Coccidia are obligatory intracellular protozoan parasites. Eimeria, Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Sarcocystis are important genera of protozoal parasites of mammals and birds. Domestic animals may be infected with several species of coccidia but usually only a few species are pathogenic...
Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.
Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.
97 Abstract: Eighty-two coyote fecal samples were collected from eastern Colorado and examined for coccidia. Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were observed in 17 of the samples and oocysts of Isospora o\\/iioemzsis were observed in two samples. Ten fecal samples contained eimenian coccidia thought to be pseudoparasites of the coyote acquired while ingesting heavily infected rabbits.
ROBERT G. ARTHER; GEORGE POST
Eighty-two coyote fecal samples were collected from eastern Colorado and examined for coccidia. Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were observed in 17 of the samples and oocysts of Isospora ohioensis were observed in two samples. Ten fecal samples contained eimerian coccidia thought to be pseudoparasites of the coyote acquired while ingesting heavily infected rabbits. PMID:402487
Arther, R G; Post, G
The studies were carried out in two farms - ZZK Ko?bacz and SK Bielin, on 60 calves, 30 animals in each farm. The calves ware divided for control and experimental groups -15 animals per group. Baycox was administered two times in 7 days interval in a dosis of 20 mglkg of body weight. The weight gain and the course of coccidia infection in calves before and after traetment with Baycox ware examined. In control animals during the time of studies the coccidia infection was very hight. After administration of Baycox the intensity of coccidia infection was very low and oocysts were found in same animals, only. In SK Bielin before Baycox was used clinical coccidiosis and mortality of 6.9% calves was observed. After Baycox administration 1.9 % animals died, only. The results ware analyst statistically. PMID:16886463
The efficacy of monensin at concentrations of 60 and 100 ppm was evaluated against 22 isolates not exposed to monensin and 16 monensin-exposed field isolates of coccidia obtained from US and Canadian turkey flocks, respectively. Isolates not previously exposed to monensin were effectively controlled by monensin. However, 7 monensin-resistant isolates (predominantly Eimeria meleagrimitis) were independently isolated from turkey flocks in Ontario, Canada where monensin was being used as an anticoccidial. Subsequent sensitivity evaluations of two of these isolates revealed cross-resistance to lasolocid, narasin, and salinomycin. Evaluation of the stability of monensin resistance in one isolate suggested that monensin sensitivity was not restored after 10 generations of relaxed selection. Although the extent of monensin resistance among field isolates of turkey coccidia is unknown, these results provide the first unequivocal characterization of monensin resistance in field isolates of coccidia. Contrarily, after more than eight years of intensive use of monensin as an anticoccidial in US broiler production facilities, this type of resistance to the polyether antibiotic anticoccidials has not been encountered in chicken coccidia. PMID:7413578
Jeffers, T K; Bentley, E J
New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142
Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I
In contrast with isosporoid species of coccidia that have established extraintestinal phases of development, the eimeriids, except for a few species, generally have been considered inhabitants of the intestinal tract. Eimeria infection in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G. americana) may result in disseminated visceral coccidiosis. Nodules were observed in the oral cavity of 33% (n = 95) of the G. canadensis at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in Laurel, MD. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules in many tissues and organs. Histologic studies disclosed protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizonts in the granulomas, and endogenous stages of coccidia were present in the intestines of four birds. Fecalysis of three of four sandhill cranes yielded oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis. Only E. reichenowi-type oocysts were recovered from a dead whooping crane sample. Domestic broiler chicks each intubated with about 1 times 106 pooled sporulated oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis were not infected. Exposure of six incubator-hatched and hand-reared sandhill crane chicks to oocysts artificially (two chicks) and naturally (four chicks) resulted in typical infection of intestinal epithelium with invasion of subepithelial tissues extending to the muscular layer and widespread extraintestinal development. Asexual and sexual stages occurred primarily in macrophages in the liver, spleen, heart, and lung. In the lung, oocysts were found in bronchial exudate and epithelial lining cells. Six of ten G. canadensis chicks, one adult G. americana, and three of five G. americana chicks that died naturally at PWRC had disseminated visceral coccidiosis.
Novilla, M.N.; Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Jeffers, T.K.
New approaches to the in vitro cultivation of coccidian parasites are described here, specifically for avian coccidia of the genus Eimeria. Firstly, an improved method of purifying the infectious stage of these parasites, known as sporozoites, over a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column to eliminate toxic debris generated during excystation is described. The cultured cells used to support the intracellular development of these parasites, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK), were cloned and it was demonstrated that some clones were more susceptible than others to infection with sporozoites. The use of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation to pre-treat host cell monolayers prior to infecting has been found to prevent host cell overgrowth and subsequent peeling of the monolayers while not interfering with parasite development. Utilizing in vitro culture techniques developed here in conjunction with radiolabeling studies, an assay has been development using the parasite-specific incorporation of /sup 3/H-uracil to assess the intracellular development of E. tenella and E. acervulina in vitro. As shown by both scintillation counts and autoradiography, /sup 3/H-uracil was incorporated specifically into the intracellular parasites from the onset of infection and continued throughout the development of the first generation schizonts. Based on these findings, a semi-automated microscale incorporation assay was developed to determine parasite viability. The assay system is used in this study to investigate the effects of known anticoccidials, sporozoite antiserum, and varying the composition of the cell culture medium on parasite development.
To investigate the relationship between European starlings and bovine coccidiosis we collected samples from European starlings, cattle feed bunks, cattle water troughs, and cattle feces within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These samples were screened for coccidia spp. to investigate (i) the prevalence of coccidia in starlings using CAFOs; (ii) if there is a relationship between bovine coccidiosis and starling numbers; (iii) if coccidia contamination of cattle feed and water is related to the number of starlings observed on CAFOs. Coccidia belonging to the genus Eimeria were detected in cattle feces and one water sample but no Eimeria spp. were detected in European starlings or cattle feed. However, many European starling samples were positive for Isospora. Starling use of CAFOs did not appear to be associated with coccidia spp. shedding by cattle and there was no correlation between starling numbers and contamination of cattle feed and water, suggesting that starling do not contribute to the amplification and spread of Eimeria in CAFOs. PMID:21536385
Carlson, James C; Linz, George M; Ballweber, Lora R; Elmore, Stacey A; Pettit, Susan E; Franklin, Alan B
Data on parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation in host cells (HC) harbouring different intracellular protozoan parasites have been reviewed and critically analysed, with special reference to the main representatives of the Coccidia. The vacuole membrane (PVM) is the interface between host and parasite, playing a role in nutrient acquisition by the parasite from the HC. The PV phenomenon is regarded as a generalized HC response to the introduction of alien bodies (microorganisms), which eventually reflects the evolutionary established host-parasite relationships at cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Special attention has been paid to the existing morpho-functional diversity of the PVs within the same genera and species of parasites, and even at different stages of the parasite life cycle. The PVM is generally considered to derive from the HC plasmalemma, whose biochemical composition undergoes significant changes as the intravacuolar parasite grows. The original HC proteins are selectively excluded from the PVM, while those of the parasite are incorporated. As the result, the changed PVM becomes not fusigenic for HC lysosomes. For Toxoplasma gondii and other cyst-forming coccidia (Isospora, Sarcocystis), a definite correlation has been noticed between the extent of rhoptry and dense granule secrets released by a zoite during HC internalization, on the one hand, and the pattern of the PV that forms, on the other one. In T. gondii, tachyzoites, known to discharge abundant secrets, commonly force the development of PVs limited with a single unit membrane and equipped with a tubulovesicular network in the lumen. Unlike, bradyzoites known to be deficient in secretory materials trigger the formation of PVs with a three-membrane lining composed of the changed invaginated plasmalemma in addition to two membranes of endoplasmic reticulum. The two different types of PV harbour, respectively, exoenteric and enteric stages of T. gondii, the latter being confined to the cat intestine only. Unlike, all endogenous stages of the classic intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) develop within PVs limited with a single membrane, with some invaginations extending into the PV lumen. Unusual PV patterns are characteristic of the extracytoplasmic eimerian coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Epieimeria) and adeleid haemogreagarines (Karyolysus). In cyst-forming coccidia, the PVM is actively involved in tissue cyst wall formation, thus protecting the encysted parasites from recognition by the host immune system. All this strongly suggests that the PV is far from being an indifferent membraneous vesicle containing a parasite, but represents a metabolically active compartment in infected cells. Since all the coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites, the mode of their intimate interaction with the HC, largely accomplished via the PV and its membrane, is vital for their survival as biological species. PMID:14520865
Be?er, T V; Svezhova, N V; Radchenko, A I; Sidorenko, N V
The presence of viruses (myxomatosis and haemorrhagic fever), helminth parasites and coccidia were studied in European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) introduced from the Iberian Peninsula to Tenerife Island (Canary Islands). Rabbits were captured between 1998 and 2000 in four geographic zones in Tenerife Island. Blood samples were taken from rabbits before dissection and faeces were obtained from the rectum of
Pilar R. Foronda; Elena O. Figueruelo; Antonio R. Ortega; Néstor A. Abreu; Juan C. Casanova
This study tested the hypothesis that a host mucogenic response to an intestinal coccidial infection promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis (NE). A chick NE model was used in which birds were inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima and subsequently with Clostridium perfringens (EAM/CP). A second group of EAM/CP-infected birds was treated with the ionophore narasin (NAR/EAM/CP). These groups were compared to birds that were either non-infected (NIF), or infected only with E. acervulina and E. maxima (EAM), or C. perfringens (CP). The impact of intestinal coccidial infection and anti-coccidial treatment on host immune responses and microbial community structure were evaluated with histochemical-, cultivation- and molecular-based techniques. Barrier function was compromised in EAM/CP-infected birds as indicated by elevated CFUs for anaerobic bacteria and C. perfringens in the spleen when compared to NIF controls at day 20, with a subsequent increase in intestinal NE lesions and mortality at day 22. These results correlate positively with a host inflammatory response as evidenced by increased ileal interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma RNA expression. Concurrent increases in chicken intestinal mucin RNA expression, and goblet cell number and theca size indicate that EAM/CP induced an intestinal mucogenic response. Correspondingly, the growth of mucolytic bacteria and C. perfringens as well as alpha toxin production was greatest in EAM/CP-infected birds. The ionophore narasin, which directly eliminates coccidia, reduced goblet cell theca size, IL-10 and IFN-gamma expression, the growth of mucolytic bacteria including C. perfringens, coccidial and NE lesions and mortality in birds that were co-infected with coccidia and C. perfringens. Collectively the data support the hypothesis that coccidial infection induces a host mucogenic response providing a growth advantage to C. perfringens, the causative agent of NE. PMID:18068809
Collier, C T; Hofacre, C L; Payne, A M; Anderson, D B; Kaiser, P; Mackie, R I; Gaskins, H R
Apicomplexan parasites generally invade their host cells by anchoring the parasite to the host membrane through a structure called the moving junction (MJ). This moving junction is also believed to sieve host proteins from the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane, which likely protects the pathogen from lysosomal destruction. Previously identified constituents of the Toxoplasma MJ have orthologues in Plasmodium, indicating a conserved structure throughout the Apicomplexa. We report here two novel MJ proteins, RON5 and RON8. While RON5 is conserved in Plasmodium, RON8 appears restricted to the coccidia. RON8, which is likely essential, coimmunoprecipitates RON5 and known MJ proteins from extracellular parasites, indicating a preformed complex exists within the parasites. Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the host plasma membrane. To examine interactions between RON8 and the host cell, we expressed RON8 in mammalian cells and show that it targets to its site of action at the periphery in a manner dependent on the C-terminal portion of the protein. The discovery of RON5 and RON8 provides new insight into conserved and unique elements of the MJ, furthering our understanding of how the moving junction contributes to the intricate mechanism of Apicomplexan invasion.
Straub, Kurtis W.; Cheng, Stephen J.; Sohn, Catherine S.; Bradley, Peter J.
A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)<0.10). Ked count appeared to have very low h(2) in both lambs and adults. Genome scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. PMID:17067607
Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M
The prevalence of coccidia infection in goats was evaluated in Western Pomerania (Poland) and West Ukraine Province. A total number of 311 goats were examined: 173 from Western Pomerania, including 139 kids (up to 6 month old), and 138 from the Lviv region including 93 juveniles. The study was based on two flotation methods, which helped to establish the number of oocysts in 1g of feces (OPG): Willis-Schlaaf for qualitative and McMaster for quantitative analysis. The species composition was established using Coudert's (Coudert 1992) and Eckert's (Eckert et al.,1995) keys. Nine Eimeria spp. were identified in feces samples in Western Pomerania and Lviv regions: E. arloingi, E. chrisienseni, E. jolchijevi, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. capina, E. caprovina, E. hirci, E. apsheronica. The prevalence of infection in Western Pomerania of adult goats was 74% with an intensity of 0-2500 OPG. The rate of infection in kids was 100% and the intensity ranged from 1800 to 28000 OPG. In West Ukraine Province, 100% of the adult goats and kids were infected. The coccidian intensity of infection ranged from 2600 to 120000 OPG in kids, from 50 to 4500 OPG in adults. Clinical conditions can influence the intensity of oocysts excretion in the feces of animals. In Western Pomerania the highest intensity of excretion of oocysts was during May-July and the lowest during November-January. In West Ukraine Province the peak of oocysts excretion was in May-July and the lowest in October-December. The results of the present investigation have implications for the control of coccidial infections in goats in Europe. PMID:23444800
Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Ramisz, Alojzy; Vovk, Stach; Snitynskyj, Volodymir
Coprological examination of 71 samples from a breeding colony of veiled chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril et Duméril, 1851, revealed a presence of two species of coccidia. In 100% of the samples examined, oocysts of Isospora jaracimrmani Modrý et Koudela, 1995 were detected. A new coccidian species, Choleoeimeria hirbayah sp. n., was discovered in 32.4% of samples from the colony. Its
Michal Sloboda; David Modrý
In our laboratory, preliminary studies have indicated that recombinant bovine somatotropin® (rbST) can stimulate protective immunity against coc- cidia infection. A floor pen trial on coccidia-seeded litter was run to further test its activity as an adjuvant during immunization of chicks with a live oocyst vaccine. Five hundred day-old male broiler strain chicks were ran- domly assigned to five experimental
PATRICIA C. ALLEN; HARRY D. DANFORTH
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.
Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.; Harris, David; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Konen-Waisman, Stephanie; Latham, Sophia M.; Mourier, Tobias; Norton, Rebecca; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Sohal, Amandeep; Wasmuth, James D.; Brunk, Brian; Grigg, Michael E.; Howard, Jonathan C.; Parkinson, John; Roos, David S.; Trees, Alexander J.; Berriman, Matthew; Pain, Arnab; Wastling, Jonathan M.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a simple, efficient, and rapid method for the isolation of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites and Besnoitia darlingi tachyzoites from cultured cells. The efficacy of this purification method was assessed by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, immuno-fluorescence, and three novel quantitative PCR assays. Culture medium containing host cell debris and parasites was eluted through PD-10 desalting columns. This purification method was compared to alternatives employing filtration through a cellulose filter pad or filter paper. The estimated recovery of S. neurona merozoites purified by the column method was 82% (+/-3.7) of the original merozoites with 97.5% purity. In contrast, estimated recovery of S. neurona merozoites purified by filter pad and filter paper was 40% and 30% with 76% and 83% purity, respectively. The same procedures were applied to purify B. darlingi tachyzoites from cultured cells. Of the original cultured B. darlingi tachyzoites, 94% (+/-2.5) were recovered from the PD-10 column with 96.5%, purity whereas percentage recovery of B. darlingi tachyzoites purified by filter pad and filter paper were 51% and 35% with 84% and 88% purity, respectively. All described methods maintained sterility so that purified parasites could be subsequently cultured in vitro. However, purification using a PD-10 column minimized parasite loss and the loss of viability as determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, the rate of parasite production, and plaque forming efficiency in cell culture. Moreover, column-purified parasites improved the sensitivity of an immuno-fluorescent (IFA) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR assays targeted to parasite 18S ribosomal DNA and hsp70 genes. This technique appears generally applicable for purifying coccidia grown in cell cultures. PMID:16280197
Elsheikha, H M; Rosenthal, B M; Murphy, A J; Dunams, D B; Neelis, D A; Mansfield, L S
In February 1993, fresh fecal samples were collected from 47 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) killed by hunters at the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area, southern Texas, USA. Five species of coccidia (Eimeria chaparralensis n. sp. [9/47, 19%], Eimeria dicotylensis n. sp. [21/47, 21%], Eimeria pecari n. sp. [2/47, 4%], Eimeria sp. [1/47, 2%], and Klossia sp. [1/47, 2%]) were observed. Measurements are in micron. Sporulated oocysts of E. chaparralensis are rough-walled, elongate ovoidal, 43.3 x 28.5 (37-52 x 26-35); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 21.8 x 9.0 (16-27 x 7-12); micropyle (approximately 4.9), Stieda, and substieda body are present; sporocyst residuum is present in newly sporulated oocysts; polar granule and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporulated oocysts of E. dicotylensis are smooth-walled, ovoidal, 25.7 x 20.1 (23-29 x 17-23); sporocysts are ellipsoidal 13.0 x 6.9 (11-17 x 6-9); micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent; polar body sometimes present; Stieda body and sporocyst residuum always present. Sporulated oocysts of E. pecari are smooth-walled, elongate ellipsoidal, 26.8 x 18.1 (22-31 x 15-21); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 16.4 x 5.9 (13-22 x 4-7); micropyle (approximately 5.8) with collar, Stieda body, substieda body, and sporocyst residuum are present; polar granule and small oocyst residuum sometimes present. There were no sex or age differences in prevalences of infection, and there were no positive or negative associations between any species of eimerian. The majority of hosts were infected with a single species of Eimeria. Overall prevalence of infection with eimerians was 23/47 (49%). PMID:8691371
Wilber, P G; Hellgren, E C; Gabor, T M
In our laboratory, preliminary studies have indicated that recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) can stimulate protective immunity against coccidia infection. A floor pen trial on coccidia-seeded litter was run to further test its activity as an adjuvant during immunization of chicks with a live oocyst vaccine. Five hundred day-old male broiler strain chicks were randomly assigned to five experimental Treatments: 1, medicated controls; 2, unimmunized, not treated with rbST; 3, unimmunized, rbST-treated; 4, immunized, not treated with rbST; 5, immunized, rbST-treated. Each treatment consisted of four pens of 25 chicks each. At the end of the growout period (7 wk), the chicks in Treatment 1 (medicated controls) had the highest mean BW, but mean BW of chickens in Treatment 3 (rbST treatment only) were not significantly less. On the other hand, the mean weights of chicks in Treatments 4 (immunized only) and 5 (immunized plus rbST) were significantly reduced, and not different from those of the untreated chickens (Treatment 2). However, when challenged at 3 wk, the chicks in Treatment 5 had a mean combined total lesion score that was significantly lower than that from Treatment 3, indicating that they had developed a higher degree of specific immunity, but of the expense of weight gain. The results suggest that rbST has a potential for use as an adjuvant with live oocyst vaccination, but that the ratio between rbST dose and numbers of oocysts in the live vaccine needs to be carefully controlled. PMID:9316109
Allen, P C; Danforth, H D
Six new species of coccidia are described from endangered Phelsuma spp. geckoes (Sauria: Gekkonidae) endemic to Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Five new species (3 Eimeria and 2 Isospora species) are described from Phelsuma rosagularis Vinson et Vinson; all lack a micropyle and an oocyst residuum, and all have a sporocyst residuum. Oocysts of Eimeria swinnertonae sp. n. are ellipsoidal, 22.2 x 17.8 (20.8-24.8 x 16.8-18.4) microm; SI 1.25; polar granule absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.8 x 7.0 (8.0-9.6 x 6.4-8.0) microm; SI 1.3; Stieda body absent. Oocysts of Eimeria stebbinsi sp. n. are ellipsoidal, 17.4 x 11.7 (16.0-19.2 x 11.2-12.8) microm; SI 1.5; polar granules present. Sporocysts are elongate-ellipsoidal, 7.7 x 4.0 (7.2-8.0 x 3.2-5.6) microm; SI 1.9; Stieda body present. Oocysts of Eimeria raleighi sp. n. are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 17.0 x 15.5 (16.0-19.2 x 14.4-16.8) microm; SI 1.1; polar granule present. Sporocysts are sub-spheroidal, 7.8 x 6.6 (7.2-8.0 x 6.4-7.2) microm; SI 1.2; Stieda body absent. Oocysts of Isospora cottinghamae sp. n. are ellipsoidal, 19.8 x 15.5 (17.6-21.6 x 14.4-17.6) microm; SI 1.3; polar granules present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.8 x 6.9 (9.6-12.8 x 6.4-8.0) microm; SI 1.6; Stieda body present. Oocysts of Isosporapearlae sp. n. are ellipsoidal, 16.0 x 11.5 (15.2-17.6 x 9.6-12.8) microm; SI 1.4; polar granule present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.8 x 5.4 (8.0-9.6 x 4.8-6.4) microm; SI 1.6; Stieda and substieda bodies present. One new Eimeria species is described from the blue-tailed day gecko, Phelsuma cepediana Merrem. Oocysts of Eimeria hartleyi sp. n. are sub-spheroidal to ellipsoidal, 18.2 x 14.5 (16.0-20.8 x 13.6-16.0) microm; SI 1.26; polar granules present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 7.5 x 5.3 (6.4-8.0 x 4.8-6.4) microm; SI 1.4; Stieda body present. We report the presence of tetrazoic spheroidal to sub-spheroidal oocysts or sporocysts 10.2 x 8.5 (9.9-10.4 x 8.3-8.8) microm; SI 1.2 from an individual of P. cepediana. These oocysts or sporocysts are significantly larger than the Cryptosporidium species so far described from reptiles, and likely represent excretion of spuriously ingested sporocysts of a Sarcocystis or Adelina coccidian. PMID:20128235
Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Jones, Carl G; Streicker, Daniel G; Snow, Keith R
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals, which before 1984 was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Infection by this parasite is a major cause of abortion in cattle and causes paralysis in dogs. Since the original description of N. caninum in 1988, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of its life cycle, biology, genetics and diagnosis. In this
J. P Dubey; B. C Barr; J. R Barta; I Bjerkås; C Björkman; B. L Blagburn; D. D Bowman; D Buxton; J. T Ellis; B Gottstein; A Hemphill; D. E Hill; D. K Howe; M. C Jenkins; Y Kobayashi; B Koudela; A. E Marsh; J. G Mattsson; M. M McAllister; D Modrý; Y Omata; L. D Sibley; C. A Speer; A. J Trees; A Uggla; S. J Upton; D. J. L Williams; D. S Lindsay
Over a 4-year period, we analyzed 128 fecal samples from free-living elk (Alces alces L., 1758) to determine the prevalence of Eimeria infections and identify the species present. Two eimerian species were isolated including Eimeria alces and a morphotype resembling Eimeria catubrina. Overall, two samples from 128 samples collected were positive for Eimeria (prevalence?=?1.6 %), and the oocyst per gram, estimated with the use of the conventional McMaster quantitative technique, ranged from 50 to 100. Also, E. alces has been found in Lithuania and Belarus and is the only known species of eimerian to infect elk. E. catubrina is a parasite typically infecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L., 1758). This is the first report of Eimeria spp. in elk in Poland. Results of our investigation indicate that elk may become infected with an eimerian species that is typical for roe deer, but this requires further investigation. PMID:23274490
Pyziel, Anna M; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W
The following heteroxenous and cyst-forming coccidian genera, Besnoitia, Cystoisospora, Frenkelia, Hammondia, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma have been compared biologically, and a key to determine their tissue cysts is provided.
J. K. Frenkel; D. D. Smith
The apicoplast is a recently discovered, plastid-like organelle present in most apicomplexa. The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis is one of the metabolic pathways associated with the apicoplast, and is a new promising therapeutic target in Plasmodium falciparum. Here, we check the presence of isoprenoid genes in four coccidian parasites according to genome database searches. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis, which have no plastid genome, lack the MEP pathway. In contrast, gene expression studies suggest that this metabolic pathway is present in several development stages of Eimeria tenella and in tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. We studied the potential of fosmidomycin, an antimalarial drug blocking the MEP pathway, to inhibit E. tenella and T. gondii growth in vitro. The drug was poorly effective even at high concentrations. Thus, both fosmidomycin sensitivity and isoprenoid metabolism differs substantially between apicomplexan species. PMID:17399705
Clastre, Marc; Goubard, Armelle; Prel, Anne; Mincheva, Zoia; Viaud-Massuart, Marie-Claude; Bout, Daniel; Rideau, Marc; Velge-Roussel, Florence; Laurent, Fabrice
Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...
The oocysts of coccidian of the genus Eimeria were sought in the caecal contents of 46 Lepus granatensis and 18 L. europaeus captured in France. Parasites were found in 34 of the hares. Parasite load was mainly very low. However, species diversity was considerable. 21 species or subspecies were identified, of which 13 species and two subspecies were not previously described. Three of the taxa, E. robertsoni, E. semisculpta and E. townsendi, previously identified on numerous occasions in western Europe and, corresponding to forms or variants created before 1960 that have been subsequently elevated to a specific level, appear to be invalid. Indeed, the parasite descriptions from the material used to effect this modification do not correspond to the original descriptions. A stable equilibrium, as generally observed in the case of many congeneric species co-infection of the same host, was not observed in the hares. This has been attributed to the solitary habits of the host and of the probable polyphyletic nature of the genus Eimeria. Paleontological data for the Leporidae indicate that rabbit parasites are derived from those of the hare. PMID:15991826
Aoutil, N; Bertani, S; Bordes, F; Snounou, G; Chabaud, A; Landau, I
This study tested the hypothesis that a host mucogenic response to an intestinal coccidial infection promotes the onset of necrotic enteritis (NE). A chick NE model was used in which birds were inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima and subsequently with Clostridium perfringens (EAM\\/CP). A second group of EAM\\/CP-infected birds was treated with the ionophore narasin (NAR\\/EAM\\/CP). These groups
C. T. Collier; C. L. Hofacre; A. M. Payne; D. B. Anderson; P. Kaiser; R. I. Mackie; H. R. Gaskins
The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus) concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.
Wiedmer, Stefanie; Entzeroth, Rolf
Coprological examination of 19 Madagascan chameleons of the genera Furcifer and Brookesia revealed the presence of five new coccidian species. Isospora brygooi n. sp. from Furcifer pardalis has spherical to subspherical oöcysts with a slightly pitted wall, 20.7 (17-24.5) x 19.3 (16-23) microm and broadly ellipsoidal sporocysts, 12.2 (11.5-13) x 8.1 (8-8.5) microm, with Stieda and substieda bodies. Oöcysts of Eimeria glawi n. sp. from Furcifer pardalis are cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 27.7 (26-29.5) x 18.4 (17-19) microm, with ellipsoidal sporocysts, 7.3 (6.5-8) x 5.2 (5-5.5) microm. E. vencesi n. sp. described from F. pardalis has spherical to subspherical oöcysts, 14.3 (13-15.5) x 13.0 (12-13) microm, with small granules, one to three globular polar granules and ellipsoidal sporocysts, 7.3 (6.5-8) x 5.2 (5-5.5) microm. E. worthi n. sp., described from Furcifer oustaleti has spherical oöcysts, 17.9 (17.5-19.0) x 15.0 (14.5-16.0) microm without a polar granule and ellipsoidal to cylindroidal sporocysts, 8.2 (7.0-9.5) x 5.8 (5.0-6.5) microm. Oöcysts of E. brookesiae n. sp. from Brookesia decaryi are cylindrical, 25.6 (23-27) x 15.0 (13-16) microm with ellipsoidal sporocysts, 10.1 (9-11) x 6.9 (6-7) microm. Endogenous development of E. vencesi is confined to the intestine, while that of E. glawi occurs in the gall-bladder. PMID:11252274
Modrý, D; Daszak, P; Volf, J; Veselý, M; Ball, S J; Koudela, B
Coprological examination of 19 Madagascan chameleons of the genera Furcifer and Brookesia revealed the presence of five new coccidian species. Isospora brygooi n. sp. from Furcifer pardalis has spherical to subspherical oöcysts with a slightly pitted wall, 20.7 (17–24.5) × 19.3 (16–23) m and broadly ellipsoidal sporocysts, 12.2 (11.5–13) × 8.1 (8–8.5) m, with Stieda and substieda bodies. Oöcysts of Eimeria glawi
David Modrý; Peter Daszak; Ji?í Volf; Milan Veselý; Stanley J. Ball; B?etislav Koudela
The inflammatory response to parasites is mediated by multiple host factors. In this report, we present molecular and functional characterizations of a novel immune mediator whose gene expression increased following infection with Eimeria. NK-lysin is an anti-microbial and anti-tumor protein expre...
A total of 520 monkeys belonging to 6 species (Macaca mullata, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Cercopithecus aethiops, Papio anubis, and P. hamadrias) were investigated. Total frequency of occurrence of the protozoan Cryptosporidium in the Adler apery constituted 13.8%. The majority of parasites were found in animals with intestinal disorders such as diarrhea. The lowest frequency of cryptosporidias occurrence was revealed in clinically healthy monkeys. Among sick monkeys, the invasion was most common in infants under one year of age. Cryptosporidiosis is rarely found just as it is, and, as a rule, it accompanied by other parasitogenic and bacterial infections. PMID:23875203
Egorova, T P; Kebu, T I; Sultanova, O A
Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi have lethal pathogenicity to a number of species of cranes. These parasites develop at multiple organs or tissues in infected cranes, thus lacking the specificity of infection sites shown by other Eimeria spp. in spite of morphologic similarity. To date, there have been many reports of crane Eimeria infections, however, genetic examinations of these parasites
Makoto Matsubayashi; Kazutoshi Takami; Niichiro Abe; Isao Kimata; Hiroyuki Tani; Kazumi Sasai; Eiichiroh Baba
Protein samples prepared from sporozoites of two ionophore-sensitive strains (WIS and Penn St) and three resistant strains (FS139, FS459, and FS462) ofEimeria tenella were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native PAGE), or two-dimensional electrophoresis with native PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Variant proteins that might be associated with ionophore resistance were observed in resistant field
Guan Zhu; Larry R. McDougald
Six new coccidian species are described from marine fish collected on the French Mediterranean coast near Banyuls-sur-Mer and on the coast of Newfoundland. All have sporocysts with well-developed Stieda bodies and are placed into the genusEimeria: E. catalana sp. nova from the intestine ofCrenilabrus mediterraneus, E. hexagona sp. nova from the digestive tract ofOnos tricirratus, E. ivanae sp. nova from
Ji?í Lom; Iva Dykovfi
A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole
Dario Beraldi; Allan F. McRae; Jacob Gratten; Jill G. Pilkington; Jon Slate; Peter M. Visscher; Josephine M. Pemberton
The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with one ...
Across the Pacific the invading gecko species Hemidactylus frenatus has competitively displaced the resident gecko species Lepidodactylus lugubris in urban\\/surburban habitats. Do parasites enhance, inhibit, orhave no effect on this invasion? Parasites can confer an advantage to an invading species when the invader (1) introduces a new parasite to a resident species that has a greater detrimental effect on the
K. A. Hanley; D. M. Vollmer; T. J. Case
SUMMARY Coccidiosis control may become a greater problem as the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (GPA) and ionophores declines. Vaccination with live oocysts may turn into a popular alternative to the use of coccidiostats in broilers, although cocci vaccination is frequently linked to temporary lower performance in young flocks. This experiment evaluates the dietary supplementation of 2 specific essential oil (EO)
E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; S. Clemente-Hernandez; P. Williams; R. Losa
Progress in transfection of Eimeria sporozoites leads to transformed oocysts, however the output of mutants after passages in the host animals is low. Further enrichment of transgenic oocysts was dependent on fluorescent activated cell sorting and could not be achieved by drug selection. In this study, we fused the Toxoplasma gondii DHFR-TSm2m3 pyrimethamine resistance gene with the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) encoding sequence to provide continuous pyrimethamine resistance and fluorescence in the Eimeria parasite from a single transcript. The permanent YFP signal of transgenic parasites allows differentiating transgenic parasites from wild type parasites throughout the entire life cycle. The output of transformed oocysts increased up to more than 30% after initial transfection and completion of the life cycle in the host animal. Within three passages under pyrimethamine treatment, a strain with 100% transformed sporulated oocysts of the parasite could be isolated. This new method provides the potential to produce and monitor transgenic Eimeria strains without additional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The chimeric fluorescent reporter can be utilized as a continuous internal control for plasmids containing stage specific promoter. By this means we utilized an Eimeria tenella gamogony gene specific regulatory sequence to confer macrogamont specific tandem dimer tomato (tdtomato) reporter gene expression in Eimeria nieschulzi. PMID:22449589
Hanig, Sacha; Entzeroth, Rolf; Kurth, Michael
All 560 individuals of small rodents belonging to six species of the families Cricetidae and Muridae were trapped in different habitats of various districts in Lithuania in 1995–2001. To determine Frenkelia infection, brain samples were examined. Cysts of Frenkelia were detected in the brain of three vole species only. The average rate of infection in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was
Jadvyga Grikienien?; Reda Mažeikyt?; Linas Bal?iauskas
Coccidia are protozoan parasites responsible for disease worldwide. The orally transmissible stages of coccidia make them food- and waterborne threats. The occurrence of multiple, human-infectious coccidia with diverse life cycles suggests that alterations in host range are a frequent occurrence, and can underlie the rapid emergence of pathogens.
Paul M. Robben; L. David Sibley
Summary \\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Pará State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28°C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 × 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless
Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw
During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccidia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E. minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from
J. P. WIGGINS; M. COSGROVE; H. ROTHENBACHER
Contents: Changes in physiology and size of Ixodidae ticks when feeding repeatedly on the same animals; Specificity of Coccidia of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis and Carps; Methods of studying natural infestation of chiggers by Tsutsuga...
V. A. Musatov V. A. Musselius N. I. Kudryashova E. M. Kheisin V. I. Vashkov
Coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites normally found in the intestinal tract. They belong to phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozoasida, order Eucoccidiorida, and, depending on the species, family Eimeriidae, Cryptosporidiidae, or Sarcocystidae. Coccidian genera that infect cats and dogs are Iso...
Neosporais a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related toToxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in
MICHAEL S. Y. HO; BRADD C. BARR; ANTOINETTE E. MARSH; MARK L. ANDERSON; JOAN D. ROWE; ALICE F. TARANTAL; ANDREW G. HENDRICKX; KAREN SVERLOW; J. P. DUBEY; ANDPATRICIA A. CONRAD
Five breeds of rabbits, which included the New Zealand, Californian, Spot, Rex and Angora rabbit, were found from a survey of 1,152 rabbits in Taiwan. The prevalence of coccidia in young rabbits (weaning-2 months old) was 95% to 100%. Adult female rabbits usually acted as carriers within the farm and transmitted the parasite to young rabbits, which caused severe infection with clinical signs and even death. Parasitism of hepatic coccidia (Eimeria stiedai) in the rabbit led to severe mortality. Numerous and scattered white nodules about 0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter were seen on the liver surface and dark greenish mucoid exudate was found in intestinal lumen. Histopathologic lesions included hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium with different developmental stages of coccidia within. Oocysts could be seen in the lumen, and granuloma tissues encircle the bile duct with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The other organs were not infected. PMID:1815262
Wang, J S; Tsai, S F
Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.
Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.H.; Olsen, G.H.
The Eimeria are ubiquitous Apicoplexan parasites (family: coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and rel...
For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep. PMID:18215336
Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M
SCHELLACK1 in a study of Coccidia from Lithobius and Scolopendra recognized the presence of moie than one type of merozoite in Barrouxia schneideri. He nevertheless concluded they did not represent sexually dimorphic forms. In recent cytochemical investigations cf the same parasite two types of merozoite were recognized, which differed in the amount of carbohydrate reserve stored in the cytoplasm and
Elizabeth U. Canning
Apicompexan protozoa of the genus Eimeria are a common cause of coccidiosis. Following ingestion of infective oocysts, coccidia parasites undergo a complex life cycle ultimately impairing the gastrointestinal tract and resulting in nutrient malabsorption, body weight loss and, in severe cases, deat...
Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study the effect of MS on the viability ...
Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...
Publications on the coccidia of certain invertebrates are reviewed and two new taxonomic-nomenclatural combinations are introduced: Alveocystis macrocoronata (Lüling, 1942) n. comb., in hosts Priapulus caudatus and Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapuloidea); and A. gugleri (Wacha, 1981) n. comb., in Triodopsis albolabris (Mollusca). PMID:4040170
Levine, N D
This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...
This is a review of intestinal coccidiosis in cats and dogs. Coccidia are single celled parasites of mammals and birds.There are many species of coccidian that parasitize dogs and cats, and some of these are zoonotic. These parasites are normally found in intestines and are passed in a resistant st...
Among apicomplexan parasites, the coccidia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important pathogens of livestock and humans and the environmentally resistant stage (oocyst) is essential for their transmission. Little is known of the chemical and molecular composition of the oocyst wall. Currently, the only ...
Toxoplama gondii (Apicomplexa: Coccidia), an obligatory intracellular parasite with a unique capacity to invade virtually all nucleated cell type from warm-blooded vertebrate hosts. Despite the efficiency with which Toxoplasma enters its host cell, it remains unresolved if invasion occurs by direct penetration of the parasite or through phagocytosis. In the present work, electron microscopic study was designed to examine the
Fawzia H. Toulah; Saedia A. Sayed Al-Ahl; Dawlat M. Amin; Mona H. Hamouda
We describe the blood and intestinal parasites in the Ocellated lizard, Lacerta lepida, examining the factors that determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of haemogregarines, and the prevalence of coccidia and nematodes. In relation to haemogregarines, no juveniles were detected as being infected, whereas 71.7 % of adults were infected. The prevalence of infection was positively related to the
L. Amo; J. A. Fargallo; J. Martínez-Padilla; J. Millán; P. López; J. Martín
Neospora caninum, Hammondia sp., and Toxoplasma gondii are parasites with morphological and genetic similarities. N. caninum and T. gondii are important abortive agents of cattle and sheep, respectively, and may infect numerous animal species. Hammondia sp. is not known to induce disease in animals, but may cause confusion in the identification of closely related coccidia.\\u000a The aim of this study
Sara Lima Santos; Kattyanne de Souza Costa; Leane Queiroz Gondim; Mariana Sampaio Anares da Silva; Rosângela Soares Uzêda; Kiyoko Abe-Sandes; Luís Fernando Pita Gondim
Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as
Rodrigo M. Soares; Luiz R. P. B. Cortez; Solange M. Gennari; Michelle K. Sercundes; Lara B. Keid; Hilda F. J. Pena
In preliminary studies with Sarcocvslis from bovine (Bos taurus) and mule deer (Odocoibeus hemionus hiemionus), a coccidia-free laboratorydog (Canis famnihia- ris) and captive coyote (Canis latrans) were fed flesh from a local Sarcocystis- infected bovine and later fed flesh from an infected mule deer from Eastern Oregon. Sporocysts were passed in the feces of both canine hosts 10-15 days after
G. HUDKINS-VIVION; T. P. KISTNER; R. FAYER
Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox. PMID:20299771
Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung
A study was carried out to identify and estimate the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites of village chicken between April and July 2008 in three local councils of Enugu state, Nigeria. A total of 1038 chickens comprising of 468 chicks, 207 growers and 363 adults were examined during the house to house survey for ectoparasites, gastrointestinal helminths and coccidia infections. Our finding showed that 41% were infected with ectoparasites with lice, fleas, and mites having prevalence rates of 62.2%, 35.7% and 2.1%, respectively. Helminths and coccidia had prevalence of 35.5% each. Among the helminths Ascaridia, galli was the most dominant species (17.2%). Generally, there was a significantly higher helminth infestation relative to the ectoparasites (P < .05), high prevalence of mixed infections and absence of tick infestation. Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy.
Nnadi, P. A.; George, S. O.
The study was carried out on material consisting of 3375 rabbits of the White New Zealand breed. The total number of 9 species of coccidia were found, 8 of which were intestinal (E. perforans, E. media, E. magna, E. irresidua, E. coecicola, E. flavescens, E. piriformis oraz E. intestinalis) and E. stiedai inhabiting the liver. Three specirs - E . irresidua, E. coecicola and E. flavescens have been found in Poiand for the first time. Three of four coccidiostats examined i.e. Sacox, Cycostat and Baycox may be used to prevent coccidiosis in rabbit farm. Activity of Vetrocox is less effective and it should not be used in the prevention of coccidia infection. At the age of 90 days the best results were obtained by treatment of Sacox (257 g of increase body weight and 9 per cent lower mortality comparing with the control group), the second test result was after two doses of Baycox and after Cycostat treatment. PMID:16886462
Discharges of blood per rectum, associated with oocysts of coccidia, were observed occurring in young calves during the warmer season of the year. In a small percentage of the cases death was probably due directly to the coccidiosis. Although the disease, known as red dysentery in Switzerland, may have existed in this country for some time, there seems to have been no knowledge of its existence and no reports of it have thus far been published. The coccidia have been artificially cultivated and shown to produce four spores. Two oocysts of quite different dimensions and having minor differential characters were encountered in the same animal in several instances. The invasion of the epithelium of the small intestine was slight. The chief seat of the parasitism was the large intestine. The lesions following the loss of epithelium were superficial hemorrhages and filling up of the denuded tubules with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Smith, Theobald; Graybill, H. W.
To determine the relationship ofNeospora caninum to protozoa classified in the family Sarcocystidae of the phylum Apicomplexa, the genomes ofN. caninum, threeToxoplasma gondii strains (RHa, CEP, TPR) and threeSarcocystis species (S. tenella, S. muris, S. gigantea) that were thought to be closely related coccidia were compared by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The genomic
Zhi-Gang Guo; Alan M. Johnson
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to differentiate among four cyst-forming coccidia of sheep,Sarcocystis tenella,Sarcocystis gigantea,Sarcocystis arieticanis, andToxoplasma gondii. Genomic DNA of the four parasite species was amplified using RAPD-PCR and the DNA fragments were separated on agarose gels. A RAPD-PCR band derived fromS. tenellawas isolated from the gel and subcloned into pUC18. The insert was sequenced and found
A. Joachim; A. M. Tenter; A. C. Jeffries; A. M. Johnson
ABSTRACT Coccidiosis, a disease of great economic importance to the poultry industry, is generally con- trolled prophylactically,by,additions,of anticoccidial drugs to the feed. However, increasing development of drug-resistant coccidia species,has stimulated,searches for alternative control methods, one of which is vaccination. As part of this effort, recombinant bovine growth,hormone,, rbST provided,some,protection,against,challenge,infection with Eimeria tenella but not Eimeria acervulina as judged by reduction,in
Moyers Hatchery; Patricia C. Allen; Harry D. Danforth; Susan A. Gregory; Patricia Comens-keller
The aim the studies was to establish the usefulness of Baycox for control of coccidiosis and ITS influence on production results (efficiency) in lambs. The studies were carried out on 200 lambs, naturally infected with coccidia, divided in 2 groups -control and experimental, 100 animals in each, after separation from ewes selected in respect of sex, type, date of birth and weight. Toltrazuiril (Baycox) was used the first time for control of sheep coccidiosis in Poland. Toltrazuril was applied individual, twice at 110 and 117 day of life in a doses of 20 mg/kg body weight. The extensity and intensity of coccidia infection was ascertained by the Willis-Schlaaf and McMaster methods. The weight gain of lambs was stated once a month on the basis of individual weight. It was established that toltrazuril show a high efficiency against the protozoa of the genus Eimeria and drug could be used for coccidia control in lambs. This preparation is very active against all intracellular stages - schisogony and gamogony and it could be used for treatment of clinical coccidiosis. It was established profitable influence on the weight gain of lambs. PMID:16886461
Abundances of the parasitic nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus, and 8 Eimeria species were estimated by fecal egg and oocyst output in 12 discrete free-ranging populations of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in southwestern Australia. Comparisons of parasite egg and oocyst counts were made between those rabbits known to have survived at least 2 mo after fecal samples were collected and those rabbits that did not survive. There were significant negative relationships between parasite egg and oocyst counts and survival when all age groups and collection periods were pooled for several species of coccidia and for T. retortaeformis. However, when the same comparisons were made within rabbit age groups and within collection periods, there were very few significant differences even where sample sizes were quite large. The differences indicated by the pooled analysis for coccidia were most likely due to an uneven host age distribution with respect to survival, combined with an uneven distribution of the oocyst counts with rabbit age. The result for T. retortaeformis was similarly affected but by a seasonal pattern. Parasitism by nematodes and coccidia did not appear to be an important mortality factor in these rabbit populations, at least at the range of host densities we examined. This suggests that other factors must have been responsible for the observed pattern of density-dependent regulation in these rabbits. PMID:10577713
Hobbs, R P; Twigg, L E; Elliot, A D; Wheeler, A G
The effects of coccidiosis on reproductive development of male Japanese quail were examined. Male Japanese quail were exposed to high (5 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts/quail) or low (5 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts/quail) doses of Eimeria uzura at 16 or 30 days of age and sampled at 37 days. Quail given high doses of coccidia had reduced testes weight and lowered circulating concentrations of androgen compared with control males. Low doses of coccidia did not affect testes weight but did result in elevated plasma androgen levels. There were no differences in average testes weights by 51 days; however, plasma androgen was still reduced in most groups. To study the effects of coccidiosis on egg production, males exposed to high doses of coccidia at 16 (16H) or 30 (30H) days of age were mated with control females, and control males were mated with control or 16H females. The onset of laying was delayed for 5 days in the control male: 16H female group. During the first week of production, eggs from females bred to 30H males had lower fertility and hatchability than those bred to control or 16H males. By the third week of production, levels of fertility were similar. Apparently, exposure of quails to coccidiosis before sexual maturation might result in long-term effects on later reproductive capability. PMID:3382378
Ruff, M D; Abdel Nabi, M A; Clarke, R N; Mobarak, M; Ottinger, M A
Members of the Curcuma plant species (Zingiberaceae) have been used for centuries in cooking, cosmetics, staining and in traditional medicine as "omnipotent" remedies. Herbal preparations made with, and molecules extracted from, Curcuma have been shown to possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties against malignant proliferation, hormonal disorders, inflammation, and parasitosis among other conditions. This review evaluates Curcuma and its associated bioactive compounds, particularly focusing on studies examining the parasiticidal activity of these components against the tropical parasites Plasmodium, leishmania, Trypanosoma, Schistosoma and more generally against other cosmopolitan parasites (nematodes, Babesia, Candida, Giardia, Coccidia and Sarcoptes). PMID:21104602
Haddad, Mohamed; Sauvain, Michel; Deharo, Eric
Eight species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are reported from Panamanian lizards. –Eimeria randolphi n. sp. is a biliary parasite of –Gymnopthalmus speciosus (Gymnopthalmidae) with cylindrical oöcysts, 29.1 × 16.8 m (25.0–31.5 × 15.0–18.5), an oöcyst length\\/width index (shape-index, SI) of 1.73 (1.46–2.07) and no polar granule or oöcyst residuum. Ovoidal sporocysts are 9.5 × 7.8 m (9.0–10.5 × 7.0–8.5), with
Sam R. Telford
The study was carried out in a flock consisting of 110 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci. Eighty-one percent of adults and 100% of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per gram of feces in kids ranged form 1200 to 202000. Clinical symptoms in about 50% of kids were observed. Toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer), 20 mg/kg of body weight was highly efficacious in therapy of goat coccidiosis. PMID:10206107
During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccictia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E.minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from 5 helminth species were found: Cittotaenia sp., Hastilesia tricolor, Passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type nematode species, and Trichuris sp. Five helminths were recovered from stomachs and small intestines: Cittotaenia sp. H. tricolor, Obeliscoides cuniculi,, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus. PMID:7463607
Wiggins, J P; Cosgrove, M; Rothenbacher, H
Standardized flotation techniques were used to survey 56 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) fecal samples for parasites. The samples were collected during the spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996 in the central Arctic of the Northwest Territories (Canada). Parasites of the genera Nematodirus, gastrointestinal coccidia, and an unidentified first stage protostrongylid larva are reported for the first time from grizzly bear feces in North America. Parasites of the genera Diphyllobothrium and Baylisascaris also were collected. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites were significantly different between the spring and autumn seasons (31% and 58% respectively). Thus, we provide evidence supporting the theory that bears void gastrointestinal parasites before hibernation. PMID:10479104
Gau, R J; Kutz, S; Elkin, B T
The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. PMID:23498588
Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino
In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.
Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme
Coccidiosis, a disease of great economic importance to the poultry industry, is generally controlled prophylactically by additions of anticoccidial drugs to the feed. However, increasing development of drug-resistant coccidia species has stimulated searches for alternative control methods, one of which is vaccination. As part of this effort, recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbST) was tested as a possible immune stimulator in combination with live oocyst vaccination. At a dose of 0.045 mg per chick, given by s.c. injection at 1 d of age, rbST did not improve immunity developed by immunization with 500 or 2,500 oocysts of Eimeria maxima as judged by weight gain and lesion scores. At a single dose of 0.09 mg per chick given at 1 d of age in combination with IMMUCOX, rbST provided some protection against challenge infection with Eimeria tenella but not Eimeria acervulina as judged by reduction in lesion scores. Treatment with 0.09 mg rbST per chick alone at 1 and 3 d of age was protective against challenge with E. tenella but not E. acervulina or E. maxima as judged by reduction in lesion scores. These results strongly indicate that rbST can act as an immune modulator in chickens infected with coccidia, and provide a basis for further investigations of its use as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:9251145
Allen, P C; Danforth, H D; Gregory, S A; Comens-Keller, P
The degree of host specificity, its phylogenetic conservativeness and origin are virtually unknown in Eimeria. This situation is largely due to the inadequate sample of eimerian molecular data available for reliable phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we extend the data set by adding 71 new sequences of coccidia infecting 16 small-mammal genera, mostly rodents. According to the respective feasibility of PCR gene amplification, the new samples are represented by one or more of the following genes: nuclear 18S rRNA, plastid ORF 470, and mitochondrial COI. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences confirm the previous hypothesis that Eimeria, in its current morphology-based delimitation, is not a monophyletic group. Several samples of coccidia corresponding morphologically to other genera are scattered among the Eimeria lineages. More importantly, the distribution of eimerians from different hosts indicates that the clustering of eimerian species is influenced by their host specificity, but does not arise from a cophylogenetic/cospeciation process; while several clusters are specific to a particular host group, inner topologies within these clusters do not reflect host phylogeny. This observation suggests that the host specificity of Eimeria is caused by adaptive rather than cophylogenetic processes.
Kvicerova, Jana; Hypsa, Vaclav
The Eimeria are ubiquitous parasites (Phylum: Apicomplexa; family: Coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and relationship to other kinds of coccidia have been successfully explored by molecular systematic studies based on the sequencing the 18S ribosomal DNA. To date, most attention has been paid to the diversity and evolutionary relationships of Eimeria spp. parasitizing terrestrial vertebrates, most especially those species infecting domesticated birds and mammals. Regrettably, no Eimeria have yet been considered from the Earth's first vertebrates: the fish. If Eimeria first evolved in fish, then extant piscine parasites should comprise a deeply branching assemblage at the base of well-constructed phylogenetic trees. Here, we sequenced portions of ribosomal DNA from several such isolates (from Eimeria anguillae, Eimeria daviesae, Eimeria percae, Eimeria variabilis, Eimeria rutili and Eimeria nemethi) and compared them to one another as well as to other available sequences from the parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates, in order to better understand their diversity and origins. By establishing that such piscine parasites comprise a deeply branching clade at the base of the Eimeriidae, these data substantiate the hypothesis that Eimeria may have originated in fish. Plainly, a great deal of coccidian diversity awaits future discovery and description. PMID:22824419
Molnár, Kálmán; Ostoros, Györgyi; Dunams-Morel, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M
Coccidia were identified in intestinal sections from 82 piglets comprising 37 consignments from 34 farms, and represented a yearly increasing incidence in the three years 1978 to 1980. Piglets were primarily from medium to large farms with intensive, continuous-farrowing, confinement-rearing programs. Piglets, usually five days to 15 days old, had yellow, fluid diarrhea, became unthrifty and sometimes died. In six piglets from two farms, a green, adherent, fibrinonecrotic membrane was seen throughout most of the jejunum and ileum. Significant gross lesions were not observed in the other 76 piglets. Moderate to severe villous atrophy of jejunum and ileum was seen histologically. Various asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were seen within parasitophorous vacuoles of villar epithelial cells. Multifocal erosions with necrosis of villar tips and occasionally more diffuse mucosal necrosis with fibrinocellular exudate were seen. Isospora suis oocysts were identified in feces from several weaners from one farm. Amprolium and decoquinate mixed in the sow ration at 1 kg/tonne for three weeks prior to and postfarrowing was moderately successful in stopping outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea associated with coccidiosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.
Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.
Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915
Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan
Fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (Grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (Grus americana), were studied. Eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC). The remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria reichenowi and/or E. gruis; five chicks served as controls. There were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. Necropsy of naturally infected adult birds revealed nodules in many organs, including the lung, air sacs, trachea and nares. Artificially infected sandhill cranes and the whooping crane chicks that died from DVC had congestion and consolidated areas in the lung with frothy fluid in the airways. Grossly visible nodules were observed from 10 days postinoculation. Granulomatous pneumonia and tracheitis were observed with light microscopy. Lesions were associated with merogonic and gametogonic stages of eimerian coccidia. Granulomas and granulomatous foci contained parasitized large mononuclear cells. Merogonic stages were seen in lymphoid cells by ultrastructural examination. Oocysts were observed in the trachea and bronchial mucosa and admixed with exudate in the airways, indicating that crane eimerians can complete their life cycle at these sites. Of the few eimeriid coccidia that have extraintestinal stages of development in birds and mammals, only the species in cranes complete their life cycle in both the digestive and respiratory tracts.
Novilla, M.N.; Carpenter, J.W.; Jeffers, T.K.; White, S.L.
Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses. PMID:8727903
Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A
Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses.
Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A
Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at P<0.05?0.01 (250 spots), P<0.01?0.001 (248 spots), and P<0.001 (314 spots) were excised and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified in 172 spots. A total of 46 different proteins were identified. Of the spots with a corresponding protein identification, 57 showed a main effect of coccidia infection and/or 2-way interaction of coccidia infection×broiler genetic line at P<0.001. Conclusions/Significance Several of the metabolic enzymes identified in this study are potential candidates for early diagnostic markers of E. acervulina infection including malate dehydrogenase 2, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 9, and an ATP synthase. These proteins were detected only in Line A birds that were inoculated with E. acervulina. Results from this study provide a basic framework for future research aimed at uncovering the complex biochemical mechanisms involved in host response to Eimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods.
Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.
Abstract :? Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 ?m (range 35-42 by 26-31 ?m). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (<1%) were Caryospora-like and contained 1 sporocyst with 8 sporozoites. Two experiments using a total of 11 female 6-wk-old beagles were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of oral infection with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of this isolate of C. canis. Five of the 11 dogs had natural infections with Cystoisospora ohioensis-like (n = 4) or C. canis (n = 1) species prior to the predicted patent period of 9-10 days. Ten of the dogs developed diarrhea with occasional blood, and 3 dogs were affected to the extent that clinical treatment for coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis. PMID:23517349
Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S
To evaluate the relative importance of the various enteropathogens causing neonatal diarrhea in Quebec farrowing operations, observations were made on 749 diarrheic pigs from 325 outbreaks of diarrhea. They were one to 15 days of age, and were obtained alive for necropsy generally within 48 hours of the onset of diarrhea. Some pigs were from severe, explosive outbreaks of diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality rates, while others were from herds with chronic neonatal diarrhea with lower morbidity and mortality rates. A combination of bacteriological, virological and histological methods were used to study the pigs. Viruses were incriminated in 60%, bacteria in 23% and coccidia in 15.3% of the 325 diarrhea outbreaks. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was by far the most common enteropathogen with a prevalence of 52%; rotavirus was implicated in 9.2% of the outbreaks while adenovirus was incriminated in 0.30% of the outbreaks. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were involved in 22.4% of the cases while Clostridium perfringens type C was an occasional finding. Coccidia involved in our herds were identified as Isospora suis. The disease was attributed to infection with a single etiologic agent in 590 diarrheic pigs (78%) while combinations of agents were present in only 90 (12%). The age-specific occurrence of the various enteropathogens was evaluated. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was the most common enteropathogen in all age groups. Colibacillosis was common in pigs which became diarrheic under five days of age; in this age group, the enterotoxigenic E. coli were frequently found alone, but were usually combined with other agents in older pigs. The prevalence of coccidia was high in pigs which became diarrheic between five and 15 days of age. Rotavirus infection was common in diarrheic pigs older than ten days of age. Although individual baby pigs were commonly infected with a single enteropathogen, it was very common to see more than one agent involved in an outbreak of diarrhea, particularly when pigs of different ages were affected. Observations on the occurrence of the enteropathogens according to the seasons were also made. Occurrence of transmissible gastroenteritis was throughout the year with the highest prevalence during the fall, winter and spring months. Colibacillosis and coccidiosis were more common in the summer, fall and early winter months with the lowest prevalence in the spring months. PMID:6299483
Morin, M; Turgeon, D; Jolette, J; Robinson, Y; Phaneuf, J B; Sauvageau, R; Beauregard, M; Teuscher, E; Higgins, R; Larivière, S
To evaluate the relative importance of the various enteropathogens causing neonatal diarrhea in Quebec farrowing operations, observations were made on 749 diarrheic pigs from 325 outbreaks of diarrhea. They were one to 15 days of age, and were obtained alive for necropsy generally within 48 hours of the onset of diarrhea. Some pigs were from severe, explosive outbreaks of diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality rates, while others were from herds with chronic neonatal diarrhea with lower morbidity and mortality rates. A combination of bacteriological, virological and histological methods were used to study the pigs. Viruses were incriminated in 60%, bacteria in 23% and coccidia in 15.3% of the 325 diarrhea outbreaks. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was by far the most common enteropathogen with a prevalence of 52%; rotavirus was implicated in 9.2% of the outbreaks while adenovirus was incriminated in 0.30% of the outbreaks. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were involved in 22.4% of the cases while Clostridium perfringens type C was an occasional finding. Coccidia involved in our herds were identified as Isospora suis. The disease was attributed to infection with a single etiologic agent in 590 diarrheic pigs (78%) while combinations of agents were present in only 90 (12%). The age-specific occurrence of the various enteropathogens was evaluated. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus was the most common enteropathogen in all age groups. Colibacillosis was common in pigs which became diarrheic under five days of age; in this age group, the enterotoxigenic E. coli were frequently found alone, but were usually combined with other agents in older pigs. The prevalence of coccidia was high in pigs which became diarrheic between five and 15 days of age. Rotavirus infection was common in diarrheic pigs older than ten days of age. Although individual baby pigs were commonly infected with a single enteropathogen, it was very common to see more than one agent involved in an outbreak of diarrhea, particularly when pigs of different ages were affected. Observations on the occurrence of the enteropathogens according to the seasons were also made. Occurrence of transmissible gastroenteritis was throughout the year with the highest prevalence during the fall, winter and spring months. Colibacillosis and coccidiosis were more common in the summer, fall and early winter months with the lowest prevalence in the spring months.
Morin, M.; Turgeon, D.; Jolette, J.; Robinson, Y.; Phaneuf, J.B.; Sauvageau, R.; Beauregard, M.; Teuscher, E.; Higgins, R.; Lariviere, S.
This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083
Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan
Large-scale screening has led to the identification of several experimental compounds that have very potent intrinsic activity against coccidia, but the lack of translation to in vivo efficacy has been a major hurdle in developing such leads into effective new drugs. We developed methods to explore the impact of oral availability and appropriate distribution in tissue, both of which are potentially important factors in the expression of activity in vivo. For the compounds that we examined, neither oral absorption nor distribution to the site of infection appeared to be the critical barrier to in vivo expression of intrinsic anticoccidial activity. Elucidation of the nature of additional factors that might be involved could assist greatly in the identification of useful new anticoccidial agents.
Ricketts, A P; Olson, J A; Rice, J R
The immunological response of captive naturally-infected Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep to the lungworm, Protostrongylus stilesi, was examined throughout the seasonal cycle of parasite activity using a cell adherence assay for circulating antibody. The net effect of all stable serum factors on cell adherence was examined by exposure of normal cells to larvae in the presence of test serum (decomplemented-serum test). Homocytotropic antibody was examined by exposure of washed normal cells to larvae after passive sensitization with serum from infected animals (washed-cell test). Although the washed-cell test did not show a clear association with parasite activity, the net ability of sera to promote adherence showed a significant increase during periods of elevated Protostrongylus activity. Fecal counts of Muellerius, Nematorirus and coccidia were not associated with the results of either assay. Significant differences among animals were detected only for the washed-cell test when the effects of parasitism were considered.
Hudson, R. J.; Kitts, W. D.; Bandy, P. J.
96 Hares from the eastern region of the Dresden district were examined for endoparasites and the results compared with those of other authors from GDR and the neighbouring countries. Out of the 27 endoparasites which up till now are recorded in the middle european region in GDR are found 6 Coccidia-spp.: Eimeria leporis, E. robertsoni, E. townsendi, E. semisculpta, E. europaea, E. hungarica and the helminths: Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Cittotaenia denticulata, Andrya rhopalocephala, Mosgovoyia pectinata, Cysticercus pisiformis, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Strongyloides papillosus, Passalurus ambiguus, Trichuris leporis, T. sylvilagus and Protostrongylus pulmonalis. The infection-extensity and -intensity is discussed in relation to the density of hare population and the ecological situation in the hunting-grounds. PMID:507443
Nickel, S; Gottwald, A
Investigations on the infestation with endoparasites in stomach and gut of feral rabbits from the region of Leipzig. During the hunting periods in the years 1976 till 1979 the viscera of 122 wild rabbits shot in two different biotopes in the area of Leipzig were examined for endoparasites. 63.11% harboured Ctenotaenia ctenoides and Cittotaenia denticulata and 8.19% Cysticercus pisiformis. Graphidium strigosum was demonstrated in 36.88%, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis in 82.78%, Passalurus ambiguus in 13.11% and Trichuris leporis in 7.13% of the rabbits. 71.13% of the rabbits shed oocysts of six different species of intestinal coccidia in their faeces and Eimeria stiedai--infections were diagnosed in the livers of 1.63% of the rabbits. Regional differences were demonstrated in the frequency of Graphidium strigosum-, Passalurus ambiguus- and tapeworm infestations of the wild rabbits examined. PMID:6465615
Haupt, W; Hartung, J
The concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, number of erythrocytes and content of iron in the bloodserum of 35 sheep or lambs from five herds in which Eperythrozoon ovis was demonstrated in summer 1994 in bloodsmears by staining with acridinorange are compared with the findings in 70 animals of the same farms which did not suffer from eperythrozoonosis or which were already treated. Sick animals showed significantly lower levels than clinically healthy sheep except for iron. Eperythrozoonosis is characterised by anaemia, poor weight gains or weight reduction. The mortality in lambs reaches up to 28%. Oxytetracyclin was injected subcutaneously for therapy in a single dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. Two weeks after treatment the lambs had less clinical symptoms, the ewes needed up to four weeks. Also eggs of trichostronglylids, coccidia, and once of tapeworms were demonstrated and specifically treated. The transmission of the disease and the economic impact are discussed. PMID:8585056
Weikel, J; Graunke, W D
Necrotizing typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 13 juvenile common rheas (Rhea americana) from three separate of geographically isolated Ohio flocks, with mortality ranging from 25% to 80%. At postmortem examination, a diphtheritic membrane covered ulcerated cecal mucosa. Histologically, cecal sections showed necrosis and granulomatous-to-suppurative inflammation that extended into the submucosa and often surrounded large eosinophilic colonies of bacteria. Warthin-Starry staining showed these colonies to be composed of entangled spirochetes that invaded the submucosa and frequently were present transmurally. Similar organisms were identified by Warthin-Starry staining in the cecum of a juvenile rhea from a fourth flock that histologically had mild lymphocytic typhlitis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of a spirochete in the ceca. Anaerobic culture yielded a gram-negative, beta-hemolytic spirochete. Coccidia, histomonads, and Salmonella spp. were consistently absent. PMID:1627100
Sagartz, J E; Swayne, D E; Eaton, K A; Hayes, J R; Amass, K D; Wack, R; Kramer, L
Since medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and their derivatives exert antimicrobial activities, their potential in controlling alimentary protozoa was examined in 12 calves infected with coccidia. Medium chain triglyceride (MCT), esterified fat of MCFAs, was administered into the rumen of 6 calves using an esophageal tube and into the abomasum of another 6 calves to ensure intestinal delivery by the function of the reticular groove reflex. Abomasal MCT inhibited the shedding of coccidial oocysts with less toxicity on ruminal protozoa. Conversely, intraruminal MCT showed negligible anticoccidial effect but toxicity on ruminal protozoa (defaunation). The anticoccidial efficacy was confirmed by abomasum feeding of MCT and not into the rumen. The results shed light on dietary fats for coccidial control. PMID:19801908
Sato, Hiroshi; Karitani, Aki
In preliminary studies with Sarcocystis from bovine (Bos taurus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), a coccidia-free laboratory dog (Canis familiaris) and captive coyote (Canis latrans) were fed flesh from a local Sarcocystis-infected bovine and later flesh from an infected mule deer from Eastern Oregon. Sporocysts were passed in the feces of both canine hosts 10-15 days after ingestion of infected meat. There was a statistical difference in the size of sporocysts derived from bovine and deer. It was concluded that the Sarcocystis from bovine and mule deer probably constitute distinct species with a life cycle dependent on the respective ruminant host and a canine host. PMID:815572
Hudkins-Vivion, G; Kistner, T P; Fayer, R
Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644
Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Costa, Sebastián A; Marini, M Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J; Robles, M Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G; Beldomenico, Pablo M
Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks.
Wendte, Jered M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Jessup, David A.; Grigg, Michael E.
Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443
Wendte, Jered M; Miller, Melissa A; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Magargal, Spencer L; Jessup, David A; Grigg, Michael E
Although earlier investigators experimented with anticoccidial vaccines, the world's first commercially successful product was developed by Prof S. A. Edgar of Auburn University, Auburn, AL. This product contained live, nonattenuated Eimeria tenella oocysts and was first marketed by Dorn and Mitchell, Inc., in 1952. Under the trade names of DM Cecal Coccidiosis Vaccine, Coxine, NObiCOX, and CocciVac, it went through several formulations containing various Eimeria species that parasitize chickens, and a further product containing turkey Eimeria species was also developed. After many product and company changes, one turkey and two chicken formulations of CocciVac are still marketed worldwide by Schering-Plough Animal Health, Inc. Chicken and turkey formulations of Immucox, a similar type of vaccine, were developed by Dr. E.-H. Lee and first marketed in 1985 in Canada by Vetech Laboratories, Inc. In 1974, Dr. T. K. Jeffers of Hess and Clark, Inc., Ashland, OH, published his discovery of precocious lines of coccidia, which facilitated the development of the first attenuated anticoccidial vaccine. For commercial reasons, Jeffers was unable to do this himself, but this first attenuated vaccine was designed by Dr. M. W. Shirley and colleagues at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in the United Kingdom. The vaccine was commercially developed under license in the United Kingdom by Glaxo Animal Health Ltd. and then Pitman-Moore, Inc., and launched in The Netherlands during 1989 under the trade name Paracox. After further changes in company ownership, two formulations for chickens are now marketed worldwide by Schering-Plough Animal Health, Inc. Attenuation of coccidia by embryo adaptation was reported in 1972 in the United Kingdom by Dr. P. L. Long, who originally worked at the HPRS and later became a professor at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. An embryo-adapted line of E. tenella was included with precocious lines of other species in a series of three attenuated vaccines for chickens under the trade name Livacox, developed by Dr. P. Bedrník and launched in the Czech Republic in 1992 by Biopharm. The formulations of all other commercially available live anticoccidial vaccines for poultry are currently based upon the scientific principles established for the CocciVac, Paracox or Livacox vaccines. PMID:12495038
Williams, R B
This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive and efficient protocol for molecular identification of chicken Eimeria spp. in field samples. Various methods for each of the three steps of the protocol were evaluated: oocyst wall rupturing methods, DNA extraction methods, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR. We then compared and evaluated five complete protocols. Three series of oocyst suspensions of known number of oocysts from Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella were prepared and ground using glass beads or mini-pestle. DNA was extracted from ruptured oocysts using commercial systems (GeneReleaser, Qiagen Stoolkit and Prepman) or phenol-chloroform DNA extraction, followed by identification of species-specific ITS-1 sequences by optimised single species PCR assays. The Stoolkit and Prepman protocols showed insufficient repeatability, and the former was also expensive and relatively time-consuming. In contrast, both the GeneReleaser protocol and phenol-chloroform protocols were robust and sensitive, detecting less than 0.4 oocysts of each species per PCR. Finally, we evaluated our new protocol on 68 coccidia positive field samples. Our data suggests that rupturing the oocysts by mini-pestle grinding, preparing the DNA with GeneReleaser, followed by optimised single species PCR assays, makes a robust and sensitive procedure for identifying chicken Eimeria species in field samples. Importantly, it also provides minimal hands-on-time in the pre-PCR process, lower contamination risk and no handling of toxic chemicals. PMID:17386979
Haug, Anita; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G
A trial was carried out in 1-day-old broiler chicks raised for 54 days in floorpens under simulated commercial conditions, but isolated from all extraneous virulent coccidial infections, to demonstrate the safety of 'Paracox' attenuated vaccine administered at the recommended dose when chicks were 7 days old. The vaccine did not adversely affect the water consumption, faecal moisture or litter condition of the broilers. Recycling of the attenuated coccidia occurred in vaccinated birds, oocysts being present in the litter between 5 and 33 days after vaccination; a single peak of oocysts was detectable 5 or 12 days after vaccination. Unvaccinated medicated control birds did not produce oocysts, indicating freedom from both between-pen contamination by the vaccine and invasion of the chicken-house by extraneous coccidial infection. A small proportion (4%) of vaccinated birds had mild coccidial lesions when sampled at 26, 33 or 40 days after vaccination. Despite this, the vaccinated birds performed better than control (unvaccinated, nicarbazin-treated) birds and there was no post-vaccinal check in their weight gain. Their mean finishing weight was 10.4% greater, their food conversion ratio 7.2% lower and their mortality 44.4% lower than the unvaccinated control birds, reflecting the safety of 'Paracox' vaccine. PMID:7985381
Williams, R B
This study aimed to generate a profile of the health and productivity of water buffaloes in a communal setting. Using the Epi-Info version 6.04 for data management, a coded information system was used to accommodate data coming from the reference population. Calves and cows that were born and milked, respectively, were enrolled and monitored for six months. The key outcomes of interest monitored in this study included mortality, morbidity and productivity. Results of the study showed a 93.7 percent probability of the calves surviving up to six months with a calculated mortality true rate of 0.7 deaths per 1000 calf-days at risk. Three calves died during the six month observation period with a mean age at death of 3 days. Analysis of variance on productivity showed that the parasitic load, specifically coccidia, liver fluke and trypanosoma affected the growth rate of the calves. The productivity of cows in the study in terms of milk production was also highly affected by the endoparasitic load and disease condition of the animal. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between calf scouring and cow's mastitis (MASTITIS)(P=0.066). Meanwhile, for the cows, the parasitic load particularly fasciolosis (P=0.000), coccidiosis (P=0.002) and trypanosomosis (P=0.094) (P<0.10) also significantly affected the milk production. The results give a clearer view of the relationship between the health and productivity profiles of these animals. PMID:18551780
Mingala, Claro N; Gundran, Romeo S
In this study we describe 2 new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) parasites isolated from the feces of corncrake (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae), bred in captivity in the U.K. Oocysts of Eimeria crecis n. sp. were approximately spherical and measured 15.3 ?m (13-18) × 14.3 (12-16), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria nenei n. sp. were ellipsoidal and measured 23.6 (21-26) × 18.1 (17-20), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.3. A micropyle and polar granule were present. Surveying free-living, wild adult corncrakes in Scotland (U.K.) demonstrated both parasite species to be widespread. These are the first species described to infect the corncrake, and they are distinct from those previously found to infect members of the closely related crane family (Gruiformes: Gruidae). Partial amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 indicated a close relationship between the 2 proposed new species as a group distinct from the Eimeria species known to infect cranes. These newly identified parasite species have been associated with enteric disease in corncrakes being prepared for reproduction in captivity and reintroduction into England (U.K.). PMID:23347228
Jeanes, C; Vaughan-Higgins, R; Green, R E; Sainsbury, A W; Marshall, R N; Blake, D P
Inoculation of chickens with live Escherichia coli N6405 transformants containing a plasmid which encodes ampicillin resistance and an immunodominant p250 surface antigen of Eimeria acervulina merozoites induced partial protection against challenge with live coccidia. The inoculation with E. coli transformants induced antigen-specific immunoglobulin and cell-mediated immune responses. Challenge with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina enhanced both immune parameters, indicating that administration of live E. coli transformants served to prime the immune system for recognition of specific epitopes on the 250-kilodalton protein. Although the mechanism of antigen presentation is unclear, the data suggest that in vivo expression of recombinant merozoite antigen is operative. After administration, no E. coli N6405 transformants could be recovered from intestinal or fecal materials of inoculated chickens, as assessed by enumeration on selective medium. However, ampicillin-resistant E. coli originating from the normal flora and harboring the gene sequences for both antibiotic resistance and Eimeria acervulina merozoite surface protein could be recovered from these chickens. Furthermore, normal-flora E. coli transformants were capable of generating functional beta-lactamase product, as evidenced by their resistance to ampicillin, and immunoreactive E. acervulina merozoite recombinant antigen, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with p250-specific antiserum. Images
Kim, K S; Jenkins, M C; Lillehoj, H S
Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. PMID:24021542
Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R
On May 29, 1980, 108 cows and calves were placed on a 20 hectare pasture until October 26, except that from September 18 to October 2 they were in a barn. Every two weeks during the total period, fecal samples were taken from 17 cows and 14 calves and herbage samples were collected from the pasture. Parasite fecal egg counts were estimated using the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugation technique and herbage infective larvae by a modified Sandwich technique. Daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation were recorded. The principal parasite egg found was the trichostrongyle-strongyle morulate, oval-shaped egg referred to as a gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) egg. The mean GIN egg/g of feces for cows varied from 14.2 to 23.9 and for calves it rose from 0.2 in the spring to 134.8 in the fall. Nematodirus, Trichuris, Strongyloides, Moniezia and coccidia were also found. Larvae were recovered first in July, with the greatest number, over 2000/kg of dry weight of herbage, in September and were primarily Cooperia and Ostertagia.
Slocombe, J O; Curtis, R A
Abstract The Apicomplexa are intracellular pathogens of animals, with the Coccidia being the largest group. Among these are the hemogregarines, which include some of the most common hemoparasites found in reptiles. Several studies have reported a possible pattern of prey-predator transmission for some of these parasites. Snakes from the Mediterranean region have been found to be parasitized with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those in lacertids and gekkonids, supporting the prey-predator transmission hypothesis. Here we analyzed specimens of the saurophagous genus Psammophis from North Africa, an ecologically different region. Through molecular analysis of tissue samples we detected 3 different apicomplexan parasites: Caryospora, Sarcocystis and Hepatozoon. Caryospora was detected in a Forskål's sand snake P. schokari from Algeria, constituting the first time these parasites have been detected from a tissue sample through molecular screening. The obtained Sarcocystis phylogeny does not reflect the relationships of their final hosts, with the parasites identified from snakes forming at least 3 unrelated groups, indicating that it is still premature to predict definitive host based on the phylogeny of these parasites. Three unrelated lineages of Hepatozoon parasites were identified in Psammophis, each closely related to lineages previously identified from different lizard groups, on which these snakes feed. This once again indicates that diet might be a key element in transmission, at least for Hepatozoon species of saurophagous snakes. PMID:23537006
Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, David James
(1) The efficacy of toltrazuril (Baycox) against coccidiosis was established on a broiler farm in an intermittent application during five consecutive growing periods. Treated birds were fed a broiler ration without anticoccidials. The efficacy of Baycox was compared with the nicarbazin-salinomycin shuttle. It was concluded that Baycox retarded the onset of Eimeria infection for several weeks. During the fifth rearing period coccidiosis problems emerged on the farm in all birds during medication, suggesting development of resistance. (2) During a laboratory experiment the efficacy of Baycox was studied in birds after inoculation with different numbers of oocysts at 7, 10 or 15 days of age. Baycox was applied at 10 and 11 days of age. In all cases medication with Baycox protected birds from coccidiosis during a period of at least 7 days. This effect of Baycox could be due to the long-existing tissue levels of the product and its metabolites as well as its specific effect on the second generation of schizonts. (3) In another laboratory experiment coccidia obtained from field trials were tested for sensitivity to Baycox in conjunction with two strains obtained from farms were coccidiosis emerged during application. The inoculation model developed in this study was used for sensitivity testing. One of the Eimeria strains tested was resistant to the product, one strain was tolerant and the remaining two strains, including the control strain, were fully sensitive to Baycox. PMID:2219660
Vertommen, M H; Peek, H W; van der Laan, A
Subacute fascioliasis was diagnosed by pathomorphological and parasitological investigations on 13 dead moufflons (Ovis ammon musimon) from a herd of 21 animals (mortality 62%) which had succumbed between January and April 1988. The flock had been kept on meadow in the so-called Leipziger Auenwald. The main findings like severe hepatitis traumatica fasciolosa, fibrinous and fibrous perihepatitis, chronic interstitial hepatitis (pseudocirrhosis), cholangitis fasciolosa (X 13), wasting (X 8), heart dilatation (X 10), lung oedema (X 12), anemia (X 5), ascites (X 3), gut oedema (X 3) and occasionally observed lesions are described in detail and discussed with regard to diagnosis and pathogenicity. Beside severe infection with Fasciola hepatica (juvenile and adult flukes) the parasitological investigation demonstrated, in some cases, various additional but unimportant infections with protostrongylids, gastro-intestinal nematodes, coccidia (X 2) and Moniezia expansa (X 1). The analysis of meteorological data (January 1987 till March 1988) established optimal conditions for F. hepatica development stages and Galba truncatula so that high multiplication and infection rates of the snails and long surviving of metacercariae must be assumed. PMID:2782670
Johannsen, U; Arnold, P; Schüppel, K F; Ribbeck, R; Haupt, W
Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/
Rangel, Luiz Thiberio; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool to quantify the number of interferon (IFN)-?-producing cells and offers a viable alternative for the quantitative measurement of T cell functions in chickens. To study the development of cell-mediated immunity in Eimeria-infected chickens, we measured the number of IFN-?-producing cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ELISPOT after 3 oral inoculations of Eimeria tenella oocysts at 2-wk intervals. We found that the number of IFN-?-producing cells was significantly increased at 2 wk after the primary infection compared with the control group. The IFN-?-producing cells were further increased after repeated infections, and there was a statistically significant increase in the number of IFN-?-producing cells after the third infection than after the first infection. Our results indicated that the ELISPOT assay can be used to quantitatively measure antigen-specific T cell responses to coccidia or other avian pathogens. PMID:23776262
Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Jingxia; Suo, Xun
Capillaria aerophila, a trichuroid nematode causing pulmonary infections in wild and domestic carnivores, is occasionally and potentially poorly recognized in infections of humans due to clinicopathological mimicry and a lack of accurate, robust laboratory diagnostics. The present work evaluated the efficiency of a DNA-based assay amplifying a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of C. aerophila in the diagnosis of lung capillariosis. Fecal samples from 34 dogs and 10 cats positive at parasitological examination for C. aerophila and other endoparasites (i.e., other lungworms, whipworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and/or coccidia) and from 44 animals negative for C. aerophila but positive for other endoparasites were molecularly examined. Of the 44 samples positive for C. aerophila at copromicroscopy, 43 scored positive (i.e., 33/34 dogs and 10/10 cats) in seminested PCR, resulting in a sensitivity of 97 to 100%. Samples that were copromicroscopy negative for C. aerophila although positive for other endoparasites never produced a PCR product or nonspecific amplicons. The specific PCR amplification of C. aerophila (i.e., specificity of 100%) was confirmed by a nucleotide sequence analysis of the cox1 amplicons. The potential implications of the molecular diagnosis of lung capillariosis are discussed. PMID:22442326
Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Paoletti, Barbara; Bartolini, Roberto; Traversa, Donato
ABSTRACT The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A ?sag1 ?sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations.
Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.
Paraffin-embedded sections from human tissues with fungi or organisms classified with fungi were studied by light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the backscatter electron imaging (BEI) mode of the SEM. The fungal organisms selected for study were those familiar to the pathologist on the basis of their appearance in paraffin-embedded material stained with the Gomori-Grocott Chromic Acid Methenamine Silver Stain (GMS). The organisms were Actinomyces, Rhizopus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidia imitis. Sections were stained with the GMS Stain and/or the Becker modification of the GMS Stain (BGMS) and examined in the secondary electron imaging mode (SEI) and BEI mode with an annular backscatter electron detector. This silver staining technique accentuated the wall of fungal organisms, in the backscatter mode. Depending on the fungal organism and type of silver stain employed, the GMS seemed the preferable stain. The advantages of SEM over LM were greater depth of focus and potential range of magnifications. BEI may also be used in conjunction with LM stain for microorganisms to establish their presence.
Berman, E.L.; Laudate, A.; Carter, H.W.
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids as well as many warm-blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites. The effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against N. caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other Coccidia. So, there is currently an urgent need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detecting N. caninum in animals. The N. caninum 40-kD surface antigen (p40), similar to NcSAG1 and NcSRS2, was shown to belong to surface antigen super family and thus represents an excellent marker for the diagnosis of neosporosis. In order to test the hypothesis, recombinant Ncp40 (rNcp40) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and an indirect ELISA test was developed using recombinant NCp40 antigen for N. caninum serodiagnosis. The antigen used in this study did not have cross-reactivity with anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum. Anti-p40 antibodies were detected by ELISA in the sera of Yellow cattle and were compared with (IFAT). Optimal sensitivity and specificity (98.2 and 98.6 %) were identified by IFAT. Additionally, 37 positive sera of T. gondii were detected and there was no significant difference with the negative serum of N. caninum. The rNcp40 ELISA developed here provides a specific and sensitive assay for detecting neosporosis in cattle. PMID:23435920
He, Pengfei; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Liu, Chengwu; Zhang, Guocai; Yang, Ju; Tuo, Wenbin; Yang, Bintong; Zhang, Xichen
Hammondia heydorni is thought to be a non-pathogenic coccidian parasite of dogs that is closely related to Neospora caninum, an important parasite of cattle and dogs. Oocysts of these two species are morphologically indistinguishable from each other. A population of 2240 dogs in the Czech Republic was screened for the presence of H. heydorni/N. caninum oocysts and five (0.22%), represented by five of 3135 faecal samples (0.16%), were positive. The internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the rRNA gene (ITS1) from two isolates were cloned and the DNA sequences were identical with those of the ITS1 of H. heydorni. Based on the rRNA sequences available for H. heydorni and related coccidia, the primer pair JS4-JS5 was designed to amplify the 3' end of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and ITS1 of H. heydorni. When tested on DNA extracted from a variety of parasites, the primers amplified a specific 267 bp fragment in our isolates only. The presence of DNA equivalent to 10 oocysts was sufficient for the amplification of the ITS1. We present a PCR-based diagnostic method as the only fast and reliable method for the diagnosis of H. heydorni in dogs. PMID:12093189
Slapeta, J R; Koudela, B; Votýpka, J; Modrý, D; Horejs, R; Lukes, J
Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 ?m, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 ?m, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 ?m in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 ?m, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 ?m, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 ?m in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver. PMID:23240773
McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D
Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW) on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A) Control diet (no YCW) plus anticoccidial vaccine); B) Control diet plus coccidiostat; C) YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D) YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.
Gomez-Verduzco, Gabriela; Cortes-Cuevas, Arturo; Lopez-Coello, Carlos; Avila-Gonzalez, Ernesto; Nava, Gerardo M
Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity.
Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France
Toxoplama gondii (Apicomplexa: Coccidia), an obligatory intracellular parasite with a unique capacity to invade virtually all nucleated cell type from warm-blooded vertebrate hosts. Despite the efficiency with which Toxoplasma enters its host cell, it remains unresolved if invasion occurs by direct penetration of the parasite or through phagocytosis. In the present work, electron microscopic study was designed to examine the entry process of Toxoplasma (RH strain) into macrophages and non phagocytic-host cells (Hela cells) and to observe the ultrastructure changes associated with intracellular parasitism. The results showed that both active invasion and phagocytosis were occurred and revealed that invasion is an ordered process that initiates with binding of the parasite at its apical end followed by tight-fitting invagination of the host cell membrane and a prominent constriction in the parasite at the site of penetration. The process ended by the professional parasitophorous vacuole that is distinct at the outset from those formed by phagocytosis in which once Toxoplasma triggered, phagocytic uptake can proceed by capture of the parasite within a loose fitting vacuole formed by localized membrane ruffling. The cytopathic effects of the parasite on macrophages and Hela cells were demonstrated within 5–15 h post-inoculation in the form of degenerative mitochondria, swelling Golgi apparatus and widening of endoplasmic reticulum indicating intracellular oedema. These changes were exaggerated and several cells were found dead after 48–72 h.
Toulah, Fawzia H.; Sayed Al-Ahl, Saedia A.; Amin, Dawlat M.; Hamouda, Mona H.
Toxoplama gondii (Apicomplexa: Coccidia), an obligatory intracellular parasite with a unique capacity to invade virtually all nucleated cell type from warm-blooded vertebrate hosts. Despite the efficiency with which Toxoplasma enters its host cell, it remains unresolved if invasion occurs by direct penetration of the parasite or through phagocytosis. In the present work, electron microscopic study was designed to examine the entry process of Toxoplasma (RH strain) into macrophages and non phagocytic-host cells (Hela cells) and to observe the ultrastructure changes associated with intracellular parasitism. The results showed that both active invasion and phagocytosis were occurred and revealed that invasion is an ordered process that initiates with binding of the parasite at its apical end followed by tight-fitting invagination of the host cell membrane and a prominent constriction in the parasite at the site of penetration. The process ended by the professional parasitophorous vacuole that is distinct at the outset from those formed by phagocytosis in which once Toxoplasma triggered, phagocytic uptake can proceed by capture of the parasite within a loose fitting vacuole formed by localized membrane ruffling. The cytopathic effects of the parasite on macrophages and Hela cells were demonstrated within 5-15 h post-inoculation in the form of degenerative mitochondria, swelling Golgi apparatus and widening of endoplasmic reticulum indicating intracellular oedema. These changes were exaggerated and several cells were found dead after 48-72 h. PMID:23961118
Toulah, Fawzia H; Sayed Al-Ahl, Saedia A; Amin, Dawlat M; Hamouda, Mona H
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of nucleated cells in its numerous intermediate hosts including man. The oral route is the natural portal of entry of T. gondii. Ingested organisms are released from cysts or oocysts within the gastrointestinal tract and initially invade the intestinal epithelium. We show that T. gondii invades and proliferates in cultured primary rat enterocytes, obtained with an original procedure. Activation of the enterocytes with rat recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibits T. gondii replication, the inhibition being dose dependent. Neither nitrogen and oxygen derivatives nor tryptophan starvation appear to be involved in the inhibition of parasite replication by IFN-gamma. Experiments using Fe2+ salt, carrier and chelator indicate that intracellular T. gondii replication is iron dependent, suggesting that IFN-gamma-treated enterocytes inhibit T. gondii replication by limiting the availability of intracellular iron to the parasite. Our data show that enterocytes probably play a major role on mucosal surfaces as a first line of defence against this coccidia, and possibly other pathogens, through an immune mechanism. The results suggest that limiting the availability of iron could represent a broad antimicrobial mechanism through which the activated enterocytes exert control over intracellular pathogens. PMID:9767436
Dimier, I H; Bout, D T
Translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. Methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. We used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. We adapted the method such that we considered a parasite (any agent of infectious or noninfectious disease) a hazard if it or the host had crossed an ecological or geographical barrier and was novel to the host. We included in our analyses hazards present throughout the translocation pathway derived from the interactions between host immunity and the parasite, the effect of parasites on populations, the effect of noninfectious disease agents, and the effect of stressors on host-parasite interactions. We used the reintroduction of Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) to England to demonstrate our method. Of the 24 hazards identified, 1 was classified as high risk (coccidia) and 5 were medium risk (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, Mycobacterium avium, Aspergillus fumigatus, tracheal worms [Syngamus sp. and Cyathostoma sp.], and Tetrameres spp.). Seventeen other hazards were considered low or very low risk. In the absence of better information on the number, identity, distribution, and pathogenicity of parasites of wild animals, there is uncertainty in the risk of disease to translocated animals and recipient populations. Surveys of parasites in source and destination populations and detailed health monitoring after release will improve the information available for future analyses of disease risk. We believe our method can be adapted to assess the risks of disease in other translocated populations. PMID:22533691
Sainsbury, Anthony W; Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca J
To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log?? 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log?? 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355
Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F
Apicomplexan parasites secrete and inject into the host cell the content of specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, which take part into critical processes such as host cell invasion and modulation of the host cell immune response. The rhoptries are structurally and functionally divided into two compartments. The apical duct contains rhoptry neck (RON) proteins that are conserved in Apicomplexa and are involved in formation of the moving junction (MJ) driving parasite invasion. The posterior bulb contains rhoptry proteins (ROPs) unique to an individual genus and, once injected in the host cell act as effector proteins to co-opt host processes and modulate parasite growth and virulence. We describe here two new RON proteins of Toxoplasma gondii, RON9 and RON10, which form a high molecular mass complex. In contrast to the other RONs described to date, this complex was not detected at the MJ during invasion and therefore was not associated to the MJ complex RON2/4/5/8. Disruptions of either RON9 or RON10 gene leads to the retention of the partner in the ER followed by subsequent degradation, suggesting that the RON9/RON10 complex formation is required for proper sorting to the rhoptries. Finally, we show that the absence of RON9/RON10 has no significant impact on the morphology of rhoptry, on the invasion and growth in fibroblasts in vitro or on virulence in vivo. The conservation of RON9 and RON10 in Coccidia and Cryptosporidia suggests a specific relation with development in intestinal epithelial cells.
Lamarque, Mauld H.; Papoin, Julien; Finizio, Anne-Laure; Lentini, Gaelle; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Candolfi, Ermanno; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Lebrun, Maryse
From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance.
Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.
Poultry necrotic enteritis (NE) has, over recent decades, been prevented and treated by addition of antimicrobials to poultry feed. Recent bans of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed, as well as other factors, have led to a slow, worldwide re-emergence of NE. Understanding of pathogenesis of NE has been hampered by lack of a consistent and effective experimental model in which virulence of strains can be reliably evaluated, with an endpoint yielding lesions comparable to those seen in acute NE in the field. The overall objective of this work was to develop an experimental approach that would allow consistent production of a full range of clinical signs and lesions of the disease, and to do so without use of coccidia as inciting agents. In addition, we assessed the virulence of strains of Clostridium perfringens from field cases of NE. Broiler chicks fed a commercial chick starter for 7 days post-hatch were switched to a high protein feed mixed 50:50 with fishmeal for an additional 7 days. On day 14, feed was withheld for 20 h, and birds were then offered feed mixed with C. perfringens (3 parts culture to 4 parts feed) twice daily on 4 consecutive days. On average, >75% of challenged birds developed typical gross lesions when inoculated with type A strains from field cases of NE. In addition, in vivo passage apparently increases strain virulence. Virulence varies from strain-to-strain; NetB-producing strains were virulent, as were some NetB non-producing strains. PMID:19931323
Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn
Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.
Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. (US Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))
Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function.
Background Proteases regulate pathogenesis in apicomplexan parasites but investigations of proteases have been largely confined to the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, little is known about proteases in other Apicomplexa, particularly in the sexual stages. We screened the Eimeria tenella genome database for proteases, classified these into families and determined their stage specific expression. Results Over forty protease genes were identified in the E. tenella genome. These were distributed across aspartic (three genes), cysteine (sixteen), metallo (fourteen) and serine (twelve) proteases. Expression of at least fifteen protease genes was upregulated in merozoites including homologs of genes known to be important in host cell invasion, remodelling and egress in P. falciparum and/or T. gondii. Thirteen protease genes were specifically expressed or upregulated in gametocytes; five of these were in two families of serine proteases (S1 and S8) that are over-represented in the coccidian parasites, E. tenella and T. gondii, distinctive within the Apicomplexa because of their hard-walled oocysts. Serine protease inhibitors prevented processing of EtGAM56, a protein from E. tenella gametocytes that gives rise to tyrosine-rich peptides that are incorporated into the oocyst wall. Conclusion Eimeria tenella possesses a large number of protease genes. Expression of many of these genes is upregulated in asexual stages. However, expression of almost one-third of protease genes is upregulated in, or confined to gametocytes; some of these appear to be unique to the Coccidia and may play key roles in the formation of the oocyst wall, a defining feature of this group of parasites.
The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood. The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the “quartan group” of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the “tertian group”; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent. Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe. It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question.
Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.
Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes. PMID:23581440
Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa
Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies.
Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.
It seems, therefore, pending further field tests on a larger territory, that the following facts are fairly well established by the above experiments. 1. Healthy turkeys may be raised in an incubator from eggs of infected birds. In the above experiments all remained well to August 14, the end of the hen exposure test, when they were 12 weeks and 4 days old. The first death occurred 2 weeks after the beginning of exposure to actual disease, when they were more than 14 weeks old. 2. Hens from a blackhead farm and from a farm free from turkeys did not convey the disease to the incubator turkeys on uninfected land. 3. The infection is either not transmitted at all or only under exceptional conditions by turkeys in the early acute stage. It is probably carried and shed by those birds which have successfully passed through an attack. Any definite statement concerning the mode of transmission of the infection cannot be made. The vehicle is unknown. The nature of the disease makes it probable, however, that it is introduced with the food, that it lodges first in one or both ceca, and that fecal matter is the vehicle. During the entire season, portions of the small intestines of all the turkeys that died or were killed were sectioned and examined both with reference to the possible presence of coccidia and of any preliminary stage of Amœba meleagridis. Sections were studied from the upper (duodenum), middle, and lower portions. A few coccidia cysts were found in two turkeys and are referred to more in detail elsewhere. In a third turkey an intracellular parasite was seen which is very minute and which differs from those usually met with in birds. It is tentatively placed with the coccidia. It was not seen in any other case although searched for to obtain more material for study. It may be that we have an aberrant parasite to deal with which comes from the insects eaten and obtains lodgment in rare cases only. The existence of any earlier stages of the blackhead parasites in the small intestine whence they move down into the ceca is contradicted by the focal lesions found in the ceca and by the fact that in many cases only one cecum is attacked and this only in a single, restricted area. If the parasites multiply higher up we should expect both ceca to become infected. There is some evidence pointing to a greater resistance of older birds than is usually presented by young turkeys. Thus, the total mortality (including those chloroformed while sick) following exposure on the infected farms and to the yearling turkey-hens was nine out of nineteen exposed, or a trifle less than 50 per cent. This figure is usually exceeded among those exposed immediately after hatching. The surviving turkeys are still well at the present time (January 1917). The other kind of evidence is derived from the histological examination of the lesions in the liver and ceca. In these organs the process was rather early associated with extensive infiltration of roundish cells, while the tendency to necrosis was relatively slight. The lesions of the walls of the ceca were characterized by a marked thickening of the wall with little or no necrosis and exudation of fibrin. In repeating tests of this kind it will be well for the experimenter to bear in mind that they are no longer laboratory experiments but conform to natural occurrences. The infection is not isolated in pure culture but is associated in the body of the carrier with unknown factors, both normal and pathological. The virus, if such it may be called, may be mixed with different injurious agents in different localities. It may be favored by various protozoan or higher parasites accidentally present, and by digestive disturbances due to improper feeding. To utilize animals infected in the natural way as a source of virus, is to put the experiments into nature's hands as far as possible without losing control of the main conditions. Such experiments cannot, therefore, be completely reproduced at will as is possible in the laboratory with pure cultures, and the results may vary from place to place.
Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215
Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J
This study was intended to evaluate the occurrence and seasonality of infection of coccidian and helminth parasites, in three rabbit warrens differently managed. Mothers stayed with their offspring on deep litter (farm A, 90 dams), in boxes cleaned weekly (farm B, 30 dams) or on slatted floor (farm C, 10 females), whereas all the young after weaning (1 to 5 months of age) were kept in cages with slatted floor. Animals were fed a complete balanced pelleted feed (warrens A and B) or traditional forage (herd C). Antiparasitic treatment involved coccidiostatic drugs. Robenidine (alternately with Lerbec in farm A) was added to food in the first two farms, whilst Sulfatyf mixed with water was given once after weaning in farm C. A total of 203 individual faecal samples from females of breeding stock, and 133 pooled samples from young animals, were collected on an annual cycle during 2007-2008 (February-January), and analyzed according to a modified concentration McMaster method. Coccidians were identified based on sporulated oocysts. A number of coccidian species (Eimeria perforans, E. media, E. magna, E. irresidua, E. exiqua, E. coecicola, and E. piriformis) were observed in all farms. The most pathogenic species--E. intestinalis was found both in farm A and B, whereas E. flavescens and E. stiedae--only in the former. The level of infection was high, especially in young rabbits, with the prevalence of 94.9 to 100% and mean intensity from 11,161 to 28,871 oocysts per 1 g of faeces (OPG) in a particular warren. The highest intensity of infection was observed in May, when the mean output increased to 29,454, 56,952, and 23,815 OPG in warrens A, B, and C, respectively. A nematode, Passalurus ambiguus, was detected in all searched farms, with the prevalence from 14.1% to 27.5%, depending on a farm. The species was more often seen in the first part of year. The other helminths (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Graphidium strigosum, and Trichuris leporis) were found only in rabbits of warren C. In this warren, the forage of farm origin was suggested to be prepared in a proper way in order to protect it from nematode transmission. The presence of coccidia and their specific composition has been continuously monitored in all farms, to estimate the efficiency of prophylactic measures undertaken. PMID:19670533
Nosal, Pawe?; Kowal, Jerzy; Nowosad, Bogus?aw; Bieniek, Józef; Kowalska, Dorota
To evaluate non-chemical strategies to control pasture-borne parasites in first-season grazing (FSG) cattle, a 3-year grazing trial was conducted during 2002-2004 on naturally infected pastures on a commercial beef cattle farm in Sweden. A uniform pasture was divided in 4 equal 2 ha paddocks onto each of which 10, 5-9 months old dairy breed steer calves were allocated at turn-out in May each year. Two strategies were evaluated: (1) turn-out onto pasture which had been grazed the previous year by second-season grazing (SSG) steers, followed by a move to aftermath in mid-July (RT) and (2) supplementation with concentrate and roughage for 4 weeks from turn-out (FD). Comparisons were made with an untreated (UT), and an anthelmintic treated control group (DO). Animal parasitology and performance were monitored monthly throughout the 20 weeks grazing period. Additional sampling occasions were performed on day 9 (for coccidia) and 10 weeks after turn-out (mid-July). Due to clinical parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE), salvage treatments were performed on all animals in group FD approximately 7 weeks after turn-out in 2003 and of three animals in group UT 5 weeks after turn-out in 2004. In 2003, the geometric mean oocyst excretion 9 days after turn-out was approximately 150,000 opg of mainly Eimeria alabamensis in group FD, and in 2004 approximately 180,000 opg in group UT. Apart from the DO group, geometric mean faecal egg counts (FEC) were between 80 and 400 epg 4 weeks after turn-out. Mean serum pepsinogen concentrations (SPC) of approximately 3.6 U tyrosine were recorded in the FD and UT groups from late August 2002. In 2003 and 2004, mean concentrations in these groups were between 4.1 and 7.2 U tyrosine 8 weeks after turn-out. By the end of the three grazing seasons the average weight gain difference compared to the DO group was for FD -29, -38 and -5 kg and for RT -4, -21 and +14 kg, and compared to the UT group -18, +2 and +22 for FD and +7, +19 and +41 kg for group RT. In conclusion, the rotation control strategy showed promising results, whereas the strategic feeding was poor from a parasite control standpoint. PMID:16971047
Larsson, A; Dimander, S-O; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J
Cystoisospora suis is the most pathogenic species of coccidia in suckling piglets, affecting them predominantly within their first three weeks of life. The clinical signs of neonatal cystoisosporosis include watery diarrhea and wasting, leading to significant economic losses for the farmer. Since neonatal piglets have an immature immune system, colostral transfer of maternal factors such as immune cells or antibodies is essential for controlling infections at that age. However, the role of C. suis-specific antibodies transferred from the sow to the piglets and possible correlations between antibody levels in the piglets acquired from colostrum with the clinical outcome of disease are currently not understood. To address this issue, 12 non-infected piglets and 14 piglets experimentally infected with C. suis on the third day of life were examined during their first four weeks of life. IgG, IgA, and IgM titers in the blood serum specific for sporozoites and merozoites of C. suis were evaluated, along with oocyst excretion and fecal consistency. Additionally, the antibody content in the colostrum and milk of three mother sows was determined. A transfer of naturally acquired C. suis-specific antibodies from sows to piglets with the colostrum could be demonstrated. Maternal antibodies in piglets' blood sera did not persist for longer than 14-21 days except for IgG which was present in high titers until the end of the study. Within 2-3 weeks after birth the onset of endogenous antibody production was noticed. Titers in blood serum showed a correlation with the severity of diarrhea which was positive for IgG and IgM (possibly due to increased consumption or loss of these antibodies) and negative for IgA. C. suis-specific mucus antibodies isolated from infected and non-infected piglets (n=6/group) on the 28th day of life were present in both groups, showing significantly higher titers of IgA and IgM in infected piglets. Maternally transferred antibodies acquired by natural infections of sows as observed in this study did not provide protection against the clinical manifestation of disease. The level and effect of transferrable maternal factors necessary for protection still need to be elucidated. However, correlations between antibody titers and fecal consistency in the piglets indicate that C. suis-specific antibodies might be useful markers for the expectable clinical severity of cystoisosporosis. PMID:23932639
Schwarz, Lukas; Joachim, Anja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia
The foregoing experiments in outdoor, unprotected enclosures demonstrates the difficulties surrounding the rearing of turkeys. These are discussed from another view-point and to avoid repetition only a few outlying facts should be considered here. The occasional presence of coccidia, the presence of Heterakis papillosa in the ceca, the occurrence of cases of aspergillosis and of chicken-pox in incubator-bred birds which did not come in contact with other domesticated birds, except in a few cases with incubator-bred chickens, show clearly that turkeys are picking up from the ground material deposited by other birds. The agent of blackhead must come from the same sources. The field experiments show a steadily increasing concentration of the infection from 1917 to 1919, even though the ground had been ploughed and seeded before use. As a result, the various groups of turkeys became infected to a greater degree. The growth in the intensity of the disease may be in part ascribed to an accumulation on the soil of infectious agents during any given season after they had been introduced, but it is hardly acceptable as an explanation from season to season, when the soul was either virgin, as regards poultry yards, or ploughed deep and seeded before use. A more rational hypothesis is the gradual attraction of birds in larger numbers and greater variety on account of the food supply in the turkey enclosures and the more intensive cultivation of the land surrounding the laboratory and animal buildings since the beginning of the experiments in 1917. The intensity of the outbreaks due to the confining of young turkeys with birds over a year old which had been infected during the preceding year, or on ground previously occupied by them, was in all instances much greater than in the spontaneous outbreaks. The cases amounted to nearly 100 per cent of the exposed. On the other hand, the number of cases in the control flocks varied and was very low in some groups. It could have been kept down if the sick birds had been promptly removed and not permitted to recover on the same ground. However, the object of the experiment was not to suppress the disease, but to see to what extent it would develop. It is self-evident that the results obtained apply strictly only to that part of the country where the experiments were made. We have at present no means of knowing whether the sources of infection would become more numerous and concentrated with a higher mean annual temperature, or the reverse. Only by using incubator turkeys exclusively for such tests and eliminating the older turkeys and domesticated birds as carriers, can the miscellaneous, at present not controllable sources of the agents of this disease in different localities and the chances of successful rearing be determined. PMID:19868418
Smith, T; Graybill, H W