparticles in the composite coating seems to prohibit the columnar growth of the nickel grains resulting in random/weak texture and smaller thickness of the composite coatings. Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings show maximum hardness and wear resistance compared to Ni-SiC and Ni-ZrO 2 composite coatings. As Al2O3 content in electroplating bath increases, Microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings increases but thickness of the coatings decreases due to nanoparticles obstructing grain growth. The Ni-CNT composite coatings exhibited significantly improved microhardness compared to pure nickel coatings.

  19. Coated microneedles for transdermal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harvinder S.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Coated microneedles have been shown to deliver proteins and DNA into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. However, detailed studies examining coating methods and their breadth of applicability are lacking. This study’s goal was to develop a simple, versatile and controlled microneedle coating process to make uniform coatings on microneedles and establish the breadth of molecules and particles that can be coated onto microneedles. First, microneedles were fabricated from stainless steel sheets as single microneedles or arrays of microneedles. Next, a novel micron-scale dip-coating process and a GRAS coating formulation were designed to reliably produce uniform coatings on both individual and arrays of microneedles. This process was used to coat compounds including calcein, vitamin B, bovine serum albumin and plasmid DNA. Modified vaccinia virus and microparticles of 1 to 20 μm diameter were also coated. Coatings could be localized just to the needle shafts and formulated to dissolve within 20 s in porcine cadaver skin. Histological examination validated that microneedle coatings were delivered into the skin and did not wipe off during insertion. In conclusion, this study presents a simple, versatile, and controllable method to coat microneedles with proteins, DNA, viruses and microparticles for rapid delivery into the skin. PMID:17169459

  20. Use of a sub-gasket and soft gas diffusion layer to mitigate mechanical degradation of a hydrocarbon membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in wet-dry cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Takeshi; Ueyama, Yasuhiro; Sugawara, Yasushi; Sakiyama, Yoko; Kusakabe, Masato; Miyatake, Kenji; Uchida, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    The mechanical durability of hydrocarbon (HC) membranes, used for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), was evaluated by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) stress protocol involving wet-dry cycling, and the degradation mechanism is discussed. The HC membrane ruptured in the edge region of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) after 300 cycles due to a concentration of the mechanical stress. Post-test analysis of stress-strain measurements revealed that the membrane mechanical strain decreased more than 80% in the edge region of the MEA and about 50% in the electrode region, compared with the pristine condition. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) indicated that the average molecular weight of the HC polymer increased slightly, indicating some cross-linking, while the IEC decreased slightly, indicating ionomer degradation. As a result of two types of modifications, a sub-gasket (SG) and a soft gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the MEA edge region, the mechanical stress decreased, and the durability increased, the membrane lasting more than 30,000 cycles without mechanical failure.

  1. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  2. Templated biomimetic multifunctional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chih-Hung; Gonzalez, Adriel; Linn, Nicholas C.; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Bin

    2008-02-01

    We report a bioinspired templating technique for fabricating multifunctional optical coatings that mimic both unique functionalities of antireflective moth eyes and superhydrophobic cicada wings. Subwavelength-structured fluoropolymer nipple arrays are created by a soft-lithography-like process. The utilization of fluoropolymers simultaneously enhances the antireflective performance and the hydrophobicity of the replicated films. The specular reflectivity matches the optical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model. The dependence of the size and the crystalline ordering of the replicated nipples on the resulting antireflective properties have also been investigated by experiment and modeling. These biomimetic materials may find important technological application in self-cleaning antireflection coatings.

  3. Tribology and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  4. Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J. (Compiler); Lee, W. Y. (Compiler); Goedjen, J. G. (Compiler); Dapkunas, S. J. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the agenda and presentation abstracts for the Thermal Barrier Coating Workshop, sponsored by NASA, DOE, and NIST. The workshop covered thermal barrier coating (TBC) issues related to applications, processing, properties, and modeling. The intent of the workshop was to highlight the state of knowledge on TBC's and to identify critical gaps in knowledge that may hinder TBC use in advanced applications. The workshop goals were achieved through presentations by 22 speakers representing industry, academia, and government as well as through extensive discussion periods.

  5. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  6. Fiber coating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2001-01-01

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  7. Fiber coating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2003-04-15

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  8. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  9. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  10. Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

  11. Protective coating for ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A protective coating for ceramic materials such as those made of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, aluminoborosilicate and silicon dioxide, and a thermal control structure comprising a ceramic material having coated thereon the protective coating. The protective coating contains, in admixture, silicon dioxide powder, colloidal silicon dioxide, water, and one or more emittance agents selected from silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten disilicide and zirconium diboride. In another aspect, the protective coating is coated on a flexible ceramic fabric which is the outer cover of a composite insulation. In yet another aspect, a metallic foil is bonded to the outer surface of a ceramic fabric outer cover of a composite insulation via the protective coating. A primary application of this invention is as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in a heat shield for space vehicles subjected to very high aero-convective heating environments.

  12. Exploring the Mechanism of Ultrafast Intersystem Crossing in Rhenium(I) Carbonyl Bipyridine Halide Complexes: Key Vibrational Modes and Spin-Vibronic Quantum Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Harabuchi, Yu; Eng, Julien; Gindensperger, Etienne; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Maeda, Satoshi; Daniel, Chantal

    2016-05-10

    The mechanism of ultrafast intersystem crossing in rhenium(I) carbonyl bipyridine halide complexes Re(X)(CO)3(bpy) (X = Cl, Br, I) is studied by exploring the structural deformations when going from Franck-Condon (FC) to critical geometries in the low-lying singlet and triplet excited states and by selecting the key vibrational modes. The luminescent decay observed in [Re(Br)(CO)3(bpy)] is investigated by means of wavepacket propagations based on the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. The dominant coordinates underlying the nonradiative decay process are extracted from minima, minimum energy seam of crossing (MESX) and minimum energy conical intersection (MECI) geometries obtained by the seam model function (SMF)/single-component artificial force induced reaction (SC-AFIR) approach. By choosing the normal modes used in MCTDH from the MECI and MESX geometries, not only the degenerate energy points but also the low-energy-gap regions are included. For this purpose a careful vibrational analysis is performed at each critical geometry and analyzed under the light of the pertinent nonadiabatic coupling terms obtained from the linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model augmented by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the electronic diabatic representation. PMID:27045949

  13. Rhenium and osmium isotopes in black shales and Ni-Mo-PGE-rich sulfide layers, Yukon Territory, Canada, and Hunan and Guizhou provinces, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Grauch, R.I.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Murowchick, J.B.; Hulbert, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium abundances and osmium isotopic compositions were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry for samples of Devonian black shale and an associated Ni-enriched sulfide layer from the Yukon Territory, Canada. The same composition information was also obtained for samples of early Cambrian Ni-Mo-rich sulfide layers hosted in black shale in Guizhou and Hunan provinces, China. This study was undertaken to constrain the origin of the PGE enrichment in the sulfide layers. Samples of the Ni sulfide layer from the Yukon Territory are highly enriched in Re, Os, and other PGE, with distinctly higher Re/192Os but similar Pt/Re, compared to the black shale host. Re-Os isotopic data of the black shale and the sulfide layer are approximately isochronous, and the data plot close to reference isochrons which bracket the depositional age of the enclosing shales. Samples of the Chinese sulfide layers are also highly enriched in Re, Os, and the other PGE. Re/192Os are lower than in the Yukon sulfide layer. Re-Os isotopic data for the sulfide layers lie near a reference isochron with an age of 560 Ma, similar to the depositional age of the black shale host. The osmium isotopic data suggest that Re and PGE enrichment of the brecciated sulfide layers in both the Yukon Territory and in southern China may have occurred near the time of sediment deposition or during early diagenesis, during the middle to late Devonian and early Cambrian, respectively. ?? 1994.

  14. Combined In-Situ XRD and In-Situ XANES Studies on the Reduction Behavior of a Rhenium Promoted Cobalt Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitin; Payzant, E Andrew; Jothimurugesan, K; Spivey, James J

    2011-01-01

    A 10% Co 4% Re/(2% Zr/SiO2) catalyst was prepared by co-impregnation using a silica support modified by 2% Zr. The catalyst was characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), in situ XRD and in situ XANES analysis where it was simultaneously exposed to H2 using a temperature programmed ramp. The results showed the two step reduction of large crystalline Co3O4 with CoO as an intermediate. TPR results showed that the reduction of highly dispersed Co3O4 was facilitated by reduced rhenium by a H2-spillover mechanism. In situ XRD results showed the presence of both, Co-hcp and Co-fcc phases in the reduced catalyst at 400 C. However, the Co-hcp phase was more abundant, which is thought to be the more active phase as compared to the Co-fcc phase for CO hydrogenation. CO hydrogenation at 270 C and 5 bar pressure produces no detectable change in the phases during the time of experiment. In situ XANES results showed a decrease in the metallic cobalt in the presence of H2/CO, which can be attributed due to oxidation of the catalyst by reaction under these conditions.

  15. Organorhenium surface and catalytic chemistry: silica-supported alkene metathesis catalysts derived from dodecacarbonyltetrakis(. mu. -hydrido)-tetrahedro-tetrarhenium and tetrakis(tricarbonyl(. mu. -hydroxo)rhenium)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirlin, P.S.; Gates, B.C.

    1985-11-06

    Silica-supported (Re(CO)/sub 3/OH)/sub 4/ was formed by direct deposition from solution and, alternatively, by reaction of (H/sub 4/Re/sub 4/(CO)/sub 12/) with adsorbed water, as shown by comparisons of infrared, ultraviolet, and /sup 1/H NMR spectra of the surface and of the complex extracted into tetrahydrofuran. The supported (Re(CO)/sub 3/OH)/sub 4/ is inferred to be hydrogen bonded to surface -OH groups; its chemistry is similar to that of (Re(CO)/sub 3/OH)/sub 4/ in solution, but new reactivity is induced by the surface, with adsorbed (HRe/sub 3/(CO)/sub 14/) being formed from (Re(CO)/sub 3/OH)/sub 4/ (or (H/sub 3/Re/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/)) in the presence of CO at 150/sup 0/C. The supported (Re(CO)/sub 3/OH)/sub 4/ is the precursor of a highly active and stable catalyst for the metathesis of propene: the activity is associated with a small fraction of the rhenium in a higher oxidation state. The oxidation to form the active species takes place under conditions so mild that more highly oxidized species, which are active for alkene polymerization and coke formation, are not formed, and the catalyst is consequently resistant to deactivation. 38 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Conversion of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol via dimethyl succinate over rhenium nano-catalyst supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ung Gi; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Lee, Joongwon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Copper-containing mesoporous carbons (XCu-MC) with different copper content (X = 8.0, 12.7, 15.9, 23.3, and 26.8 wt%) were prepared by a single-step surfactant-templating method. Rhenium nano-catalysts supported on copper-containing mesoporous carbons (Re/XCu-MC) were then prepared by an incipient wetness method. Re/XCu-MC (X = 8.0, 12.7, 15.9, 23.3, and 26.8 wt%) catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, HR-TEM, FT-IR, and H2- TPR analyses. Liquid-phase hydrogenation of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol (BDO) via dimethyl succinate (DMS) was carried out over Re/XCu-MC catalysts in a batch reactor. The effect of copper content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of Re/XCu-MC catalysts in the hydrogenation of succinic acid to BDO was investigated. Re/XCu-MC catalysts retained different physicochemical properties depending on copper content. In the hydrogenation of succinic acid to BDO, yield for BDO showed a volcano-shaped trend with respect to copper content. Thus, an optimal copper content was required to achieve maximum catalytic performance of Re/XCu-MC. It was also observed that yield for BDO increased with increasing the amount of hydrogen consumption by copper in the Re/XCu-MC catalysts. PMID:25958619

  17. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO[sub x], the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  18. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO{sub x}, the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  19. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.

  20. Coated article and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lee, Kang Neung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article includes a silicon-containing substrate and a modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating. The article can further comprise a thermal barrier coating applied to the modified mullite coating. The modified mullite coating functions as a bond coating between the external environmental/thermal barrier coating and the silicon-containing substrate. In a method of forming an article, a silicon-containing substrate is formed and a modified mullite coating is applied. The modified mullite coating comprises mullite and a modifier component that reduces cracks in the modified mullite coating.