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Sample records for coccidia

  1. Coccidia of whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

  2. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  3. [Paul-Louis Simond and coccidia].

    PubMed

    Brey, P T

    1999-12-01

    In 1880, during a sojourn at Constantine, Alphonse Laveran discovered the etiological agent of human malaria. During his microscopic observations of the parasite in freshly collected blood, Laveran's attention was attracted to the movement of flagellar bodies in the preparations. For Laveran these flagellar bodies corresponded to living organisms, in fact he considered them the most characteristic stage of the parasite; perhaps the sexual form of the parasite. In 1884, back in Paris at the military hospital Val de Grce, A. Laveran showed these flagellated bodies to Pasteur, Roux and Chamberland who all thought that is was impossible not to recognize a living body in this mass of protoplasm displacing the surrounding red blood cells with its protruding flagella. As early as 1890, Elie Metchnikoff established a link between the flagellar bodies of Laveran and the stealthy stage of parasitic Coccidia infecting the intestinal epithelium of salamanders. It was the Pasteuriens and a few others scientists like Danilewski and Pfeiffer who firmly believed that the flagellar forms were indeed a normal stage during the hematozoan life cycle. On the contrary, Grassi and the Italian school, as well as the French protozoologist Labb were convinced that the flagellar bodies corresponded to a degenerative form of the parasite provoked by the exposure of the parasites to air during slide preparation. In early 1896, P-L Simond joined Metchnikoff's laboratory and was assigned to study salamander coccidia in order to clarify the nature of the flagellar bodies. In a very short period of time, Simond clearly demonstrated that the coccidia had two types of life cycles; one of which resulted in the formation of flagellar bodies. Simond called the flagellar bodies "chromatozoites" due to the important quantities of chromatin twisted around the flagellum. From these observations and the sperm-like movement of the chromatozoites, Simond put forth the hypothesis that the chromatozoites were the male sexual forms of the parasite. He noted that they were found in all species of coccidia, as well as in the different species of malaria causing hematozoans of man and birds. Simond went even further in his interpretation to suggest that malaria parasites undergo sexual reproduction. This was indeed true, but Simond thought erroneously that sexual reproduction in hematozoans would result in the formation of resistant spores like in the Coccidia. The sexual reproduction hypothesis of malaria parasites was also formulated independently a year later by W. G. MacCallum (1898) working in the United States on Halteridium, a hematozoan infecting crows. Initially MacCallum was not aware of Simond's work, but later gave Simond full credit for his work on Coccidia. Furthermore, MacCallum observed for the first time the chromatozoite (microgamete) enter a female element (macrogamete) to form a mobile worm-like stage of the parasite know today as the ookinete. In his writings Simond is very modest, giving most of the credit to his mentors Metchnikoff and Laveran, but Laveran in an article which appeared in 1899 recognizes P.-L. Simond as the first person having put forth the hypothesis that the flagellar bodies of hematozoans causing human and bird malaria were the male forms of the parasite destined to fertilize the female elements. PMID:11000943

  4. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antnio Diego Brando; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrcia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrcio

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified. PMID:26154966

  5. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcoc...

  6. Survival of coccidia in poultry litter and reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Reyna, P S; McDougald, L R; Mathis, G F

    1983-01-01

    The survival of coccidia was studied in poultry litter, dust, soil, and invertebrate animals. The populations of coccidia in litter were recorded during broiler growout in 16 broiler houses and in floor-pen trials involving anticoccidial drugs. The viability of oocysts declined rapidly in poultry litter regardless of the species; it was retained best in 40% moisture at 4 C. Sporocysts from broken oocytes did not survive even short exposure to poultry litter. Survival of oocysts was poorest at temperatures higher than 4 C, regardless of the carrier. In four floor-pen experiments designed to study the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs, the oocyst counts correlated in a general way with lesion scores and performance, indicating the oocyst counts might be useful along with other parameters to judge the effectiveness of drugs. Coccidia were transmitted to susceptible chicks by feeding them darkling beetles, flies, or house dust from poultry houses. More carrier samples were positive during the warmer months. Oocyst counts in litter of commercial poultry houses were very low during the first or last weeks of broiler growout but were high during the normal 3-to-6-week stress period. These results confirm the poor survival of oocysts in poultry litter and suggest that carryover from one flock to the next depends on the survival of a few oocysts in dust or arthropod vectors. PMID:6683502

  7. Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

    2013-05-01

    New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

  8. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

  9. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Garca-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Snchez, Karla P; Meja-Garca, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico. PMID:26204037

  10. Parental development of eimerian coccidia in sandhill and whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novilla, M.N.; Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Jeffers, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    In contrast with isosporoid species of coccidia that have established extraintestinal phases of development, the eimeriids, except for a few species, generally have been considered inhabitants of the intestinal tract. Eimeria infection in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G. americana) may result in disseminated visceral coccidiosis. Nodules were observed in the oral cavity of 33% (n = 95) of the G. canadensis at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in Laurel, MD. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules in many tissues and organs. Histologic studies disclosed protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizonts in the granulomas, and endogenous stages of coccidia were present in the intestines of four birds. Fecalysis of three of four sandhill cranes yielded oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis. Only E. reichenowi-type oocysts were recovered from a dead whooping crane sample. Domestic broiler chicks each intubated with about 1 times 106 pooled sporulated oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis were not infected. Exposure of six incubator-hatched and hand-reared sandhill crane chicks to oocysts artificially (two chicks) and naturally (four chicks) resulted in typical infection of intestinal epithelium with invasion of subepithelial tissues extending to the muscular layer and widespread extraintestinal development. Asexual and sexual stages occurred primarily in macrophages in the liver, spleen, heart, and lung. In the lung, oocysts were found in bronchial exudate and epithelial lining cells. Six of ten G. canadensis chicks, one adult G. americana, and three of five G. americana chicks that died naturally at PWRC had disseminated visceral coccidiosis.

  11. [Formation and diversity of parasitophorous vacuoles in parasitic protozoa. The Coccidia (Sporozoa, Apicomplexa)].

    PubMed

    Beĭer, T V; Svezhova, N V; Radchenko, A I; Sidorenko, N V

    2003-01-01

    Data on parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation in host cells (HC) harbouring different intracellular protozoan parasites have been reviewed and critically analysed, with special reference to the main representatives of the Coccidia. The vacuole membrane (PVM) is the interface between host and parasite, playing a role in nutrient acquisition by the parasite from the HC. The PV phenomenon is regarded as a generalized HC response to the introduction of alien bodies (microorganisms), which eventually reflects the evolutionary established host-parasite relationships at cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Special attention has been paid to the existing morpho-functional diversity of the PVs within the same genera and species of parasites, and even at different stages of the parasite life cycle. The PVM is generally considered to derive from the HC plasmalemma, whose biochemical composition undergoes significant changes as the intravacuolar parasite grows. The original HC proteins are selectively excluded from the PVM, while those of the parasite are incorporated. As the result, the changed PVM becomes not fusigenic for HC lysosomes. For Toxoplasma gondii and other cyst-forming coccidia (Isospora, Sarcocystis), a definite correlation has been noticed between the extent of rhoptry and dense granule secrets released by a zoite during HC internalization, on the one hand, and the pattern of the PV that forms, on the other one. In T. gondii, tachyzoites, known to discharge abundant secrets, commonly force the development of PVs limited with a single unit membrane and equipped with a tubulovesicular network in the lumen. Unlike, bradyzoites known to be deficient in secretory materials trigger the formation of PVs with a three-membrane lining composed of the changed invaginated plasmalemma in addition to two membranes of endoplasmic reticulum. The two different types of PV harbour, respectively, exoenteric and enteric stages of T. gondii, the latter being confined to the cat intestine only. Unlike, all endogenous stages of the classic intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) develop within PVs limited with a single membrane, with some invaginations extending into the PV lumen. Unusual PV patterns are characteristic of the extracytoplasmic eimerian coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Epieimeria) and adeleid haemogreagarines (Karyolysus). In cyst-forming coccidia, the PVM is actively involved in tissue cyst wall formation, thus protecting the encysted parasites from recognition by the host immune system. All this strongly suggests that the PV is far from being an indifferent membraneous vesicle containing a parasite, but represents a metabolically active compartment in infected cells. Since all the coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites, the mode of their intimate interaction with the HC, largely accomplished via the PV and its membrane, is vital for their survival as biological species. PMID:14520865

  12. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Sokl, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges. PMID:25928913

  13. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  14. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Václav, Radovan; Blažeková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host's active season. Also, the marmot's response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. PMID:25506065

  15. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  16. Coccidia-induced mucogenesis promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis by supporting Clostridium perfringens growth.

    PubMed

    Collier, C T; Hofacre, C L; Payne, A M; Anderson, D B; Kaiser, P; Mackie, R I; Gaskins, H R

    2008-03-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that a host mucogenic response to an intestinal coccidial infection promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis (NE). A chick NE model was used in which birds were inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima and subsequently with Clostridium perfringens (EAM/CP). A second group of EAM/CP-infected birds was treated with the ionophore narasin (NAR/EAM/CP). These groups were compared to birds that were either non-infected (NIF), or infected only with E. acervulina and E. maxima (EAM), or C. perfringens (CP). The impact of intestinal coccidial infection and anti-coccidial treatment on host immune responses and microbial community structure were evaluated with histochemical-, cultivation- and molecular-based techniques. Barrier function was compromised in EAM/CP-infected birds as indicated by elevated CFUs for anaerobic bacteria and C. perfringens in the spleen when compared to NIF controls at day 20, with a subsequent increase in intestinal NE lesions and mortality at day 22. These results correlate positively with a host inflammatory response as evidenced by increased ileal interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma RNA expression. Concurrent increases in chicken intestinal mucin RNA expression, and goblet cell number and theca size indicate that EAM/CP induced an intestinal mucogenic response. Correspondingly, the growth of mucolytic bacteria and C. perfringens as well as alpha toxin production was greatest in EAM/CP-infected birds. The ionophore narasin, which directly eliminates coccidia, reduced goblet cell theca size, IL-10 and IFN-gamma expression, the growth of mucolytic bacteria including C. perfringens, coccidial and NE lesions and mortality in birds that were co-infected with coccidia and C. perfringens. Collectively the data support the hypothesis that coccidial infection induces a host mucogenic response providing a growth advantage to C. perfringens, the causative agent of NE. PMID:18068809

  17. Immunization of chukar partridges against coccidia (Eimeria kofoidi and Eimeria legionensis) with low doses of live oocysts.

    PubMed

    Fuller, A L; Gerhold, R W; McDougald, L R

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) chicks would develop protective immunity after inoculation with coccidia. Young chukar chicks in battery cages inoculated with 100 or more oocysts of Eimeria kofoidi or Eimeria legionensis had significant protection at challenge 4 wk later, as measured by greatly reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain as compared with unvaccinated, challenged controls. However, when birds were housed in litter pens and vaccinated by various regimens (including two species of chukar coccidia at 100/dose), coccidiosis rapidly spread through all treatments and caused significant mortality. Vaccination with Coccivac-T or with 100 oocysts of Eimeria dispersa did not prevent mortality resulting from accidental contamination, and feed treatment with a Lactobacillus competitive-exclusion product had no benefit. Most if not all of the mortality was from E. kofoidi. This study illustrated the natural fecundity of chukar coccidia in a floor-pen environment where multiplication rate and reinfection combine to produce clinical disease from a small original exposure. Further, these results cast doubt on the potential use of low doses of live oocysts as a vaccine in the chukar partridge. PMID:22017029

  18. Coccidia of turkey: from isolation, characterisation and comparison to molecular phylogeny and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which has a significant economic impact on poultry production. Multiple species infecting the turkey have been described; however, due to the general lack of unambiguous description, their identification and taxonomy is debatable. In this work, a systematic approach was taken to isolate, characterise and compare coccidian species in the turkey. Individual species were tracked according to their unique 18S ribosomal DNA sequence. The single-oocyst isolation technique and passaging of mixed species field isolates in selectively immunised birds enabled the derivation of pure species. Six distinct strains representing five eimerian species that infect the turkey were obtained. It appears highly probable that these species represent all species described in the past with the exception of Eimeria subrotunda. The species were analysed using both traditional methods and DNA sequencing. For each strain the oocyst morphology, prepatent period, gross pathology, pathogenicity, host specificity and endogenous cycle were studied. Antigenic similarity was investigated in multiple cross-immunity experiments. For identification and quantification of each individual species or strain, quantitative real-time PCR markers were also developed. Parallel characterisation of pure strains allowed comprehensive comparison with the original descriptions and assignment of correct species names. The species Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria innocua were identified. Comparison of our data with those of previous studies indicates that Eimeria adenoeides is most probably a synonym for either E. meleagridis or E. gallopavonis, or a description based on a mixture of these species, and thus nomen dubium. The species E. dispersa and E. innocua were also found to infect Bobwhite Quail. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences showed that these two species form a distinct clade unrelated to other turkey coccidia and point to a polyphyletic origin of the species infecting the turkey. PMID:25020103

  19. Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-12-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L W) 18.6 16.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 17.5 ?m, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 15.7 ?m, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu. PMID:23984908

  20. Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 μm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 μm, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 μm, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

  1. Effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine. The experimental design was a 22 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two levels of betaine supplementation (0 and 960 g betaine/t of feed) without or with coccidia challenge. Each treatment was fed to 8 cages of 8 male broilers (Ross 308) for 1 to 21d. On d 14, birds in the 2 challenged groups received mixed inocula of Eimeria species from a recent field isolate, containing approximately 180,000 E. acervulina, 6,000 E. maxima, and 18,000 E. tenella oocysts. At 21d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected for the determination of dry matter, energy, nitrogen, amino acids, starch, fat, and ash digestibilities. Lesion scores in the different segments of the small intestine were also measured on d 21. Performance and nutrient digestibility data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Lesion score data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test to identify significant differences between treatments. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to assess the significance of linear or quadratic models to describe the response in the dependent variable to total lesion scores. Coccidia challenge reduced (P<0.0001) the weight gain and feed intake, and increased (P<0.0001) the feed conversion ratio. Betaine supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain or feed intake, but lowered (P<0.05) the feed conversion ratio. No interaction (P>0.05) between coccidia challenge and betaine supplementation was observed for performance parameters. Betaine supplementation increased (P<0.05) the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, energy, fat, and amino acids only in birds challenged with coccidia as indicated by the significant interaction (P<0.0001) between betaine supplementation and coccidia challenge. The main effect of coccidia challenge reduced (P<0.05) starch digestibility. Betaine supplementation improved (P<0.05) starch digestibility regardless of the coccidia challenge. For each unit increase in the total lesion score, there was a linear (P<0.001) decrease in digestibility of mean amino acids, starch, and fat by 3.8, 3.4 and 16%, respectively. Increasing total lesion scores resulted in a quadratic (P<0.05) decrease in dry matter digestibility and ileal digestible energy. No lesions were found in the intestine or ceca of the unchallenged treatments. In the challenged treatments, betaine supplementation reduced (P<0.01) the lesion scores at the duodenum, lower jejunum, and total lesion scores compared to the treatment without supplements. In conclusion, coccidia challenge lowered the digestibility of energy and nutrients and increased the feed conversion ratio of broilers. However, betaine supplementation reduced the impact of coccidia challenge and positively affected nutrient digestibility and the feed conversion ratio. PMID:25691757

  2. Effects of dietary enzymes on performance and intestinal goblet cell number of broilers exposed to a live coccidia oocyst vaccine.

    PubMed

    Walk, C L; Cowieson, A J; Remus, J C; Novak, C L; McElroy, A P

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary enzymes on performance, tibia ash, and intestinal goblet cells of broilers administered a live coccidia oocyst vaccine (Coccivac B, Schering Plough, Kenilworth, NJ). Cobb 500 straight-run broilers were obtained and one-half of the chicks were sprayed with the live coccidia oocyst vaccine. Chicks were weighed and placed in battery brooders with respect to nonvaccinated or vaccinated group according to dietary treatment. The 8 dietary treatments were a positive control (0.90% Ca and 0.45% available P), a negative control (NC; 0.80% Ca and 0.35% available P), NC + phytase (PHY), NC + protease (PRO), NC + xylanase (XYL), NC + PHY+ PRO, NC + PHY + XYL, and NC + PHY + PRO + XYL. A diet vaccination interaction (P > 0.05) was not observed for feed intake or BW gain. Feed conversion ratio was improved (P ? 0.05) in birds fed NC + PHY + XYL compared with NC. Vaccination reduced (P ? 0.05) feed intake and BW gain from d 0 to 18. Tibia ash was reduced (P ? 0.05) in the NC and PRO or XYL diets. Vaccination increased goblet cell numbers in the duodenum of birds fed XYL, whereas no differences were found in goblet cell numbers between nonvaccinated and vaccinated birds in other dietary treatments, which resulted in a diet vaccination interaction (P ? 0.05). Protease decreased and NC + PHY+ PRO increased goblet cells in the jejunum at d 7, which resulted in a diet vaccination interaction (P ? 0.05). At d 18, NC + PHY + XYL was the only diet in which vaccination decreased goblet cells in the jejunum, resulting in a diet vaccination interaction (P ? 0.05). The data indicate that NC + PHY + XYL improved the feed conversion ratio in broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets. The vaccination dietary enzyme interaction altered the number of goblet cells in the small intestine. Dietary enzyme supplementation did not alleviate reductions in growth performance associated with the use of a live coccidia oocyst vaccine. PMID:21177448

  3. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae), from Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Scott Seville, R; Connior, Matthew B; Trauth, Stanley E; Robison, Henry W

    2014-05-01

    Between February 2011 and January 2014, 75 ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Say) were collected from 13 counties of Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma, USA, and examined for coccidia. Two (3%) and 11 (15%) S. lateralis were found to be passing ocysts of a new choleoeimerian and isosporan, respectively. Ocysts of Choleoeimeria ouachitensis n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 27.2נ15.6?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9נ6.8?m, L/W 1.3; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are present; the walls have two valves joined by longitudinal sutures; a sporocyst residuum consisted of dispersed granules between sporozoites. Ocysts of Isospora koberi n. sp. are ovoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 25.1נ20.5?m, L/W 1.2; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is rarely present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.4נ8.6?m, L/W 1.3; a nipple-like Stieda body and a sub-Stieda body are present without a para-Stieda body; a sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. This is the second choleoeimerian and third isosporan reported from S. lateralis. PMID:24711115

  4. Comparative development of Eimeria tenella in primary chick kidney cell cultures derived from coccidia-resistant and -susceptible chickens.

    PubMed

    Quist, K L; Taylor, R L; Johnson, L W; Strout, R G

    1993-01-01

    A sixfold difference in resistance to coccidia (Eimeria tenella) infection between a resistant and a susceptible line of Auburn White Leghorn chickens, derived by selective breeding, has been reported. The purpose of the following study was to determine whether the resistance or susceptibility phenomenon in the Auburn lines could be manifested in a homogeneous group of isolated host kidney cells that support E. tenella development in vitro but not normally in vivo. Propagation of the parasite in host cells in vitro eliminates humoral and cellular elements of immunity, and allows the study of host genetic influences at the cellular level. Differences in parasite development were examined between the two lines of cells in vitro after 48 and 96 h of incubation; time periods that reflect initial infection of the host cells by the parasite and the subsequent asexual development. Quantification of differences by liquid scintillation counting was based on parasite-specific incorporation of pyrimidines, specifically [3H]-uracil. The results supported previous findings that overall E. tenella development was significantly greater in the host cells from the susceptible line than in the cells from the resistant cultures at both time periods. PMID:8426849

  5. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects of internal parasites, including gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) but there have been no reports of the effects of feeding this forage on Eimeria spp. in goats. Two confinement feeding experiments were completed on recently-weaned intact bucks (24 Kiko-cross, Exp. 1; 20 Spanish, Exp. 2) to determine effects of SL pellets on an established infection of GIN and coccidia. The bucks were assigned to 1 of 2 (Exp. 1) or 3 (Exp. 2) treatment groups based upon the number of Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces. In Exp. 1, the kids were fed 1 of 2 pelleted rations ad libitum; 90% SL leaf meal+10% of a liquid molasses/lignin binder mix and a commercial pellet with 12% crude protein (CP) and 24% acid detergent fiber (n=12/treatment group, 2 animals/pen). For Exp. 2, treatment groups were fed (1) 90% SL leaf meal pellets from leaves stored 3 years (n=7), (2) 90% SL pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months, (n=7), and the commercial pellets (n=6) ad libitum. For both trials, fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals every 7 days for 28 days to determine OPG and GIN eggs per gram (EPG) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. In Exp. 2, feces were scored for consistency (1=solid pellets, 5=slurry) as an indicator of coccidiosis. In Exp. 1, EPG (P<0.001) and OPG (P<0.01) were reduced by 78.7% and 96.9%, respectively, 7 days after initiation of feeding in goats on the SL pellet diet compared with animals fed the control pellets. The OPG and EPG remained lower in treatment than control animals until the end of the trial. In Exp. 2, goats fed new and old SL leaf meal pellets had 66.2% and 79.2% lower (P<0.05) EPG and 92.2% and 91.2% lower (P<0.05) OPG, respectively, than control animals within 7 days, and these differences were maintained or increased throughout the trial. After 4 weeks of pellet feeding in Exp. 2, fecal scores were lower (P<0.01) in both SL-fed groups compared with control animals, indicating fewer signs of coccidiosis. There was no effect of diet on PCV values throughout either experiment. Dried, pelleted SL has excellent potential as a natural anti-coccidial feed for weaned goats. PMID:24857771

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of eimeriid coccidia (Eimeriidae, Eimeriorina, Apicomplexa, Alveolata): A preliminary multi-gene and multi-genome approach.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Joseph D; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2015-11-01

    Coccidia possess three distinct genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid. Sequences from five genes located on these three genomes were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of members of the phylum Apicomplexa: 18S rDNA sequences from the nuclear (nu) genome, partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences from the mitochondrial (mt) genome, and partial 16S and 23S rDNA sequences and RNA polymerase B sequences from plastid (pl) genomes. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference were used in conjunction with nuclear substitution models generated from data subsets in the analyses. Major groups within the Apicomplexa were well supported with the mitochondrial, nuclear, and a combination of mitochondrial, nuclear and concatenated plastid gene sequences. However, the genus Eimeria was paraphyletic in phylogenetic trees based on the nuclear gene. Analyses using the individual genes (18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) resolved the various apicomplexan groups with high Bayesian posterior probabilities. The multi-gene, multi-genome analyses based on concatenated nu 18S rDNA, pl 16S, pl 23S, pl rPoB, pl rPoB1, and mt COI sequences appeared useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Apicomplexa. Genus-level relationships, or higher, appear best supported by 18S rDNA analyses, and species-level analyses are best investigated using mt COI sequences; for parasites for which both loci are available, nuclear 18S rDNA sequences combined with mitochondrial COI sequences provide a compact and informative molecular dataset for inferring the evolutionary relationships taxa in the Apicomplexa. PMID:26319519

  7. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae), from Arkansas, USA

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Connior, Matthew B.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Robison, Henry W.

    2014-01-01

    Between February 2011 and January 2014, 75 ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Say, 1823) were collected from 13 counties of Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma, USA, and examined for coccidia. Two (3%) and 11 (15%) S. lateralis were found to be passing oocysts of a new choleoeimerian and isosporan, respectively. Ocysts of Choleoeimeria ouachitensis n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal with a smooth, colourless, bi layered wall and measure 27.2 15.6 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 6.8 ?m, L/W 1.3; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are present; the walls have two valves joined by longitudinal sutures; a sporocyst residuum consisted of dispersed granules between sporozoites. Ocysts of Isospora koberi n. sp. are ovoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 25.1 20.5 ?m, L/W 1.2; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is rarely present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.4 8.6 ?m, L/W 1.3; a nipple-like Stieda body and a subStieda body are present without a paraStieda body; a sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. This is the second choleoeimerian and third isosporan reported from S. lateralis. PMID:24711115

  8. Prevalence of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematode infections in cross bred goats in the dry areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Faizal, A C.M.; Rajapakse, R P.V.J.

    2001-06-01

    The prevalence and intensity of oocysts of coccidia, particularly Eimeria species, and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in kids (2-4 months), young goats (5-12 months) and adult goats (>1 year) were determined in five large herds managed extensively in five villages in the dry zone. Of the representative samples examined, oocysts were found in 88% of kids, 91% of young goats and 83% of adults. Seven species of Eimeria were identified in faecal samples by salt flotation. Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae (31%), E. alijevi (29%) and E. arloingi (21%) were the most common species in all age categories. Other species encountered were E. christenseni (7%), E. jolchijevi (6%), E. hirchi (3%) and E. aspheronica (1%). Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in 89% of the kids, 94% of the young goats and 84% of the adult goats. Identification of gastrointestinal nematodes revealed Haemonchus contortus (90%) followed by Oesophogostomum spp. (8.5%) and Trichostrongylus spp. (1%) in all three age categories examined. Both Eimeria and gastrointestinal nematodes were found in 77% of the kids, 86% of the young goats and 71% of adult goats. The mean oocyst counts per gram of faeces in kids, young goats and adult goats were 9728, 1946, and 2667, respectively. The oocyst counts were not different significantly between age groups (P>0.05). The mean egg counts per gram of faeces in kids, young goats and adult goats were 1217, 1641 and 1092, respectively. The egg counts in kids were significantly lower than that in young goats (P<0.05). The intensity of Eimeria and gastrointestinal nematode infections between herds were significantly different (P<0.01). PMID:11323207

  9. Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System – An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia

    PubMed Central

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (≤1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

  10. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  11. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  12. Tracing the emergence of drug-resistance in coccidia (Eimeria spp.) of commercial broiler flocks medicated with decoquinate for the first time in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    2006-01-15

    Decoquinate is a quinolone coccidiostat introduced during 1967 as an in-feed prophylactic for broiler chickens. Despite early drug-resistance problems and its age, the drug is still used commercially worldwide. Decoquinate here serves as a valuable model in a field study that addresses the dynamics and economic impact of the development of coccidial resistance to potent synthetic anticoccidial drugs. The results of this unique, hitherto unpublished, study on the initial emergence of resistance of avian coccidia (Eimeria spp.) to a new drug in the field may be of strategic value in the continued use of decoquinate or the introduction of new drugs. The commercial performance of the first 3-5 crops of broilers to be medicated with decoquinate on each of six farms was monitored during 14 months in 1968-1969, supplemented by assessments of the species, population dynamics and decoquinate-resistance of coccidia isolated from each farm. During the rearing of each flock in a single shed on each farm, oocysts were counted in fresh faecal samples collected on three occasions, and the species were identified by their morphology if possible, supported if necessary by the biological characteristics of infections in chickens. E. acervulina was the most common species, followed by E. mitis, E. maxima, E. tenella and E. praecox. E. brunetti occurred rarely, and E. necatrix was not found. Decoquinate-resistance was evident in several species during the rearing of the first decoquinate-medicated crop on each farm, although clinical coccidiosis did not occur. It was concluded that inherently resistant mutants of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. tenella, and probably also E. mitis and E. praecox, were selected from field populations by 6 weeks during their first exposure to decoquinate. During up to four more subsequent crops, cycling of resistant parasites stimulated host immunity, which had no obvious adverse impact on commercial performance. There was no apparent seasonal effect. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the sudden and rapid emergence of quinolone-resistance in the coccidia, and why bird health was not thereby compromised in these circumstances. PMID:16289564

  13. Coccidia and Other Protozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium species are prevalent and ubiquitous worldwide in humans and animals. There are over 20 named species plus nearly twice that number of genotypes and the identification of new species and genotypes continues to evolve rapidly. These obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of vert...

  14. Enzymes as feed additive to aid in responses against Eimeria species in coccidia-vaccinated broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets with different protein levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Clack, B A; Clemente-Hernández, S; Osborne, J; Remus, J C; Kettunen, H; Mäkivuokko, H; Pierson, E M

    2007-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vaccinated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then challenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d-old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12 treatments. Three anticoccidial control programs [ionophore (IO), coccidian vaccine (COV), and coccidia-vaccine + enzymes (COV + EC)] were evaluated under 3 CP levels (19, 21, and 23%), and 3 unmedicated-uninfected (UU) negative controls were included for each one of the protein levels. All chickens except those in unmedicated-uninfected negative controls were infected at 17 d of age with a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Live performance, lesion scores, oocyst counts, and samples for gut microflora profiles were evaluated 7 d postinfection. Ileal digestibility of amino acids (IDAA) was determined 8 d postinfection. Microbial communities (MC) were analyzed by G + C%, microbial numbers were counted by flow cytometry, and IgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. The lowest CP diets had poorer (P < or = 0.001) BW gain and feed conversion ratio in the preinfection period. Coccidia-vaccinated broilers had lower performance than the ones fed ionophore diets during pre- and postchallenge periods. Intestinal lesion scores were affected (P < or = 0.05) by anticoccidial control programs, but responses changed according to gut section. Feed additives or vaccination had no effect (P > or = 0.05) on IDAA, and diets with 23% CP had the lowest (P < or = 0.001) IDAA. Coccidial infection had no effect on MC numbers in the ileum but reduced MC numbers in ceca and suppressed ileal IgA production. The COV + EC treatment modulated MC during mixed coccidiosis infection but did not significantly improve chicken performance. Results indicated that feed enzymes may be used to modulate the gut microflora of cocci-vaccinated broiler chickens. PMID:17369534

  15. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  16. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations. PMID:26801593

  17. A NEW CARYOSPORAN AND EIMERIAN (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) FROM GREEN ANOLES, ANOLIS CAROLINENSIS (SAURIA: DACTYLOIDAE), FROM ARKANSAS AND LOUISIANA, WITH A SUMMARY OF THE COCCIDIA OF DACTYLOIDAE

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Connior, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Between April 2012 and September 2013, feces from 18 green anoles, Anolis carolinensis from Arkansas (n = 14), Louisiana (n = 1), and Oklahoma (n = 3) were examined for coccidia. Two species of coccidians were found, including a new caryosporan and a new eimerian. Oocysts of Caryospora natchitochesensis n. sp. from a single A. carolinensis from Louisiana were subspheroidal to ovoidal with a smooth, yellow to brown pigmented, bi-layered wall of equal thickness (~0.30.7) and measured (L W) 13.1 12.3 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal and measured 10.1 7.4 ?m, L/W was 1.4. A Stieda body (~1.0 ?m) was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of dispersed granules or globules among sporozoites. Oocysts of Eimeria robisoni n. sp. from 1 of 12 (8%) green anoles from Arkansas were ellipsoidal with a smooth, uni-layered wall (~0.40.5) and measured (L W) 14.5 10.5 ?m, with L/W ratio of 1.4. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 14 (usually 2) polar granules were present. Sporocysts were subspheroidal to ovoidal and measured 5.8 4.9 ?m, L/W was 1.2. Stieda, substieda and parastieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of dispersed granules between sporozoites. None of the anoles from Oklahoma were found to be passing oocysts. This is the second time an eimerian and a caryosporan have been reported from green anoles. A summary of the coccidians of lizards of the family Dactyloidae is provided, with special emphasis on the Anolis of the United States. PMID:24673588

  18. Birefringent spores differentiate Encephalitozoon and other microsporidia from coccidia.

    PubMed

    Tiner, J D

    1988-05-01

    Tissue sections containing protozoa with birefringent spores indicate an infection by microsporidia. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) does not affect spore birefringence, but some special stains (Goodpasture, Brown and Brenn, or Gram) obscure it. Encephalitozoon cuniculi from an infected puppy, Glugea stephani from the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and Plistophora sp. from the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica all have birefringent spores. Encephalitozoon was studied first and then the two genera from fishes were included for comparison. Small masses of newly formed spores (pseudocysts) line Glugea cysts and then merge into the contents of the cyst as it enlarges and bulges through the intestinal musculature to become subserosal. The birefringence of Plistophora is present in fully mature spores contained in pseudocysts, but may disappear when the spores are released and become involved in granulomas. Coccidians from various hosts were always nonbirefringent. Whenever a protozoan organism in a tissue could be either microsporidian or coccidian, a test for birefringence, if positive, resolves the question. There may be no need to use a special stain. PMID:3134761

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis. PMID:24328820

  20. Evolutionary plasticity in coccidia - striking morphological similarity of unrelated coccidia (apicomplexa) from related hosts: Eimeria spp. from African and Asian Pangolins (Mammalia: Pholidota).

    PubMed

    Jirků, Miloslav; Kvičerová, Jana; Modrý, David; Hypša, Václav

    2013-07-01

    Two morphologically similar, but phylogenetically unrelated Eimeria species from ancient mammals, African Tree Pangolin Phataginus tricuspis and Sunda Pangolin Manis javanica (Pholidota: Manidae), from two distant biogeographic realms (Afrotropical and Oriental), are characterized and compared morphologically and molecularly. Phylogenetic analyses produced an unstable topology. However, while precise position of the two Eimeria species from pangolins could not be firmly established due to the lack of related taxa, it is evident that they are not closely related and do not fall into any of the so far recognized eimerian lineages. Moreover, an eimerian found in P. tricuspis is described as a new species Eimeria nkaka n. sp., based on morphology of oocysts, endogenous developmental stages and sequence data. PMID:23837921

  1. Application of immunogenomics to study intestinal innate and adaptive immunity against coccidia parasites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective control of poultry pathogens which cause infectious diseases is becoming a major challenge to the poultry industry worldwide with increasing consumer’s demands for safe poultry products and escalating concerns on biosecurity measures for new-emerging, highly virulent strains of microbial p...

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

  3. Characterization of novel lytic peptide secreted by intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes infected with coccidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inflammatory response to parasites is mediated by multiple host factors. In this report, we present molecular and functional characterizations of a novel immune mediator whose gene expression increased following infection with Eimeria. NK-lysin is an anti-microbial and anti-tumor protein expre...

  4. Enhanced egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites by splenic lymphocytes from coccidia-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular paras...

  5. An ?? T-cell-independent immunoprotective response towards gut coccidia is supported by ?? cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A L; Hayday, A C

    2000-01-01

    Although ?? cells are commonly hypothesized to provide a first line of defence, ??-cell-deficient mice are generally only marginally more susceptible to pathogens. Because ?? cells are enriched within epithelia, it is important to resolve whether immunoprotective capacity towards epithelial-tropic pathogens is absent from the ??-cell compartment, or whether such activity is present but simply redundant with that of ?? T cells. In this work, following infection of the intestinal epithelium of ?? T-cell-deficient mice with the coccidian parasite, Eimeria vermiformis, ?? cells were shown to support the rapid activation of other lymphoid cells and to confer a transferable antipathogen effect that could be eradicated by neutralization of interferon-?. However, unlike ?? T cells, these effects of ?? cells showed no evidence of functional immunological memory. These results are directly relevant to coccidiosis, an economically significant disease of livestock, and should have general relevance to infections involving ?? T-cell deficiencies, e.g. cryptosporidiosis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:11106935

  6. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  7. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the lowland European bison Bison bonasus bonasus (L.).

    PubMed

    Pyziel, Anna M; J?wikowski, Micha?; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2014-05-28

    Coprological studies conducted between 2007 and 2011 in free-roaming and captive European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Poland revealed 11 species of Eimeria infecting the host, i.e., Eimeria alabamensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria brasiliensis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria pellita, Eimeria subspherica, and Eimeria zuernii. The typical host for all isolated species is cattle. The most prevalent species was E. bovis (29.7%), while E. brasiliensis was the rarest (0.5%). Five of the species (E. bovis, E. bukidnonensis, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. zuernii) have been observed previously in bison by other authors, 3 species were noticed by us in bison previously (E. alabamensis, E. cylindrica, E. pellita), while for 3 species (E. auburnensis, E. brasiliensis, and E. subspherica) these are new host and locality records. Oocysts of two species (E. brasiliensis, E. bukidnonensis) were noted only in the feces of bison kept in captivity. Moreover, the prevalence of positive samples was higher in the group of captive animals (55.4%) in comparison with the free-roaming herds (29.5%); although, oocysts per gram (OPG), counted with the conventional McMaster technique, was comparable in both groups, reaching maximally 6550 and 6400 in free-roaming and captive individuals, respectively. Overall, 142 fecal samples from 424 samples examined were positive for Eimeria (prevalence=33.5%). Age-related analysis revealed a higher percentage of Eimeria spp. positive samples and higher OPG values in bison under 1 year old as compared to older individuals (93.3% and 50-4050; 37.3% and 50-550, respectively). Additionally, greater eimerian species diversity was present among calves in comparison with older bison. In most cases single-species infections were observed (59.8%) with a predominance of E. bovis (85.9%). Multiple-species infections consisted of 2-7 species, usually including E. bovis. The observation was made that E. bovis infection appears conducive to the host acquiring more eimerian species. No symptoms of clinical coccidiosis occurred during the study. PMID:24702772

  8. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mi...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  10. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  11. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  12. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus. PMID:25065124

  13. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, Mikky A; Alyousif, Mohamed S; Saifi, Muheet A; Alanazi, Abdullah D

    2015-05-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.54.1נ17.03.9?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.02-1.05)?m and produces 24(18-26) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.50.8נ3.60.5?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.44-1.61)?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.71.2נ7.81.0?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.21-1.34)?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.01.1נ6.80.9?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.01-1.10)?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  14. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amoudi, Mikky A.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.; Saifi, Muheet A.; Alanazi, Abdullah D.

    2014-01-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.54.1נ17.03.9?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.021.05)?m and produces 24(1826) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.50.8נ3.60.5?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.441.61)?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.71.2נ7.81.0?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.211.34)?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.01.1נ6.80.9?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.011.10)?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  15. Survey for coccidia and haemosporidia in the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) from New Mexico with description of a new Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Smith, B H; Duszynski, D W; Johnson, K

    2003-04-01

    Blood films and fecal samples of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) were examined for parasites when we surveyed specimens captured during a radio-tracking study conducted in Chaves County, New Mexico (USA). All birds were captured on the Caprock Wildlife Habitat Management Area, administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Samples were collected in late March, April, and early May 1998-2000. Oocysts were detected in five of 64 (8%) birds sampled and, upon sporulation, were determined to be an Eimeria species. This is the first eimerian reported from the lesser prairie-chicken and is described here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts are ellipsoidal, 27.1 x 22.7 (22-32 x 18-26) microns, with micropyle absent, but oocyst residuum and polar granule present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.9 x 7.8 (10-14 x 6-10); a Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum are present, as is a small, indistinct substieda body. Inspection of blood smears revealed four cases of Plasmodium infection of 32 (13%) individuals sampled. The characteristics of this plasmodiid are consistent with the description of Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) pedioecetii, previously found in T. pallidicinctus (Stabler, 1978). PMID:12910762

  16. REDESCRIPTION OF NEOSPORA CANINUM DUBEY, CARPENTER, SPEER, TOPPER, UGGLA, 1988 AND ITS DIFFERENTIATION FROM RELATED COCCIDIA ESPECIALLY ISOSPORA BIGEMINA AND HAMMONDIA HEYDORNI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals, which before 1984, was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Infection with this parasite is a major cause of abortion in cattle and causes paralysis in dogs. Since the original description of N. caninum in 1988, considerable progress has been mad...

  17. The interactive effect of phytase and coccidia on the gross lesions as well as the absorption capacity of intestine in broilers fed with diets low in calcium and available phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Modirsanei, Mehrdad; Nodeh, Hassan; Rahbari, Sadegh

    2010-02-26

    In an experiment with 2x2 factorial design, the influence of dietary phytase on the intestinal lesions as well as the absorption capacity of intestine for D-xylose in broiler chickens provided with a diet low in calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) and challenged with Eimeria oocysts, was evaluated. Four groups of 20 1-day-old male broiler were provided with diets low in total Ca and aP (8 and 3g/kg instead of 10 and 5g/kg of Ca and aP in the diet, respectively). On day 10, 10 chicks from each group were randomly kept in individual raised floor wire cages to adopt environmental conditions. The experimental groups were as follows, Group 1: received no Eimeria oocysts (negative control), Group 2: received oocysts of mixed Eimeria species on day 15 to create an experimental coccidiosis (positive control), Group 3: negative control received phytase enzyme in their diet, from the first day of life, and Group 4: positive control received phytase enzyme in the diet. On day 20, after 12h fasting, the D-xylose absorption test was performed and immediately after that, the intestinal lesion scoring was carried out. The results showed that coccidiosis in Groups 2 and 4 produced progressive lesions in intestinal tract and reduced the concentration of plasma D-xylose in Group 2 when compared to Groups 1 and 3. Dietary phytase had no influence on the concentration of plasma D-xylose in un-infected birds. The enzyme had no influence on the intestinal lesions caused by coccidiosis as well. However, it increased the plasma D-xylose concentration of Group 4 to the level that it was comparable with Groups 1 and 3, at 45 and 90min post-ingestion of the solution. It was concluded that the addition of phytase enzyme to the low Ca and aP diet, increased indirectly the absorption capacity of intestine for D-xylose in infected chickens most probably through the improvement of mechanisms involved in the absorption and transport of D-xylose. PMID:19942351

  18. Evidence for a population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for ...

  19. Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and...

  20. Year-long presence of Eimeria echidnae and absence of Eimeria tachyglossi in captive short-beaked echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John J; Johnson, Robert; Vogelnest, Larry; Phalen, David N; Whittington, Richard; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The short-beaked echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ) is 1 of 5 extant species of monotreme, found only in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to identify the species of coccidia present and establish a range of subclinical Eimeria spp. (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) oocyst shedding in echidnas from eastern Australia over 18 mo. The coccidia were detected in 89% (49/55) of fecal samples from 12 long-term monitored and healthy captive echidnas, 75% (3/4) of 4 healthy long-term captive echidnas, 83% (5/6) of 6 short-term captive echidnas, and 60% (6/10) of 10 wild echidnas. Echidnas captive for 4 to 23 yr shed 100-46,000 oocysts g(-1) of E. echidnae and remained clinically healthy during this study. Sub-adult and adult wild, and short-term captive, echidnas shed oocysts of both E. echidnae and E. tachyglossi . The lack of coccidia in juvenile short-beaked echidnas suggests these animals are probably non-immune and should not be placed in environments heavily contaminated with oocysts. In addition, no oocysts were found in captive long-beaked echidnas ( Zaglossus bartoni bartoni , n ?=? 2) housed at Taronga Zoo. This study represents an important step in understanding the host-parasite interaction between coccidia and short-beaked echidnas. PMID:22236183

  1. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.-H.; Olsen, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

  2. Systems based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora and Toxoplasma are two host parasites that infect an...

  3. OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that oxidative stress occurs during the acute phase (days 5-7 post infection) of primary avian coccidia infections. This is a period of much host tissue destruction that is associated with maturation and shedding of oocysts. However, little is known about the host redox status during e...

  4. The use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to assess the impact of Eimeria infections in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parameters have been used to assess the impact of coccidosis on chickens in both clinical settings as well as in experimental studies. However a rapid way to determine body composition would be useful to evaluate or compare responses to coccidia and could give further insight into the m...

  5. Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study the effect of MS on the viability ...

  6. A family of cysteine-rich proteins is involved in the formation of the oocyst wall of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among apicomplexan parasites, the coccidia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important pathogens of livestock and humans and the environmentally resistant stage (oocyst) is essential for their transmission. Little is known of the chemical and molecular composition of the oocyst wall. Currently, the only ...

  7. A simple and efficient method for isolation of a single Eimeria oocyst from poultry litter using a micromanipulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken, which is the host for seven species of Eimeria, typically is infected simultaneously by multiple Eimeria species and the oocysts of coccidia are excreted in the feces. A prerequisite for investigation of individual Eimeria species is to isolate a single oocyst from fecal samples. A nov...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTECTIVE INDEX TO RANK EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIPLE TREATMENTS WITHIN AN EXPERIMENT: APPLICATION TO A CROSS PROTECTION STUDY OF SEVERAL STRAIN OF EIMERIA MAXIMA AND A LIVE VACCINE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination of chickens with live oocysts has become a more widely used method for controlling avian coccidiosis as resistance to anticoccidial medication increases. However, some coccidia strains are not useful in multispecies vaccines because antigenic variation has made them generally less pro...

  9. INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A SPINNER DOLPHIN (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...

  10. Eimeria that infect fish are diverse and are related to, but distinct from, those that infect terrestrial vertebrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eimeria are ubiquitous Apicoplexan parasites (family: coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and rel...

  11. Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

  12. Enteric coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a review of intestinal coccidiosis in cats and dogs. Coccidia are single celled parasites of mammals and birds.There are many species of coccidian that parasitize dogs and cats, and some of these are zoonotic. These parasites are normally found in intestines and are passed in a resistant st...

  13. RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

  14. Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Broiler Chickens Coinfected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens Using an Animal Model of Necrotic Enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) infection in commercial poultry has been increasing at an alarming rate. While pre-exposure of chickens to coccidia infections is believed to be one of the major risk factors leading to NE, the underlying mechanisms of CP ...

  15. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Parasites of Chickens in Selected Villages in the Subhumid Zones of South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, P. A.; George, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify and estimate the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites of village chicken between April and July 2008 in three local councils of Enugu state, Nigeria. A total of 1038 chickens comprising of 468 chicks, 207 growers and 363 adults were examined during the house to house survey for ectoparasites, gastrointestinal helminths and coccidia infections. Our finding showed that 41% were infected with ectoparasites with lice, fleas, and mites having prevalence rates of 62.2%, 35.7% and 2.1%, respectively. Helminths and coccidia had prevalence of 35.5% each. Among the helminths Ascaridia, galli was the most dominant species (17.2%). Generally, there was a significantly higher helminth infestation relative to the ectoparasites (P < .05), high prevalence of mixed infections and absence of tick infestation. Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. PMID:20700428

  16. Isospora dromaii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae (Casuariiformes, Casuariidae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos Teixeira, Carina; Gallo, Samira Salim Mello; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    A new species of Coccidia (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, which was observed in Brazil is described and named. Oocysts of Isospora dromaii n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoid in shape, measure 21.6??19.8 ?m, and have a double and smooth wall thickness of approximately 1.4 ?m. In this species, micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granules are absent. The sporocysts are slightly ovoid in shape and measure 13.7??10.0 ?m. Nipple-like Stieda body and prominent sub-Stieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small dispersed granules of varying sizes. The sporozoites are characterized by an oblong refractile body and one centrally located nucleus. This is the first description of isosporid coccidia infecting birds of the family Dromaiidae. PMID:25195056

  17. A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

    2000-04-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

  18. Coprological survey in pet reptiles in Italy.

    PubMed

    Papini, R; Manetti, C; Mancianti, F

    2011-08-20

    Faecal samples were collected from 324 pet reptiles showing no clinical signs, including 28 saurian species (n=192), three ophidian species (n=74) and three chelonian species (n=58). Samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by direct smear and faecal flotation, while direct immunofluorescence assays were used to reveal the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Overall, 57.4 per cent of the reptiles were harbouring intestinal parasites. These included oxyurids (16 per cent), coccidia (12.3 per cent), flagellates (9.3 per cent), strongyles (6.8 per cent), coccidia plus oxyurids (4.9 per cent), coccidia plus flagellates (1.8 per cent), coccidia plus strongyles (1.8 per cent), oxyurids plus strongyles (1.2 per cent), oxyurids plus flagellates (1.2 per cent), Cryptosporidium species (1.2 per cent) and strongyles plus flagellates (0.6 per cent). Intestinal parasites were more prevalent in saurians than in ophidians and chelonians, in insectivores than in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, and in wild-caught than in captive-born reptiles. A highly significant difference was observed for saurians versus chelonians (odds ratio [OR]=2.20, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.99), insectivores versus herbivores (OR=2.38, 95 per cent CI 1.26 to 4.49) and in wild-caught versus captive-born pet reptiles (OR=2.36, 95 per cent CI 1.27 to 4.40). PMID:21795307

  19. A survey of the economic impact of subclinical Eimeria infections in broiler chickens in Norway.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Gjevre, Anne-Gerd; Skjerve, Eystein; Kaldhusdal, Magne

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the impact of subclinical coccidial infection on commercial performance, expressed as a modified European Production Index, in broilers. Performance data, and litter and faecal samples, were collected from two independent observational surveys of Norwegian broilers receiving in-feed narasin during 2000 to 2004. Numbers of oocysts per gram (OPG) of litter collected during rearing (Study 1) or faecal samples collected at slaughter (both studies), and relative frequencies of Eimeria species categories (both studies) were calculated. Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Eimeria species was performed in Study 2. A definition of flocks at risk of impaired performance associated with coccidia ("risk flock"), using the predominant species and OPG level as criteria, was tested. Coccidia had a significant effect on performance in the first, but not the second study. In Study 1 the following coccidia variables were found to be associated with impaired performance in multivariate models: OPG at slaughter (ordinal), mean OPG during rearing (ordinal) and "risk flock" (binomial). The European Production Index was approximately 9% lower in flocks with infection levels >50 000 OPG at slaughter in Study 1. The composition of coccidial populations shifted between Study 1 and Study 2, from a dominance of medium and large oocysts to a dominance of small oocysts. There was a substantial increase in prevalence of coccidial infection from Study 1 to Study 2, but mean infection levels were similar in the two surveys. The "risk flock" definition was useful as an indicator of coccidia-associated performance loss in Study 1, where subclinical coccidiosis was an important factor. The results suggest that the economic importance of subclinical coccidiosis may vary substantially with time, and they emphasize the need for population studies on the importance and dynamics of specific coccidial infections under different field conditions. PMID:18568662

  20. Intestinal coccidiosis in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Eggers, J S; Lipscomb, T P

    2002-06-01

    Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 microm and contained up to 16 merozoites, which measured 10-12 x 2 microm. Unsporulated oocysts were about 9-12 x 8-10 microm. This is the first report of intestinal coccidiosis in a spinner dolphin. PMID:12099444

  1. A note on endoparasites of wild ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Toto, P A S

    2003-03-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of endoparasites of wild ostriches at Mokolodi Nature Reserve, Gaborone, over a 7-month period. Large numbers of strongyle eggs were recovered from faecal material in April and September and a decline in the strongyle egg counts was evident during June and July. Noteworthy was the absence of helminth eggs in faecal samples collected from chicks and coccidia oocysts from any of the ostriches. PMID:12836743

  2. Eimeria fraterculae sp. n. in the kidneys of Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) from Newfoundland, Canada: species description and lesions.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F A; Gajadhar, A A

    1986-10-01

    Renal coccidiosis is reported for the first time in an auk (Alcidae). Infection was detected in seven of 50 nestling Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) and a new species of coccidia, Eimeria fraterculae sp. n., is described. The structure and sporulation of oocysts are characterized. Meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts were present in collecting duct epithelium of medullary cones. The predominant host response was hypertrophy of infected cells, tubule dilation, and a mild localized peritubular infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells. PMID:3503138

  3. Effect of aflatoxin on the coccidial infection in broilers.

    PubMed

    Toulah, Fawzia H

    2007-12-01

    Two hundred of one day old chickens were divided into four equal groups and kept for the end of experiment. The first group was kept as control negative, the second group received 1 ppm of dietary aflatoxin from day zero of chick life till the end of present study, while the third group was given 4x104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria sp., the group four were obtained coccidial oocysts and aflatoxin in their rations. The combination of aflatoxin and coccidia, produced higher mortality rate, higher faecal scores and increased oocysts output than those chicks received aflatoxin or coccidia only. Body weighs and efficiency of feed utilization were decreased in all treated groups. The maximal losses of body weight and efficiency of feed utilization were noticed in chicks infected with Eimeria sp. and at received aflatoxin in their ration. The levels of total serum proteins, gamma globulins, calcium and phosphorus were decreased in chicks infected with coccidia and received dietary aflatoxin. Total bilirubin and SGOT activity were higher in chicks infected with Eimeria sp, and obtained aflatoxin. PMID:18383780

  4. Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

    2013-10-15

    The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015

  5. Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

  6. Evaluation of herbal coccidiostat 'Coxynil' in broiler.

    PubMed

    Kurkure, N V; Kolte, S W; Bhandarkar, A G; Kalorey, D R

    2006-09-01

    Anticoccidial efficacy of "Coxynil" a polyherbal preparation was tested against Eimeria tenella in broilers. Body weight of birds challenged with E. tenella in Coxynil treated groups was higher as compared to Coxynil untreated. Oocyst out put, lesion score, HI titres against New Castle disease virus were significantly higher in Coxynil supplemented groups in comparison to Coxynil un-supplemented groups. Examination of ceaca of the birds, revealed that the Coxynil interfered with life cycle of coccidia. The typical second generation schizonts were absent in ceacal section of Coxynil treated groups. The results indicate that Coxynil is effective herbal coccidiostat. PMID:16999029

  7. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  8. Case report: Nitazoxanide treatment failure in chronic isosporiasis.

    PubMed

    Bialek, R; Overkamp, D; Rettig, I; Knobloch, J

    2001-08-01

    We report a 60-year-old immunocompetent patient with chronic biliary isosporiasis who failed to respond to orally administered cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and orally administered treatment with nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole benzamide compound. Severe malabsorption was regarded as responsible for the subtherapeutic levels of nitazoxanide in plasma and bile, resulting in treatment failure. Intravenously administered cotrimoxazole stopped the shedding of Isospora belli oocysts in bile within 5 days, excluding initially suspected resistance to cotrimoxazole. Patients with malabsorption and cholangitis due to Coccidia such as Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium spp. or due to protozoa that cause microsporidiasis seem to be predisposed to fail to respond to otherwise effective treatment. PMID:11508398

  9. Avian coccidiosis: the basic pathology to control.

    PubMed

    Bould, James G; Elsheikha, Hany M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-04-01

    Coccidiosis is a major intestinal parasitic disease of poultry that is associated with severe economic losses and welfare issues. This review brings together current knowledge about the disease and the pathological alterations involved at gross, microscopic and molecular level and how these aspects may be exploitable in the future to improve existing control measures. Particular attention was paid to the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Coccidia at the cellular level, and how these can be investigated using novel techniques, such as the single-gel electrophoresis (comet assay) on in vitro cultured cells. PMID:19530612

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites. PMID:15559182

  11. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  12. Enteric coccidiosis in the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli).

    PubMed

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Pomroy, W E; Castro, I; Howe, L

    2012-10-01

    Enteric coccidiosis may cause significant morbidity and mortality in juvenile brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Morphology of sporulated oocysts indicates that at least two Eimeria species are able to infect the brown kiwi. A histological study of the endogenous stages of coccidia was undertaken in the intestinal tracts of ten naturally infected young kiwi. Sequential sectioning of the entire intestinal tract allowed identification and recording of the distribution of the various coccidial life stages. Macromeronts measuring 268 × 162 μm when mature were found mainly within the lamina propria of the proximal one third of the small intestine. A smaller form of lamina propria meront was also identified (8.7 × 6.4 μm) with a similar distribution to the macromeronts. Small meronts (4.4 × 3.8 μm) were also identified in mucosal epithelial cells, with the overall peak in distribution within the intestinal tract being distal to the lamina propria meronts. Three morphologically distinctive gametocytes were identified. Type A gametocytes contained within epithelial cells shared the same distribution as the epithelial meronts. Polyps containing large numbers of type B gametocytes within the distal intestinal tract were found in two cases, and type C gametocytes were identified throughout the entire intestinal tract in one case only. The observational nature of this study precludes complete knowledge of the parasite life cycles using histology alone. However, it is likely that each of the three morphologically distinct gametocytes represents a separate species of enteric coccidia. PMID:22837099

  13. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  14. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R.; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-01-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  15. Anticoccidial activity of narasin in battery raised broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruff, M D; Reid, W M; Johnson, J K; Anderson, W A

    1979-03-01

    The anticoccidial activity of the ionophorus antibiotic narasin was tested against six species of coccidia (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria mivati, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria brunetti, and Eimeria tenella) in battery-raised broilers. Feeding ration medicated with 60, 80, or 100 ppm narasin significantly improved weight gains during the periods of D 0 to D7 and D 0 to D 14 (D 0 = day of inoculation with sporulated oocysts), compared with the weight gains in corresponding inoculated groups fed unmedicated feed. A similar protective effect of the medication was seen with feed conversion ratios (feed consumed/bird weight) and coccidiosis-induced mortality. With most species studied, 40 and 60 ppm narasin was not as efficacious as 80 or 100 ppm. The maximum numerial improvement in weight gain and feed conversion ratio was with 80 ppm narasin. Gross intestinal lesion scores were reduced by medication compared with the scores in birds fed unmedicated feed. The overall trend was for a larger reduction in lesion score with higher drug levels. Narasin at 80 or 100 ppm was generally more effective in controlling individual or mixed species infections of coccidia than 99 ppm monensin. PMID:530901

  16. Host-Parasite Incongruences in Rodent Eimeria Suggest Significant Role of Adaptation Rather than Cophylogeny in Maintenance of Host Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kvičerová, Jana; Hypša, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The degree of host specificity, its phylogenetic conservativeness and origin are virtually unknown in Eimeria. This situation is largely due to the inadequate sample of eimerian molecular data available for reliable phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we extend the data set by adding 71 new sequences of coccidia infecting 16 small-mammal genera, mostly rodents. According to the respective feasibility of PCR gene amplification, the new samples are represented by one or more of the following genes: nuclear 18S rRNA, plastid ORF 470, and mitochondrial COI. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences confirm the previous hypothesis that Eimeria, in its current morphology-based delimitation, is not a monophyletic group. Several samples of coccidia corresponding morphologically to other genera are scattered among the Eimeria lineages. More importantly, the distribution of eimerians from different hosts indicates that the clustering of eimerian species is influenced by their host specificity, but does not arise from a cophylogenetic/cospeciation process; while several clusters are specific to a particular host group, inner topologies within these clusters do not reflect host phylogeny. This observation suggests that the host specificity of Eimeria is caused by adaptive rather than cophylogenetic processes. PMID:23861732

  17. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Ocysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 14.7 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 6.4 ?m, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus. PMID:24395577

  18. Declines in canine endoparasite prevalence associated with the introduction of commercial heartworm and flea preventatives from 1984 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Nolan, Thomas J

    2014-08-29

    The apparent monthly prevalence of endoparasite infections was measured from 20,991 dogs that had fecal examinations performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1984 and 2007. In the period from 1984 to 1991, the mean monthly prevalence of endoparasites was 5.32% for ascarids, 9.80% for hookworms, 9.64% for whipworms, 1.84% for tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum), 4.59% for Giardia species, and 3.04% for coccidia. Based on Student's t tests, the prevalence of ascarids (1.99%), hookworms (1.48%), whipworms (2.33%), and tapeworms (0.29%) were found to be significantly lower in the period from 2000 to 2007. Plots of the smoothed monthly averages revealed that the declines in prevalence occurred shortly after the introduction of modern heartworm and flea preventatives to the commercial market. In the latter study period, 79.8% of dogs were on monthly heartworm prevention and 74.0% were on monthly flea prevention. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of either Giardia species or coccidia species between study time periods. Overall, the findings suggest that heartworm and flea preventatives have had cascade effects on endoparasite prevalence in the population of well-cared-for dogs. PMID:24880645

  19. Systems-Based Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona Genome Identifies Pathways That Contribute to a Heteroxenous Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A.; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Hung, Stacy S.; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. PMID:25670772

  20. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  1. Major histocompatibility complex variation and age-specific endoparasite load in subadult European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Claus; Starkloff, Anett; Rausch, Philipp; Von Holst, Dietrich; Rdel, Heiko G

    2010-10-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a fundamental role in the vertebrate immune response and are amongst the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. It is generally agreed that the highly polymorphic nature of the MHC is maintained through host-parasite co-evolution. Two nonexclusive mechanisms of selection are supposed to act on MHC genes: superiority of MHC heterozygous individuals (overdominance) and an advantage for rare MHC alleles. However, the precise mechanisms and their relative importance are still unknown. Here, we examined MHC dependent parasite load in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a distinct population with low MHC diversity (three alleles, six genotypes). Using a multivariate approach, we tested for associations of individual MHC class II DRB constitution and the rabbits' intestinal burden with nematodes and coccidia. Rabbits having a particular allele showed lower infestations with hepatic coccidia (E.stiedai). However, a comparison of all six genotypes in the population revealed that carriers of this allele only benefit when they are heterozygous, and furthermore, MHC heterozygosity in general did not affect individual parasite load. In conclusion, this study suggests an immunogenetic basis of European rabbit resistance to hepatic coccidiosis, which can strongly limit survival to maturity in this species. Our study gives a complex picture of MHC-parasite correlations, unveiling the limits of the classical hypotheses of how MHC polymorphism is maintained in natural systems. PMID:20723049

  2. The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T. gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites Aggregata octopiana and Aggregata eberthi (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) from the NE Atlantic coast using 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino

    2013-08-01

    The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. PMID:23498588

  4. Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A

    1996-01-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses. PMID:8727903

  5. Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at P<0.05−0.01 (250 spots), P<0.01−0.001 (248 spots), and P<0.001 (314 spots) were excised and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified in 172 spots. A total of 46 different proteins were identified. Of the spots with a corresponding protein identification, 57 showed a main effect of coccidia infection and/or 2-way interaction of coccidia infection×broiler genetic line at P<0.001. Conclusions/Significance Several of the metabolic enzymes identified in this study are potential candidates for early diagnostic markers of E. acervulina infection including malate dehydrogenase 2, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 9, and an ATP synthase. These proteins were detected only in Line A birds that were inoculated with E. acervulina. Results from this study provide a basic framework for future research aimed at uncovering the complex biochemical mechanisms involved in host response to Eimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods. PMID:21297942

  6. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.823.2 (22-2720-25) m, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.68.3 (10.5-137.5-9) m, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  7. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alyousif, M S; al-Dakhil, M; al-Shawa, Y

    1999-03-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8 x 23.2 (22-27 x 20-25) microns, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6 x 8.3 (10.5-13 x 7.5-9) microns, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  8. A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), from Kansas.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-04-01

    Between March 1989 and February 1994, 4 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) from various localities in Kansas were examined for coccidia. One (25%) of the bald eagles was found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Oocysts of Caryospora hanebrinki n. sp. are ellipsoidal to ovoidal with a bilayered wall and measure 48.1 42.1 ?m with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts are spheroidal, 24.8 ?m wide. Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent; a spheroidal sporocyst residuum is present; it measures 17.5 ?m and is composed of many intact homogenous globules with a few dispersed in a loose spiral around the sporocysts. This is the first caryosporan documented from the bald eagle and is the largest known Caryospora from raptors. PMID:22992168

  9. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Feline Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gookin, Jody L.; Stebbins, Martha E.; Hunt, Emily; Burlone, Karen; Fulton, Merritt; Hochel, Robin; Talaat, Miriam; Poore, Matthew; Levy, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Data were gathered for 117 cats from 89 catteries at an international cat show to examine prevalence and risk factors for feline Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia infection. Prevalence of T. foetus was 31% among cats (36 out of 117) and catteries (28 out of 89) based on results of fecal smear examination (5 out of 36), fecal culture in modified Diamond's medium (9 out of 36), fecal culture in In Pouch TF medium (20 out of 36), or PCR amplification of the ribosomal RNA gene from feces with T. foetus-specific primers (34 out of 36). Catteries in which T. foetus was identified were more likely to have had a recent history of diarrhea, historical diagnosis of coccidia infection in adult cats, and a decreased number of square feet of facility per cat. Evidence did not exist for the ongoing transmission of T. foetus by water, food, or contact with other species. PMID:15184456

  10. Inactivation of exogenous endoparasite stages by chemical disinfectants: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit; Lendner, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Chemical disinfection is common practice and inevitable to achieve sufficient control over parasites particularly in intensive animal housing systems. To identify suitable chemicals, reliable data on antiparasitic efficacy of disinfectants are required. This review summarizes recently published experience with procedures applied to evaluate the viability of a variety of endoparasites following physical or chemical stress. It is concluded that laboratory models used to assess antiparasitic efficacy of e.g. commercial disinfectants should consider the most resistant stages of both helminths and protozoa, i.e. ascarid eggs and coccidia oocysts. To ensure reproducibility and transparency, standardized protocols are pivotal. Such protocols are established on a national level (e.g. DVG guidelines in Germany); however, internationally accepted certification procedures are currently lacking. PMID:23392903

  11. Diagnosis-based treatment of helminths in captive and wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Mny, Marie; Schmidt-Kntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to identify endoparasites in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) living in a seminatural captive environment in north-central Namibia. Results were used to assess the need for anthelmintic treatment and for the selection of an appropriate drug. The study assessed fecal parasite excretion qualitatively and quantitatively using a fecal flotation method during the winter of 2009. Four different species of parasites (two nematodes and two coccidias) were identified. Parasite excretion rates were found to be significantly lower than that of wild cheetahs living in the same area. Samples of the wild cheetahs were obtained at the time of anesthesia or were attributed to the wild individuals using genetic profiling. Captive cheetahs were dewormed with fenbendazole, whereas wild cheetahs were treated using ivermectin. Efficacy of these treatments was demonstrated at the end of the study. PMID:23272366

  12. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  13. Effects of Simple and Disposable Chicken Cages for Experimental Eimeria Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeongmi; Kang, Sung H.; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Woo H.; Kim, Suk; Lillehoj, Hyun S.

    2011-01-01

    During experimental Eimeria infections in chickens, facilities are often contaminated by fecal oocysts known to be highly resistant to both chemical and enzymatic treatments. Thus, studies using experimental Eimeria infections have been limited due to the difficulty of complete elimination of residual oocysts from both cages and facilities. To overcome this limitation, simple, inexpensive, and disposable cages were constructed from cardboard boxes and tested during experimental Eimeria maxima infections. The cages were used in animal rooms with only a 1.7% evidence of coccidia contamination between adjacent cages. No significant differences in fecal oocyst output and body weight gain were noted between animals housed in disposable cages and animals housed in wire control cages. This cage design is a useful means for preventing oocyst contamination during experimental conditions, suggesting that this disposable cage design could be used for other avian infectious disease studies. PMID:22072833

  14. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in goat of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Kumar; Das, G; Roy, B; Nath, S; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Sahil

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism in animals is one of the major problems in India causing emaciation, anaemia, oedema, weakness, diarrhoea and death. Present study was designed to generate epidemiological data on GI parasitism of goats of Madhya Pradesh, India. During 8months study period, a total of 960 samples were collected and examined by sedimentation and floatation methods followed by egg per gram out of 960 samples, 907 (94.48%) were positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasite, wherein coccidia was predominant (82.4%) followed by strongyles (69.27%), amphistomes (22.71%), Strongyloides sp. (9.17%), Trichuris sp. (3.85%), Moniezia sp. (3.02%), Schistosomes sp. (2.29%) and Fasciola sp. (1.77%). The seasonal incidence was found highest in monsoon (98.06%) and lowest in winter (91.67%). The incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism was found higher in kids (96.25%) in comparison with adult goats (93.89%). PMID:26688640

  15. Cell Adherence Reactions in Lungworm (Protostrongylus) Infections of the Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, R. J.; Kitts, W. D.; Bandy, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The immunological response of captive naturally-infected Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep to the lungworm, Protostrongylus stilesi, was examined throughout the seasonal cycle of parasite activity using a cell adherence assay for circulating antibody. The net effect of all stable serum factors on cell adherence was examined by exposure of normal cells to larvae in the presence of test serum (decomplemented-serum test). Homocytotropic antibody was examined by exposure of washed normal cells to larvae after passive sensitization with serum from infected animals (washed-cell test). Although the washed-cell test did not show a clear association with parasite activity, the net ability of sera to promote adherence showed a significant increase during periods of elevated Protostrongylus activity. Fecal counts of Muellerius, Nematorirus and coccidia were not associated with the results of either assay. Significant differences among animals were detected only for the washed-cell test when the effects of parasitism were considered. PMID:4258549

  16. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  17. Parasite infections in red deer Cervus elaphus from Krakow area, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Jerzy; Korna?, S?awomir; Nosal, Pawe?; Wajdzik, Marek; Basiaga, Marta; Lesiak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the parasitofauna of red deer Cervus elaphus from Krakw area (southern Poland). The study was done in years 2011-2012 and included altogether 6 animals. Five deer originated from the forest areas (hunted) and one came from the urban site (it died in a road accident). In addition to post-mortem examination, coproscopic analyses with sporulation were performed to define Eimeria species diversity. The deer were infected with four species of nematodes: Ashworthius sidemi, Spiculopteragia spiculoptera, Oesophagostomum venulosum and O. sikae, and two species of coccidia: E. elaphi and E. austriaca. The level of parasitie infections was low, but the results indicate the important role of deer as possible transmitter of A. sidemi to other ungulates in examined area. PMID:25911038

  18. Influence of whole wheat feeding on the development of coccidiosis in broilers challenged with Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Molan, A L

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of whole wheat (WW) feeding on performance, gizzard development, oocyst yield and intestinal lesion score of broilers challenged with Eimeria species. Diets (ground wheat (GW) and 300?g/kg WW replacing GW before or after pelleting) were offered ad libitum from day 1 or days 7-28 post-hatch. At 21 days of age, each dietary treatment was divided into two groups, one unchallenged control and the other inoculated with mixed species of coccidia (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella). The results showed that heavier gizzards and higher mortality were observed in WW-fed birds in comparison to GW-fed birds. Interestingly, the pattern of mortality in different dietary treatments paralleled changes in gizzard size. Based on increased mortality, it is concluded that WW feeding exacerbated the severity of coccidiosis infection, possibly via a mechanism involving enhanced gizzard development. PMID:25796367

  19. Systemic adenovirus infection in Sulawesi tortoises (Indotestudo forsteni) caused by a novel siadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sam; Wellehan, James F X; McManamon, Rita; Innis, Charles J; Garner, Michael M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Gregory, Christopher R; Latimer, Kenneth S; Rodriguez, Carlos E; Diaz-Figueroa, Orlando; Marlar, Annajane B; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Gates, Amy E; Gilbert, Kelly; Childress, April L; Risatti, Guillermo R; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    A novel siadenovirus was identified in the Sulawesi tortoise (Indotestudo forsteni). A group of 105 Sulawesi tortoises was obtained by the Turtle Survival Alliance. Many of the tortoises were in poor health. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, mucosal ulcerations and palatine erosions of the oral cavity, nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea. Initial diagnostic tests included fecal testing for parasites, complete blood count and plasma biochemical analysis, mycoplasma serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for intranuclear coccidia and chelonian herpesvirus. Treatment included administration of antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, parenteral fluids, and nutritional support. Tissue samples from animals that died were submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic inflammation and necrosis associated with intranuclear inclusions consistent with a systemic viral infection in 35 tortoises out of 50 examined. Fecal testing results and histopathologic findings revealed intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis and nematodiasis in 31 animals. Two of 5 tortoises tested by PCR were positive for Chlamydophila sp. Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli were cultured from multiple organs of 2 animals. The mycoplasma serology and PCR results for intranuclear coccidia and chelonian herpesvirus were negative. Polymerase chain reaction testing of tissues, plasma, and choanal/cloacal samples from 41 out of 42 tortoises tested were positive for an adenovirus, which was characterized by sequence analysis and molecular phylogenetic inference as a novel adenovirus of the genus Siadenovirus. The present report details the clinical and anatomic pathologic findings associated with systemic infection of Sulawesi tortoises by this novel Siadenovirus, which extends the known reptilian adenoviruses to the chelonians and extends the known genera of reptilian Adenoviridae beyond Atadenovirus to include the genus Siadenovirus. PMID:19564489

  20. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Wendte, Jered M; Miller, Melissa A; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Magargal, Spencer L; Jessup, David A; Grigg, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443

  1. Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Wendte, Jered M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Jessup, David A.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443

  2. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P?coccidia, A. suum and S. ransomi were common but did not differ between groups (P?

  3. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L W) 19.2 16.9 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 6.7 ?m, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 2.7 ?m, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L W) 23.0 18.3 ?m, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 8.4 ?m, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema. PMID:24827096

  4. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  5. Efficacy of treatment of elevated coccidial oocyst counts in goats using amprolium versus ponazuril.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Philippa; Love, David; Craig, Thomas; Budke, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Coccidiosis is an important disease of young goats leading to weight loss, diarrhea, and death. In the USA, both ionophores and decoquinate are labeled for prevention of coccidia in goats. However, there are no drugs approved for treatment of clinical cases of coccidiosis in this species. Amprolium is labeled for treatment of coccidiosis in calves while ponazuril, a metabolite of toltrazuril, is labeled for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. In this study, 150 young goats housed on concrete lots had fecal samples collected and McMaster fecal oocyst per gram counts performed at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-processing. Goats were randomly assigned to receive either amprolium (50mg/kg once a day for 5 days by mouth) or ponazuril (10mg/kg by mouth once) if they had fecal oocyst counts >5,000 per gram. Fecal samples were obtained and oocyst counts performed at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the cessation of treatment. Goats were weighed on days 0 and 21 post-processing. Seven goats were enrolled into the amprolium group and 8 into the ponazuril group. Both treatments resulted in decreased oocyst counts post-treatment compared to before treatment. There was no significant difference between fecal coccidian oocyst counts between goats in each group. There was no significant difference in body weight between goats in each group. This study showed that both amprolium and ponazuril were effective in decreasing fecal coccidia oocyst counts in this group of goats. Use of both drugs is currently extra-label in the USA. PMID:26872920

  6. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

  7. Detection and differentiation of coccidian oocysts by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Laura F; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid and reliable detection and identification of coccidian oocysts are essential for animal health and foodborne disease outbreak investigations. Traditional microscopy and morphological techniques can identify large and unique oocysts, but they are often subjective and require parasitological expertise. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay using melting curve analysis (MCA) to detect, differentiate, and identify DNA from coccidian species of animal health, zoonotic, and food safety concern. A universal coccidia primer cocktail was designed and employed to amplify DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and several species of Eimeria, Sarcocystis, and Isospora using qPCR with SYBR Green detection. MCA was performed following amplification, and melting temperatures (T(m)) were determined for each species based on multiple replicates. A standard curve was constructed from DNA of serial dilutions of T. gondii oocysts to estimate assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay consistently detected DNA from as few as 10 T. gondii oocysts. T(m) data analysis showed that C. cayetanensis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, T. gondii, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria acervulina, Isospora suis, and Sarcocystis cruzi could each be identified by unique melting curves and could be differentiated based on T(m). DNA of coccidian oocysts in fecal, food, or clinical diagnostic samples could be sensitively detected, reliably differentiated, and identified using qPCR with MCA. This assay may also be used to detect other life-cycle stages of coccidia in tissues, fluids, and other matrices. MCA studies on multiple isolates of each species will further validate the assay and support its application as a routine parasitology screening tool. PMID:21506835

  8. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 14.9 (17-20 14-16) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 7.6 (10-11 7-8) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 21.3 (28-35 18-24) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 10.6 (14-16 10-12) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea. PMID:23517292

  9. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  10. Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Turner, Wendy C.; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  11. The Eimeria transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M; Madeira, Alda Maria B N; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  12. [Intestinal parasitosis in children admitted to the Pediatric Teaching Hospital of Cerro, Havana City, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Nez, Fidel A; Gonzlez, Odalys M; Bravo, Jos R; Escobedo, Angel A; Gonzalz, Ida

    2003-01-01

    A study on intestinal parasitism was conducted among 401 children admitted in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital of Cerro, from May to June, 1999. To this end, a representative, randomized and stratified sample by service was taken. 3 samples of feces per child were collected, preserved in formaldehyde, and processed by 3 parasitological methods. There was an intestinal parasitism prevalence of 15% at the hospital and there were no differences between the stratum of children admitted in Gastroenterology and the rest of the services as regards commensals and parasites in general (p > 0.05); however, commensals predominated in the second group (p < 0.01) The intestinal coccidia, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis prevailed in the Gastroenterology service over the rest of the services (p < 0.01). The age group over 4 (school children) was the most affected, both by protozoa and commensals (p < 0.01), excepting Cryptosporidium parvum that affected the infants more (p < 0.05). The analysis of some epidemiological antecedents showed that those children eating fruit without peeling and washing them, having vegetables withouth washing them first and walking barefooted were more prone to infection (RR > 1). A higher frequency of infection due to intestinal parasites was found among those living in rural areas, drinking well or river water, and defecating in latrines or in the open air (RR > 1). These results suggested that in spite of the existing knowledge of the epidemiological and risk factors, the intestinal parasites continue affecting the child population PMID:15849948

  13. Endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Lima, J D

    2000-06-01

    The endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis was studied in 9 coccidia-free goat kids inoculated with 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg body weight. Kids were killed 4, 7 (2 animals), 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, and 22 days after inoculation (DAI). In tissue sections of the intestines stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy, 2 generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found. The first generation of meronts developed in cells deep in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum. Mature giant meronts (299.4x243.8 microm) found 16 DAI were visible to the naked eye and contained a large number of crescent-shaped merozoites. The second generation of meronts developed in the epithelial cells of crypts of the ileum and above the host cell nuclei. Mature meronts (11.5x10.1 microm) with 18-28 comma-shaped merozoites were first seen 16 DAI. Gametogenesis took place in epithelial cells of the crypts and villi of the terminal part of the ileum, cecum, and colon. Macrogametes (27.8x17.6 microm), mature microgamonts (21.3x17.0 microm), microgametes, and oocysts (30.5x19.4 microm) were found 19 DAI. Sexual stages were below the host cell nucleus. PMID:10864235

  14. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2006-09-01

    The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers. PMID:16488197

  15. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the So Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild. PMID:10367647

  16. A New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans (Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Seville, R. Scott; Bursey, Charles R.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Connior, Matthew B.; Robison, Henry W.

    2014-01-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L W) 25.4 15.6 (2327 1317) m, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 5.0 (46) m with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but suband paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas. PMID:25580093

  17. Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR?=?14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR?=?4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds. PMID:22536128

  18. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

  19. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    PubMed

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  20. Sarcocystis and sarcocystosis in India: status and emerging perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, M B; Samantaray, S

    2013-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are a group of tissue cyst-forming coccidia which infect a vast range of animals as well as human beings. Found frequently in animal carcasses at slaughter, undermining their value, they have also been found associated with clinical disease. Dogs and cats are involved in the transmission. Studies in India point to a vast reservoir of infection with high prevalence rates in various livestock species. However, there is a glaring paucity of reports on the horse and Sarcocystis of the camel has remained totally unexplored so far. At least two different Sarcocystis spp. can parasitize each livestock host species. Experimental transmission studies have provided additional parameters for distinguishing the species. The clinical symptoms are generally non-specific and diagnosis in the living animal, by the presently available means, is almost impossible. Immunodiagnosis till now is beset with problem of cross-reactivity. Treatment with anti-coccidials presently tried do not seem satisfactory. Of the two zoonotic species with cattle-man and pig-man cycles, only the latter seems of some significance in India due to backyard pig-rearing and slaughter practices. It is a paradox that despite high prevalence of S. suihominis in pigs, reports of human cases are limited. This and some of the existing grey areas of information in the Indian context, have been highlighted as also possible directions for future research. PMID:24431532

  1. Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; ines, ivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

    2013-10-01

    In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

  2. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  3. Supplemental use of liquid amprolium in skip-a-day feeding of replacement pullets.

    PubMed

    Ruff, M D; Chute, M B; Garcia, R

    1991-03-01

    The addition of liquid amprolium to the drinking water on days when medicated (amprolium) ration was not fed in a restricted feeding (skip-a-day) program improved protection against a primary exposure to Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella, yet still allowed for the development of protective immunity to subsequent challenge. With E. tenella, the best protection, as measured by reduction of lesion score, was provided by amprolium given in the drinking water on alternate days to feed medication when compared with the use of amprolium only in the feed or liquid amprolium at less frequent intervals (every second or third nonfeeding day). With Eimeria maxima, amprolium in the feed did not significantly lower lesion score compared with the score in unmedicated pullets; however, the further addition of amprolium to the drinking water did. When pullets were reared in floor pens previously seeded with coccidia, amprolium medication in the feed alone reduced the E. tenella-induced mortality rate from 28 to 8%. The addition of amprolium in the drinking water on nonfeeding days eliminated all deaths. Floor-reared pullets were caged after 3 wk and challenged 1 wk later with the same species of coccidial oocysts used to immunize on the floor. Coccidial lesion scores following challenge were eliminated or markedly lower than in pen-reared (unimmunized) pullets similarly challenged. This indicated that protective immunity developed despite the use of amprolium in the drinking water. PMID:2047345

  4. [Annual follow-up of the gastrointestinal parasitosis of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in captivity in Yucatn, Mxico].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Montes Prez RC; Rodrguez Vivas RI; Torres Acosta JF; Ek Pech LG

    1998-09-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites, and egg and oocyst output in the faeces of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis) were recorded in Yucatan, Mexico. Feces were obtained from from January through December 1995 (ten samples every two weeks per place). Samples were processed by flotation and the McMaster techniques. Faecal cultures for L3 larvae were made by the Corticelli-Lai technique. Oocysts in faeces were cultured in 2% potassium dicromate. Seven genera were determined (Haemonchus spp., Cooperia spp, Isospora spp., Eimeria spp., Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp.) which represent five orders. The most frequent genera were Haemonchus, Isospora and Eimeria. The genus Isospora is reported for the first time in deer of this region, although it was not possible to explain the source of this parasite. The frequency and level of faecal egg and oocyst outputs were variable during the year and increased during the rainy season. There was a positive correlation between relative humidity, environmental temperature and rainfall with the coccidia and strongylida orders. In the central zone of Yucatan the meteorological conditions during the rainy season are favourable for the development of gastrointestinal parasitism which enable an increased risk of infection for deer.

  5. Intestinal events and nutritional dynamics predispose Clostridium perfringens virulence in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Edwin T

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringensA (CPA) entering the gastrointestinal system depends on favorable conditions to develop and subsequently extend pathogenicity. Reduction in digestive dynamics progressing from the duodenum decreases lumen oxygen, leading to anaerobic conditions in the distal lumen that favor CPA. When nutritional support is concurrently provided, an expanding population threatens the mucosa. Dietary nonstarch polysaccharides that increase viscosity further impair oxygen transfer from the mucosa, improving the ability of CPA to thrive. Incompletion of feed digestion early in the small intestine along with endogenous N provide additional support for population expansion. Glucosidase versatility with mucin elicited by distal CPA concurrently erodes the villus unstirred water layer at the apex, providing access to underlying binding sites for colonization. Proteolytic destruction within the lamina propria supports colonization to create subclinical necrotic enteritis. Eventual vascular entry of CPA and toxins provides a portal path for instituting cholangiohepatitis. Liver condemnations from inspection detect acute flock infection compared with preceding marginal losses in nutrient absorption that decrease feed efficiency. Enterocyte lysis by coccidia enable CPA access to binding sites, thereby extending villus necrosis and further impairing feed conversion. Loss of BW and increased mortality follow as mucosa involvement proceeds. In practice, supplemental feed hemicellulases that reduce digesta viscosity minimize a favorable environment for CPA, while superimposing a combination of amylase, phytase, and protease avoids nutritional support. Physical dynamics of the small intestine together with characteristics of feed that modify digesta viscosity and nutritional availability are central to establishing transient CPA as a pathogen. PMID:25260526

  6. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on immune functions of broilers challenged with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Wu, S G; Yu, S H; Yoon, I; Moore, D; Gao, Y P; Yan, H J; Qi, G H

    2009-10-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 6 groups with a 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Three supplemental levels (0, 0.25, and 0.50%) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XP) were fed to control and Eimeria tenella-infected broilers. Growth performance and immune response criteria were measured after coccidian infection. Broiler ADG was lowered (P<0.01) by coccidian infection and improved by XP supplementation (P=0.04). Supplementation of XP increased CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts (P<0.05) and the ratio CD4+:CD8+ in blood (P=0.06) and spleen (P=0.04) as well as ileum intraepithelial lymphocyte count, cecal tonsil secretory IgA counts, serum lysozyme content (P<0.01), and albumin:globulin ratio (P=0.02). These results suggest that dietary XP supplementation could improve immune function and growth performance in coccidia-infected broilers. PMID:19762868

  7. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.

    PubMed

    Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions. PMID:20390538

  8. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    PubMed Central

    Gmez-Verduzco, Gabriela; Cortes-Cuevas, Arturo; Lpez-Coello, Carlos; vila-Gonzlez, Ernesto; Nava, Gerardo M

    2009-01-01

    Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW) on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A) Control diet (no YCW) plus anticoccidial vaccine); B) Control diet plus coccidiostat; C) YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D) YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses. PMID:19298670

  9. Necrotic enteritis in chickens: development of a straightforward disease model system.

    PubMed

    Alnassan, A A; Kotsch, M; Shehata, A A; Krger, M; Daugschies, A; Bangoura, B

    2014-05-31

    The interaction between Eimeria species and Clostridium perfringens was investigated in two different necrotic enteritis (NE) models: 120-day-old broilers were used in two separate experiments consisting of six groups (n=10) each. Besides controls, chickens were infected with coccidia on study day (SD) 18 (Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina (experiment 1) or Eimeria tenella and Eimeria brunetti (experiment 2) and/or a NetB toxin positive Cperfringens strain (both experiments: SD 14 or SD 22, respectively)). Body weight, feed intake, mortality rate, clinical disease, Eimeria species oocyst excretion and C perfringens counts were recorded. NE and coccidiosis specific lesion scores were assessed (SD 24 and SD 30). In coinfected groups, NE-typical clinical signs occurred. Coccidiosis-specific lesions were most severe in coinfected groups (significant for E tenella, P<0.05). Most pronounced NE lesions occurred in coinfected chickens compared with C perfringens monoinfected groups (experiment 2, C perfringens infections on SD 22: P<0.05). In experiment 2, Etenella antibody levels were (non-significantly) higher in coinfected groups than in Eimeria species monoinfected groups. Thus, infection with E tenella and Eimeria brunetti followed by C perfringens inoculation is regarded as an easy to handle and suitable model for investigations into NE of chickens. PMID:24714053

  10. Sensitivity of Eimeria field isolates in the United States: responses of nicarbazin-containing anticoccidials.

    PubMed

    Bafundo, K W; Cervantes, H M; Mathis, G F

    2008-09-01

    A series of studies were conducted to assess the drug sensitivity of 26 coccidial field isolates to the anticoccidial effects of nicarbazin (NIC) and narasin + NIC (NAR + NIC). Isolates were collected from typical broiler farms in the United States from 2003 to 2006, propagated once in the absence of anticoccidial medication, and then used to inoculate broilers that were fed nonmedicated rations or those containing NIC 125 ppm or NAR + NIC 80 ppm. Results of these sensitivity trials indicated that 81% of these coccidial isolates were sensitive to the effects of NIC, but only 22% of these coccidia were controlled by NAR + NIC. Studies conducted to evaluate performance responses to these drugs demonstrated that birds fed NIC gained more weight and utilized feed more efficiently than those receiving NAR + NIC. The results of 2 floor pen tests, conducted to confirm the results of the above sensitivity trials, demonstrated that NIC provided a greater level of protection from coccidiosis than NAR + NIC. Lower lesion scores and improved performance were recorded for birds receiving NIC compared with NAR + NIC. Results of these studies revealed that changes in the susceptibility of Eimeria spp. to the activity of NAR + NIC are evident. These changes appear to be associated with the reduction in ionophore sensitivity that has been documented in most areas of the world. PMID:18753443

  11. Integrated Bioinformatic and Targeted Deletion Analyses of the SRS Gene Superfamily Identify SRS29C as a Negative Regulator of Toxoplasma Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A Δsag1 ∆sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations. PMID:23149485

  12. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  13. Molecular Detection of Capillaria aerophila, an Agent of Canine and Feline Pulmonary Capillariosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Paoletti, Barbara; Bartolini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Capillaria aerophila, a trichuroid nematode causing pulmonary infections in wild and domestic carnivores, is occasionally and potentially poorly recognized in infections of humans due to clinicopathological mimicry and a lack of accurate, robust laboratory diagnostics. The present work evaluated the efficiency of a DNA-based assay amplifying a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of C. aerophila in the diagnosis of lung capillariosis. Fecal samples from 34 dogs and 10 cats positive at parasitological examination for C. aerophila and other endoparasites (i.e., other lungworms, whipworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and/or coccidia) and from 44 animals negative for C. aerophila but positive for other endoparasites were molecularly examined. Of the 44 samples positive for C. aerophila at copromicroscopy, 43 scored positive (i.e., 33/34 dogs and 10/10 cats) in seminested PCR, resulting in a sensitivity of 97 to 100%. Samples that were copromicroscopy negative for C. aerophila although positive for other endoparasites never produced a PCR product or nonspecific amplicons. The specific PCR amplification of C. aerophila (i.e., specificity of 100%) was confirmed by a nucleotide sequence analysis of the cox1 amplicons. The potential implications of the molecular diagnosis of lung capillariosis are discussed. PMID:22442326

  14. A 20-year disease survey of captive formosan serows (Capricornis swinhoej) at the Taipei Zoo (1991-2011).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Ho, Hong-Pong; Yu, Jane-Fang

    2014-09-01

    The Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) is endemic to Taiwan. The wild population has declined dramatically over the past few decades and the species is listed as a "precious and rare species" protected under law in Taiwan. Disease investigations have been rare except for sporadic observations of wild individuals, and no long-term disease survey has been performed on this species. The objective of this study was to identify and report on the most common diseases in captive Formosan serows and determine the potential causes. Medical records of Formosan serows (n = 62) housed at the Taipei Zoo over a 20-yr period (1991-2011) were collected and analyzed for this study. The most common diseases affected the gastrointestinal system and the skin. Parasitic etiologies accounted for greater than 85% of these diseases, and coinfection was common. Coccidia and lice were the most common endo- and ectoparasites, respectively. High mortality was noted in serows less than 1 yr old associated with parasitism. The results from this study could provide vital information on disease prevention and species management, which may greatly help in rehabilitation of captive and wild populations. PMID:25314814

  15. A simplified protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria species in field samples.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G

    2007-05-15

    This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive and efficient protocol for molecular identification of chicken Eimeria spp. in field samples. Various methods for each of the three steps of the protocol were evaluated: oocyst wall rupturing methods, DNA extraction methods, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR. We then compared and evaluated five complete protocols. Three series of oocyst suspensions of known number of oocysts from Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella were prepared and ground using glass beads or mini-pestle. DNA was extracted from ruptured oocysts using commercial systems (GeneReleaser, Qiagen Stoolkit and Prepman) or phenol-chloroform DNA extraction, followed by identification of species-specific ITS-1 sequences by optimised single species PCR assays. The Stoolkit and Prepman protocols showed insufficient repeatability, and the former was also expensive and relatively time-consuming. In contrast, both the GeneReleaser protocol and phenol-chloroform protocols were robust and sensitive, detecting less than 0.4 oocysts of each species per PCR. Finally, we evaluated our new protocol on 68 coccidia positive field samples. Our data suggests that rupturing the oocysts by mini-pestle grinding, preparing the DNA with GeneReleaser, followed by optimised single species PCR assays, makes a robust and sensitive procedure for identifying chicken Eimeria species in field samples. Importantly, it also provides minimal hands-on-time in the pre-PCR process, lower contamination risk and no handling of toxic chemicals. PMID:17386979

  16. Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  17. Evaluation of the EasyScreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Roberts, T; Ellis, J T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit (Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. A total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. When compared to real-time PCR and microscopy, the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit exhibited 92-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity and detected all commonly found genotypes and subtypes of clinically important human parasites. No cross reactivity was detected in stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and/or protozoan species. The EasyScreen™ PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the 5 most important diarrhoea-causing enteric parasites that infect humans. It should be noted, however, that the EasyScreen™ Kit does not substitute for microscopy or for additional PCRs as it does not detect the pathogenic Coccidia spp. Cystoisospora belli or Cyclospora cayetanensis and it does not differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba spp. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy; as such, molecular methods should be considered the diagnostic method of choice for enteric parasites. PMID:24286625

  18. Aspects of the epidemiology of nematode infections in a cow-calf herd in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J O; Curtis, R A

    1989-01-01

    On May 29, 1980, 108 cows and calves were placed on a 20 hectare pasture until October 26, except that from September 18 to October 2 they were in a barn. Every two weeks during the total period, fecal samples were taken from 17 cows and 14 calves and herbage samples were collected from the pasture. Parasite fecal egg counts were estimated using the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugation technique and herbage infective larvae by a modified Sandwich technique. Daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation were recorded. The principal parasite egg found was the trichostrongyle-strongyle morulate, oval-shaped egg referred to as a gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg. The mean GIN egg/g of feces for cows varied from 14.2 to 23.9 and for calves it rose from 0.2 in the spring to 134.8 in the fall. Nematodirus, Trichuris, Strongyloides, Moniezia and coccidia were also found. Larvae were recovered first in July, with the greatest number, over 2000/kg of dry weight of herbage, in September and were primarily Cooperia and Ostertagia. PMID:2766154

  19. [Frequency of intestinal microsporidian infections in HIV-positive patients, as diagnosis by quick hot Gram chromotrope staining and PCR].

    PubMed

    Botero, Jorge H; Montoya, Martha Nelly; Vanegas, Adriana Luca; Daz, Abel; Navarro-i-Martnez, Luis; Bornay, Fernando Jorge; Izquierdo, Fernando; del Aguila, Carmen; Agudelo, Sonia del Pilar

    2004-12-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites, today mainly associated with diarrhea in AIDS patients. Microsporidia prevalence ranges from 8% to 52% in different countries, as evaluated by several diagnostic methods, such as the stain test and PCR. In Medelln, Colombia, its frequency is unknown, and hence, a study was undertaken to determine the frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients, by means of the quick-hot Gram chromotrope test and the PCR. A prospective and descriptive study of an intentional population of all HIV-positive patients was sent to the Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales laboratory by institutions treating the HIV-positive patients of Medelln between August 2001 and September 2002. The clinical-epidemiological survey included a serial stool test with direct concentration and special stains for coccidiae and intestinal microsporidia. In addition, counts of lymphocytes TCD4+ and viral load were requested. One hundred and three patients with ages ranging from 2-74 years were evaluated. Seventy percent presented with diarrhea--mostly in men (83.5%). The overall frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis was 3.9% and that of other intestinal parasitic infections was 39.8%. Three of the four patients positive for microsporida were infected with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and one with Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The microsporidiosis frequency was relatively low with 3 of the 4 cases associated with protracted diarrhea, counts of LTCD4+ below 100 cel/microl and viral loads up to 100,000 copies. PMID:15678801

  20. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  1. Effects of Different Sizes of Glass Beads on the Release of Sporocysts from Eimeria tenella Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The oocyst wall is severed by means of mechanical injury or chemical agents. This study reports the percentage of in vitro sporocyst release following mechanical shaking in the presence of varying sizes of glass beads. Glass beads measured 0.5, 1, and 3 mm in diameter and were shaken with the oocysts for different times ranging from 5 sec to 5 min. Approximately 80% of sporocysts were released with 5 min of shaking in the presence of 3 mm glass beads, as well as 30 sec with 0.5 mm beads and 1 mm glass beads. The release of sporocysts of E. tenella was most efficient using 1 mm glass beads and treatment times of 30 sec to 1 min. Therefore, the use of 1 mm glass beads with 30 sec to 1 min of agitation is recommended in order to maximize sporocyst release and recovery and to improve the yield of viable sporozoites for use in biochemical, tissue culture, and immunological applications of coccidia. PMID:25031475

  2. Intestinal immune responses to coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, C H; Lillehoj, H S; Lillehoj, E P

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitism is a major stress factor leading to malnutrition and lowered performance and production efficiency of livestock and poultry. Coccidiosis is an intestinal infection caused by intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to several different species of Eimeria. Infection with coccidia parasites seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of chickens and costs the US poultry industry more than $1.5 billion in annual losses. Although acquired immunity to Eimeria develops following natural infection, due to the complex life cycle and intricate host immune response to Eimeria, vaccine development has been difficult and a better understanding of the basic immunobiology of pertinent host-parasite interactions is necessary for developing effective immunological control strategies against coccidiosis. Chickens infected with Eimeria produce parasite specific antibodies in both the circulation and mucosal secretions but humoral immunity plays only a minor role in protection against this disease. Rather, recent evidence implicates cell-mediated immunity as the major factor conferring resistance to coccidiosis. This review will summarize current understanding of the avian intestinal immune system and its response to Eimeria as well as provide a conceptual overview of the complex molecular and cellular events involved in intestinal immunity to coccidiosis. It is anticipated that increased knowledge of the interaction between parasites and host immunity will stimulate the birth of novel immunological and molecular biological concepts in the control of intestinal parasitism. PMID:10717295

  3. Pathology of runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shilton, C; Brown, G P; Chambers, L; Benedict, S; Davis, S; Aumann, S; Isberg, S R

    2014-09-01

    Extremely poor growth of some individuals within a birth cohort (runting) is a significant problem in crocodile farming. We conducted a pathological investigation to determine if infectious disease is associated with runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and to look for evidence of other etiologies. In each of 2005 and 2007, 10 normal and 10 runt crocodiles, with an average age of 5.5 months and reared under identical conditions, were sampled. Laboratory testing included postmortem; histological examination of a wide variety of tissues (with quantitation of features that were noted subjectively to be different between groups); hematology; serum biochemistry (total protein, albumin, globulins, total calcium, phosphorus, and iron); bacterial culture of liver and spleen (2005 only); viral culture of liver, thymus, tonsil, and spleen using primary crocodile cell lines (2007 only); and serum corticosterone (2007 only). The only evidence of infectious disease was mild cutaneous poxvirus infection in 45% of normal and 40% of runt crocodiles and rare intestinal coccidia in 5% of normal and 15% of runt crocodiles. Bacterial and viral culture did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. However, runt crocodiles exhibited significant (P < .05) increases in adrenocortical cell cytoplasmic vacuolation and serum corticosterone, decreased production of bone (osteoporosis), and reduced lymphoid populations in the spleen, tonsil, and thymus. Runts also exhibited moderate anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hypophosphatemia. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between runting and a chronic stress response (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). PMID:24395912

  4. The reliability of observational approaches for detecting interspecific parasite interactions: comparison with experimental results.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andy; Knowles, Sarah C L; Petchey, Owen L; Pedersen, Amy B

    2014-06-01

    Interactions among coinfecting parasites have the potential to alter host susceptibility to infection, the progression of disease and the efficacy of disease control measures. It is therefore essential to be able to accurately infer the occurrence and direction of such interactions from parasitological data. Due to logistical constraints, perturbation experiments are rarely undertaken to directly detect interactions, therefore a variety of approaches are commonly used to infer them from patterns of parasite association in observational data. However, the reliability of these various approaches is not known. We assess the ability of a range of standard analytical approaches to detect known interactions between infections of nematodes and intestinal coccidia (Eimeria) in natural small-mammal populations, as revealed by experimental perturbations. We show that correlation-based approaches are highly unreliable, often predicting strong and highly significant associations between nematodes and Eimeria in the opposite direction to the underlying interaction. The most reliable methods involved longitudinal analyses, in which the nematode infection status of individuals at one month is related to the infection status by Eimeria the next month. Even then, however, we suggest these approaches are only viable for certain types of infections and datasets. Overall we suggest that, in the absence of experimental approaches, careful consideration be given to the choice of statistical approach when attempting to infer interspecific interactions from observational data. PMID:24704058

  5. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil. PMID:26786832

  6. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  7. Eimeria cryptotis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the least shrew, Cryptotis parva (Insectivora: Soricidae), in north-central Texas.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J

    1989-04-01

    From March through November 1987, 14 least shrews, Cryptotis parva (Say), were collected in portions of north-central Texas and examined for coccidian parasites; only 1 (7.1%) was found to be passing oocysts. Eimeria cryptotis n. sp. is described herein as new and represents the only coccidian reported thus far from C. parva. Sporulated oocysts are subspherical, 16.4 x 15.3 (14-18 x 13-17) microns; shape index 1.1 (1.0-1.2) microns. A micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoid, 10.6 x 7.0 (9-11 x 6-8) microns; shape index 1.5 (1.4-1.8) microns. Stieda and substieda bodies and a sporocyst residuum are present. The sporozoites are elongate and only 2 could be observed well enough to measure (11.2 x 2.4 and 8.8 x 2.4 microns) because they are normally obscured by the sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites lack refractile bodies and contain a centrally located nucleus. The new species can be distinguished from the majority of insectivore coccidia on the basis of oocyst size. PMID:2926589

  8. Electron microscopic observation of the early stages of Cryptosporidium parvum asexual multiplication and development in in vitro axenic culture.

    PubMed

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    The stages of Cryptosporidium parvum asexual exogenous development were investigated at high ultra-structural resolution in cell-free culture using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early C. parvum trophozoites were ovoid in shape, 1.07×1.47μm(2) in size, and contained a large nucleus and adjacent Golgi complex. Dividing and mature meronts containing four to eight developing merozoites, 2.34×2.7μm(2) in size, were observed within the first 24h of cultivation. An obvious peculiarity was found within the merozoite pellicle, as it was composed of the outer plasma membrane with underlying middle and inner membrane complexes. Further novel findings were vacuolization of the meront's residuum and extension of its outer pellicle, as parasitophorous vacuole-like membranes were also evident. The asexual reproduction of C. parvum was consistent with the developmental pattern of both eimerian coccidia and Arthrogregarinida (formerly Neogregarinida). The unique cell-free development of C. parvum described here, along with the establishment of meronts and merozoite formation, is the first such evidence obtained from in vitro cell-free culture at the ultrastructural level. PMID:26587578

  9. Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H

    2008-04-17

    We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

    2014-06-01

    Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

  11. Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W

    2013-06-01

    Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

  12. [Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium baileyi (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) isolated of broiler chicken to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)].

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian V; Teixeira Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2005-01-01

    In this work, oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi were isolated and identified in broiler chickens from three different Municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, where they were isolated and identified by using the centrifuge- flotation technique associated to bright-field. Staining techniques, such as: modified Ziehl-Neelsen and safranin-methylene blue, were carried out to confirm natural infection. Oocysts of C. baileyi from broiler chickens were able to infect Coccidia-free Japanese quails, by observation of endogenous stages at histological sections, and the elimination of oocysts in the feces with prepatent period of seven days and patent period of 21 days after infection. Oocysts of C. baileyi from broiler chickens and Japanese quails were similar on bright-field microscopy. With respect to the staining techniques used in this research, all of them left to significant changes in length and width of oocysts, but shape indexes were maintained. Bright-field microscopy was the best technique for oocysts comparison shed by broiler chickens and Japanese quail because of no different among oocysts were observed. PMID:16229756

  13. Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R

    1993-01-01

    Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial durgs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment. PMID:8285619

  14. Investigation of SnSPR1, a novel and abundant surface protein of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deqing; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-04-15

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project has produced over 15,000 partial cDNA sequences from the equine pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. While many of the sequences are clear homologues of previously characterized genes, a significant number of the S. neurona ESTs do not exhibit similarity to anything in the extensive sequence databases that have been generated. In an effort to characterize parasite proteins that are novel to S. neurona, a seemingly unique gene was selected for further investigation based on its abundant representation in the collection of ESTs and the predicted presence of a signal peptide and glycolipid anchor addition on the encoded protein. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and monospecific polyclonal antiserum against the recombinant protein was produced by immunization of a rabbit. Characterization of the native protein in S. neurona merozoites and schizonts revealed that it is a low molecular weight surface protein that is expressed throughout intracellular development of the parasite. The protein was designated Surface Protein 1 (SPR1) to reflect its display on the outer surface of merozoites and to distinguish it from the ubiquitous SAG/SRS surface antigens of the heteroxenous Coccidia. Interestingly, infection assays in the presence of the polyclonal antiserum suggested that SnSPR1 plays some role in attachment and/or invasion of host cells by S. neurona merozoites. The work described herein represents a general template for selecting and characterizing the various unidentified gene sequences that are plentiful in the EST databases for S. neurona and other apicomplexans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the value of investigating these novel sequences since it can offer new candidates for diagnostic or vaccine development while also providing greater insight into the biology of these parasites. PMID:18291589

  15. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Li?ina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O.?leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of parasitism and may underestimate impacts on wildlife populations. PMID:25830105

  16. Quantification of the crowding effect during infections with the seven Eimeria species of the domesticated fowl: its importance for experimental designs and the production of oocyst stocks.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    2001-08-01

    The 'crowding effect' in avian coccidia, following administration of graded numbers of sporulated oocysts to naïve hosts, is recognisable by two characteristics. First, increasing doses of oocysts give rise to progressively higher oocyst yields, until a level of infection is reached (the 'maximally producing dose') above which further dose increases result in progressive decreases in oocyst yields. Second, the number of oocysts produced per oocyst administered (the 'reproductive potential') tends to decrease as the oocyst dose is increased. The dose that gives the maximal reproductive potential is the 'crowding threshold' and doses exceeding this are 'crowded doses'. Graded doses of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox or Eimeria tenella were given to chickens of the same breed, sex and age, reared on the same diet, under identical management. The two characteristics of the crowding effect were demonstrated graphically and, by interpolation, the estimated crowding thresholds were 903, < or =16, 39, < or =14, < or =16, < or =16 or 72 sporulated oocysts, respectively, for the seven Eimeria species enumerated above. This is apparently the first report of definitive experiments to quantify a crowding effect in E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. praecox. Maximum experimental reproductive potentials were considerably lower than the theoretical reproductive potentials for all seven species. The interaction between availability of host intestinal cells and immunity contributing to the crowding effect is discussed. Standard curves obtained under specified conditions should be used to estimate appropriate infective doses for experimental designs or in vivo production of oocyst stocks. For experiments on effects of chemotherapy or immunisation on oocyst production, an infective dose lower than the crowding threshold should be used. For efficient production of laboratory or factory oocyst stocks, the maximally producing dose (which is greater than the crowding threshold), should be used. PMID:11429169

  17. Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes. PMID:23581440

  18. The efficacy of anticoccidial products against Eimeria spp. in northern bobwhites.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; Lollis, L; Parr, C; McDougald, L R

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with 1 x 10(6) oocysts of a field isolate consisting primarily of Eimeria lettyae. Subsequently, we tested clopidol, lasalocid, salinomycin, diclazuril (1 ppm), and monensin against mixed-species field isolates containing E. lettyae, E. dispersa, E. colini, or all. Weight gain, gross intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 6 days postinfection were recorded. Lesion score, as previously reported, was unreliable as a measure of severity of infection in comparison with weight gain, fecal scores, and FCR. Excellent to good efficacy was found in clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), and in lasalocid, narasin and nicarbazin, robenidine, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin, and zoalene (150 ppm). Marginal protection was found using monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin, or a roxarsone/semduramicin combination. Amprolium, roxarsone, and zoalene (125 ppm) were ineffective at controlling coccidia. Two of the six isolates tested against diclazuril 1 ppm and clopidol demonstrated a high degree of resistance, but none of the six isolates was resistant to lasalocid. Four of the eight isolates showed mild to moderate, and moderate to high, resistance against monensin and salinomycin, respectively. These findings indicate that several available compounds are effective at controlling coccidiosis in bobwhites. PMID:21500637

  19. Effects of N-glycan precursor length diversity on quality control of protein folding and on protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips W

    2015-05-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of medically important protists have much to tell us about the evolution of N-glycosylation and of N-glycan-dependent quality control (N-glycan QC) of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. While host N-glycans are built upon a dolichol-pyrophosphate-linked precursor with 14 sugars (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), protist N-glycan precursors vary from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (Acanthamoeba) to Man9GlcNAc2 (Trypanosoma) to Glc3Man5GlcNAc2 (Toxoplasma) to Man5GlcNAc2 (Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Eimeria) to GlcNAc2 (Plasmodium and Giardia) to zero (Theileria). As related organisms have differing N-glycan lengths (e.g. Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Plasmodium, and Theileria), the present N-glycan variation is based upon secondary loss of Alg genes, which encode enzymes that add sugars to the N-glycan precursor. An N-glycan precursor with Man5GlcNAc2 is necessary but not sufficient for N-glycan QC, which is predicted by the presence of the UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) plus calreticulin and/or calnexin. As many parasites lack glucose in their N-glycan precursor, UGGT product may be identified by inhibition of glucosidase II. The presence of an armless calnexin in Toxoplasma suggests secondary loss of N-glycan QC from coccidia. Positive selection for N-glycan sites occurs in secreted proteins of organisms with N-glycan QC and is based upon an increased likelihood of threonine but not serine in the +2 position versus asparagine. In contrast, there appears to be selection against N-glycan length in Plasmodium and N-glycan site density in Toxoplasma. Finally, there is suggestive evidence for N-glycan-dependent ERAD in Trichomonas, which glycosylates and degrades the exogenous reporter mutant carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*). PMID:25475176

  20. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    From 20082010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

  1. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; Garca, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P

    2009-03-01

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection. PMID:19211525

  2. Necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in slaughtered broilers.

    PubMed

    Supartika, I K E; van der Stroom-Kruyswijk, J H; Toussaint, M J M; Gruys, E

    2007-06-01

    The present study describes a subclinical necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in normal broilers routinely slaughtered in a medium-sized (72,000 birds per day) abattoir in the Netherlands. An exploratory investigation was scheduled on line during 20-min periods for 82 flocks (3000 birds examined per period). Liver and duodenum samples were collected for histopathology from 365 birds with liver pathology. Bacteriology was performed from 240 livers with lesions and 80 control livers. In addition to the hepatic pathology, other gross lesions of the carcasses, such as footpad dermatitis and broken legs/wings, were noted. The average prevalence for gross liver lesions was 0.16% (ranging from 0% to 0.63% per flock); 89.59% of the livers were enlarged, had a firm consistency, and revealed multifocal necrotic spots. Microscopically, 51.66% showed a granulomatous reaction in addition to the necrosis. There was no consistent anaerobic or aerobic bacterial growth in comparison to normal livers. A large proportion of the livers revealed growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., and this was often with more than one type of bacterial colony. The duodenum mucosa grossly showed some redness with a mucous mass on its surface. Microscopically (n = 176) in 5.70% there were no changes in anatomy and cellular activities; 64.20% had a mildly increased number of lymphoid cells and heterophils in the lamina propria and between villus epithelial cells. The remaining 30.10% had moderate degenerative changes of villus epithelium with a mixed cellular infiltration in the lamina propria; 23.29% of the duodenum samples contained coccidia (infestation stage: mild to moderate). Signs of overgrowth with Clostridium spp. were not observed. There was a small, but significant correlation (rs = 0.30; P = 0.006) between prevalence of liver pathology and footpad dermatitis. PMID:17626499

  3. The influence of dietary zinc source and coccidial vaccine exposure on intracellular zinc homeostasis and immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Troche, Catalina; Eicher, Susan D; Applegate, Todd J

    2015-07-01

    Coccidia are protozoal parasites which compromise mucosal integrity of the intestine, potentiating poultry morbidity. The host's Zn status influences the course of infection. Therefore, two experiments were designed to determine how supplemental Zn regimens impacted jejunal and caecal immune status and Zn transporter expression. Coccivac-B was administered weekly at ten times the recommended dose as a mild coccidial challenge (10 CV). Zn was provided through a basal diet, supplemental zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), or a supplemental 1:1 blend of ZnSO4 and Availa-Zn (Blend). Mucosal jejunum (Expt 1) and caecal tonsils (Expt 2) were evaluated for intracellular Zn concentrations and phagocytic capacity. Messenger expression of Zn transporters ZnT5, ZnT7, Zip9 and Zip13 were investigated to determine Zn trafficking. With 10 CV, phagocytic capacity was decreased in jejunal cells by 2%. In the caecal tonsils, however, phagocytic capacity increased with challenge, with the magnitude of increase being more pronounced with higher dietary Zn (10 CV Zn interaction; P = 0.04). Intracellular Zn within caecal tonsils was found significantly reduced with 10 CV (27%, P = 0.0001). 10 CV also resulted in an overall increase in the ratio of Zip:ZnT transporters. With the exception of Zip13 transporter expression, dietary Zn source had little impact on any of the measured cellular parameters. Thus, intestinal mucosal tissues had reductions in intracellular free Zn during coccidial challenge, which was coupled with an upregulation of measured Zip transporters. This suggests that under coccidial challenge, intestinal cells attempt to compensate for the drop in intracellular Zn. PMID:26079373

  4. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondn, Edgar O

    2011-11-01

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in comparison to broilers not given the probiotics or the specific EO blends as feed supplements. PMID:21793655

  5. Absorption and deposition of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with three dosages of Eimeria acervulina oocysts.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Velasco, X; Chapman, H D; Owens, C M; Kuttappan, V A; Fuente-Martnez, B; Menconi, A; Latorre, J D; Kallapura, G; Bielke, L R; Rathinam, T; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of oocysts of Eimeria acervulina on intestinal absorption and skin deposition of xanthophylls (XAs) in broilers. 2. A total of 192 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups: an uninfected control group and three groups inoculated with either 1 10(2), 1 10(4) or 1 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina by gavaging at 21 d. There were 4 replicate pens (2 male and 2 female) per group. 3. Plasma xanthophyll (PX) and skin yellowness (SY) were measured in live birds weekly. At 42 d of age, SY was measured in the breast and abdomen after chilling and in the breast 24 h post-processing on refrigerated carcasses. 4. In general, in all challenged treatments, and for the duration of the study, the average PX decreased by 0.02 ?g/ml (R(2) = 61.6%) for every 1000 inoculated oocysts, whereas PX increased by 1.26 ?g/ml/d in uninfected birds. 5. The average SY in live birds from 21 to 42 d of age decreased by 0.019 b*/every 1000 oocysts administered, while SY of uninfected controls increased by 0.57 b*/d. It was also noted that in all treatments females had a greater SY (6.17 b*) than males for the duration of the study. The SY of the breast and abdomen was correlated (r = 0.76) in chilled carcasses. Breast SY in 24 h refrigerated carcasses was greater in the control group and for female birds. 6. Oocyst excretion was different between inoculated treatments only on 7 d post-inoculation (PI). Coccidia lesion scores in the duodenum averaged 1+ in infected birds and 2+ in birds given the highest oocyst dose. PMID:24720798

  6. Meta-analysis of the performance variation in broilers experimentally challenged by Eimeria spp.

    PubMed

    Kipper, Marcos; Andretta, Ines; Lehnen, Cheila Roberta; Lovatto, Paulo Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to (1) study the relation of the variation in feed intake and weight gain in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, or a Pool of Eimeria species, and (2) to identify and to quantify the effects involved in the infection. A database of articles addressing the experimental infection with Coccidia in broilers was developed. These publications must present results of animal performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio). The database was composed by 69 publications, totalling around 44 thousand animals. Meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The feed intake of the groups challenged by E. acervulina and E. tenella did not differ (P>0.05) to the control group. However, the feed intake in groups challenged by E. maxima and Pool showed an increase of 8% and 5% (P<0.05) in relation to the control group. Challenged groups presented a decrease (P<0.05) in weight gain compared with control groups. All challenged groups showed a reduction in weight gain, even when there was no reduction (P<0.05) in feed intake (adjustment through variance-covariance analysis). The feed intake variation in broilers infected with E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. tenella, or Pool showed a quadratic (P<0.05) influence over the variation in weight gain. In relation to the isolated effects, the challenges have an impact of less than 1% over the variance in feed intake and weight gain. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with Eimeria species, animal age, sex, and genetic line. In general the age effect is superior to the challenge effect, showing that age at the challenge is important to determine the impact of Eimeria infection. PMID:23398987

  7. Transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and response to infection in vaccinated and contact-vaccinated broilers.

    PubMed

    Velkers, Francisca C; Bouma, Annemarie; Stegeman, J Arjan; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-01-01

    Live vaccines for coccidiosis control are infrequently used in broilers, mainly due to variability in efficacy and relatively high costs. More insight in transmission of vaccine and wild-type strains can facilitate optimization of vaccination strategies and might increase its use as an alternative for anticoccidial drugs. The aim of this study was to quantify transmission of a live Eimeria acervulina vaccine strain and to determine the degree of protection against a subsequent infection with a wild-type E. acervulina strain. An experiment was carried out with 4 groups of 22 SPF broilers. At 2 days of age, 11 birds of groups 2 to 4 were vaccinated directly by oral application of E. acervulina oocysts of the Paracox vaccine and 11 birds were placed in contact with these birds (contact-vaccinated). Birds in group 1 remained unvaccinated (controls) and were not exposed to vaccinated birds. At day 28 of age, 6 groups of 10 birds were formed, with 2 groups (duplo) for each treatment group, i.e. vaccinated, contact-vaccinated or unvaccinated control birds. Five birds of each group were orally inoculated with wild-type E. acervulina oocysts and five were contact-exposed. Single droppings were examined daily from days 5 to 49 of age for oocyst output and to determine the time of infection. The transmission rate of the vaccine strain was estimated to be 1.6 per day and of the wild-type strain 2.3, 8.7 and 20.8 per day for vaccinated, contact-vaccinated and unvaccinated birds, respectively. Although transmission of wild-type coccidia was not significantly reduced in vaccinated or contact-vaccinated groups, both groups were equally protected against high oocyst output after infection compared to unvaccinated groups. These results suggest that factors influencing transmission of live vaccine strains in flocks may be important targets for improvement of vaccine efficacy and warrant further research. PMID:22075084

  8. Evaluating the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde and Echinacea purpurea plant extract in broilers against Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Orengo, J; Buenda, A J; Ruiz-Ibez, M R; Madrid, J; Del Ro, L; Catal-Gregori, P; Garca, V; Hernndez, F

    2012-04-30

    Coccidiostats could be phased out as feed additives before 1 January 2013 for public health and food safety reasons, and, as a replacement, bioactive compounds found in plants are currently being investigated since they are more likely to be found acceptable by consumers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and Echinacea purpurea plant extract (EP) as additives by analyzing the performance traits, oocyst excretion and intestinal lesions following experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina. A total of 72 Ross male broilers were raised from 1 to 35 d and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: control, without additives (C); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde (CIN); 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (EP); 150 mg kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde plus 1000 mg kg(-1)E. purpurea plant extract (CIN+EP). At 25 d, 12 chickens per treatment were orally infected with E. acervulina. Coccidia infestation led to lower performance but with no significant differences between the infected groups. Oocyst output reached its peak from 6 to 9 d post-infection in all treatments. At duodenal level, gross lesion scores were lower for cinnamaldehyde diets (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in the microscopic lesion scores, with a non-significant reduction as a result of cinnamaldehyde addition (P>0.05). Scoring methods for macro- and microscopic lesions showed a positive linear relationship (G=+0.70). Further studies are necessary to assess the possible anticoccidian action of the cinnamaldehyde and its value as an alternative or adjunct in therapeutic or prophylactic strategies. PMID:21996002

  9. Immunopathology and cytokine responses in broiler chickens coinfected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens with the use of an animal model of necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Allen, Patricia C; Park, Dong Woon; FitzCoy, Steve; Bautista, Daniel A; Lillehoje, Erik P

    2008-03-01

    The incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) infection in commercial poultry has been increasing at an alarming rate. Although pre-exposure of chickens to coccidia infections is believed to be one of the major risk factors leading to NE, the underlying mechanisms of CP virulence remain undefined. The objectives of this study were to utilize an experimental model of NE produced by Eimeria maxima (EM) and CP coinfection to investigate the pathologic and immunologic parameters of the disease. Broilers coinfected with EM plus CP exhibited more severe gut pathology compared with animals given EM or CP alone. Additionally, EM/CP coinfection increased the numbers of intestinal CP bacteria compared with chickens exposed to an identical challenge of CP alone. Coinfection with EM and CP repressed nitric oxide synthase gene expression that was induced by EM alone, leading to lower plasma NO levels. Intestinal expression of a panel of cytokine and chemokine genes following EM/CP coinfection showed a mixed response depending on the transcript analyzed and the time following infection. In general, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, and TGF-beta4 were repressed, whereas IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, and LITAF were increased during coinfection compared with challenge by EM or CP alone. These results are discussed in the context of EM and CP to act synergistically to create a more severe disease phenotype leading to an altered cytokine/chemokine response than that produced by infection with the individual pathogens. PMID:18459290

  10. Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Lalonde, Laura F; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canada's central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

  11. Fate of parasites and pathogenic bacteria in an anaerobic hybrid reactor followed by downflow hanging sponge system treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Zamel, T; Herrawy, A; El-Taweel, G

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor (0.9 m(3)) in combination with downflow hanging sponge (DHS) system (1.3 m(3)) was investigated. The combined system was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6.0 h for AH and 3.2 h for DHS system. The total process achieved a substantial reduction of COD(total) resulting in an average effluent concentration of only 39 ± 12 mg/l. Moreover, 90 ± 7% of ammonia was eliminated in the DHS system. Nitrate and nitrite data revealed that 49 ± 3.2% of the ammonia removal occurred through nitrification process. The removal efficiency of total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS) was relatively low in the AH reactor. The major portion of TC, FC, and FS was removed in the DHS system resulting to an average count of 1.7 × 10(5) ± 1.1 × 10(2)/100 ml for TC, 7.1 × 10(4) ± 1.2 × 10(2)/100 ml for FC, and 7.5 × 10(4) ± 1.3 × 10(2)/100 ml for FS in the final effluent. Likely, the combined system was very efficient for the removal of protozoological species such as sarcodins (Entamoeba cysts), flagellates (Giardia cysts), and ciliates (Balantidium cysts). This was not the case for coccidia (Cryptosporidium oocysts), where 36.4 and 27.3% were detected in the effluent of AH and DHS system, respectively. Only 10% of intestinal nematode and cestode ova were recorded in the effluent of AH reactor and were completely removed in the DHS system. PMID:25893628

  12. Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in an urban population of domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Afonso, Eve; Thulliez, Philippe; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2006-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and animal species worldwide. The relative importance of each potential transmission route in the complex life cycle of this coccidia is largely unknown, due to the lack of studies taking into account all routes simultaneously. In this study, we analyzed the transmission of T. gondii in an urban population of stray cats captured between 1993 and 2004. Analyzing prevalence, our aim was to determine which factors influence transmission in this population. Specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected using the modified agglutination test. Firstly, we analyzed the kinetics of antibody titers in cats captured several times, using mixed linear models and correspondence analysis. We showed that antibody titers did not vary significantly with time and that titer 40 was the best threshold to separate individuals into two serological groups. Overall, prevalence was only 18.6%, thus transmission of T. gondii is infrequent in this population. As expected, a highly significant association was detected between age and presence of IgG antibodies. Prevalence was lowest in kittens aged 3-4 months, suggesting that newborn kittens may carry maternal antibodies and that vertical transmission is rare. After taking into account the effect of age, logistic regression showed that antibody carriage was related to factors that possibly related to the survival of oocysts: localization in the study site, origin of the cats, maximal temperatures and rain. Our results suggest that in this population, vertical transmission is rare, low predation limits prevalence, and oocyst survival is a determining factor in the risk of infection. We discuss the more general importance of conditions determining oocyst survival in the life cycle of T. gondii. PMID:16989836

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitisation: a cross-sectional study among outpatients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Olga; Domingo, Laia; Teixidor, Jaume; Gracenea, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool specimens from outpatients in Catalonia (Spain), and to evaluate the association of age, seasonality, and gender on general parasitisation and by the most frequent detected species. A total of 13,913 samples from 8,313 patients (1-3 specimens per patient) reporting digestive disorders were examined between 1999 and 2005 as a part of medical examinations. Samples were fixed with MIF solution and microscopically examined as wet mounts. Permanent stain was obtained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for intestinal coccidia. Nineteen species of intestinal parasites were identified. Blastocystis hominis (585 patients) was the predominant species, followed by Giardia duodenalis (321), Dientamoeba fragilis (131), Entamoeba coli (60) and Cryptosporidium sp. (59). Prevalence of helminths was low, being Enterobius vermicularis as the most frequently reported helminth (49 patients). The overall parasitisation was 1,136/8,313 (13.7%); prevalence in adults was 19.8% with a maximum in spring (14.8%). In the adjusted models, age was the main factor associated with infection: adults, with B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (odds ratio (OR) = 6.0 and OR = 8.5, respectively) and children, with Cryptosporidium and Giardia (OR = 2.0 and OR = 3.3, respectively). However, seasonality cannot be considered related with infection. The total prevalence was low, taking into account that all the subjects examined presented gastrointestinal symptoms and that species traditionally considered as non-pathogenic were included in the study. PMID:20862495

  14. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population – Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Rebecca K.; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of parasitism and may underestimate impacts on wildlife populations. PMID:25830105

  15. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  16. Stage-specific expression of protease genes in the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteases regulate pathogenesis in apicomplexan parasites but investigations of proteases have been largely confined to the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, little is known about proteases in other Apicomplexa, particularly in the sexual stages. We screened the Eimeria tenella genome database for proteases, classified these into families and determined their stage specific expression. Results Over forty protease genes were identified in the E. tenella genome. These were distributed across aspartic (three genes), cysteine (sixteen), metallo (fourteen) and serine (twelve) proteases. Expression of at least fifteen protease genes was upregulated in merozoites including homologs of genes known to be important in host cell invasion, remodelling and egress in P. falciparum and/or T. gondii. Thirteen protease genes were specifically expressed or upregulated in gametocytes; five of these were in two families of serine proteases (S1 and S8) that are over-represented in the coccidian parasites, E. tenella and T. gondii, distinctive within the Apicomplexa because of their hard-walled oocysts. Serine protease inhibitors prevented processing of EtGAM56, a protein from E. tenella gametocytes that gives rise to tyrosine-rich peptides that are incorporated into the oocyst wall. Conclusion Eimeria tenella possesses a large number of protease genes. Expression of many of these genes is upregulated in asexual stages. However, expression of almost one-third of protease genes is upregulated in, or confined to gametocytes; some of these appear to be unique to the Coccidia and may play key roles in the formation of the oocyst wall, a defining feature of this group of parasites. PMID:23216867

  17. Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.

  18. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Yongjie; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    In soil microbiology, there is a “paradox” of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity, and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences), followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia, and uncultured Chytridiomycota) were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9 and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively), which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation. PMID:26539178

  19. Paleogenesis and paleo-epidemiology of primate malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1965-01-01

    The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood. The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the “quartan group” of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the “tertian group”; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent. Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe. It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question. PMID:14315710

  20. A coprological investigation of gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary parasites in hunting dogs in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O; Johansson, Anna; Espersen, Mia C; Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob L

    2013-09-23

    A coprological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasites infecting hunting dogs with no history of recent anthelmintic treatments and with no overt clinical manifestations of cardiopulmonary or gastrointestinal illness. The hunting dogs were recruited from four different areas in Denmark, and fecal samples were obtained in October and November, 2007. For detecting gastrointestinal parasites, samples (N=178) were examined by a commercial flotation kit (Fecalyzer(®) EVSCO, USA). For detection of cardiopulmonary parasites, samples (N=181) were collected on three consecutive days and examined using the Baermann method. Parasites were recovered from 22.1% of the hunting dogs: Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.2%), Toxocara canis (12.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7.3%), Taenia spp. (1.7%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Coccidia (0.6%) and unidentified trematode eggs (1.1%). Infection with only one species of parasite was more common (89.5%) than infection with two species (10.5%). A multiple logistic regression model showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites was not influenced by age, gender or breed in adult dogs. There was a significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasites in the densely populated area of the island Zealand compared with the less populated regions of the peninsular Jutland. The present study reports the first case of A. vasorum in a dog from Jutland. The dog had been visiting the endemic area of western Zealand, suggesting that translocation of sub-clinically infected dogs may contribute to introduction of A. vasorum into non-endemic areas. PMID:23602361

  1. Investigation into the prevalence of coccidiosis and maduramycin drug resistance in chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Jun; Wang, Li Xia; Ruan, Wen Ke; An, Jian

    2013-01-16

    Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease that affects the poultry industry worldwide, having major economic impacts on poultry by reducing performance and decreasing productivity. This disease not only hinders the growth of chickens but also facilitates other epidemic diseases. Coccidiosis is mainly controlled by prophylactic coccidiostats administrated in the feed. However, the extensive use of these drugs has resulted in the development of drug resistance by Eimeria spp., which causes coccidiosis. The aim of the survey was to acquire data on the prevalence of coccidiosis and drug resistance of field isolates in chickens in China. We examined 545 farms across nine different geographic provinces over a 5-year period. These included Beijing, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Shandong, Guangdong, Fujian, Liaoning Provinces, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions. The results indicated that oocyst per gram faeces (OPG) and coccidiosis morbidity rate increased when non-prophylactic or low doses of coccidiostats were used. Coccidiosis morbidity rate in Guangdong Province was the highest, leading to greater, more frequent use of diverse types of coccidiostats. Consequently, the Guangdong Province had the most serious drug resistance problem. In contrast, coccidiosis morbidity rates in Inner Mongolia, Fujian and Liaoning were relatively low, leading to a reduced level of coccidiostats use, which resulted in less drug resistance. The threshold of a coccidiosis outbreak was an OPG level of >20000. When the OPG levels were ? 50000, chickens were in danger of clinical coccidiosis, and here coccidia generated a certain degree of resistance to the drug when administered. Coccidiostat resistance started to appear when the OPG level reached ca. 20000 using 2 mg kg(-1)/5 mg kg(-1), respectively, of maduramycin, whereas 5 mg kg(-1) of maduramycin developed severe drug resistance. PMID:22925822

  2. Effects of heat stress on the formation of splenic germinal centres and immunoglobulins in broilers infected by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Calefi, Atílio Sersun; de Siqueira, Adriana; Namazu, Lilian Bernadete; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Honda, Bruno Bueno Takashi; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; Palermo-Neto, João

    2016-03-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis (NE) induced by Clostridium perfringens is a disease that affects mainly the first weeks of poultry's life. The pathogenesis of NE is complex and involves the combination of several factors, such as co-infection with different species of coccidia, immunosuppression and stress. Stress is one of the main limiting factors in poultry production. Although several studies emphasized the effects of stress on immunity, few works analyzed these effects on immunoglobulins and on germinal centres (GCs), which are specialized microenvironments, responsible for generating immune cells with high affinity antibodies and memory B-lymphocytes. Thus, the effects of heat stress associated or not with thioglycolate broth culture medium intake and/or C. perfringens infection on corticosterone serum levels, spleen GCs development and immunoglobulin production in broilers were evaluated. Results showed that heat stress, thioglycolate and C. perfringens per se increased corticosterone serum levels, although this was not observed in heat stressed and thioglycolate and C. perfringens-treated chickens. The serum levels of IgA, IgM and IgY were differently affected by heat stress and/or infection/thioglycolate. Heat stress decreased the duodenal concentrations of sIgA, which was accompanied by a reduction in GCs number in the duodenal lamina propria; a trend to similar findings of sIgA concentrations was observed in the chickens' jejunum. Changes in spleen and Bursa of Fabricius relative weights as well as in spleen morphometry were also noted in heat stressed animals, infected or not. Together, these data suggest that heat stress change GCs formation in chickens infected or not, which that may lead to failures in vaccination protocols as well as in the poultries' host resistance to infectious diseases during periods of exposure to heat stress. PMID:26964716

  3. Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

    2009-05-26

    Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

  4. A pathogenic new species of Eimeria from the pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis, in Washington and Oregon, with description of the sporulated oocyst and intestinal endogenous stages.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Donald W; Harrenstien, Lisa; Couch, Lee; Garner, Michael M

    2005-06-01

    In January 2003, fecal samples from 13 live pygmy rabbits, Brachylagus idahoensis (Merriam, 1891), were collected at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, and sent to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be examined for coccidia. In July 2004, 14 more fecal samples were collected and sent to UNM, 6 from some of the same rabbits and 8 from 16 other rabbits (4 were pooled samples from siblings). In addition, tissue sections from 3 dead rabbits (2 from the Oregon Zoo, 1 from Washington State University) also were examined. Two of 4 (50%) pooled fecal samples and 8 of 17 (47%) 1-rabbit samples were positive for a single species of Eimeria, which we describe here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts were subspheroidal, 25.6 x 23.8 (22-28 x 21-27) microm, with a length:width (L:W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2). A micropyle (approximately 2 microm wide) and 0-1 polar granules were present, but an oocyst residuum was absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 13.4 x 8.1 (11-16.5 x 7.5-9) microm, with a L:W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and they had a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Tissue sections showed a heavy infection of the villous epithelial cells of the proximal and mid-small intestine with coccidial endogenous stages, but no stages were found in liver hepatocytes. Meronts with approximately 46 (26-70) merozoites per infected cell appeared to be fully developed and were subspheroidal, 14.8 x 13.9 (13-18 x 10.5-16.5) microm. Developing macro- and microgamonts were indistinguishable from each other and were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 10.4 x 9.5 (9-11 x 7.5-10.5) microm. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 14.2 x 13.7 (12-17 x 11-16) microm, and mature microgamonts were smaller and subspheroidal, 11.9 x 10.8 (10.5-13 x 9-12) microm. This eimerian seems to be extremely pathogenic to young pygmy rabbits, and given the precarious nature of this unique genetic population, it appears to be an emerging pathogen that deserves immediate further study. PMID:16108556

  5. Epidemiology of Cyclospora Species in Humans in Malatya Province in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Ulku; Daldal, Nilgun; Ozer, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Erturk, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclospora species are rare among other Coccidia parasites and can cause recurrent gastroenteritis. Cyclospora spp. can infect reptiles, insects, rodents, and mammals. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. in Malatya province and its neighboring provinces. Patients and Methods: Totally, 2281 stool samples taken from patients with digestive system complaints who referred to the polyclinics affiliated with Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine in Malatya Province and its neighboring provinces, in 2006, and whose stool specimens were submitted to the parasitology department were examined. A questionnaire was developed to determine the epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. in the patients as the dependent variable of the study. All the participants signed an informed written consent. The samples were coated with Entellan™ after staining via acid-fast staining and were examined on an immersion microscope objective. The data are presented as mean, standard deviation, or number/percentage. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analyses. Statistically, a P value < 0.05 was accepted as meaningful. Results: The stool samples were examined via direct microscopic examination and acid-fast staining. Positivity was determined in 129 (5.7%) cases. In the overall assessment of the patients with respect to general body itching, rectal itching, allergy, immunosuppression plus cancer, shortness of breath, ulcerative colitis, diarrhea, abdominal pain, salivation, constipation, nausea, vomiting, growth retardation, and anemia, there was no significant relationship. However, in the statistical evaluations among the positive cases, the difference was found to be significant. Conclusions: The study was conducted in Malatya Province, but patients from the neighboring provinces were also included in the evaluation during the study. Of all the positive cases, 5.6% were those from Malatya Province and its surrounding areas. Additionally, Cyclospora spp. were observed among the patients referring to the polyclinics with digestive system complaints in 8.1% of those from the Adiyaman province and in 6.9% of those from the Kahramanmaraş region. The incidence of Cyclospora cayetanensis may be higher in these regions if an epidemiological study is performed. Consequently, we suggest that Cyclospora spp. be investigated in digestive system disorders, especially in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:26421126

  6. Effects of phytase supplementation in broiler diets on a natural Eimeria challenge in naive and vaccinated birds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A L; van Ginkel, F W; Macklin, K S; Blake, J P

    2011-04-01

    Our study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phytase on a natural Eimeria challenge in naive and vaccinated broilers. Prior to the experiment the litter was seeded with Eimeria by orally infecting 10-d-old chicks with a cocktail containing 100,000 and 5,000 sporulated Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella oocysts, respectively. Straight-run broiler chicks were placed across 48 floor pens on fresh or seeded litter. Eight treatment combinations were created to include 2 dietary Ca-nonphytate P (npP) levels [0.9% Ca, 0.45% npP; 0.7% Ca, 0.35% npP, 500 phytase units of Optiphos phytase (JBS United, Sheridan, IN)], unchallenged versus challenged, and unvaccinated versus vaccinated groups of chicks. Body weights and feed consumption (FC) were recorded on d 10, 18, and 21. A total of 10 birds/treatment were killed on d 10 and 18 to obtain tissue samples from the duodena and ceca for lesion scoring and cytokine response measurement. At 21 d of age, the left tibia was removed from 18 birds/treatment to assess bone strength. Body weight, FC, and bone strength were unaffected (P > 0.05) by diet or vaccination. By d 21, birds exposed to coccidia had lower FC (P < 0.01), higher feed conversion (P < 0.001), and decreased bone strength (P < 0.01) compared with those not challenged. Regardless of treatment, gross and microscopic scoring of the intestines showed few differences (P > 0.05). Expression of interferon-? did not differ (P > 0.05) in the duodena or ceca at either time point. The IL-17 gene expression was increased (P < 0.05) in phytase-supplemented, vaccinated, or challenged birds by 18 d of age, with significant interactions (P < 0.05) occurring between birds challenged and fed the marginal diet or vaccinated. Phytase supplementation was unable to provide additional benefits to performance or P utilization in birds vaccinated, subjected to a coccidiosis infection, or both. Based on cytokine production in the intestinal tract on d 10 and 18 postchallenge, the response to the Eimeria challenge was characterized by a T-helper type (Th) 17-like immune response and to a lesser extent a Th1-like immune response, whereas no Th2 cytokine was detected. PMID:21406363

  7. Intestinal microbial ecology of broilers vaccinated and challenged with mixed Eimeria species, and supplemented with essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondn, E O; Hume, M E; Hernndez, C; Clemente-Hernndez, S

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal microbiota is an important component in the development of defense mechanisms in the gut mucosa. This project determined the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) of broilers vaccinated at first day of age with live oocysts of Eimeria species and fed diets supplemented with 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated-uninfected (UU) control; 2) unmedicated-infected (UI) control; 3) vaccinated with Advent cocci-vaccine and without feed additive (COV) supplements; 4) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CP; and 5) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CA. The EO blends were added at 100 ppm to the same basal diets. Chicks were gavage-infected at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before the infection and 7 d after the challenge, pooled in 6 samples, and frozen. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of amplicon patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci infection. The EO blends CP and CA did affect MC in all gut sections. The cocci-infection caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). The CP-supplemented birds had higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC in duodenal and ileal (73.3, 81.8%) than COV (66.4, 66.5%). However, COV broilers had the smallest changes in cecal MC after infection (79.5% SC). We concluded that cocci-vaccination causes small changes in intestinal MC, but challenge causes drastic shifts. The EO blend supplementation modulates MC in cocci-vaccinated broilers, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed coccidia infection. Correlations between MC dynamics and host responses are discussed. PMID:16673762

  8. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced number of excreted oocysts during the infection with no interaction to genotype. Females generally had a significantly higher shedding of oocysts than males (p<0.05). The overall body weight gain and the daily weight gain when infection was subdued showed a three-way interaction among genotype, sex and treatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part of a strategy to prevent commercial losses. PMID:22154969

  9. Molecular prevalence and preponderance of Eimeria spp. among chickens in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Aarthi, S; Dhinakar Raj, Gopal; Raman, M; Gomathinayagam, S; Kumanan, K

    2010-09-01

    Coccidosis is one of the most commonly prevalent and economically important parasitic diseases of poultry worldwide. Chicken coccidia are protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. This study aimed at analysing the molecular prevalence of seven species of Eimeria infecting chickens in Tamil Nadu, India. Tissue samples (caecum, rectum and upper and mid intestines) collected from chickens exhibiting symptoms of coccidiosis were used for DNA extraction, followed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Eimeria genome with genus-specific primers and speciation in nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. Of 43 tissue samples examined, 25 were positive in ITS PCR and all the seven species could be identified. However, the prevalence of each species varied. In broilers, Eimeria necatrix was present in all infected chickens with Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina present in more than 50% of infected chickens, while Eimeria praecox and Eimeria mitis were only present in 11% to 16%. Although only 7 samples were positive among layers, the prevalence was largely similar, but with a higher prevalence of E. praecox and E. mitis and a lower prevalence of E. tenella. Multiple infections were most common, with 2-6 Eimeria species infecting the same chickens. In order to estimate the preponderance of each infecting species of Eimeria, a random cloning technique was adopted. The genus-specific ITS PCR product was cloned in a TA vector and ten clones were randomly picked and used as template for amplification of all the seven genera of Eimeria. If the specific species of Eimeria is preponderant, then the frequency of the clones showing that species-specific PCR amplification would be higher. Using this method, the most preponderant species present in the rectum, mid and upper intestines of layers was assessed to be E. acervulina, E. brunetti and E. necatrix. E. acervulina was present in 60-90%, E. necatrix in 10-30% and E. brunetti in 10-20% of the clones screened, indicating that these species could be the most preponderant Eimeria species. Intervention strategies should aim at these species. This new method of estimating preponderance of infecting Eimeria species could be used to assess the relative importance of each species at the farm or region level instead of relying only on prevalence estimates. PMID:20607286

  10. Effects of feed additives and mixed eimeria species infection on intestinal microbial ecology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Hume, M E; Clemente-Hernndez, S; Oviedo-Rondn, E O

    2006-12-01

    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed challenge. PMID:17135664

  11. Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lynne S; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross-reactivity was seen with 10 different protozoa (152 challenges), nine different helminths (35 challenges), or human cells (4 challenges) found in fecal specimens. This rapid test system may be very beneficial in the absence of trained microscopists; however, for patients who remain symptomatic after a negative result, the ova and parasite examination and special stains for other coccidia and the microsporidia should always remain options. PMID:12517850

  12. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

  13. Serologic, parasitic, and bacteriologic assessment of captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcus Vincius Romero; Junior, Francisco Carlos Ferreira; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, Andr Almeida; de Arajo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, Jos Srgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae), including endangered species, were studied (n = 130) for the assessment of health status, including Aburria jacutinga (black-fronted piping-guan, n = 42), Crax blumenbachii (red-knobbed curassow, n = 54), Craxfasciolata (bare-faced curassow, n = 28), and Penelope obscura (dusky-legged guan, n = 6). The exposure to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Salmonella pullorum (SP), Salmonella gallinarum (SG), avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were determined by serology, and SG and SP also were evaluated by culture. Ectoparasites and endoparasites were identified using light microscopy. Sera were negative by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to MG or MS, although serum was reactive to MG (32%, 42/130) by the rapid serum agglutination test (SAT). Although positive reactions (26.9%, 35/130) for SP and SG were detected by SAT, cloacal swab cultures were negative for SP and SG. IBDV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two dusky-legged guans (1.5%, 2/130). HI antibody titers to APMV-1 were found in 20 (15.3%) cracids, with titers ranging from 16 to 1,024. Fifty percent of birds (65/130) had ectoparasites. Lice (Menacanthus spp.) and mites (Astigmata: Analgesidae, Megninidae; Megninia spp.) were found in red-knobbed curassow; Megninia spp. also were found in bare-faced curassow, black-fronted piping-guan, and dusky-legged guan. Eleven black-fronted piping-guans presented dual parasitism by Megninia spp. and Ornithonyssus spp. Endoparasites were detected in 16.1% (21/130) of birds, and some with multiple parasites. Oocysts of coccidia and eggs of Capillaria spp. (Nematoda: Trichuroidea) were found in the feces of red-knobbed curassow. Eggs of Strongyloides spp. were found in the feces of bare-faced curassow, and eggs of Ascaridia spp., Capillaria spp., and Strongyloides spp. were found in black-fronted piping-guan. Cysts of Blastocystis spp. were found in dusky-legged guan. Antibodies to IBDV and APMV-1 indicate previous exposure. However, considering that birds were clinically normal, immune stimulation might have been from live chicken vaccine strain infections that are widely used in Brazilian poultry. The high parasitism levels indicate that a routine inspection for internal and external parasites is warranted. PMID:23505700