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1

Coccidia of whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland. PMID:633514

Forrester, D J; Carpenter, J W; Blankinship, D R

1978-01-01

2

Coccidia of whooping cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.

1978-01-01

3

Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

1981-01-01

4

Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.  

PubMed

New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

2013-05-01

5

Heteroxenous coccidia increase the predation risk of parasitized rodents.  

PubMed

We have investigated the influence of heteroxenous coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) on the predation risk of intermediate hosts. Voles infected with Frenkelia spp. were found more frequently in buzzards' (Buteo buteo) prey than among snap-trapped rodents. To eliminate the possibility of traps selecting for uninfected rodents, a laboratory experiment was performed. Mice experimentally infected with Sarcocystis dispersa seemed to be more likely caught by the final host, the long-eared owl (Asio otus); this result was confirmed by a mathematical model. Field data confirmed the adaptive value of parasite-induced changes. The increase of predation is directed towards the specific final host only or is non-specific. In the populations studied the probability of predation of parasitized individuals by the specific predator was increased. PMID:9881375

Vorísek, P; Votýpka, J; Zvára, K; Svobodová, M

1998-12-01

6

Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys  

E-print Network

Our interest in gut immunity in commercial poultry led to investigation of the effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma (rtIFN?) on parameters of immunity to avian coccidia. In vitro experiments consisted of exposing baby hamster kidney cells...

Beltran, Ruben

2002-01-01

7

The effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia oocyst shedding in a wild mammal host with intermittent cestode infection.  

PubMed

While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host's active season. Also, the marmot's response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. PMID:25506065

Václav, Radovan; Blažeková, Jana

2014-01-01

8

Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

9

Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

2014-01-01

10

Nematode-coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2014-08-01

11

Two new species of coccidia, Eimeria leucuri and E. oreoecetes (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), in grouse from Colorado.  

PubMed

Eimeria leucuri is described from white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus), and E. oreoecetes from white-tailed ptarmigan and blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) from Colorado. Oocysts of E. leucuri are ellipsoidal, 26.6 by 17.7 micron, each bearing a micropyle, micropyle cap, up to 4 polar granules, but no oocyst residuum. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 15.4 by 6.7 micron, and have Stieda bodies and large amounts of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. Oocysts of E. oreoecetes are subspherical, 26.0 by 22.6 micron, and have up to 4 polar granules. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 14.6 by 8.8 micron, and have both Stieda bodies and substiedal bodies and a large amount of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. These are the first coccidia to be described from these tetraonids. PMID:448611

Stabler, R M; Haskins, A G; Kitzmiller, N J; Olsen, O W; Braun, C E

1979-04-01

12

Immunization of chukar partridges against coccidia (Eimeria kofoidi and Eimeria legionensis) with low doses of live oocysts.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine whether chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) chicks would develop protective immunity after inoculation with coccidia. Young chukar chicks in battery cages inoculated with 100 or more oocysts of Eimeria kofoidi or Eimeria legionensis had significant protection at challenge 4 wk later, as measured by greatly reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain as compared with unvaccinated, challenged controls. However, when birds were housed in litter pens and vaccinated by various regimens (including two species of chukar coccidia at 100/dose), coccidiosis rapidly spread through all treatments and caused significant mortality. Vaccination with Coccivac-T or with 100 oocysts of Eimeria dispersa did not prevent mortality resulting from accidental contamination, and feed treatment with a Lactobacillus competitive-exclusion product had no benefit. Most if not all of the mortality was from E. kofoidi. This study illustrated the natural fecundity of chukar coccidia in a floor-pen environment where multiplication rate and reinfection combine to produce clinical disease from a small original exposure. Further, these results cast doubt on the potential use of low doses of live oocysts as a vaccine in the chukar partridge. PMID:22017029

Fuller, A L; Gerhold, R W; McDougald, L R

2011-09-01

13

Occurrence of coccidia infection in pigeons in amateur husbandry. Diagnosis and prevention.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. is a common parasitic disease posing a serious problem in pigeon keeping. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition, the degree of coccidia infection and the effect of the coccidiostat used in the course of the disease in two pigeon lofts located in the West Pomerania province. The material for the study came from 180 birds. A total of 330 faecal samples were investigated with two methods: Willis-Schlaafs (qualitative) and McMaster's (quantitative). The pigeons were given the Baycox (Bayer) coccidiostat with toltrazuril as an active substance. The medicament was administered for two days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight at three-day intervals. Three species of protozoa were isolated: Eimeria labbeana, E. columbarum, E. columbae, and the infections were mixed. The occurrence of E. labbeana was most commonly reported, which was shown, depending on the pigeon loft and the age of the birds, in 89-93% of young pigeons and in 63-55% of adults. The species E. columbarum and E. columbae were found less frequently. Baycox coccidiostat proved to be highly effective against coccidiosis in pigeons and may also be used in prophylaxis. PMID:25115060

Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a

2014-01-01

14

Detection of parasitizing coccidia and determination of host crane species, sex and genotype by faecal DNA analysis.  

PubMed

In Japan, the three main crane species are the endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) inhabiting Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; the vulnerable hooded crane (Grus monacha); and the vulnerable white-naped crane (Grus vipio). Both the hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter to Izumi in Kyushu, the southern island of Japan. In this study, we investigated the cranes and their coccidian parasites, through a targeted molecular approach using faecal DNA to develop a noninvasive method for infectious disease research. To determine the origin of noninvasively collected faecal samples, host species were identified by sequencing a region of approximately 470 bp of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in the faecal DNA. Furthermore, to avoid sample redundancy, individual determination was performed by fragment analysis using microsatellite and sex-linked markers. For microsatellite genotyping, previously reported markers and markers isolated in this study were examined, and seven loci for red-crowned cranes, eight for hooded cranes and six for white-naped cranes displayed polymorphisms. A low error rate was demonstrated by comparing microsatellite data generated from faecal DNA samples with that generated from feather DNA samples, indicating a high reliability. Polymerase chain reaction-based capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE), employing genetic markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, was employed to detect crane coccidia. The sensitivity of detection of PCR-CE using faecal DNA was inferior to that with traditional microscopy; however, our results suggest that PCR-CE can depict crane coccidia diversity with higher resolution and it is a useful tool to characterize community composition of coccidia in detail. PMID:21791031

Honma, H; Suyama, Y; Nakai, Y

2011-11-01

15

Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 ?m, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 ?m, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

2013-01-01

16

Coccidia of turkey: from isolation, characterisation and comparison to molecular phylogeny and molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which has a significant economic impact on poultry production. Multiple species infecting the turkey have been described; however, due to the general lack of unambiguous description, their identification and taxonomy is debatable. In this work, a systematic approach was taken to isolate, characterise and compare coccidian species in the turkey. Individual species were tracked according to their unique 18S ribosomal DNA sequence. The single-oocyst isolation technique and passaging of mixed species field isolates in selectively immunised birds enabled the derivation of pure species. Six distinct strains representing five eimerian species that infect the turkey were obtained. It appears highly probable that these species represent all species described in the past with the exception of Eimeria subrotunda. The species were analysed using both traditional methods and DNA sequencing. For each strain the oocyst morphology, prepatent period, gross pathology, pathogenicity, host specificity and endogenous cycle were studied. Antigenic similarity was investigated in multiple cross-immunity experiments. For identification and quantification of each individual species or strain, quantitative real-time PCR markers were also developed. Parallel characterisation of pure strains allowed comprehensive comparison with the original descriptions and assignment of correct species names. The species Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria innocua were identified. Comparison of our data with those of previous studies indicates that Eimeria adenoeides is most probably a synonym for either E. meleagridis or E. gallopavonis, or a description based on a mixture of these species, and thus nomen dubium. The species E. dispersa and E. innocua were also found to infect Bobwhite Quail. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences showed that these two species form a distinct clade unrelated to other turkey coccidia and point to a polyphyletic origin of the species infecting the turkey. PMID:25020103

Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

2014-11-01

17

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotically replicating mitochondrial genome may be more suited for species level molecular work; however, only limited sequence data are available for Eimeria spp. infecting turkeys. The purpose of this study was to sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genomes from 5 Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Methods Six single-oocyst derived cultures of five Eimeria species infecting turkeys were PCR-amplified and sequenced completely prior to detailed annotation. Resulting sequences were aligned and used in phylogenetic analyses (BI, ML, and MP) that included complete mitochondrial genomes from 16 Eimeria species or concatenated CDS sequences from each genome. Results Complete mitochondrial genome sequences were obtained for Eimeria adenoeides Guelph, 6211 bp; Eimeria dispersa Briston, 6238 bp; Eimeria meleagridis USAR97-01, 6212 bp; Eimeria meleagrimitis USMN08-01, 6165 bp; Eimeria gallopavonis Weybridge, 6215 bp; and Eimeria gallopavonis USKS06-01, 6215 bp). The order, orientation and CDS lengths of the three protein coding genes (COI, COIII and CytB) as well as rDNA fragments encoding ribosomal large and small subunit rRNA were conserved among all sequences. Pairwise sequence identities between species ranged from 88.1% to 98.2%; sequence variability was concentrated within CDS or between rDNA fragments (where indels were common). No phylogenetic reconstruction supported monophyly of Eimeria species infecting turkeys; Eimeria dispersa may have arisen via host switching from another avian host. Phylogenetic analyses suggest E. necatrix and E. tenella are related distantly to other Eimeria of chickens. Conclusions Mitochondrial genomes of Eimeria species sequenced to date are highly conserved with regard to gene content and structure. Nonetheless, complete mitochondrial genome sequences and, particularly the three CDS, possess sufficient sequence variability for differentiating Eimeria species of poultry. The mitochondrial genome sequences are highly suited for molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics of coccidia and, potentially, genetic markers for molecular epidemiology. PMID:25034633

2014-01-01

18

Effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine.  

PubMed

The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of coccidia challenge and natural betaine supplementation on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal lesion scores of broiler chickens fed suboptimal level of dietary methionine. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two levels of betaine supplementation (0 and 960 g betaine/t of feed) without or with coccidia challenge. Each treatment was fed to 8 cages of 8 male broilers (Ross 308) for 1 to 21d. On d 14, birds in the 2 challenged groups received mixed inocula of Eimeria species from a recent field isolate, containing approximately 180,000 E. acervulina, 6,000 E. maxima, and 18,000 E. tenella oocysts. At 21d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected for the determination of dry matter, energy, nitrogen, amino acids, starch, fat, and ash digestibilities. Lesion scores in the different segments of the small intestine were also measured on d 21. Performance and nutrient digestibility data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Lesion score data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test to identify significant differences between treatments. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to assess the significance of linear or quadratic models to describe the response in the dependent variable to total lesion scores. Coccidia challenge reduced (P < 0.0001) the weight gain and feed intake, and increased (P < 0.0001) the feed conversion ratio. Betaine supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the weight gain or feed intake, but lowered (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio. No interaction (P > 0.05) between coccidia challenge and betaine supplementation was observed for performance parameters. Betaine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, energy, fat, and amino acids only in birds challenged with coccidia as indicated by the significant interaction (P < 0.0001) between betaine supplementation and coccidia challenge. The main effect of coccidia challenge reduced (P < 0.05) starch digestibility. Betaine supplementation improved (P < 0.05) starch digestibility regardless of the coccidia challenge. For each unit increase in the total lesion score, there was a linear (P < 0.001) decrease in digestibility of mean amino acids, starch, and fat by 3.8, 3.4 and 16%, respectively. Increasing total lesion scores resulted in a quadratic (P < 0.05) decrease in dry matter digestibility and ileal digestible energy. No lesions were found in the intestine or ceca of the unchallenged treatments. In the challenged treatments, betaine supplementation reduced (P < 0.01) the lesion scores at the duodenum, lower jejunum, and total lesion scores compared to the treatment without supplements. In conclusion, coccidia challenge lowered the digestibility of energy and nutrients and increased the feed conversion ratio of broilers. However, betaine supplementation reduced the impact of coccidia challenge and positively affected nutrient digestibility and the feed conversion ratio. PMID:25691757

Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V

2015-04-01

19

New species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with taxonomic revision of eimerian coccidia from chameleons.  

PubMed

Coprological examination of 71 samples from a breeding colony of veiled chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus Duméril et Duméril, 1851, revealed a presence of two species of coccidia. In 100% of the samples examined, oocysts of Isospora jaracimrmani Modrý et Koudela, 1995 were detected. A new coccidian species, Choleoeimeria hirbayah sp. n., was discovered in 32.4% of samples from the colony. Its oocysts are tetrasporocystic, cylindrical, 28.3 (25-30) x 14.8 (13.5-17.5) microm, with smooth, bilayered, -1 microm thick wall. Sporocysts are dizoic, ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.1 (9-11) x 6.9 (6-7.5) microm, sporocyst wall is composed of two plates joined by a meridional suture. Endogenous development is confined to the epithelium of the gall bladder, with infected cells being typically displaced from the epithelium layer towards lumen. A taxonomic revision of tetrasporocystic coccidia in the Chamaeleonidae is provided. PMID:16898122

Sloboda, Michal; Modrý, David

2006-06-01

20

Effects of Combined Treatment with Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin® and Immunization with Live Oocysts on Performance of Broiler Chicks Raised in Coccidia-Seeded Floor Pens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our laboratory, preliminary studies have indicated that recombinant bovine somatotropin® (rbST) can stimulate protective immunity against coc- cidia infection. A floor pen trial on coccidia-seeded litter was run to further test its activity as an adjuvant during immunization of chicks with a live oocyst vaccine. Five hundred day-old male broiler strain chicks were ran- domly assigned to five experimental

PATRICIA C. ALLEN; HARRY D. DANFORTH

21

Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.  

PubMed

Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects of internal parasites, including gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) but there have been no reports of the effects of feeding this forage on Eimeria spp. in goats. Two confinement feeding experiments were completed on recently-weaned intact bucks (24 Kiko-cross, Exp. 1; 20 Spanish, Exp. 2) to determine effects of SL pellets on an established infection of GIN and coccidia. The bucks were assigned to 1 of 2 (Exp. 1) or 3 (Exp. 2) treatment groups based upon the number of Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces. In Exp. 1, the kids were fed 1 of 2 pelleted rations ad libitum; 90% SL leaf meal+10% of a liquid molasses/lignin binder mix and a commercial pellet with 12% crude protein (CP) and 24% acid detergent fiber (n=12/treatment group, 2 animals/pen). For Exp. 2, treatment groups were fed (1) 90% SL leaf meal pellets from leaves stored 3 years (n=7), (2) 90% SL pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months, (n=7), and the commercial pellets (n=6) ad libitum. For both trials, fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals every 7 days for 28 days to determine OPG and GIN eggs per gram (EPG) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. In Exp. 2, feces were scored for consistency (1=solid pellets, 5=slurry) as an indicator of coccidiosis. In Exp. 1, EPG (P<0.001) and OPG (P<0.01) were reduced by 78.7% and 96.9%, respectively, 7 days after initiation of feeding in goats on the SL pellet diet compared with animals fed the control pellets. The OPG and EPG remained lower in treatment than control animals until the end of the trial. In Exp. 2, goats fed new and old SL leaf meal pellets had 66.2% and 79.2% lower (P<0.05) EPG and 92.2% and 91.2% lower (P<0.05) OPG, respectively, than control animals within 7 days, and these differences were maintained or increased throughout the trial. After 4 weeks of pellet feeding in Exp. 2, fecal scores were lower (P<0.01) in both SL-fed groups compared with control animals, indicating fewer signs of coccidiosis. There was no effect of diet on PCV values throughout either experiment. Dried, pelleted SL has excellent potential as a natural anti-coccidial feed for weaned goats. PMID:24857771

Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

2014-08-29

22

Prevalence of coccidia parasites (Protozoa) in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris): effects of host phenotype and environmental factors.  

PubMed

We investigated the relative importance of environmental factors versus host phenotype in determining parasite prevalence in Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). One hundred and forty-three fecal samples of 116 different squirrels collected in 2000 and 2001 from five study areas in the Italian Alps, were examined for intestinal protozoans. Two species of Eimeria were present with a medium to high prevalence in both years and in all areas, while two other species were rare, occurring only in some areas and not in all years. Cryptosporidium parvum had a high prevalence in the two study areas of the Western Alps, while in the three areas of the Central Alps it was recorded only once. The prevalence of Eimeria sciurorum and C. parvum fluctuated in parallel with squirrel density, suggesting a possible correlation between the presence of these protozoans and host density. A gender effect on E. sciurorum prevalence at low density could be explained by different space use patterns and social organization of males and females. C. parvum occurred more frequently in young squirrels, suggesting an acquired immunity in adults, but age-related susceptibility was not found for eimerian species. The coccidian community was more similar within than between regions, and study area and year were key parameters in predicting coccidia infection. There was no evidence of competition between coccidian species, but one positive interaction between E. sciurorum and E. andrewsi was observed. Our results suggest that the effects of geographic region, area features, and year effects probably related to fluctuations in host population density, were more important than individual phenotypic host characteristics in structuring the coccidian assemblage and determining levels of parasite prevalence in red squirrel populations. PMID:12898385

Bertolino, Sandro; Wauters, Luc A; De Bruyn, Luc; Canestri-Trotti, Giorgio

2003-10-01

23

Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species. PMID:22457617

Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J; Cotton, James A; Harris, David; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Könen-Waisman, Stephanie; Latham, Sophia M; Mourier, Tobias; Norton, Rebecca; Quail, Michael A; Sanders, Mandy; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Sohal, Amandeep; Wasmuth, James D; Brunk, Brian; Grigg, Michael E; Howard, Jonathan C; Parkinson, John; Roos, David S; Trees, Alexander J; Berriman, Matthew; Pain, Arnab; Wastling, Jonathan M

2012-01-01

24

Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

25

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

26

Effects of combined treatment with recombinant bovine somatotropin and immunization with live oocysts on performance of broiler chicks raised in coccidia-seeded floor pens.  

PubMed

In our laboratory, preliminary studies have indicated that recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) can stimulate protective immunity against coccidia infection. A floor pen trial on coccidia-seeded litter was run to further test its activity as an adjuvant during immunization of chicks with a live oocyst vaccine. Five hundred day-old male broiler strain chicks were randomly assigned to five experimental Treatments: 1, medicated controls; 2, unimmunized, not treated with rbST; 3, unimmunized, rbST-treated; 4, immunized, not treated with rbST; 5, immunized, rbST-treated. Each treatment consisted of four pens of 25 chicks each. At the end of the growout period (7 wk), the chicks in Treatment 1 (medicated controls) had the highest mean BW, but mean BW of chickens in Treatment 3 (rbST treatment only) were not significantly less. On the other hand, the mean weights of chicks in Treatments 4 (immunized only) and 5 (immunized plus rbST) were significantly reduced, and not different from those of the untreated chickens (Treatment 2). However, when challenged at 3 wk, the chicks in Treatment 5 had a mean combined total lesion score that was significantly lower than that from Treatment 3, indicating that they had developed a higher degree of specific immunity, but of the expense of weight gain. The results suggest that rbST has a potential for use as an adjuvant with live oocyst vaccination, but that the ratio between rbST dose and numbers of oocysts in the live vaccine needs to be carefully controlled. PMID:9316109

Allen, P C; Danforth, H D

1997-10-01

27

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

28

Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

2001-01-01

29

Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum. PMID:12790396

Augustine, P; Olsen, G; Danforth, H; Gee, G; Novilla, M

2001-03-01

30

Coccidia (Apicomplexa) from heteromyid rodents in the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico with three new species from Chaetodipus hispidus.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 223 heteromyid rodents of 4 genera and 13 species were collected from California, New Mexico, and Texas and from Baja California Norte and Sonora, Mexico. Of these, 84 (38%) were infected with coccidian oocysts; 72 of 84 (86%) infected animals had only 1 species of coccidian. Eleven species of coccidia were identified including 1 cyclosporan and 10 eimerians; the cyclosporan and 2 of the eimerians are described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Cyclospora angimurinensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 21.9 x 19.3 (19-24 x 16-22) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 11.9 x 9.5 (9-15 x 8-11) microns; it was found in 1 of 20 (4%) Chaetodipus hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chaetodipi n. sp. were subspheroidal, 16.7 x 14.6 (13-19.5 x 12-17) microns, with sporocysts ovoidal, 8.7 x 6.6 (7.5-10.5 x 5-7.5) microns; it was found in 3 of 20 (15%) C. hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria hispidensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 20.5 x 17.4 (17-23 x 14-21) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 9.3 x 7.2 (7.5-10.5 x 5-9) microns; it was found in 4 of 20 (20%) C. hispidus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2352062

Ford, P L; Duszynski, D W; McAllister, C T

1990-06-01

31

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents (Eutamias, Sciurus, Tamiasciurus spp.) from the western United States and northern Mexico with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 190 rodents in the family Sciuridae, representing three genera and nine species, have been collected in the western United States and northern Mexico and examined for coccidia; 71 (37%) had coccidian oocysts in their feces. These included 2 of 12 (17%) Eutamias canipes; 7 of 12 (58%) E. dorsalis; 18 of 50 (36%) E. merriami; 33 of 96 (34%) E. obscurus; 3 of 4 (75%) E. townsendii; 3 of 9 (33%) Sciurus aberti; 1 of 1 S. griseus; 1 of 1 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus mogollonensis; and 3 of 5 (60%) T. mearnsi. The following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. and Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. from E. canipes, E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, and E. tamiasciuri from E. dorsalis, E. dorsalis and E. tamiasciuri from E. merriami; E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, E. tamiasciuri, and E. wisconsinensis from E. obscurus; E. cochisensis and E. dorsalis from E. townsendii; E. ontarioensis and E. tamiasciuri from S. aberti; E. tamiasciuri from S. griseus; E. tamiasciuri and E. toddi from T. h. mogollonensis; and E. tamiasciuri from T. mearnsi. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. were ovoid, 21.9 x 16.8 (17-24 x 14-20) micrometer with sporocysts ovoid, 11.5 x 6.9 (10-14 x 6-8) micrometer. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. were spheroid to subspheroid, 16.7 x 15.3 (15-18 x 14-17) micrometer, with sporocysts ovoid, 8.4 x 5.6 (6-11 x 4-7) micrometer. Fifty-five of 71 (77%) infected hosts had oocysts of only one eimerian species in their feces at the time they were examined. One eimerian, E. tamiasciuri, was found in seven of nine host species in three genera. A list is provided of all eimerians (22, including the species described here) that have been described in the literature from Eutamias, Sciurus, and Tamiasciurus spp. PMID:3735156

Hill, T P; Duszynski, D W

1986-05-01

32

Seven new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from colubrid snakes of Guatemala and a discussion of what to call ellipsoid tetrasporocystic, dizoic coccidia of reptiles.  

PubMed

During a survey of Guatemalan herpetofauna in the summers of 1998-2000, 29 presumed new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 were found, seven of which have a distinct elongate-ellipsoidal shape (L/W ratio >or= 1.7) and are described herein. Six of the seven new species are similar in oöcyst length, width and L/W ratio and sporocyst length, width and L/W ratio, lack a micropyle, oöcyst residuum, Stieda body, sub-- and parastieda bodies, have a polar granule and sporocyst residuum, and their sporocysts appear to have dehiscence sutures. The seventh is slightly smaller and has sporocysts with a Stieda body. The new species are: E. coniophanes n. sp - whose sporulated oöcysts from Coniophanes fissidens are 29.2x14.9 (27-31x13-16) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 7.8 microm; E. coniophis n. sp. -from Conophis lineatus are 32.0x16.5 (30-34x14-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.2 x 8.9microm; E. dryomarchoni n. sp. - from Drymarchon corais are 32.2x17.7 (31-34x17-19) microm, with sporocysts 10.7 x 8.6 microm; E. leptophis n. sp. - from Leptophis mexicanus are 29.5x17.0 (28-31x16-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 9.1 microm; E. oxybelis n. sp. - from Oxybelis aeneus are 31.8x16.5 (29-33x15-18) microm, with sporocysts 10.3 x 8.8 microm; and E. scaphiodontophis n. sp. - from Scaphiodontophis annulatus are 30.0x15.3 (28-33x14-16) microm, with sporocysts 9.9 x 7.9 microm. Sporulated oöcysts of E. siboni n. sp. from Sibon nebulata are 24.3x14.2 (21-27x13-16) microm, with sporocysts 10.0 x 7.1 microm and with a Stieda body. We conclude that until all aspects of each life-cycle are known, it is prudent at this time to name all tetrasporocystic dizoic coccidia from snakes as members of Eimeria rather than place some of them in Choleoeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989. PMID:16612656

Asmundsson, I M; Duszynski, D W; Campbell, J A

2006-06-01

33

Coccidia of wombats: correction of host-parasite relationships. Eimeria wombati (Gilruth and Bull, 1912) Comb. Nov. and Eimeria ursini Supperer, 1957 from the hairy-nosed wombat and Eimeria arundeli sp. n. from the common wombat.  

PubMed

Coccidial oocysts morphologically consistent with Eimeria ursini Supperer 1957, and E. tasmaniae Supperer 1957 were recovered from the feces of wild and captive hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Australia. Eimeria arundeli so. n. was recovered from the feces of wild and captive common wombats (Vombatus ursinus). Eimeria arundeli oocysts are ellipsoidal to slightly ovoid 60.2--67.2 (63.7) X 40.6--47.6 (43.4); micropyle 3 in diameter usually visible; with oocyst wall granular, dark brown and occasionally opaque, 4--7 thick; inner oocyst wall clear, about 1.5 thick; small oocyst residuum present, four sporocysts ovoid 22.4--29.4 (25.8) X 12.6--15.4 (14.1) with protuberant Stieda body; opposite end of sporocyst also often slighly pointed; large granular sporocyst residuum obscuring sporozoites. Gametocytes of E. arundeli sp. n. and of an organism which is consistent with E. tasmaniae, are described developing in the lamina propria of villi in the small intestine. The stages in the hairy-nosed wombat are those described as Ileocystis wombati Gilruth and Bull 1912. It is suggested that the identification of the host of Supperer's E. ursini and E. tasmaniae as V. ursinus was in error and that the allopatric L. latifrons is the natural host. Eimeria tasmaniae Supperer 1957 is suppressed and E. wombati (Gilruth and Bull, 1912) comb. nov. is proposed and redescribed. No schizonts were identified among the endogenous stages, consistent with observations in the literature on other coccidia with similar gametocyte and oocyst structure. PMID:480077

Barker, I K; Munday, B L; Presidente, P J

1979-06-01

34

Coccidia of sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis.  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis Yakinoff and Matschoulsky 1935, Eimeria reichenowi Yakimoff and Matschoulsky 1935, and an Adelina species are described from sandhill cranes in the United States. E. gruis was found in the feces of 11 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 62 of 72 greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) from Florida, 5 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 4 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis) from Texas. E. reichenowi was found in the feces of 12 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 66 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida, 4 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 5 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes from Texas. Adelina sp. was found in the feces of 3 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 2 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida. The Adelina species is considered to be a spurious parasite of the cranes. PMID:809566

Courtney, C H; Forrester, D J; Ernst, J V; Nesbitt, S A

1975-08-01

35

Application of immunogenomics to study intestinal innate and adaptive immunity against coccidia parasites.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective control of poultry pathogens which cause infectious diseases is becoming a major challenge to the poultry industry worldwide with increasing consumer’s demands for safe poultry products and escalating concerns on biosecurity measures for new-emerging, highly virulent strains of microbial p...

36

Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

37

Prevalence, infectivity and oocyst sporulation time of rabbit-coccidia in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Eimeria species parasitizing rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Taiwan were investigated. Six Eimeria species, namely: Eimeria media (prevalence, 158/642; 24.6%), Eimeria magna (101/642; 15.7%), Eimeria perforans (58/642; 9.0%), Eimeria coecicola (46/642; 7.2%), Eimeria piriformis (16/642; 2.5%), and Eimeria exigua (9/642; 1.4%) were observed. The overall prevalence of these coccidial infections in rabbits from pet shops and farms was 46.2% and 41.7%, respectively. Concurrent infections involving 2 or 3 species were often observed, while quadruple-infection was rare. Significant differences (p < 0.005) in prevalence were observed between the adult and juvenile rabbits. The minimum time required for oocyst sporulation of E. media, E. piriformis, E. magna, E. perforans, E. exigua, E. coecicola were 10, 20, 32, 12, 16, and 36 hr, respectively. This is the first report on the prevalence of Eimeria intestinal infection in commercial domestic rabbits in Taiwan. We demonstrated that these rabbit-infecting Eimeria species have high biopotential in that the ingestion of a single sporulated oocyst could successfully produce patent infection in a rabbit. In addition, they also possess high host specificity in that they could not infect mice, golden hamsters, Mongolian gerbils, rats, and guinea pigs. PMID:21399582

Ming-Hsien, L; Hai-I, H; Hong-Kean, O

2010-12-01

38

Enteric coccidia in free-ranging American bison (Bison bison) in Montana.  

PubMed

Four Eimeria species have been reported from American bison (Bison bison): E. auburnensis, E. bovis, E. brasiliensis, and E. canadensis. We report on finding two additional species: E. ellipsoidalis and E. zuernii. In 1993, the prevalence of these six species in 31 yearling bison in a recently-established herd on private ranchland in Montana (USA) was: E. bovis, 97%; E. canadensis, 90%; E. zuernii, 32%; E. ellipsoidalis, 32%; E. auburnensis, 9.7%; and E. brasiliensis, 3.2%. Eimerian oocysts also were recovered from five (14%) of 36 bison in 1993 from West Yellowstone; the species involved were: E. canadensis, E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. auburnensis. PMID:8028115

Penzhorn, B L; Knapp, S E; Speer, C A

1994-04-01

39

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the lowland European bison Bison bonasus bonasus (L.).  

PubMed

Coprological studies conducted between 2007 and 2011 in free-roaming and captive European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Poland revealed 11 species of Eimeria infecting the host, i.e., Eimeria alabamensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria brasiliensis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria pellita, Eimeria subspherica, and Eimeria zuernii. The typical host for all isolated species is cattle. The most prevalent species was E. bovis (29.7%), while E. brasiliensis was the rarest (0.5%). Five of the species (E. bovis, E. bukidnonensis, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. zuernii) have been observed previously in bison by other authors, 3 species were noticed by us in bison previously (E. alabamensis, E. cylindrica, E. pellita), while for 3 species (E. auburnensis, E. brasiliensis, and E. subspherica) these are new host and locality records. Oocysts of two species (E. brasiliensis, E. bukidnonensis) were noted only in the feces of bison kept in captivity. Moreover, the prevalence of positive samples was higher in the group of captive animals (55.4%) in comparison with the free-roaming herds (29.5%); although, oocysts per gram (OPG), counted with the conventional McMaster technique, was comparable in both groups, reaching maximally 6550 and 6400 in free-roaming and captive individuals, respectively. Overall, 142 fecal samples from 424 samples examined were positive for Eimeria (prevalence=33.5%). Age-related analysis revealed a higher percentage of Eimeria spp. positive samples and higher OPG values in bison under 1 year old as compared to older individuals (93.3% and 50-4050; 37.3% and 50-550, respectively). Additionally, greater eimerian species diversity was present among calves in comparison with older bison. In most cases single-species infections were observed (59.8%) with a predominance of E. bovis (85.9%). Multiple-species infections consisted of 2-7 species, usually including E. bovis. The observation was made that E. bovis infection appears conducive to the host acquiring more eimerian species. No symptoms of clinical coccidiosis occurred during the study. PMID:24702772

Pyziel, Anna M; Jó?wikowski, Micha?; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

2014-05-28

40

Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia  

E-print Network

, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 7 Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Toxoplasma gondii: Boris Striepen, University of Georgia, United States of America Received October 17, 2011; Accepted

Arnold, Jonathan

41

The present state of species-systematics in Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882 (Protista, Sporozoa, Coccidia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882, including the synonymous genus Frenkelia Biocca, 1968, (Sarcocystidae Poche, 1913) is revised on the basis of named species. A list is given of 189 species in continuation of the earlier lists of Levine & Tadros (1980, with 93 species) and Levine (1986, with 122 species; 1988, with 123 species including Frenkelia). Fourteen species are declared

Klaus Odening

1998-01-01

42

Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

43

Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

Dubey, J P

1982-12-01

44

Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

45

IMMUNOSTIMULATING COMPLEXES INCORPORATING E. TENELLA ANTIGENS AND PLANT SAPONINS AS AN EFFECTIVE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR COCCIDIA VACCINE IMMUNIZATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are a unique, multimolecular structure formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins of plant origin and are an effective delivery system for various kinds of antigens. The uses of ISCOMs formulated with saponins from plants native to Kazakhs...

46

Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution. PMID:9914693

Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

1998-12-01

47

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Infecting Cricetid Rodents from Alaska, U.S.A., and Northeastern Siberia, Russia, and Description of a  

E-print Network

clethrionomydis, Isospora clethrionomysis, and a new Eimeria species); 34/187 (18%) Synaptomys borealis (Eimeria spp. 6, 7, 8, Eimeria synaptomys). In the Cricetidae from Siberia, we found the following infections

48

New host and locality records of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from rodents in the southwestern and western United States.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven murid and heteromyid rodents were collected from various sites in the southwestern and western United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah) and Baja California Norte, Mexico, and their feces were examined for coccidial parasites. Of these, 53 (36%) were infected with at least 1 coccidian; 45 of 53 (85%) of the infected rodents harbored only 1 species of coccidian. Infected rodents included: 10 of 22 (45%) Neotoma albigula, 3 of 11 (27%) Neotoma floridana, 2 of 14 (14%) Neotoma lepida, 15 of 29 (52%) Neotoma micropus, 5 of 8 (63%) Peromyscus crinitis, 6 of 6 (100%) Peromyscus difficilis, 1 of 2 (50%) Peromyscus eremicus, 9 of 34 (26%) Sigmodon hispidis, and 2 of 3 (67%) Sigmodon ochrognathus; 4 Neotoma cinerea, 3 Neotoma devia, 3 Neotoma mexicana, 1 Peromyscus maniculatus, 1 Onychomys leucogaster, 1 Onychomys torridus, 3 Chaetodipus fallax, and 2 Chaetodipus penicillatus were negative. Although no new species was found, the following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria albigulae from N. albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, Eimeria antonellii from N. albigula and N. micropus, Eimeria ladronensis from N. albigula, N. floridana, N. lepida, and N. micropus, Eimeria arizonensis and Eimeria lachrymalis from P. crinitis and P. difficilis, Eimeria lachrymalis from P. eremicus, Eimeria tuskeegensis from S. ochrognathus, and Eimeria roperi, Eimeria sigmodontis, Eimeria tuskeegensis, Eimeria webbae, and an unidentified species of Eimeria from S. hispidis. This report documents 12 new host and several distributional records for Eimeria species from murid rodents in Arizona, Texas, and Utah. PMID:1779282

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Planz, J V; DeWalt, T S

1991-12-01

49

Infection of white rat peritoneal macrophages with Toxoplasma gondii, (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) after Trypanosoma lewisi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection.  

PubMed

Peritoneal macrophages from Wistar rats, inoculated and non-inoculated with 10(6) T. lewisi trypomastigotes, were cultured and infected with 10(6) T. gondii tachyzoites. Multiplication rates of this parasite were studied after 1, 24 and 48 h of infection but there were not significant differences between the number of parasites found inside of macrophages coming, either from T. lewisi infected or non infected rats. On the other hand, in vivo studies of Toxoplasma multiplication inside peritoneal macrophages, showed that there is an increase of parasite number in cells from T. lewisi infected rats, as compared with those macrophages from non infected rats. This effect was statistically significant and was more evident after four days of infection. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that in vivo, but not in vitro T. lewisi infections, causes an important decrease of the natural resistance to T. gondii of the white rats, which is manifested by the major invasion and multiplication of the parasite inside of peritoneal macrophages. PMID:10883328

Catarinella, G; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O M; Castro, A

1999-09-01

50

Differential susceptibility to the Withering Syndrome agent and renal coccidia in juvenile Haliotis rufescens, Haliotis discus hannai and the interspecific hybrid.  

PubMed

Withering Syndrome (WS) is a pathogenic chronic disease caused by the intracellular rickettsial-like bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (WS-RLOs), which affects many abalone species. The renal coccidium (Margolisiella haliotis) has often been observed concurrent with WS infection. The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a very susceptible species to WS and is also infected by the coccidium M. haliotis. In contrast, the Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai is not infected by these parasites. Interspecific hybridization is a method for improving important traits in animal husbandry. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibility to WS-RLO and M. haliotis infection in the hybrid generated from a cross between red and Japanese abalones. Juveniles from both species and the interspecific hybrid were challenged by exposure to effluent from red abalone adults infected with both parasites. The animals were analyzed by histology at 130days post-challenge. A 33% prevalence WS-RLOs was observed in the red abalone H. rufescens, whereas a 20% prevalence was observed in the hybrid. Infections were graded on a scale of 0-3. Of these red abalones infected, 53% presented grade 1 infection intensity, 10% had grade 2 infections, and 50% had grade 3 infections. However, the hybrids only presented intensities at the extremes of the scale; of those infected 33% showed grade 1 infections and 66% had grade 3 infections. The coccidium prevalence was 7% in red abalone individuals and 13% in the hybrid abalone. In contrast, the Japanese abalone did not present infections with either parasite. As with the prevalence, the infection intensities for the coccidium were higher in the hybrid abalone; of those infected 25% had grade 2 infections, and 75% had grade 3 infections, but the red abalone presented only grade 2 infection intensities. Therefore, the hybrid did not inherited non-susceptibility or resistance characteristics of the parental H. discus hannai and possessed biological conditions that could foster development of both parasites. Development of a culture based on this hybrid abalone should consider its susceptibility to infection by coccidian, WS-RLOs and the potential for developing the WS disease. PMID:24333918

González, Roxana; Lohrmann, Karin B; Pizarro, Javiera; Brokordt, Katherina

2014-02-01

51

Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

1998-03-01

52

REDESCRIPTION OF NEOSPORA CANINUM DUBEY, CARPENTER, SPEER, TOPPER, UGGLA, 1988 AND ITS DIFFERENTIATION FROM RELATED COCCIDIA ESPECIALLY ISOSPORA BIGEMINA AND HAMMONDIA HEYDORNI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals, which before 1984, was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Infection with this parasite is a major cause of abortion in cattle and causes paralysis in dogs. Since the original description of N. caninum in 1988, considerable progress has been mad...

53

Two Eimerian Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Critically Endangered Arakan Forest Turtle Heosemys depressa (Testudines: Geoemydidae), with Description of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Coprological examination of nine Arakan forest turtles Heosemys depressa freshly imported from Myanmar revealed the presence of two species of Eimeria, one of which is described as a new species. Oocysts of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp. are broadly oval to subspherical, 28.0 (24-30) × 23.6 (22-25) µm, with a smooth, colourless, uni-layered wall ~ 0.6 µm thick, possessing a

David MODRÝ

2006-01-01

54

[Studies on coccidia of geese in the south-west region of France. Proposed key for the classification differentiation of different species based on the morphology of the sporulated oocyst].  

PubMed

Eight coccidian species found in the domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) in the south-west of France are described. An identification key based on the morphological features of sporulated oocysts is proposed. Of the eight species, two had not, previously, been reported in domestic geese; one of them might be a new species. PMID:18766700

Chauve, C M

1988-01-01

55

INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SARCOCYSTIS SPP. FROM GREYLAG (ANSER ANSER) AND WHITE-FRONTED (ANSER ALBIFRONS) GEESE TO OTHER CYST FORMING COCCIDIA USING 18S AND 28S rRNA GENE SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on cyst morphology, Sarcocystis cysts type I were found in one White-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and cysts type III in one Greylag goose (Anser anser) and two White-fronted geese. Sarcocysts isolated from infected birds as intermediate host have not been previously described and are unnamed. Type III sarcocysts detected in White-fronted and Greylag geese may illustrate the case of

Dalius Butkauskas; Aniolas Sruoga; Liuda Kutkien?; Petras Prakas

2007-01-01

56

Coccidia of Brazilian mammals: Eimeria corticulata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae) and Eimeria zygodontomyis n. sp. from the cane mouse Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).  

PubMed

Feces from a specimen of Tamandua tetradactyla (Linn.) from Portel, Pará State, north Brazil, contained two different coccidial oocysts; one identified as Eimeria tamanduae Lainson 1968, and the other as a new species, described here as Eimeria corticulata n. sp. Oocysts of E. corticulata are ellipsoidal, 37.4 x 30.4 (31.2-43.7 x 23.7-35.0) microns, shape index (length/width) 1.2 (1.0-1.5). Oocyst wall 2.5-3.7 microns thick and composed of two layers; an outer thick, brown-yellow one with radial striations, and a thin inner smooth one: no visible micropyle. Oocyst residuum a large globule of about 10.7 x 10.3 microns, usually accompanied by a number of smaller attached globules. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 21.0 x 11.0 (20.0-22.5 x 10.0-12.5) microns, with a conspicuous Stieda body; shape index 1.9 (1.6-2.2). Sporocyst residuum a small number of scattered granules: sporozoites 18.7 x 5.0 microns, with a large posterior refractile body. Eimeria zygodontomyis n. sp. is described in feces from Zygodontomys lasiurus (Lund) from the Serra dos Carajás, Pará. Oocysts ellipsoidal to cylindrical, 16.5 x 12.0 (13.7-18.7 x 11.2-12.3) microns, shape index 1.4 (1.2-1.5). Wall colorless, smooth, single-layered and about 0.6 micron thick: no micropyle. No oocyst residuum, but a polar granule of about 1.8 x 1.0 microns is sometimes present. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 8.4 x 5.5 (7.5-8.7 x 5.0-6.2) microns, shape index 1.5 (1.4-1.7), with a thin colorless wall and a delicate Stieda body. Sporozoites enclose a compact residuum of about 2.5 x 3.7 microns. PMID:2406431

Lainson, R; Shaw, J J

1990-01-01

57

COTTONTAIL (Sylvilagus floridanus) IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIAn  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccidia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E. minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from

J. P. WIGGINS; M. COSGROVE; H. ROTHENBACHER

58

Long Chain Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase as Novel Drug Targets in Cryptosporidium parvum  

E-print Network

of laboratory mice by Ernest Edward Tyzzer in 1907 (1). He precisely described its morphology and life cycle. The morphology of this protozoan parasite is similar to the coccidia, but lacking sporocysts, so that Tyzzer named it as Cryptosporidium muris...

Guo, Fengguang

2014-07-07

59

Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and...

60

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

E-print Network

Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in ...

Bushkin, G. Guy

61

Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

PubMed

Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Wasmuth, James D; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E

2012-04-01

62

Year-long presence of Eimeria echidnae and absence of Eimeria tachyglossi in captive short-beaked echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ).  

PubMed

The short-beaked echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ) is 1 of 5 extant species of monotreme, found only in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to identify the species of coccidia present and establish a range of subclinical Eimeria spp. (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) oocyst shedding in echidnas from eastern Australia over 18 mo. The coccidia were detected in 89% (49/55) of fecal samples from 12 long-term monitored and healthy captive echidnas, 75% (3/4) of 4 healthy long-term captive echidnas, 83% (5/6) of 6 short-term captive echidnas, and 60% (6/10) of 10 wild echidnas. Echidnas captive for 4 to 23 yr shed 100-46,000 oocysts g(-1) of E. echidnae and remained clinically healthy during this study. Sub-adult and adult wild, and short-term captive, echidnas shed oocysts of both E. echidnae and E. tachyglossi . The lack of coccidia in juvenile short-beaked echidnas suggests these animals are probably non-immune and should not be placed in environments heavily contaminated with oocysts. In addition, no oocysts were found in captive long-beaked echidnas ( Zaglossus bartoni bartoni , n ?=? 2) housed at Taronga Zoo. This study represents an important step in understanding the host-parasite interaction between coccidia and short-beaked echidnas. PMID:22236183

Debenham, John J; Johnson, Robert; Vogelnest, Larry; Phalen, David N; Whittington, Richard; Slapeta, Jan

2012-06-01

63

EFFICACY OF GARLIC AS AN ANTHELMINTIC IN ADULT BOER GOATS  

E-print Network

Abstract — The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L.) for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3%) garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml) during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p0.05). However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml), goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; pgoats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.

Mulumebet Worku; R. Franco; K. Baldwin

64

Experimental chemotherapy of mammalian coccidiosis with Bay g 7183.  

PubMed

Bay g 7183, a substituted sym. triazintrione derivative has a known high efficacy against poultry coccidia. Experimental investigations using the mouse coccidia E. falciformis indicated an activity also against mammalian coccidia. Minimum effective daily doses range between 0.25 to 10 mg/kg. Eimeria species used: E. falciformis (mouse(, E. contorta (rat), E. chinchillae (Mastomys), E. irresidua, E. magna, E. media, E. perforans, E. stiedae (rabbit), E. ashata, E. arloingi, E. faurei, E. ninakohlyakimovi, E. parva (sheep). A very appropriate mode of treatment, e.g. for rabbits is the dermal one (pour on) beside the oral route by using a stomach tube or with medicated food. Bay g 7183 is active both on schizogonic stages and gamonts. This explains the high efficacy even of single doses. If given e.g. once weekly it prevents or stops development of even massive experimental infections and their clinical symptoms. The value of E. falciformis as a test model is discussed. PMID:7198359

Haberkorn, A; Schulz, H P

1981-01-01

65

First report of Eimeria lancasterensis in a red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) in Turkey.  

PubMed

A case of coccidiosis in a young, red male squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) has been described in this report. The squirrel was found dead and presented to the department of pathology for necropsy. A traumatic lesion was observed on the face that could have caused death. At necropsy the large and small intestines were swollen due to fluid and gas. During the examination of gut content numerous coccidia oocysts were observed. After sporulation, the oocysts were identified as those of Eimeria lancasterensis. In the histopathological examination numerous coccidia developmental stages were observed in the epithelium of small intestine. This is the first report of Eimeria lancasterensis identification in squirrels in Turkey. PMID:19851975

Ozmen, Ozlem; Yukari, Bayram Ali; Haligür, Mehmet

2009-01-01

66

Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi).  

PubMed

Passerines are frequently parasitized by coccidia, especially species of the genus Isospora, with extra-intestinal stages that can be highly pathogenic causing serious clinical damage in young birds. Whilst there is still no effective treatment to completely clear isosporoid coccidia with extra-intestinal stages from a host species, our results showed that prolonged treatment with toltrazuril (BAYER AG, Leverkusen, Germany) can decrease the oocysts in faeces and thus reduce the extra-intestinal phase of the infection. The toltrazuril treatment is therefore probably indirectly effective against the systemic form of atoxoplasmosis. PMID:24224549

Jamriška, Ján; Lavilla, Lourdes A; Thomasson, Ann; Barbon, Alberto R; Lopéz, Javier F; Modrý, David

2013-12-01

67

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.-H.; Olsen, G.H.

2006-01-01

68

Eimeria that infect fish are diverse and are related to, but distinct from, those that infect terrestrial vertebrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Eimeria are ubiquitous Apicoplexan parasites (family: coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and rel...

69

A family of cysteine-rich proteins is involved in the formation of the oocyst wall of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among apicomplexan parasites, the coccidia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important pathogens of livestock and humans and the environmentally resistant stage (oocyst) is essential for their transmission. Little is known of the chemical and molecular composition of the oocyst wall. Currently, the only ...

70

Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

71

OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is known that oxidative stress occurs during the acute phase (days 5-7 post infection) of primary avian coccidia infections. This is a period of much host tissue destruction that is associated with maturation and shedding of oocysts. However, little is known about the host redox status during e...

72

RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

73

Current research on Sarcocystis species of domestic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Sarcocystis is composed of about 130 species of heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidia with differences in life cycle and pathogenicity. Pathogenic Sarcocystis spp. can cause disease in their intermediate hosts, in particular in ruminants. Research on Sarcocystis infections has been impeded by several facets of the parasites. Intermediate as well as definitive hosts can be parasitized by several different species

Astrid M. Tenter

1995-01-01

74

Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne

2006-01-01

75

A simple and efficient method for isolation of a single Eimeria oocyst from poultry litter using a micromanipulator  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chicken, which is the host for seven species of Eimeria, typically is infected simultaneously by multiple Eimeria species and the oocysts of coccidia are excreted in the feces. A prerequisite for investigation of individual Eimeria species is to isolate a single oocyst from fecal samples. A nov...

76

What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?  

E-print Network

1 What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats? Parasites commonly found in sheep and goats parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms parasites, the most common of which are coccidia (Eimeria or Isospora). How do sheep and goats get infested

Tullos, Desiree

77

FERAL CATS - CONTROVERSIES AND CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

92% of cats presented for sterilization were infested with fleas, and 37% had ear mites. In California, 54% carried intestinal ascarids, compared with only 4% of 70 pet cats. Tapeworms and coccidia were found in 26% and 13% of feral cats, compared with 4% and 0% of pet cats, respectively. The same study identified a higher rate of seropositivity for

78

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

79

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

80

INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A SPINNER DOLPHIN (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...

81

Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Broiler Chickens Coinfected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens Using an Animal Model of Necrotic Enteritis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) infection in commercial poultry has been increasing at an alarming rate. While pre-exposure of chickens to coccidia infections is believed to be one of the major risk factors leading to NE, the underlying mechanisms of CP ...

82

Enteric coccidiosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a review of intestinal coccidiosis in cats and dogs. Coccidia are single celled parasites of mammals and birds.There are many species of coccidian that parasitize dogs and cats, and some of these are zoonotic. These parasites are normally found in intestines and are passed in a resistant st...

83

Coccidial infection does not influence preening behavior in American goldfinches.  

PubMed

Preening behavior in birds is important for the maintenance of thermoregulatory and ornamental functions of plumage. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that birds trade off time between plumage maintenance and other activities. However, the condition-dependent constraints of preening remain virtually unstudied. Here, we present the first experimental test of the hypothesis that intestinal parasite infection impairs preening activity. We studied male American goldfinches (Spinus tristis), a species with carotenoid-based plumage coloration. Following pre-alternate (spring) molt, we manipulated the health of males by infecting some birds with Isospora spp. coccidia and keeping others free of the infection. Although the goldfinches increased preening throughout the captive period, we found no significant effect of coccidial treatment on preening behavior. The effect of coccidia on plumage maintenance may be more pronounced under natural conditions where birds have limited access to food and engage in more activities that might limit time available for preening. PMID:24882939

Surmacki, Adrian; Hill, Geoffrey E

2014-01-01

84

Isospora dromaii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae (Casuariiformes, Casuariidae).  

PubMed

A new species of Coccidia (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, which was observed in Brazil is described and named. Oocysts of Isospora dromaii n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoid in shape, measure 21.6?×?19.8 ?m, and have a double and smooth wall thickness of approximately 1.4 ?m. In this species, micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granules are absent. The sporocysts are slightly ovoid in shape and measure 13.7?×?10.0 ?m. Nipple-like Stieda body and prominent sub-Stieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small dispersed granules of varying sizes. The sporozoites are characterized by an oblong refractile body and one centrally located nucleus. This is the first description of isosporid coccidia infecting birds of the family Dromaiidae. PMID:25195056

dos Santos Teixeira, Carina; Gallo, Samira Salim Mello; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

2014-11-01

85

A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.  

PubMed

Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

2000-04-01

86

Genetic comparison of Neospora caninum with Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relationship ofNeospora caninum to protozoa classified in the family Sarcocystidae of the phylum Apicomplexa, the genomes ofN. caninum, threeToxoplasma gondii strains (RHa, CEP, TPR) and threeSarcocystis species (S. tenella, S. muris, S. gigantea) that were thought to be closely related coccidia were compared by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The genomic

Zhi-Gang Guo; Alan M. Johnson

1995-01-01

87

Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a

Jered M. Wendte; Melissa A. Miller; Dyanna M. Lambourn; Spencer L. Magargal; David A. Jessup; Michael E. Grigg

2010-01-01

88

Coprological survey in pet reptiles in Italy.  

PubMed

Faecal samples were collected from 324 pet reptiles showing no clinical signs, including 28 saurian species (n=192), three ophidian species (n=74) and three chelonian species (n=58). Samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by direct smear and faecal flotation, while direct immunofluorescence assays were used to reveal the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Overall, 57.4 per cent of the reptiles were harbouring intestinal parasites. These included oxyurids (16 per cent), coccidia (12.3 per cent), flagellates (9.3 per cent), strongyles (6.8 per cent), coccidia plus oxyurids (4.9 per cent), coccidia plus flagellates (1.8 per cent), coccidia plus strongyles (1.8 per cent), oxyurids plus strongyles (1.2 per cent), oxyurids plus flagellates (1.2 per cent), Cryptosporidium species (1.2 per cent) and strongyles plus flagellates (0.6 per cent). Intestinal parasites were more prevalent in saurians than in ophidians and chelonians, in insectivores than in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, and in wild-caught than in captive-born reptiles. A highly significant difference was observed for saurians versus chelonians (odds ratio [OR]=2.20, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.99), insectivores versus herbivores (OR=2.38, 95 per cent CI 1.26 to 4.49) and in wild-caught versus captive-born pet reptiles (OR=2.36, 95 per cent CI 1.27 to 4.40). PMID:21795307

Papini, R; Manetti, C; Mancianti, F

2011-08-20

89

Identifikation von Merozoiten der vier cystenbildenden Coccidien ( Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Frenkelia ) auf Grund feinstruktureller Kriterien  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  Cyst stages of the speciesSarcocystis tenella, Frenkelia spec.,Besnoitia jellisoni, andToxoplasma gondii are compared on the electron microscope. Ultrastructural differences between these 4 species are found sufficient to serve\\u000a as a basis for their exact taxonomic identification. Merozoites, which closely resemble merozoites of other coccidia in regard\\u000a to shape and ultrastructure, are found in cysts of all 4 species. In addition

Erich Scholtyseck; Heinz Mehlhorn; Bodo E. G. Müller

1973-01-01

90

Experimental microcyst sarcocystis infection in lambs: pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six 34- to 42-day-old lambs raised in coccidia-free conditions were inoculated with 70,000 sporocysts derived from sheep heart with microscopic sarcocysts. Fever and mild anorexia occurred between 25 and 33 days after inoculation. A transient anaemia was most marked 32 days after inoculation. Lambs were killed and examined 14, 25, 33, 42, 60 and 81 days after inoculation. Gross lesions

D OToole; SJ Duffell; DH Upcott; D Frewin

1986-01-01

91

First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

2010-05-01

92

Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.  

PubMed

A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India. PMID:24431536

Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

2013-04-01

93

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds. PMID:521379

Carpenter, J W; Spraker, T R; Gardiner, C H; Novilla, M N

1979-11-01

94

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

1979-01-01

95

Adenovirus group II-like infection in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar).  

PubMed

Seven live 5-to-6-wk-old chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) were examined because of increased lacrimation, swollen eyelids, and increased mortality. Gross lesions consisted of mildly enlarged and mottled white spleens, swollen eyelids with external scab formation, and watery intestinal contents. Microscopically, there were increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytic system cells in the spleen, some of which contained faintly staining basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, blepharoconjunctivitis, enteritis associated with coccidia and crop mycosis. Transmission electron microscopy of the spleen revealed icosahedral virus particles 65 to 75 nm in diameter, consistent with the morphology of adenovirus. Three out of seven chukars were positive for hemorrhagic enteritis virus by serology. PMID:18646470

Shivaprasad, H L

2008-06-01

96

Sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.  

PubMed

Muscle from Sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (Felis domestica) and dogs (Canis familiaris). Only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. The prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. Sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. They contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (N=55). Doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administered to 5 domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Domestic rabbits did not become infected, suggesting a strict host specificity for the intermediate host S. floridanus. PMID:405509

Fayer, R; Kradel, D

1977-04-01

97

Gastrointestinal parasites of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccictia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E.minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from 5 helminth species were found: Cittotaenia sp., Hastilesia tricolor, Passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type nematode species, and Trichuris sp. Five helminths were recovered from stomachs and small intestines: Cittotaenia sp. H. tricolor, Obeliscoides cuniculi,, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus. PMID:7463607

Wiggins, J P; Cosgrove, M; Rothenbacher, H

1980-10-01

98

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

99

An unusual coccidian parasite causing pneumonia in a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).  

PubMed

In June 1993 an unusual coccidian parasite was identified in lung tissue from a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), collected near Tucson, Arizona (USA), which died in respiratory distress. Histologically, there was evidence of severe, generalized interstitial pneumonia, associated with the parasite. Both asexual and sexual stages were seen. Schizonts, gamonts, and sporulated oocysts were seen in lung tissue. The parasite most closely resembled coccidia of the genus Lankesterella. This is the first report of such a coccidian parasite in the alveolar tissue of a cardinal. PMID:8627925

Baker, D G; Speer, C A; Yamaguchi, A; Griffey, S M; Dubey, J P

1996-01-01

100

Systems-Based Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona Genome Identifies Pathways That Contribute to a Heteroxenous Life Cycle  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the coccidia, a clade of single-celled parasites of medical and veterinary importance including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma. Unlike Eimeria, a single-host enteric pathogen, Sarcocystis, Neospora, and Toxoplasma are two-host parasites that infect and produce infectious tissue cysts in a wide range of intermediate hosts. As a genus, Sarcocystis is one of the most successful protozoan parasites; all vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals are hosts to at least one Sarcocystis species. Here we sequenced Sarcocystis neurona, the causal agent of fatal equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The S. neurona genome is 127 Mbp, more than twice the size of other sequenced coccidian genomes. Comparative analyses identified conservation of the invasion machinery among the coccidia. However, many dense-granule and rhoptry kinase genes, responsible for altering host effector pathways in Toxoplasma and Neospora, are absent from S. neurona. Further, S. neurona has a divergent repertoire of SRS proteins, previously implicated in tissue cyst formation in Toxoplasma. Systems-based analyses identified a series of metabolic innovations, including the ability to exploit alternative sources of energy. Finally, we present an S. neurona model detailing conserved molecular innovations that promote the transition from a purely enteric lifestyle (Eimeria) to a heteroxenous parasite capable of infecting a wide range of intermediate hosts. PMID:25670772

Blazejewski, Tomasz; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Pszenny, Viviana; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Namasivayam, Sivaranjani; Chiasson, Melissa A.; Chessman, Kyle; Tonkin, Michelle; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Hung, Stacy S.; Bridgers, Joshua; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Howe, Daniel K.

2015-01-01

101

A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 ?m, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

102

Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

2015-04-01

103

The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T. gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

2013-01-01

104

Coccidian parasites of intertidal fishes from Wales: systematics, development, and cytochemistry.  

PubMed

Examination of littoral fish Blennius pholis and Cottus bubalis caught at Aberystwyth and Porth Cwyfan, Wales, U.K. revealed 2 species of coccidia. Eimeria dingleyi sp. n. Oocysts spherical (16.1-19.2) to subspherical (13.9-14.2 X 18.8-20.0) micron, with thin walls; sporulation outside the host to produce ellipsoid sporocysts; endogenous phases in epithelial cells throughout intestine; 26 of 58 B. pholis infected. Eimeria variabilis (Théohan) Reichenow. Oocysts spherical (11.9-14.6) to subspherical (9.2-10.9 X 13.9-14.3) micron, sporulation in lining of pyloric ceca and rectum; previously unrecorded schizonts and gametocytes present; 21 of 25 C. bubalis infected. Electron microscopy revealed that the oocyst wall of E. variabilis consists of a thin membrane whereas the sporocyst wall is thick and 3-layered. Typical oocyst wall-forming bodies were absent from the macrogamete. Cytochemical tests on the endogenous stages of E. dingleyi and E. variabilis indicated that in general they resembled other coccidia in their chemical constitution. PMID:660568

Davies, A J

1978-02-01

105

Assessment of recombinant bovine somatotropin as an immunomodulator during avian coccidiosis: immunization with living oocysts.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis, a disease of great economic importance to the poultry industry, is generally controlled prophylactically by additions of anticoccidial drugs to the feed. However, increasing development of drug-resistant coccidia species has stimulated searches for alternative control methods, one of which is vaccination. As part of this effort, recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbST) was tested as a possible immune stimulator in combination with live oocyst vaccination. At a dose of 0.045 mg per chick, given by s.c. injection at 1 d of age, rbST did not improve immunity developed by immunization with 500 or 2,500 oocysts of Eimeria maxima as judged by weight gain and lesion scores. At a single dose of 0.09 mg per chick given at 1 d of age in combination with IMMUCOX, rbST provided some protection against challenge infection with Eimeria tenella but not Eimeria acervulina as judged by reduction in lesion scores. Treatment with 0.09 mg rbST per chick alone at 1 and 3 d of age was protective against challenge with E. tenella but not E. acervulina or E. maxima as judged by reduction in lesion scores. These results strongly indicate that rbST can act as an immune modulator in chickens infected with coccidia, and provide a basis for further investigations of its use as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:9251145

Allen, P C; Danforth, H D; Gregory, S A; Comens-Keller, P

1997-08-01

106

Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: Controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. PMID:25660426

Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

2015-03-15

107

Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal. PMID:22494981

Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2012-01-01

108

Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

2009-03-01

109

Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

PubMed Central

It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R.; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

2015-01-01

110

Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

PubMed

Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

2013-04-01

111

Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-arid zone of Eastern Kenya.  

PubMed

A study to identify and estimate the prevalence of parasites of local chickens in a semi arid area of Kenya was conducted between March 2005 and August 2006. Three hundred and sixty (360) local chickens purchased from Yathui division of Machakos were examined. Of those, 93.3% had helminths. Nematodes were recovered in 268 (74.4%) chickens whereas 245 (68.1%) had cestodes. Tetrameres americana (37.7%), Ascaridia galli (33.3%) and Heterakis gallinarum (22.8%) were the most important nematode species identified. Raillietina echinobothrida (33.3%) and Davainea proglottina (19.4%) were the two most important cestode species identified. Two coccidia species, namely Eimeria necatrix (6.7%) and E. tenella (16.7%) were isolated and identified as per location in the digestive system. Important ectoparasites identified included Echidnophaga gallinacea (76.7%), Menacanthus stramineus (79.4%) and Dermanyssus gallinae (60.0%). Endo-parasites (helminths and coccidia) occurred in significantly (p<0.05) higher frequencies during the wet season than during the dry season. On the contrary, ecto-parasites were significantly (p<0.05) more fequent during the dry season. Male chickens generally exhibited increased odds for the occurrence of parasites than female birds. Further investigations are required to establish a plausible explanation for this. Overall, parasitism was a big constraint to chicken productivity in the study area. Urgent integrated parasite control approaches should be initiated to address parasitism in chickens in the Yathui cluster. PMID:18422252

Mungube, E O; Bauni, S M; Tenhagen, B-A; Wamae, L W; Nzioka, S M; Muhammed, L; Nginyi, J M

2008-02-01

112

Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

2010-11-01

113

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites Aggregata octopiana and Aggregata eberthi (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) from the NE Atlantic coast using 18S rRNA sequences.  

PubMed

The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. PMID:23498588

Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino

2013-08-01

114

Is there an immunological cost to carotenoidbased ornamental coloration  

E-print Network

Originally it was proposed that dietary access alone might explain variation in expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Endler 1980; Kodric-Brown 1985; Hill 1990). By this idea, carotenoids are scarce in the environment, and only those individuals in the best condition gain access to sufficient carotenoids for maximum ornament display. To this idea of limited access was added the idea that parasites might negatively impact expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Milinski and Bakker 1990; Houde and Torio 1992; Zuk 1992). Indeed, from studies with poultry it is well established that coccidia (protozoan gut parasites) directly inhibit carotenoid absorption (Ruff et al. 1974; Augustine and Ruff 1983; Allen 1987, 1992; Tyczkowski et al. 1991). In several studies with species that have carotenoid-based ornamental display, it has been shown that parasites, including particularly coccidia, inhibit expression of carotenoid pigmentation (Milinski and Bakker 1990; Houde and Torio 1992; Brawner 1997; Thompson et al. 1997). It seems likely that parasite load and limited access to dietary carotenoids combine to determine color expression in many species of animals (Hill 1999). Carotenoids are used for more than integumentary colorants in animals. Some carotenoids, particularly betacarotene and related molecules, function as vitamin A precursors (Bauernfeind 1972). In addition, a variety of carotenoids, including both carotenoids that serve as vitamin A precursors and carotenoids that do not serve as vitamin A precursors, have been found to reduce the risk of infection

Geoffrey E. Hill

1999-01-01

115

Enteric coccidiosis in the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli).  

PubMed

Enteric coccidiosis may cause significant morbidity and mortality in juvenile brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Morphology of sporulated oocysts indicates that at least two Eimeria species are able to infect the brown kiwi. A histological study of the endogenous stages of coccidia was undertaken in the intestinal tracts of ten naturally infected young kiwi. Sequential sectioning of the entire intestinal tract allowed identification and recording of the distribution of the various coccidial life stages. Macromeronts measuring 268 × 162 ?m when mature were found mainly within the lamina propria of the proximal one third of the small intestine. A smaller form of lamina propria meront was also identified (8.7 × 6.4 ?m) with a similar distribution to the macromeronts. Small meronts (4.4 × 3.8 ?m) were also identified in mucosal epithelial cells, with the overall peak in distribution within the intestinal tract being distal to the lamina propria meronts. Three morphologically distinctive gametocytes were identified. Type A gametocytes contained within epithelial cells shared the same distribution as the epithelial meronts. Polyps containing large numbers of type B gametocytes within the distal intestinal tract were found in two cases, and type C gametocytes were identified throughout the entire intestinal tract in one case only. The observational nature of this study precludes complete knowledge of the parasite life cycles using histology alone. However, it is likely that each of the three morphologically distinct gametocytes represents a separate species of enteric coccidia. PMID:22837099

Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Pomroy, W E; Castro, I; Howe, L

2012-10-01

116

Pulmonary lesions in disseminated visceral coccidiosis of sandhill and whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (Grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (Grus americana), were studied. Eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC). The remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria reichenowi and/or E. gruis; five chicks served as controls. There were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. Necropsy of naturally infected adult birds revealed nodules in many organs, including the lung, air sacs, trachea and nares. Artificially infected sandhill cranes and the whooping crane chicks that died from DVC had congestion and consolidated areas in the lung with frothy fluid in the airways. Grossly visible nodules were observed from 10 days postinoculation. Granulomatous pneumonia and tracheitis were observed with light microscopy. Lesions were associated with merogonic and gametogonic stages of eimerian coccidia. Granulomas and granulomatous foci contained parasitized large mononuclear cells. Merogonic stages were seen in lymphoid cells by ultrastructural examination. Oocysts were observed in the trachea and bronchial mucosa and admixed with exudate in the airways, indicating that crane eimerians can complete their life cycle at these sites. Of the few eimeriid coccidia that have extraintestinal stages of development in birds and mammals, only the species in cranes complete their life cycle in both the digestive and respiratory tracts. PMID:2810553

Novilla, M N; Carpenter, J W; Jeffers, T K; White, S L

1989-10-01

117

[Endoparasites in swine in different age groups and management systems].  

PubMed

In different age groups endoparasites are of varying importance. Sows are predominantly infected with gastrointestinal strongyles (mainly Oesophagostomum spp.), Ascaris suum and Eimeriae, to a lesset extent with Trichuris suis, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi or Isospora suis, while in suckling piglets I. suis and occasionally S. ransomi frequently occur. Weaners and fatteners are infected with coccidia and gastrointestinal strongyles, later with A. suum. Whipworms are also found occasionally. I suis causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets, while in older animals the infection is not correlated with disease. Damage induced by helminths is mainly due to reduced performance, in the case of ascarosis to reduced carcass value. Therefore planned antiparasitic measures should be taken at all stages of pig keeping. Hygienic measures can reduce infection pressure; however parasite elimination is difficult to obtain under conventional management conditions. Consequently the control of parasitic infection at the early stage of piglet production is desirable. PMID:10816911

Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

2000-04-01

118

Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.  

PubMed

We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

2008-09-01

119

Electron microscopic study of the developmental stages of Eimeria intestinalis cheissin, 1948 in domestic rabbit. (Oryctolagus Cuniculus) with reference to endodyogeny.  

PubMed

The endogenous stages in Eimeria intestinalis were studied in experimentally infected coccidia-free rabbits by transmission electron microscopy. Four asexual generations were ob- served.Two types of merozoites were reported. Binucleated merozoites possess all the characteristics of apical complex indicating asexual reproduction by endodyogeny. While the second type, the mononuclear merozoites have one central nucleus. Gamonts were developed mainly from the third generation merozoites where the mature gamonts were recorded together with the fourth generation schizonts. Macro- and microgametogenesis were clearly observed. Development of microgametes and its fine structural characteristics were detected. Mature macrogametes with central large nucleus and the appearance of two types of wall forming body (I, II) were observed. Many reserve food materials including amylopectin granules and lipids droplets were very characteristic. Control experimentally infected rabbits shed unsporulated oocysts on the day eight p.i. PMID:25643495

Elfayoumi, Hoda; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M

2014-12-01

120

Epizootic mortality of free-living green turtles, Chelonia mydas, due to coccidiosis.  

PubMed

At least 70 wild green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, died in the Moreton Bay area of southeast Queensland, Australia over 6 wk in spring 1991. Based on the necropsy of 24 turtles, there was a severe enteritis or encephalitis associated with Caryospora cheloniae, a coccidial pathogen previously recorded only in farm-reared Ch. mydas hatchlings. Infection was characterized by the presence of coccidia in extra-intestinal lesions. Oocysts were observed to sporulate, after which sporozoites escaped into seawater to form a novel stellate configuration. We conclude that C. cheloniae is pathogenic for life stages other than hatchling Ch. mydas and that naturally-occurring coccidiosis is a significant disease of free-living Ch. mydas. PMID:8355356

Gordon, A N; Kelly, W R; Lester, R J

1993-07-01

121

Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in central Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces from 60 bats representing 5 species and 4 genera collected in central Wyoming in 2001 were examined for the presence of coccidia. Two species of Eimeria were identified in 4 bats representing 2 species of Myotis. All infected animals harbored a single species; there was no multispecies infection. Eimeria catronensis was recovered from 3 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Eimeria californicensis was identified from a single long-legged myotis (Myotis volans). Both represent new geographic records and the second a new host record. Eimeria catronensis-like oocysts were recovered from a single silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Descriptions and taxonomic summaries for the eimerian species are presented in this study. PMID:15165058

Seville, Robert S; Gruver, Jeffrey

2004-04-01

122

A new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting Onychomys species (Rodentia: Muridae) in New Mexico and Arizona.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 3 species of Onychomys (Rodentia: Muridae) captured in New Mexico and Arizona were examined for coccidia. Six of the 59 (10%) were infected with a new species of Eimeria. Sporulated oocysts (n = 105) of this new species are subspheroidal, 17.4 x 16.1 (14-21 x 13-19) microm, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.4 x 5.7 (9-12 x 5-8) microm. This species occurred in 3 of 24 (13%) Onychomys arenicola, 2 of 31 (6%) Onychomys leucogaster from New Mexico, and 1 of 4 (25%) Onychomys torridus from Arizona. Isolates recovered from O. leucogaster and O. torridus were inoculated into O. leucogaster (n = 5) and produced infections with a prepatent period of 7 days and a patent period of 7-23 days. PMID:9920315

Hnida, J A; Wilson, W D; Duszynski, D W

1998-12-01

123

Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 ?m, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 ?m, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 ?m, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 ?m, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

124

Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.  

PubMed

The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

2010-01-01

125

Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443

Wendte, Jered M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Jessup, David A.; Grigg, Michael E.

2010-01-01

126

Parasitism and physiological trade-offs in stressed capybaras.  

PubMed

Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Costa, Sebastián A; Marini, M Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J; Robles, M Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G; Beldomenico, Pablo M

2013-01-01

127

Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras  

PubMed Central

Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

2013-01-01

128

DNA barcoding identifies Eimeria species and contributes to the phylogenetics of coccidian parasites (Eimeriorina, Apicomplexa, Alveolata).  

PubMed

Partial (? 780 bp) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and near complete nuclear 18S rDNA (? 1,780 bp) sequences were directly compared to assess their relative usefulness as markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). Fifteen new COI partial sequences were obtained using two pairs of new primers from rigorously characterised (sensu Reid and Long, 1979) laboratory strains of seven Eimeria spp. infecting chickens as well as three additional sequences from cloned laboratory strains of Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 and GT1) and Neospora caninum (NC1) that were used as outgroup taxa for phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on COI sequences yielded robust support for the monophyly of individual Eimeria spp. infecting poultry except for the Eimeria mitis/mivati clade; however, the lack of a phenotypically characterised strain of E. mivati precludes drawing any firm conclusions regarding this observation. Unlike in the 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic reconstructions, Eimerianecatrix and Eimeria tenella formed monophyletic clades based on partial COI sequences. A species delimitation test was performed to determine the probability of making a correct identification of an unknown specimen (sequence) based on either complete 18S rDNA or partial COI sequences; in almost all cases, the partial COI sequences were more reliable as species-specific markers than complete 18S rDNA sequences. These observations demonstrate that partial COI sequences provide more synapomorphic characters at the species level than complete 18S rDNA sequences from the same taxa. We conclude that COI performs well as a marker for the identification of coccidian taxa (Eimeriorina) and will make an excellent DNA 'barcode' target for coccidia. The COI locus, in combination with an 18S rDNA sequence as an 'anchor', has sufficient phylogenetic signal to assist in the resolution of apparent paraphylies within the coccidia and likely more broadly within the Apicomplexa. PMID:21515277

Ogedengbe, Joseph D; Hanner, Robert H; Barta, John R

2011-07-01

129

Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

2013-01-01

130

Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17-20 × 14-16) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10-11 × 7-8) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28-35 × 18-24) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14-16 × 10-12) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea. PMID:23517292

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N

2013-08-01

131

Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmen, T.E.

2005-01-01

132

Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy  

PubMed Central

Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR?=?14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR?=?4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds. PMID:22536128

Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata

2012-01-01

133

A 20-year disease survey of captive formosan serows (Capricornis swinhoej) at the Taipei Zoo (1991-2011).  

PubMed

The Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) is endemic to Taiwan. The wild population has declined dramatically over the past few decades and the species is listed as a "precious and rare species" protected under law in Taiwan. Disease investigations have been rare except for sporadic observations of wild individuals, and no long-term disease survey has been performed on this species. The objective of this study was to identify and report on the most common diseases in captive Formosan serows and determine the potential causes. Medical records of Formosan serows (n = 62) housed at the Taipei Zoo over a 20-yr period (1991-2011) were collected and analyzed for this study. The most common diseases affected the gastrointestinal system and the skin. Parasitic etiologies accounted for greater than 85% of these diseases, and coinfection was common. Coccidia and lice were the most common endo- and ectoparasites, respectively. High mortality was noted in serows less than 1 yr old associated with parasitism. The results from this study could provide vital information on disease prevention and species management, which may greatly help in rehabilitation of captive and wild populations. PMID:25314814

Wang, Lih-Chiann; Ho, Hong-Pong; Yu, Jane-Fang

2014-09-01

134

Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Formin 3, an Actin Nucleator Dispensable for Tachyzoite Growth and Motility  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity. PMID:22210829

Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France

2012-01-01

135

Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.  

PubMed

In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

Davidson, Rebecca K; Øines, Øivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

2013-10-01

136

Evidence for a recent population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for example, those assigned to the genus Besnoitia, remains poorly defined. Here, we characterize the extent of genetic variation among populations of Besnoitia tarandi, a parasite whose intermediate hosts include reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Isolates from the Canadian Arctic and Finnish sub-Arctic were genotyped at six microsatellite loci, the first internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA, and the RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) encoded in the plastid genome. Remarkably, all isolates exhibited the same multilocus genotype, regardless of the isolate's geographic origin. This absolute monomorphism occurred despite the capacity of these loci to vary, as established by evident differentiation between B. tarandi and two other species of Besnoitia, and variation among four isolates of B. besnoiti. The surprising lack of genetic variation across the sampled range suggests that B. tarandi may have experienced a recent population bottleneck. PMID:22742966

Madubata, Chioma; Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Elkin, Brett; Oksanen, Antti; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

2012-12-01

137

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Hammondia spp. microcysts in esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle, emphasized on their morphological differences.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis and Hammondia are two obligatory protozoan parasites. These genera belong to cyst-forming coccidia group of the phylum Apicomplexa. They both need two different hosts to complete their life cycles. Felids and canids can act as definitive hosts, while herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, are the most important intermediate hosts. Reports verify that no important disease has been caused by Hammondia spp.; on the other hand, Sarcocystis spp. can cause some severe infectious disease in livestock industry such as abortion. Economic losses are another concern due to carcass condemnation during meat inspection in abattoirs and decrease in the quality and quantity of milk and wool production. Due to the Sarcocystis and Hammondia tissue cysts being similar, the distinction between these different genera is so important. In this study, the prevalence of Sarcocystis and Hammondia in the esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle slaughtered in one of the industrial abattoir in Iran was reported and an easy and rapid method for accurate diagnosing of Sarcocystis and Hammondia bradyzoites was explained. PMID:25082016

Rassouli, Maryam; Ahmadpanahi, Javad; Alvandi, Ayda

2014-10-01

138

Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease  

PubMed Central

Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Turner, Wendy C.; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M.

2015-01-01

139

Survey of intestinal parasites in pigs from intensive farms in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

The prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in intensive pig farms in Guangdong Province, China between July 2000 and July 2002. Faecal samples from 3636 pigs (both sexes and five age groups) from 38 representative intensive pig farms employing different parasite control strategies were examined for the presence of helminth ova and protozoan oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites using standard techniques. Of the 3636 pigs sampled, 209 (5.7%) were infected with Trichuris suis, 189 (5.2%) with Ascaris, 91 (2.5%) with Oesophagostomum spp., 905 (24.9%) with coccidia (Eimeria spp. and/or Isospora suis) and 1716 (47.2%) with Balantidium coli. These infected pigs were mainly from farms without a strategic anti-parasite treatment regime. Concurrent infection of multiple parasites was common, and T. suis was the most common nematode infecting breeding, young and mature pigs. The results of the present investigation provide relevant 'base-line' data for assessing the effectiveness of control strategies against intestinal parasitism in intensively raised pigs in Guangdong Province, China. PMID:15710534

Weng, Y B; Hu, Y J; Li, Y; Li, B S; Lin, R Q; Xie, D H; Gasser, R B; Zhu, X Q

2005-02-28

140

First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated. PMID:25055642

Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

2014-06-01

141

Pathology of runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.  

PubMed

Extremely poor growth of some individuals within a birth cohort (runting) is a significant problem in crocodile farming. We conducted a pathological investigation to determine if infectious disease is associated with runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and to look for evidence of other etiologies. In each of 2005 and 2007, 10 normal and 10 runt crocodiles, with an average age of 5.5 months and reared under identical conditions, were sampled. Laboratory testing included postmortem; histological examination of a wide variety of tissues (with quantitation of features that were noted subjectively to be different between groups); hematology; serum biochemistry (total protein, albumin, globulins, total calcium, phosphorus, and iron); bacterial culture of liver and spleen (2005 only); viral culture of liver, thymus, tonsil, and spleen using primary crocodile cell lines (2007 only); and serum corticosterone (2007 only). The only evidence of infectious disease was mild cutaneous poxvirus infection in 45% of normal and 40% of runt crocodiles and rare intestinal coccidia in 5% of normal and 15% of runt crocodiles. Bacterial and viral culture did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. However, runt crocodiles exhibited significant (P < .05) increases in adrenocortical cell cytoplasmic vacuolation and serum corticosterone, decreased production of bone (osteoporosis), and reduced lymphoid populations in the spleen, tonsil, and thymus. Runts also exhibited moderate anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hypophosphatemia. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between runting and a chronic stress response (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). PMID:24395912

Shilton, C; Brown, G P; Chambers, L; Benedict, S; Davis, S; Aumann, S; Isberg, S R

2014-09-01

142

Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  

PubMed

Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W

2013-06-01

143

[The helminth and coccidial fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in view of the specific environmental conditions in pheasantries and in the wild].  

PubMed

Between October 1999 and January 2000 all together 151 male pheasants were examined for endoparasites. 33 one-year-old birds came from two pheasantries, the remaining 118 birds, aged between one and five years, were wildlife animals. The infestation extensy of all pheasants with endoparasites were 96.7%. A mostly low infestation with coccidia of the three species Eimeria (E.) phasiani, E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia were detected in 41% of all birds. E. tetartooimia was found in Germany for the first time. In 67.5% of the pheasants the five different species of capillaria (Capillaria (C.) annulata, C. bursata, C. contorta, C. perforans, C. phasianina) and in 84.1% the nematode Heterakis gallinarum were present. Pheasants in the capture group showed higher infestation intensy and extensy. In 51.5% of the pheasants of the capture group Syngamus trachea was present. In one pheasant an acanthocephalus (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus) was detected for the first time in Germany and in two pheasants a trematode of the genus Echinostoma was present. PMID:17009712

Gassal, Stefan; Schm?schke, Ronald

2006-01-01

144

Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.  

PubMed

A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild. PMID:10367647

Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

1999-03-01

145

Inhibition and biotransformation potential of veterinary ionophore antibiotics under different redox conditions.  

PubMed

Veterinary ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether compounds used extensively in the livestock industry to promote animal growth and prevent coccidia infection. However, the environmental fate and impact of IPAs are not fully understood. In this study, the inhibition and biotransformation potential of the most commonly used IPAs, monensin (MON) and salinomycin (SAL), were investigated under well-defined aerobic, nitrate-reducing, fermentative/sulfate-reducing, and fermentative/methanogenic conditions. Batch assays were conducted with mixed cultures developed from poultry litter (PL), PL-fertilized soil, and municipal anaerobic sludge. Significant transformation of MON and SAL was observed in aerobic, low-buffer capacity culture series as a result of abiotic acid-catalyzed IPAs hydrolysis induced by nitrification. Biotransformation of IPAs was the main transformation process in aerobic, high-buffer capacity culture series. MON persisted under fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions, whereas SAL was transformed by fermentative bacteria. Both MON and SAL were stable under nitrate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. At IPAs concentrations up to 1 mg/L, MON inhibited only methanogenesis, whereas SAL did not impact any of the biological processes investigated in this study. Multiple, new primary IPA biotransformation products were observed on LC/MS, and their molecular structures were tentatively identified by analyzing LC/MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Overall, MON and SAL exhibited different inhibition and biotransformation patterns at each redox condition tested, which could greatly influence their fate and impact upon their release into the environment as a result of agricultural activities. PMID:25340528

Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2014-11-18

146

Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.  

PubMed

Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

2000-05-01

147

Necrotic enteritis in chickens: development of a straightforward disease model system.  

PubMed

The interaction between Eimeria species and Clostridium perfringens was investigated in two different necrotic enteritis (NE) models: 120-day-old broilers were used in two separate experiments consisting of six groups (n=10) each. Besides controls, chickens were infected with coccidia on study day (SD) 18 (Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina (experiment 1) or Eimeria tenella and Eimeria brunetti (experiment 2) and/or a NetB toxin positive C perfringens strain (both experiments: SD 14 or SD 22, respectively)). Body weight, feed intake, mortality rate, clinical disease, Eimeria species oocyst excretion and C perfringens counts were recorded. NE and coccidiosis specific lesion scores were assessed (SD 24 and SD 30). In coinfected groups, NE-typical clinical signs occurred. Coccidiosis-specific lesions were most severe in coinfected groups (significant for E tenella, P<0.05). Most pronounced NE lesions occurred in coinfected chickens compared with C perfringens monoinfected groups (experiment 2, C perfringens infections on SD 22: P<0.05). In experiment 2, E tenella antibody levels were (non-significantly) higher in coinfected groups than in Eimeria species monoinfected groups. Thus, infection with E tenella and Eimeria brunetti followed by C perfringens inoculation is regarded as an easy to handle and suitable model for investigations into NE of chickens. PMID:24714053

Alnassan, A A; Kotsch, M; Shehata, A A; Krüger, M; Daugschies, A; Bangoura, B

2014-05-31

148

Effect of dinitolmide intercalated into Montmorillonite on E. tenella infection in chickens.  

PubMed

To enhance the anti-coccidial effect of dinitolmide and reduce its residual, the dinitolmide/MMT compounds were synthesized by the method of solution intercalation via dinitolmide intercalated into Na + -montmorillonite (Na?+?-MMT). The structure of compounds was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared. Its anti-coccidial effect was examined by Eimeria tenella infection experiment. One hundred fifty AA broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Chickens were orally inoculated with 5 × 10(4) E. tenella oocysts after dinitolmide was given. Their curative effects were observed. The results showed that intercalated dinitolmide expanded the basal spacing (d 001) of MMT from 12.6 to 15.2 Å. The IR bands of amide group in dinitolmide/MMT were detected at 1,533 cm(-1) which showed that dinitolmide was successfully intercalated into the interlayer spaces of MMT. The dinitolmide/MMT showed higher anti-coccidian oocyst activity compared with dinitolmide (p < 0.05). The dinitolmide/MMT compound can significantly increase body weight gains and reduce bloody diarrhea, lesion score, and oocyst excretion. The anti-coccidia index of dinitolmide/MMT group (165.21) is much higher than dinitolmide group (88.84). The dinitolmide/MMT hybrid systems can be more effective in control of coccidiosis in comparison to dinitolmide. PMID:24481902

Qu, Daofeng; Ma, Wenxiu; Ye, Yongmeng; Han, Jianzhong

2014-03-01

149

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

2014-06-01

150

Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

2014-01-01

151

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Eimeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild-caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris , and Cynomys ludovicianus . The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values > 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciurus niger and Sciurus niger cinereus and to Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single, well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses. However, within the clade, there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E

2011-04-01

152

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Emeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Sciurid Rodents  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris, and Cynomys ludovicianus. The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values greater than 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciuris niger and Sciurus niger cinereus, and Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony analyses. However, within the clade there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E.

2011-01-01

153

Molecular assessment of apicomplexan parasites in the snake Psammophis from North Africa: do multiple parasite lineages reflect the final vertebrate host diet?  

PubMed

The Apicomplexa are intracellular pathogens of animals, with the Coccidia being the largest group. Among these are the hemogregarines, which include some of the most common hemoparasites found in reptiles. Several studies have reported a possible pattern of prey-predator transmission for some of these parasites. Snakes from the Mediterranean region have been found to be parasitized with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those in lacertids and gekkonids, supporting the prey-predator transmission hypothesis. Here we analyzed specimens of the saurophagous genus Psammophis from North Africa, an ecologically different region. Through molecular analysis of tissue samples we detected 3 different apicomplexan parasites: Caryospora, Sarcocystis, and Hepatozoon. Caryospora was detected in a Forskål's sand snake Psammophis schokari from Algeria, constituting the first time these parasites have been detected from a tissue sample through molecular screening. The obtained Sarcocystis phylogeny does not reflect the relationships of their final hosts, with the parasites identified from snakes forming at least 3 unrelated groups, indicating that it is still premature to predict definitive host based on the phylogeny of these parasites. Three unrelated lineages of Hepatozoon parasites were identified in Psammophis, each closely related to lineages previously identified from different lizard groups, on which these snakes feed. This once again indicates that diet might be a key element in transmission, at least for Hepatozoon species of saurophagous snakes. PMID:23537006

Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

2013-10-01

154

Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

2013-01-01

155

A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp. (Testudines: Testudinidae), from the Dallas Zoo.  

PubMed

During January 1994, feces from a captive juvenile Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp., from the Dallas Zoo, Dallas County, Texas was examined for coccidia. The tortoise was found to harbor an eimerian which is described as new. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria iversoni n. sp. were ovoidal with a smooth, single-layered wall (? 0.5-0.8) that measured (L × W) 13.5 × 10.3 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule(s) were all absent; 2 conical projections were present on 1 end of oocyst and measured 1.0-1.5. Sporocysts were elongate-ellipsoidal and measured 8.3 × 4.5 ?m, with L/W of 1.8; a Stieda body (? 0.5 high) was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was composed of 2-5 granules in a compact mass between sporozoites; sporozoites were banana-shaped and measured 9.5 × 2.5 in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. This is only the second time an eimerian has been reported from Galápagos tortoises. PMID:24006862

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Roberts, David T

2014-02-01

156

Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. Methods In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA). Results Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis. PMID:21645291

2011-01-01

157

Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

1984-01-01

158

Accurate analysis of prevalence of coccidiosis in individually identified wild cranes in inhabiting and migrating populations in Japan.  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi cause coccidiosis, a major parasitic disease of cranes. By non-invasive molecular approaches, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of pathogens in two Japanese crane habitats; one is Hokkaido inhabited by the endangered red-crowned crane, and the other is Izumi in Kyushu where populations that consist mainly of vulnerable hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter. The non-invasively collected faecal samples from each wintering population were first subjected to host genomic DNA-targeted analyses to determine the sample origin and avoid sample redundancy. Extremely high prevalence was observed in the Izumi populations (> 90%) compared with the Hokkaido population (18-30%) by examining 470 specimens by microscopy and PCR-based capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE), using genetic markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Correspondence analysis of PCR-CE data revealed differences in community composition of coccidia between hooded and white-naped cranes. 18S rRNA and ITS2 sequences were determined from single oocysts excreted by red-crowned and hooded cranes. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA suggested that E. reichenowi was polyphyletic while E. gruis was monophyletic. Together with PCR-CE data, these results indicate different host specificity among the E. reichenowi type. Our data suggest that E. reichenowi comprises multiple species. PMID:21895916

Honma, Hajime; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yuki; Matsumoto, Fumio; Nakai, Yutaka

2011-11-01

159

Two new Eimeria species parasitic in corncrakes (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae) in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

In this study we describe 2 new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) parasites isolated from the feces of corncrake (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae), bred in captivity in the U.K. Oocysts of Eimeria crecis n. sp. were approximately spherical and measured 15.3 ?m (13-18) × 14.3 (12-16), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria nenei n. sp. were ellipsoidal and measured 23.6 (21-26) × 18.1 (17-20), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.3. A micropyle and polar granule were present. Surveying free-living, wild adult corncrakes in Scotland (U.K.) demonstrated both parasite species to be widespread. These are the first species described to infect the corncrake, and they are distinct from those previously found to infect members of the closely related crane family (Gruiformes: Gruidae). Partial amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 indicated a close relationship between the 2 proposed new species as a group distinct from the Eimeria species known to infect cranes. These newly identified parasite species have been associated with enteric disease in corncrakes being prepared for reproduction in captivity and reintroduction into England (U.K.). PMID:23347228

Jeanes, C; Vaughan-Higgins, R; Green, R E; Sainsbury, A W; Marshall, R N; Blake, D P

2013-08-01

160

Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.  

PubMed

Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O.?leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of parasitism and may underestimate impacts on wildlife populations. PMID:25830105

Davidson, Rebecca K; Li?ina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

2015-04-01

161

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

1987-02-01

162

Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

Pierce, A. E.

1962-01-01

163

Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts  

SciTech Connect

Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.

Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. (US Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1991-04-01

164

Eimeria from bats of the world. II. A new species in Tadarida femorosacca from Sonora, Mexico.  

PubMed

Between 1979 and 1980, 104 bats representing 13 species in 4 families were collected in California and New Mexico, U.S.A., and Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and were examined for coccidia; only 3 (3%) had oocysts in their feces. Bats examined and their infection rates were: Molossidae: 0 of 12 Tadarida brasiliensis, 1 of 18 (6%) T. femorosacca; Natalidae: 0 of 1 Natalus stramineus; Phyllostomatidae: 0 of 1 Choeronycteris mexicana, 0 of 2 Leptonycteris sanborni, 0 of 1 Macrotus californicus; Vespertilionidae: 0 of 9 Antrozous pallidus, 0 of 28 Eptesicus fuscus, 0 of 1 Lasionycteris noctivagans, 0 of 3 Lasiurus borealis, 2 of 22 (9%) L. cinereus, 0 of 1 L. ega, 0 of 5 Pipistrellus hesperus. Sporulated oocysts were only found in T. femorosacca and these represent a new species, Eimeria tadarida n. sp. They are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 19 x 25 (16-23 x 20-30) microns; a micropyle is absent, and fragments within the oocyst may be oocyst residuum or multiple polar bodies. The oocyst wall, approximately 1.5 microns, is composed of a mammillated outer layer and smooth inner layer. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8 x 12 (6-9 x 10-14) microns, and have a small Stieda body and a wide substieda body. This is only the 14th eimerian to be described from bats worldwide. Only unsporulated or partially sporulated oocysts of an eimerian were seen in 2 L. cinereus. These measured 28 x 25 (27-29 x 24-26) microns and had a mammillated outer oocyst wall. PMID:3357122

Duszynski, D W; Reduker, D W; Parker, B B

1988-04-01

165

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

2013-01-01

166

A seasonal survey of gastrointestinal parasites in captive wild impala antelope on a game facility south of Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

Faecal samples (n = 1947) from captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) were examined over a period of 14 months to determine quantitative seasonal helminth egg excretion patterns and qualitative protozoan oocyst excretion patterns. Geometric mean monthly faecal egg counts (FECs) ranged from 20 to 575 and coprocultures revealed three parasite genera, namely Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Strongyloides. Larvae of the Trichostrongylus spp. were most predominant from faecal cultures. No trematode eggs or lungworms were detected and eggs of the cestode Monezia were only seen in two samples during the entire study period. The nematode FECs showed a marked seasonal variation, being higher during the rainy season, moderate during the cool dry season and low during the hot dry season. The rainy season had significantly higher FECs than the dry season (P < 0.01). The percentage of helminth-egg positive faecal samples ranged from 90.6 to 100% in the rainy season and 72.4 to 85.6% in the dry season. Overall mean FECs in unpelleted faeces were significantly higher than in pelleted faeces (P < 0.01). However, the FECs were not significantly different among seasons in unpelleted faeces (P>0.05), but were significantly higher in pelleted faeces in the rainy season than the dry season (P < 0.05). Pellet size had a significant effect on FEC, with smaller pellets having higher FEC (P < 0.05). Strongyloides eggs and coccidia oocysts were only seen during the rainy season. This represents the first documentation of seasonal parasitic infestation in captive wild antelopes in Zambia. Treatment and control strategies for helminths in these captive wild impala are also suggested based on the findings from this study. PMID:22071007

Nalubamba, K S; Mudenda, N B; Malamo, M R

2012-12-01

167

A comparative transcriptome analysis reveals expression profiles conserved across three Eimeria spp. of domestic fowl and associated with multiple developmental stages.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis of the domestic fowl is a worldwide disease caused by seven species of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. The genome of the model species, Eimeria tenella, presents a complexity of 55-60MB distributed in 14 chromosomes. Relatively few studies have been undertaken to unravel the complexity of the transcriptome of Eimeria parasites. We report here the generation of more than 45,000 open reading frame expressed sequence tag (ORESTES) cDNA reads of E. tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, covering several developmental stages: unsporulated oocysts, sporoblastic oocysts, sporulated oocysts, sporozoites and second generation merozoites. All reads were assembled to constitute gene indices and submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. In the case of E. tenella, we also incorporated publicly available ESTs to generate an integrated body of information. Orthology analyses have identified genes conserved across different apicomplexan parasites, as well as genes restricted to the genus Eimeria. Digital expression profiles obtained from ORESTES/EST countings, submitted to clustering analyses, revealed a high conservation pattern across the three Eimeria spp. Distance trees showed that unsporulated and sporoblastic oocysts constitute a distinct clade in all species, with sporulated oocysts forming a more external branch. This latter stage also shows a close relationship with sporozoites, whereas first and second generation merozoites are more closely related to each other than to sporozoites. The profiles were unambiguously associated with the distinct developmental stages and strongly correlated with the order of the stages in the parasite life cycle. Finally, we present The Eimeria Transcript Database (http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb), a website that provides open access to all sequencing data, annotation and comparative analysis. We expect this repository to represent a useful resource to the Eimeria scientific community, helping to define potential candidates for the development of new strategies to control coccidiosis of the domestic fowl. PMID:22142560

Novaes, Jeniffer; Rangel, Luiz Thibério L D; Ferro, Milene; Abe, Ricardo Y; Manha, Alessandra P S; de Mello, Joana C M; Varuzza, Leonardo; Durham, Alan M; Madeira, Alda Maria B N; Gruber, Arthur

2012-01-01

168

[Histochemistry of nucleoside phosphatases and phosphoglucomutase in the small intestine during coccidiosis in piglets].  

PubMed

The first day after birth, 22 conventional piglets were experimentally infected with the oocysts of the coccidia of I. suis (infection dose 200,000 oocysts). The activity of 5-nucleotidase (5-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase, EC.3.1.3.5) and phosphoglucomutase (alpha-D-glucoso-1-phosphate phosphotransferase, EC.5.4.2.2) was densitometrically assessed in the mucosa of the small intestines of these piglets. Enzyme activities were studied in the infected piglets during the 2nd to 10th day after infection. The same histochemical examination was simultaneously performed in the intestinal mucosa of five control conventional piglets at an age of 2-14 days. 5-nucleotidase and phosphoglucomutase were found to have a high density in the mucosa of the small intestine of the control piglets: the high-density locations of these enzymes include, first of all, the supranuclear area of the absorption cells, the microvillous zone of enterocytes and the smooth muscle elements of lamina muscularis mucosae. The experimentally infected piglets showed a marked decline of the density of both enzymes during the infection. The deficit affected, for a transient period, the microvillous zone and the supranuclear region of enterocytes; the musculature of the mucous layer was affected permanently. The inactivity was more protracted in the case phosphoglutamase (especially 5 to 9 days after infection). The density of 5-nucleotidase showed a partial return to the normal already the 7th day after infection, with an interruption of resumption of activity on the 10th day. Resumption of enzyme activity in the lamina muscularis mucosae was not recorded during the infection. In the three locations under study, the density of none of the enzymes did reach parameters comparable with the controls at the end of the trial (10 days after infection). PMID:1836082

Kudweis, M; Lojda, Z; Julis, I

1991-03-01

169

Sophisticated Adaptations of Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa) Feeding Stages for Epicellular Parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background Gregarines represent a very diverse group of early emerging apicomplexans, parasitising numerous invertebrates and urochordates, and are considered of little practical significance. Recently, they have gained more attention since some analyses showed that cryptosporidia are more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combined microscopic approach, this study points out the spectacular strategy of Gregarina cuneata for attachment to host tissue and nutrient acquisition while parasitising the intestine of yellow mealworm larvae, and reveals the unusual dynamics of cellular interactions between the host epithelium and parasite feeding stages. Trophozoites of G. cuneata develop epicellularly, attached to the luminal side of the host epithelial cell by an epimerite exhibiting a high degree of morphological variability. The presence of contractile elements in the apical region of feeding stages indicates that trophozoite detachment from host tissue is an active process self-regulated by the parasite. A detailed discussion is provided on the possibility of reversible retraction and protraction of the eugregarine apical end, facilitating eventual reattachment to another host cell in better physiological conditions. The gamonts, found in contact with host tissue via a modified protomerite top, indicate further adaptation of parasite for nutrient acquisition via epicellular parasitism while keeping their host healthy. The presence of eugregarines in mealworm larvae even seems to increase the host growth rate and to reduce the death rate despite often heavy parasitisation. Conclusions/Significance Improved knowledge about the formation of host-parasite interactions in deep-branching apicomplexans, including gregarines, would offer significant insights into the fascinating biology and evolutionary strategy of Apicomplexa. Gregarines exhibit an enormous diversity in cell architecture and dimensions, depending on their parasitic strategy and the surrounding environment. They seem to be a perfect example of a coevolution between a group of parasites and their hosts. PMID:22900033

Valigurová, Andrea

2012-01-01

170

Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada.  

PubMed

The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canada's central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

Elmore, Stacey A; Lalonde, Laura F; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

2013-12-01

171

Paleogenesis and paleo-epidemiology of primate malaria*  

PubMed Central

The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood. The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the “quartan group” of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the “tertian group”; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent. Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe. It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question. PMID:14315710

Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

1965-01-01

172

Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population – Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition  

PubMed Central

Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O.?leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of parasitism and may underestimate impacts on wildlife populations.

Davidson, Rebecca K.; Li?ina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M.

2015-01-01

173

Absorption and deposition of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with three dosages of Eimeria acervulina oocysts.  

PubMed

1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of oocysts of Eimeria acervulina on intestinal absorption and skin deposition of xanthophylls (XAs) in broilers. 2. A total of 192 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups: an uninfected control group and three groups inoculated with either 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina by gavaging at 21 d. There were 4 replicate pens (2 male and 2 female) per group. 3. Plasma xanthophyll (PX) and skin yellowness (SY) were measured in live birds weekly. At 42 d of age, SY was measured in the breast and abdomen after chilling and in the breast 24 h post-processing on refrigerated carcasses. 4. In general, in all challenged treatments, and for the duration of the study, the average PX decreased by 0.02 ?g/ml (R(2) = 61.6%) for every 1000 inoculated oocysts, whereas PX increased by 1.26 ?g/ml/d in uninfected birds. 5. The average SY in live birds from 21 to 42 d of age decreased by 0.019 b*/every 1000 oocysts administered, while SY of uninfected controls increased by 0.57 b*/d. It was also noted that in all treatments females had a greater SY (6.17 b*) than males for the duration of the study. The SY of the breast and abdomen was correlated (r = 0.76) in chilled carcasses. Breast SY in 24 h refrigerated carcasses was greater in the control group and for female birds. 6. Oocyst excretion was different between inoculated treatments only on 7 d post-inoculation (PI). Coccidia lesion scores in the duodenum averaged 1+ in infected birds and 2+ in birds given the highest oocyst dose. PMID:24720798

Hernández-Velasco, X; Chapman, H D; Owens, C M; Kuttappan, V A; Fuente-Martínez, B; Menconi, A; Latorre, J D; Kallapura, G; Bielke, L R; Rathinam, T; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

2014-01-01

174

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

175

In vivo and in vitro efficacy of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against Eimeria spp in lambs.  

PubMed

The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) against ovine coccidia was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. In 3 in vivo trials weaned lambs were allocated into two treatment groups receiving diets with either lucerne (Medicago sativa) or sainfoin. During the trials, which lasted for 7 (trial 1) or 8 weeks (trials 2 and 3), oocysts per gram of faeces (OPGs), faecal scores and weight gain were recorded. In two of the experiments (trials 1 and 3) a reduction in the mean oocyst excretion rates was observed, starting three to four weeks after sainfoin hay feeding. This reduction ranged between 21.3% (trial 1) and 61.7% (trial 3) compared to the control values. As a result, a decrease in the total number of oocysts excreted (expressed as the mean area under the curve of the OPG) was observed from week 4 to the end of the two trials, respectively (trial 1: 42.6% reduction, p=0.05; trial 3: 52.4% reduction, p=0.06). The results did not show any significant diet effect on lamb growth rates and faecal scores. In the in vitro experiments the effect of 39 sainfoin extracts were tested in an oocyst sporulation inhibition assay. The Eimeria oocysts sporulation inhibition throughout the experiments did not exceed 10.7%, showing that extracts of this forages do not have a significant inhibitory effect on Eimeria oocyst sporulation. This was an initial attempt to investigate a possible anticoccidial effect of sainfoin and further studies are needed in order to better understand its mode of action against Eimeria. PMID:22482929

Saratsis, Anastasios; Regos, Ionela; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Treuter, Dieter; Joachim, Anja; Sotiraki, Smaragda

2012-08-13

176

An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets  

PubMed Central

To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log10 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log10 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J. Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F.

2013-01-01

177

Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada  

PubMed Central

The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canada’s central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

Elmore, Stacey A.; Lalonde, Laura F.; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

2013-01-01

178

Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).  

PubMed

Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes. PMID:23581440

Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

2013-04-01

179

Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations.  

PubMed

Translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. Methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. We used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. We adapted the method such that we considered a parasite (any agent of infectious or noninfectious disease) a hazard if it or the host had crossed an ecological or geographical barrier and was novel to the host. We included in our analyses hazards present throughout the translocation pathway derived from the interactions between host immunity and the parasite, the effect of parasites on populations, the effect of noninfectious disease agents, and the effect of stressors on host-parasite interactions. We used the reintroduction of Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) to England to demonstrate our method. Of the 24 hazards identified, 1 was classified as high risk (coccidia) and 5 were medium risk (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, Mycobacterium avium, Aspergillus fumigatus, tracheal worms [Syngamus sp. and Cyathostoma sp.], and Tetrameres spp.). Seventeen other hazards were considered low or very low risk. In the absence of better information on the number, identity, distribution, and pathogenicity of parasites of wild animals, there is uncertainty in the risk of disease to translocated animals and recipient populations. Surveys of parasites in source and destination populations and detailed health monitoring after release will improve the information available for future analyses of disease risk. We believe our method can be adapted to assess the risks of disease in other translocated populations. PMID:22533691

Sainsbury, Anthony W; Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca J

2012-06-01

180

Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients, Lao People’s Democratic Republic  

PubMed Central

Background HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. Methodology One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Principal Findings The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years) and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3). Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively). Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%). Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively), were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively). The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ? 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent regardless of their diarrheal status. Opportunistic infections were reported. Improving the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasite infections and the knowledge on their local risk factors is warranted. PMID:24662743

Paboriboune, Phimpha; Phoumindr, Niranh; Borel, Elisabeth; Sourinphoumy, Khamphang; Phaxayaseng, Saykham; Luangkhot, Elodie; Sengphilom, Bouachanh; Vansilalom, Yathmany; Odermatt, Peter; Delaporte, Eric; Etard, Jean- François; Rabodonirina, Meja

2014-01-01

181

Transfer of Cystoisospora suis-specific colostral antibodies and their correlation with the course of neonatal porcine cystoisosporosis.  

PubMed

Cystoisospora suis is the most pathogenic species of coccidia in suckling piglets, affecting them predominantly within their first three weeks of life. The clinical signs of neonatal cystoisosporosis include watery diarrhea and wasting, leading to significant economic losses for the farmer. Since neonatal piglets have an immature immune system, colostral transfer of maternal factors such as immune cells or antibodies is essential for controlling infections at that age. However, the role of C. suis-specific antibodies transferred from the sow to the piglets and possible correlations between antibody levels in the piglets acquired from colostrum with the clinical outcome of disease are currently not understood. To address this issue, 12 non-infected piglets and 14 piglets experimentally infected with C. suis on the third day of life were examined during their first four weeks of life. IgG, IgA, and IgM titers in the blood serum specific for sporozoites and merozoites of C. suis were evaluated, along with oocyst excretion and fecal consistency. Additionally, the antibody content in the colostrum and milk of three mother sows was determined. A transfer of naturally acquired C. suis-specific antibodies from sows to piglets with the colostrum could be demonstrated. Maternal antibodies in piglets' blood sera did not persist for longer than 14-21 days except for IgG which was present in high titers until the end of the study. Within 2-3 weeks after birth the onset of endogenous antibody production was noticed. Titers in blood serum showed a correlation with the severity of diarrhea which was positive for IgG and IgM (possibly due to increased consumption or loss of these antibodies) and negative for IgA. C. suis-specific mucus antibodies isolated from infected and non-infected piglets (n=6/group) on the 28th day of life were present in both groups, showing significantly higher titers of IgA and IgM in infected piglets. Maternally transferred antibodies acquired by natural infections of sows as observed in this study did not provide protection against the clinical manifestation of disease. The level and effect of transferrable maternal factors necessary for protection still need to be elucidated. However, correlations between antibody titers and fecal consistency in the piglets indicate that C. suis-specific antibodies might be useful markers for the expectable clinical severity of cystoisosporosis. PMID:23932639

Schwarz, Lukas; Joachim, Anja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia

2013-11-01

182

[Dynamics of endoparasite infections in rabbits at different rearing regimes].  

PubMed

This study was intended to evaluate the occurrence and seasonality of infection of coccidian and helminth parasites, in three rabbit warrens differently managed. Mothers stayed with their offspring on deep litter (farm A, 90 dams), in boxes cleaned weekly (farm B, 30 dams) or on slatted floor (farm C, 10 females), whereas all the young after weaning (1 to 5 months of age) were kept in cages with slatted floor. Animals were fed a complete balanced pelleted feed (warrens A and B) or traditional forage (herd C). Antiparasitic treatment involved coccidiostatic drugs. Robenidine (alternately with Lerbec in farm A) was added to food in the first two farms, whilst Sulfatyf mixed with water was given once after weaning in farm C. A total of 203 individual faecal samples from females of breeding stock, and 133 pooled samples from young animals, were collected on an annual cycle during 2007-2008 (February-January), and analyzed according to a modified concentration McMaster method. Coccidians were identified based on sporulated oocysts. A number of coccidian species (Eimeria perforans, E. media, E. magna, E. irresidua, E. exiqua, E. coecicola, and E. piriformis) were observed in all farms. The most pathogenic species--E. intestinalis was found both in farm A and B, whereas E. flavescens and E. stiedae--only in the former. The level of infection was high, especially in young rabbits, with the prevalence of 94.9 to 100% and mean intensity from 11,161 to 28,871 oocysts per 1 g of faeces (OPG) in a particular warren. The highest intensity of infection was observed in May, when the mean output increased to 29,454, 56,952, and 23,815 OPG in warrens A, B, and C, respectively. A nematode, Passalurus ambiguus, was detected in all searched farms, with the prevalence from 14.1% to 27.5%, depending on a farm. The species was more often seen in the first part of year. The other helminths (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Graphidium strigosum, and Trichuris leporis) were found only in rabbits of warren C. In this warren, the forage of farm origin was suggested to be prepared in a proper way in order to protect it from nematode transmission. The presence of coccidia and their specific composition has been continuously monitored in all farms, to estimate the efficiency of prophylactic measures undertaken. PMID:19670533

Nosal, Pawe?; Kowal, Jerzy; Nowosad, Bogus?aw; Bieniek, Józef; Kowalska, Dorota

2009-01-01

183

THE TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYST FROM CAT FECES  

PubMed Central

Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3–5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7–10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20–24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1–2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma cysts. The classification of T. gondii is discussed in relation to that of other isosporan coccidia of cats and dogs. The term "Toxoplasma oocyst" is introduced and Toxoplasma is classified in the family Toxoplasmidae of the suborder Eimeriina. The species Isospora bigemina is restricted to dogs, and I. cati to cats. I. felis and so-called I. rivolta from cats were noninfectious to dogs, and did not confer immunity to subsequent infection with I. canis and I. rivolta from dogs. PMID:4927658

Dubey, J. P.; Miller, Nancy L.; Frenkel, J. K.

1970-01-01

184

Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.  

PubMed

A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for < 0.1%. Anopheles marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a highly significant (P < 0.01) degree of exophagic behaviour. The present study constitutes the first effort to characterize the bionomics of anophelines in malaria endemic foci in different ecological situations in relation to malaria transmission in southern Venezuela and to provide relevant information to be considered when planning and implementing vector control programmes. PMID:18092972

Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

2007-12-01

185

Serologic, parasitic, and bacteriologic assessment of captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae), including endangered species, were studied (n = 130) for the assessment of health status, including Aburria jacutinga (black-fronted piping-guan, n = 42), Crax blumenbachii (red-knobbed curassow, n = 54), Craxfasciolata (bare-faced curassow, n = 28), and Penelope obscura (dusky-legged guan, n = 6). The exposure to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Salmonella pullorum (SP), Salmonella gallinarum (SG), avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were determined by serology, and SG and SP also were evaluated by culture. Ectoparasites and endoparasites were identified using light microscopy. Sera were negative by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to MG or MS, although serum was reactive to MG (32%, 42/130) by the rapid serum agglutination test (SAT). Although positive reactions (26.9%, 35/130) for SP and SG were detected by SAT, cloacal swab cultures were negative for SP and SG. IBDV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two dusky-legged guans (1.5%, 2/130). HI antibody titers to APMV-1 were found in 20 (15.3%) cracids, with titers ranging from 16 to 1,024. Fifty percent of birds (65/130) had ectoparasites. Lice (Menacanthus spp.) and mites (Astigmata: Analgesidae, Megninidae; Megninia spp.) were found in red-knobbed curassow; Megninia spp. also were found in bare-faced curassow, black-fronted piping-guan, and dusky-legged guan. Eleven black-fronted piping-guans presented dual parasitism by Megninia spp. and Ornithonyssus spp. Endoparasites were detected in 16.1% (21/130) of birds, and some with multiple parasites. Oocysts of coccidia and eggs of Capillaria spp. (Nematoda: Trichuroidea) were found in the feces of red-knobbed curassow. Eggs of Strongyloides spp. were found in the feces of bare-faced curassow, and eggs of Ascaridia spp., Capillaria spp., and Strongyloides spp. were found in black-fronted piping-guan. Cysts of Blastocystis spp. were found in dusky-legged guan. Antibodies to IBDV and APMV-1 indicate previous exposure. However, considering that birds were clinically normal, immune stimulation might have been from live chicken vaccine strain infections that are widely used in Brazilian poultry. The high parasitism levels indicate that a routine inspection for internal and external parasites is warranted. PMID:23505700

Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Junior, Francisco Carlos Ferreira; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

2013-03-01

186

A pathogenic new species of Eimeria from the pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis, in Washington and Oregon, with description of the sporulated oocyst and intestinal endogenous stages.  

PubMed

In January 2003, fecal samples from 13 live pygmy rabbits, Brachylagus idahoensis (Merriam, 1891), were collected at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, and sent to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be examined for coccidia. In July 2004, 14 more fecal samples were collected and sent to UNM, 6 from some of the same rabbits and 8 from 16 other rabbits (4 were pooled samples from siblings). In addition, tissue sections from 3 dead rabbits (2 from the Oregon Zoo, 1 from Washington State University) also were examined. Two of 4 (50%) pooled fecal samples and 8 of 17 (47%) 1-rabbit samples were positive for a single species of Eimeria, which we describe here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts were subspheroidal, 25.6 x 23.8 (22-28 x 21-27) microm, with a length:width (L:W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2). A micropyle (approximately 2 microm wide) and 0-1 polar granules were present, but an oocyst residuum was absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 13.4 x 8.1 (11-16.5 x 7.5-9) microm, with a L:W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and they had a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Tissue sections showed a heavy infection of the villous epithelial cells of the proximal and mid-small intestine with coccidial endogenous stages, but no stages were found in liver hepatocytes. Meronts with approximately 46 (26-70) merozoites per infected cell appeared to be fully developed and were subspheroidal, 14.8 x 13.9 (13-18 x 10.5-16.5) microm. Developing macro- and microgamonts were indistinguishable from each other and were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 10.4 x 9.5 (9-11 x 7.5-10.5) microm. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 14.2 x 13.7 (12-17 x 11-16) microm, and mature microgamonts were smaller and subspheroidal, 11.9 x 10.8 (10.5-13 x 9-12) microm. This eimerian seems to be extremely pathogenic to young pygmy rabbits, and given the precarious nature of this unique genetic population, it appears to be an emerging pathogen that deserves immediate further study. PMID:16108556

Duszynski, Donald W; Harrenstien, Lisa; Couch, Lee; Garner, Michael M

2005-06-01

187

[Histochemistry of acid phosphatase in small intestine mucosa in experimental coccidiosis in suckling piglets].  

PubMed

The activity of acid phosphatase (phosphohydrolase of orthophosphate monoesters; EC. 3.1.3.2) was evaluated densitometrically in the mucosa of duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 22 conventional piglets which were experimentally infected by oocysts of the coccidiae Isospora suis (infection dose of 200,000 oocysts) on day one after parturition (DAP). The activity of the studied hydrolase was investigated in the infected piglets during days two to ten after infection (DAI) in the intestinal mucosa (enterocytes) and in goblet cells. The density of the reaction product of acid phosphatase was simultaneously determined in the same mucosal cells of different sections of the small intestine in five control conventional piglets at the age of 2-14 days. In the small intestine mucosa of control piglets the activity of acid phosphatase was demonstrated to be located especially in the supranuclear zone of enterocytes. As for goblet cells, the reaction product of acid phosphatase is distributed in all zones (supra-, para-, infranuclear zones); the lowest density of this enzyme was found in the infranuclear zone. The activity of acid phosphatase is also localized in intestinal crypts: in their cells the enzyme concentration is decreasing from duodenum to caudal sections. Important changes were revealed, in comparison with the control data, in the development of the activity of acid phosphatase in the intestinal mucosa cells in the experimentally infected piglets. In the period of investigation (DAI 2-10) there were two stages of the development of the density of the enzyme reaction product. The first stage can be characterized by an increase, the other by a decrease in the level of acid phosphatase activity. Enterocytes are influenced in both stages, but the decrease in the density of the reaction product of acid phosphatase was observed only in absorption cells, and not in goblet cells. The increase in the activity of acid phosphatase occurs in the periods of DAI 4 and 9-10. Enzymatic deviations occur mainly in the absorption cells of the mucosa of duodenum and middle jejunum; in the cells of posterior jejunum and ileum an increase in the density of the reaction product of acid phosphatase was also demonstrated, but at the lower quantitative level (especially on DAI 4). The decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase has a protracted development and it takes place on DAI 5 to 8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1807026

Kudweis, M; Lojda, Z; Julis, I

1991-02-01

188

[Lysosomal activity in enterocytes in the small intestine in piglets experimentally infected with Isospora suis].  

PubMed

The lysosomal activity of enterocytes of the small intestine mucosa was investigated in gnotobiotic and conventional piglets experimentally infected on the first day after birth (DAB) by the oocysts of the coccidia Isospora suis. A method of the proof of beta-D-glucuronidase (EC.3.2.1.31.) activity was used to demonstrate lysosomes. The piglets were infected by different infection doses of oocysts (100,000 oocysts in gnotobiotic piglets and 200,000 oocysts in conventional piglets). In the gnotobiotic infected piglets the activity of beta-D-glucuronidase in enterocyte lysosomes was investigated in the period from day 3 to day 11 after infection (DAI) and in the infected conventional piglets in the period from day 2 to day 10 after infection. Comparing the control piglets, the group of gnotobiotic piglets at the age of 2-5 days and the group of conventional piglets at the age of 4-7 days, the higher activity of beta-D-glucuronidase was demonstrated in the lysosomes of intestinal mucosa enterocytes in the gnotobiotic control piglets (+5.30 of the average density value, Dx). In the infected gnotobiotic and conventional piglets the pattern of beta-D-glucuronidase activity was found to have three stages in the course of this infection. Two stages can be characterized by a great increase in the enzyme activity (DAI 3-9 in gnotobiotic piglets, DAI 2-3 and 7-9 in conventional piglets. The third stage, which is manifest mainly in the conventional infected piglets, is characterized by a marked decrease in the activity of beta-D-glucuronidase, reaching the level of control findings (DAI 10 and mainly 11 in gnotobiotic piglets. DAI 4-6 and 10 in conventional piglets). A topographical picture shows that the two stages of increase and the stage of beta-D-glucuronidase activity decrease occur in the whole small intestine without any predisposition defect of the enzyme in the different sections of the small intestine. PMID:1926681

Kudweis, M; Lojda, Z; Julis, I

1991-01-01

189

A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

Tuggle, B.N.

1982-01-01

190

Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.  

PubMed

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

2009-05-26

191

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Microtus spp. (Rodentia: Arvicolidae) from the United States, Mexico, and Japan, with descriptions of five new species.  

PubMed

Beginning in July 1980, 149 voles (Microtus spp.) representing 9 species and 14 subspecies collected in Japan, Mexico and the United States were examined for coccidia; 67 (45%) had oocysts in their feces. These included 1 of 3 (33%) M. californicus sactidiegi; 0 of 1 M. longicaudus longicaudus; 0 of 1 M. l. macrurus; 48 of 111 (43%) M. mexicanus including 11 of 26 (42%) M. m. fulviventer, 1 of 2 (50%) M. m. fundatus, 13 of 31 (42%) M. m. mexicanus, 1 of 4 (25%) M. m. mogollonensis and 22 of 48 (46%) M. m. subsimus; 5 of 8 (63%) M. montanus arizonensis; 6 of 6 M. montebelli montebelli; 2 of 4 (50%) M. oregoni oregoni; 5 of 13 (38%) M. pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus; 0 of 1 M. quasiater and 0 of 1 M. townsendii townsendii. The following coccidians were identified from infected voles: Eimeria saxei n. sp. (syn. E. wenrichi "B") from M. c. sactidiegi; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, E. wenrichi (syn. E. wenrichi "A"), and Eimeria sp. from M. m. fulviventer, Eimeria sp. from M. m. fundatus; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp., E. wenrichi, and Eimeria sp. from M. m. mexicanus; E. wenrichi from M. m. mogollonensis; Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp., E. saxei, Eimeria subsimi n. sp., E. wenrichi, Eimeria sp., and Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. from M. m. subsimus; E. tamiasciuri and E. wenrichi from M. m. arizonensis; Eimeria spp. from M. m. montebelli; E. saxei and E. wenrichi from M. o. oregoni; and E. ochrogasteri and E. wenrichi from M. p. pennsylvanicus. Sporulated oocytsts of Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp. were ellipsoid, 29.6 X 19.6 (27-34 X 18-22) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.4 X 8.9 (13-18 X 8-10) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria saxei n. sp. were subspheroid, 13.0 X 11.0 (11-14 X 10-12) micron with ovoid sporocysts 7.5 X 4.0 (6-9 X 4-5) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria subsimi n. sp. were ovoid/subspheroid, 25.1 X 18.7 (22-28 X 17-21) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 13.9 X 7.4 (13-15 X 6-8) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp. were subspheroid, 25.4 X 20.3 (23-26 X 19-23) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 11.3 X 7.8 (10-13 X 7-9) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. were subspheroid, 23.7 X 23.1 (21-26 X 21-26) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.9 X 10.8 (12-16 X 10-12) micron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3891951

Vance, T L; Duszynski, D W

1985-06-01