Sample records for coccidia

  1. Coccidia of feral swine from Florida.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Taylor, C; Frankenberger, W B; Belden, R C

    1982-12-01

    Fecal samples from 251 free-ranging feral swine (Sus scrofa) in Florida were examined for coccidia. Ten species of coccidia were recovered. In descending order with respect to prevalence, they were Eimeria porci, E debliecki, E neodebliecki, E scarbra, E suis, E cerdonis, E polita, E perminuta, Isospora suis, and E spinosa. Of the swine examined, 87% were passing oocysts and 82% of the infected individuals were shedding at least 2 species of coccidia. All age classes included infected individuals. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence were found among study sites. PMID:7174441

  2. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcoc...

  3. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

  4. Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

    2013-05-01

    New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

  5. Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Beltran, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in gut immunity in commercial poultry led to investigation of the effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma (rtIFN?) on parameters of immunity to avian coccidia. In vitro experiments consisted of exposing baby hamster kidney cells...

  6. Parental development of eimerian coccidia in sandhill and whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novilla, M.N.; Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Jeffers, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    In contrast with isosporoid species of coccidia that have established extraintestinal phases of development, the eimeriids, except for a few species, generally have been considered inhabitants of the intestinal tract. Eimeria infection in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G. americana) may result in disseminated visceral coccidiosis. Nodules were observed in the oral cavity of 33% (n = 95) of the G. canadensis at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) in Laurel, MD. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules in many tissues and organs. Histologic studies disclosed protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizonts in the granulomas, and endogenous stages of coccidia were present in the intestines of four birds. Fecalysis of three of four sandhill cranes yielded oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis. Only E. reichenowi-type oocysts were recovered from a dead whooping crane sample. Domestic broiler chicks each intubated with about 1 times 106 pooled sporulated oocysts of E. reichenowi and E. gruis were not infected. Exposure of six incubator-hatched and hand-reared sandhill crane chicks to oocysts artificially (two chicks) and naturally (four chicks) resulted in typical infection of intestinal epithelium with invasion of subepithelial tissues extending to the muscular layer and widespread extraintestinal development. Asexual and sexual stages occurred primarily in macrophages in the liver, spleen, heart, and lung. In the lung, oocysts were found in bronchial exudate and epithelial lining cells. Six of ten G. canadensis chicks, one adult G. americana, and three of five G. americana chicks that died naturally at PWRC had disseminated visceral coccidiosis.

  7. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    PubMed

    Sokól, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges. PMID:25928913

  8. Effects of in ovo interleukin-4-plasmid injection on anticoccidia immune response in a coccidia infection model of chickens.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of an in ovo interleukin (IL)-4 plasmid injection in a coccidia infection model. In experiment I, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been vaccinated with coccidia and injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid was 25% higher than the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus empty plasmid. In both experiments I and II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection decreased fecal oocyst shedding, decreased the number of CD8(+) cells in the cecal tonsils, and decreased cecal tonsil lymphocyte cell proliferation postcoccidia challenge. In experiment I, splenic macrophages of chicks hatched from eggs injected with 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid had higher nitric oxide production than those of chicks hatched from eggs injected with the empty plasmid. In experiment II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection increased serum anticoccidia IgG postcoccidia challenge. It could be concluded that 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid improved anticoccidia immune responses synergistically with in ovo coccidia vaccination in chickens. PMID:22582289

  9. The effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia oocyst shedding in a wild mammal host with intermittent cestode infection.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Blažeková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host's active season. Also, the marmot's response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. PMID:25506065

  10. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Václav, Radovan; Blažeková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host's active season. Also, the marmot's response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. PMID:25506065

  11. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  12. Nematode–coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

  13. Novel components of the Apicomplexan moving junction reveal conserved and coccidia-restricted elements

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Kurtis W.; Cheng, Stephen J.; Sohn, Catherine S.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites generally invade their host cells by anchoring the parasite to the host membrane through a structure called the moving junction (MJ). This moving junction is also believed to sieve host proteins from the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane, which likely protects the pathogen from lysosomal destruction. Previously identified constituents of the Toxoplasma MJ have orthologues in Plasmodium, indicating a conserved structure throughout the Apicomplexa. We report here two novel MJ proteins, RON5 and RON8. While RON5 is conserved in Plasmodium, RON8 appears restricted to the coccidia. RON8, which is likely essential, coimmunoprecipitates RON5 and known MJ proteins from extracellular parasites, indicating a preformed complex exists within the parasites. Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the host plasma membrane. To examine interactions between RON8 and the host cell, we expressed RON8 in mammalian cells and show that it targets to its site of action at the periphery in a manner dependent on the C-terminal portion of the protein. The discovery of RON5 and RON8 provides new insight into conserved and unique elements of the MJ, furthering our understanding of how the moving junction contributes to the intricate mechanism of Apicomplexan invasion. PMID:19134112

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotically replicating mitochondrial genome may be more suited for species level molecular work; however, only limited sequence data are available for Eimeria spp. infecting turkeys. The purpose of this study was to sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genomes from 5 Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Methods Six single-oocyst derived cultures of five Eimeria species infecting turkeys were PCR-amplified and sequenced completely prior to detailed annotation. Resulting sequences were aligned and used in phylogenetic analyses (BI, ML, and MP) that included complete mitochondrial genomes from 16 Eimeria species or concatenated CDS sequences from each genome. Results Complete mitochondrial genome sequences were obtained for Eimeria adenoeides Guelph, 6211 bp; Eimeria dispersa Briston, 6238 bp; Eimeria meleagridis USAR97-01, 6212 bp; Eimeria meleagrimitis USMN08-01, 6165 bp; Eimeria gallopavonis Weybridge, 6215 bp; and Eimeria gallopavonis USKS06-01, 6215 bp). The order, orientation and CDS lengths of the three protein coding genes (COI, COIII and CytB) as well as rDNA fragments encoding ribosomal large and small subunit rRNA were conserved among all sequences. Pairwise sequence identities between species ranged from 88.1% to 98.2%; sequence variability was concentrated within CDS or between rDNA fragments (where indels were common). No phylogenetic reconstruction supported monophyly of Eimeria species infecting turkeys; Eimeria dispersa may have arisen via host switching from another avian host. Phylogenetic analyses suggest E. necatrix and E. tenella are related distantly to other Eimeria of chickens. Conclusions Mitochondrial genomes of Eimeria species sequenced to date are highly conserved with regard to gene content and structure. Nonetheless, complete mitochondrial genome sequences and, particularly the three CDS, possess sufficient sequence variability for differentiating Eimeria species of poultry. The mitochondrial genome sequences are highly suited for molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics of coccidia and, potentially, genetic markers for molecular epidemiology. PMID:25034633

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hany M. Elsheikha; David W. Lacher; Linda S. Mansfield

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the

  16. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pfukenyi, D M; Mukaratirwa, S; Willingham, A L; Monrad, J

    2007-06-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43%, coccidia 19.8% and cestodes 4.8%. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01) than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows) (P < 0.01). The general trend of eggs per gram (epg) of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg) of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01). In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. PMID:17883199

  17. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects of internal parasites, including gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) but there have been no reports of the effects of feeding this forage on Eimeria spp. in goats. Two confinement feeding experiments were completed on recently-weaned intact bucks (24 Kiko-cross, Exp. 1; 20 Spanish, Exp. 2) to determine effects of SL pellets on an established infection of GIN and coccidia. The bucks were assigned to 1 of 2 (Exp. 1) or 3 (Exp. 2) treatment groups based upon the number of Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces. In Exp. 1, the kids were fed 1 of 2 pelleted rations ad libitum; 90% SL leaf meal+10% of a liquid molasses/lignin binder mix and a commercial pellet with 12% crude protein (CP) and 24% acid detergent fiber (n=12/treatment group, 2 animals/pen). For Exp. 2, treatment groups were fed (1) 90% SL leaf meal pellets from leaves stored 3 years (n=7), (2) 90% SL pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months, (n=7), and the commercial pellets (n=6) ad libitum. For both trials, fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals every 7 days for 28 days to determine OPG and GIN eggs per gram (EPG) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. In Exp. 2, feces were scored for consistency (1=solid pellets, 5=slurry) as an indicator of coccidiosis. In Exp. 1, EPG (P<0.001) and OPG (P<0.01) were reduced by 78.7% and 96.9%, respectively, 7 days after initiation of feeding in goats on the SL pellet diet compared with animals fed the control pellets. The OPG and EPG remained lower in treatment than control animals until the end of the trial. In Exp. 2, goats fed new and old SL leaf meal pellets had 66.2% and 79.2% lower (P<0.05) EPG and 92.2% and 91.2% lower (P<0.05) OPG, respectively, than control animals within 7 days, and these differences were maintained or increased throughout the trial. After 4 weeks of pellet feeding in Exp. 2, fecal scores were lower (P<0.01) in both SL-fed groups compared with control animals, indicating fewer signs of coccidiosis. There was no effect of diet on PCV values throughout either experiment. Dried, pelleted SL has excellent potential as a natural anti-coccidial feed for weaned goats. PMID:24857771

  18. [Influence of the number of inoculated parasites on the in vitro infestation of HeLa cells by the coccidia Besnoitia jellisoni Frenkel].

    PubMed

    Sadak, A; Frontier, S; Porchet, E

    1986-01-01

    The influence of the number of bradyzoites of the Coccidia Besnoitia inoculated in the culture medium of HeLa cells on their penetration rate was investigated. The intracellular penetration rate increased with the "size of inoculum", then seemed constant when a certain density is reached. Important densities of bradyzoites in the inoculum led to an unequal distribution of intracellular parasites among the cellular sheet. Multiple infective units in a same host cell did not occur randomly. It seems that some cells are more suitable than others to parasite invasion. PMID:3101572

  19. Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System – An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia

    PubMed Central

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

  20. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  1. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Woo Lee; Hyun S. Lillehoj; Seung I. Jang; Marc Pagès; Daniel A. Bautista; Conrad R. Pope; G. Donald Ritter; Erik P. Lillehoj; Anthony P. Neumann; Gregory R. Siragusa

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers

  2. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  3. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

  4. A linear mitochondrial genome of Cyclospora cayetanensis (Eimeriidae, Eucoccidiorida, Coccidiasina, Apicomplexa) suggests the ancestral start position within mitochondrial genomes of eimeriid coccidia.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; da Silva, Alexandre J; Arrowood, Michael J; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    The near complete mitochondrial genome for Cyclospora cayetanensis is 6184 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (Cox1, Cox3, CytB) and numerous lsrDNA and ssrDNA fragments. Gene arrangements were conserved with other coccidia in the Eimeriidae, but the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome is not circular-mapping. Terminal transferase tailing and nested PCR completed the 5'-terminus of the genome starting with a 21 bp A/T-only region that forms a potential stem-loop. Regions homologous to the C. cayetanensis mitochondrial genome 5'-terminus are found in all eimeriid mitochondrial genomes available and suggest this may be the ancestral start of eimeriid mitochondrial genomes. PMID:25812835

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

  6. Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Augustine, P; Olsen, G; Danforth, H; Gee, G; Novilla, M

    2001-03-01

    Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum. PMID:12790396

  7. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents (Eutamias, Sciurus, Tamiasciurus spp.) from the western United States and northern Mexico with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Hill, T P; Duszynski, D W

    1986-05-01

    Since May 1979, 190 rodents in the family Sciuridae, representing three genera and nine species, have been collected in the western United States and northern Mexico and examined for coccidia; 71 (37%) had coccidian oocysts in their feces. These included 2 of 12 (17%) Eutamias canipes; 7 of 12 (58%) E. dorsalis; 18 of 50 (36%) E. merriami; 33 of 96 (34%) E. obscurus; 3 of 4 (75%) E. townsendii; 3 of 9 (33%) Sciurus aberti; 1 of 1 S. griseus; 1 of 1 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus mogollonensis; and 3 of 5 (60%) T. mearnsi. The following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. and Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. from E. canipes, E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, and E. tamiasciuri from E. dorsalis, E. dorsalis and E. tamiasciuri from E. merriami; E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, E. tamiasciuri, and E. wisconsinensis from E. obscurus; E. cochisensis and E. dorsalis from E. townsendii; E. ontarioensis and E. tamiasciuri from S. aberti; E. tamiasciuri from S. griseus; E. tamiasciuri and E. toddi from T. h. mogollonensis; and E. tamiasciuri from T. mearnsi. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. were ovoid, 21.9 x 16.8 (17-24 x 14-20) micrometer with sporocysts ovoid, 11.5 x 6.9 (10-14 x 6-8) micrometer. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. were spheroid to subspheroid, 16.7 x 15.3 (15-18 x 14-17) micrometer, with sporocysts ovoid, 8.4 x 5.6 (6-11 x 4-7) micrometer. Fifty-five of 71 (77%) infected hosts had oocysts of only one eimerian species in their feces at the time they were examined. One eimerian, E. tamiasciuri, was found in seven of nine host species in three genera. A list is provided of all eimerians (22, including the species described here) that have been described in the literature from Eutamias, Sciurus, and Tamiasciurus spp. PMID:3735156

  8. Coccidia of sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Forrester, D J; Ernst, J V; Nesbitt, S A

    1975-08-01

    Eimeria gruis Yakinoff and Matschoulsky 1935, Eimeria reichenowi Yakimoff and Matschoulsky 1935, and an Adelina species are described from sandhill cranes in the United States. E. gruis was found in the feces of 11 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 62 of 72 greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) from Florida, 5 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 4 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis) from Texas. E. reichenowi was found in the feces of 12 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 66 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida, 4 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 5 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes from Texas. Adelina sp. was found in the feces of 3 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 2 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida. The Adelina species is considered to be a spurious parasite of the cranes. PMID:809566

  9. Determination of the genera of cyst-forming coccidia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Frenkel; D. D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The following heteroxenous and cyst-forming coccidian genera, Besnoitia, Cystoisospora, Frenkelia, Hammondia, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma have been compared biologically, and a key to determine their tissue cysts is provided.

  10. Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians, &

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    of a series of the Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute and Tanks. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. https://srac.tamu.edu/index

  11. Redescription of Neospora caninum and its differentiation from related coccidia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P Dubey; B. C Barr; J. R Barta; I Bjerkås; C Björkman; B. L Blagburn; D. D Bowman; D Buxton; J. T Ellis; B Gottstein; A Hemphill; D. E Hill; D. K Howe; M. C Jenkins; Y Kobayashi; B Koudela; A. E Marsh; J. G Mattsson; M. M McAllister; D Modrý; Y Omata; L. D Sibley; C. A Speer; A. J Trees; A Uggla; S. J Upton; D. J. L Williams; D. S Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals, which before 1984 was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Infection by this parasite is a major cause of abortion in cattle and causes paralysis in dogs. Since the original description of N. caninum in 1988, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of its life cycle, biology, genetics and diagnosis. In this

  12. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the lowland European bison Bison bonasus bonasus (L.).

    PubMed

    Pyziel, Anna M; Jó?wikowski, Micha?; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2014-05-28

    Coprological studies conducted between 2007 and 2011 in free-roaming and captive European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Poland revealed 11 species of Eimeria infecting the host, i.e., Eimeria alabamensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria brasiliensis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria pellita, Eimeria subspherica, and Eimeria zuernii. The typical host for all isolated species is cattle. The most prevalent species was E. bovis (29.7%), while E. brasiliensis was the rarest (0.5%). Five of the species (E. bovis, E. bukidnonensis, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. zuernii) have been observed previously in bison by other authors, 3 species were noticed by us in bison previously (E. alabamensis, E. cylindrica, E. pellita), while for 3 species (E. auburnensis, E. brasiliensis, and E. subspherica) these are new host and locality records. Oocysts of two species (E. brasiliensis, E. bukidnonensis) were noted only in the feces of bison kept in captivity. Moreover, the prevalence of positive samples was higher in the group of captive animals (55.4%) in comparison with the free-roaming herds (29.5%); although, oocysts per gram (OPG), counted with the conventional McMaster technique, was comparable in both groups, reaching maximally 6550 and 6400 in free-roaming and captive individuals, respectively. Overall, 142 fecal samples from 424 samples examined were positive for Eimeria (prevalence=33.5%). Age-related analysis revealed a higher percentage of Eimeria spp. positive samples and higher OPG values in bison under 1 year old as compared to older individuals (93.3% and 50-4050; 37.3% and 50-550, respectively). Additionally, greater eimerian species diversity was present among calves in comparison with older bison. In most cases single-species infections were observed (59.8%) with a predominance of E. bovis (85.9%). Multiple-species infections consisted of 2-7 species, usually including E. bovis. The observation was made that E. bovis infection appears conducive to the host acquiring more eimerian species. No symptoms of clinical coccidiosis occurred during the study. PMID:24702772

  13. Enteric Coccidia (Apicomplexa) in the Small Intestine of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Hoberg; R. J. Cawthorn; R. Hedstrom

    1993-01-01

    Sporulated oocysts (mean dimen- sions = 13.0 x 10.8 ?tm) and sporocysts (11.3 x 5.5 Mm) of a coccidian resembling Frenkelia sp. or Sarcocystis sp. were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine of a naturally- infected northern spotted owl (Strix occiden- talis caurina) collected near Medford, Oregon (USA). Dimensions of these oocysts and sporo- cysts appear to

  14. Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1982-12-01

    Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

  15. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  16. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, Mikky A; Alyousif, Mohamed S; Saifi, Muheet A; Alanazi, Abdullah D

    2015-05-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.5 ± 4.1 × 17.0 ± 3.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.02-1.05) ?m and produces 24(18-26) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.5 ± 0.8 × 3.6 ± 0.5 ?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.44-1.61) ?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.7 ± 1.2 × 7.8 ± 1.0 ?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.21-1.34) ?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.0 ± 1.1 × 6.8 ± 0.9 ?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.01-1.10) ?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  17. The distribution and prevalence of helminths, coccidia and blood parasites in two competing species of gecko: implications for apparent competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hanley; D. M. Vollmer; T. J. Case

    1995-01-01

    Across the Pacific the invading gecko species Hemidactylus frenatus has competitively displaced the resident gecko species Lepidodactylus lugubris in urban\\/surburban habitats. Do parasites enhance, inhibit, orhave no effect on this invasion? Parasites can confer an advantage to an invading species when the invader (1) introduces a new parasite to a resident species that has a greater detrimental effect on the

  18. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amoudi, Mikky A.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.; Saifi, Muheet A.; Alanazi, Abdullah D.

    2014-01-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.5 ± 4.1 × 17.0 ± 3.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.02–1.05) ?m and produces 24(18–26) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.5 ± 0.8 × 3.6 ± 0.5 ?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.44–1.61) ?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.7 ± 1.2 × 7.8 ± 1.0 ?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.21–1.34) ?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.0 ± 1.1 × 6.8 ± 0.9 ?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.01–1.10) ?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  19. Responses of Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers to Essential Oil Blends Supplementation up to Forty-Nine Days of Age1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; S. Clemente-Hernandez; P. Williams; R. Losa

    SUMMARY Coccidiosis control may become a greater problem as the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (GPA) and ionophores declines. Vaccination with live oocysts may turn into a popular alternative to the use of coccidiostats in broilers, although cocci vaccination is frequently linked to temporary lower performance in young flocks. This experiment evaluates the dietary supplementation of 2 specific essential oil (EO)

  20. IMMUNOSTIMULATING COMPLEXES INCORPORATING E. TENELLA ANTIGENS AND PLANT SAPONINS AS AN EFFECTIVE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR COCCIDIA VACCINE IMMUNIZATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are a unique, multimolecular structure formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins of plant origin and are an effective delivery system for various kinds of antigens. The uses of ISCOMs formulated with saponins from plants native to Kazakhs...

  1. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mi...

  2. Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia Differing in Host Range and Transmission Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam James Reid; Sarah J. Vermont; James A. Cotton; David Harris; Grant A. Hill-Cawthorne; Stephanie Könen-Waisman; Sophia M. Latham; Tobias Mourier; Rebecca Norton; Michael A. Quail; Mandy Sanders; Dhanasekaran Shanmugam; Amandeep Sohal; James D. Wasmuth; Brian Brunk; Michael E. Grigg; Jonathan C. Howard; John Parkinson; David S. Roos; Alexander J. Trees; Matthew Berriman; Arnab Pain; Jonathan M. Wastling

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species

  3. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans. PMID:25934152

  4. Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

    1998-03-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

  5. Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei n.sp. from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) and Eimeria choloepi n.sp. from the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw

    1982-01-01

    Summary  \\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Pará State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28°C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 × 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless

  6. RENAL COCCIDIOSIS iN WILD DUCKS IN SASKATCHEWAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. NATIONrn; G. WOBESER

    1977-01-01

    Ten of twelve species of wild ducks examined in central Saskatchewan were infected with renal coccidia. Of 261 ducks examined during autumn migration, 24.5% were infected while only 4% of 74 ducks examined during spring migration were infected. The greatest prevalence of infection occurred in female and juvenile birds. No gross lesions attributable to coccidia were found, and microscopic lesions

  7. Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and...

  8. Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Acanthocephalans, Cestodes, Leeches, & Pentastomes1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    FA-114 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Acanthocephalans, Cestodes, Leeches Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Motile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia

  9. ENTERIC COCCIDIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites normally found in the intestinal tract. They belong to phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozoasida, order Eucoccidiorida, and, depending on the species, family Eimeriidae, Cryptosporidiidae, or Sarcocystidae. Coccidian genera that infect cats and dogs are Iso...

  10. Identification of BovineNeosporaParasites by PCR Amplification and Specific Small-Subunit rRNA Sequence Probe Hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL S. Y. HO; BRADD C. BARR; ANTOINETTE E. MARSH; MARK L. ANDERSON; JOAN D. ROWE; ALICE F. TARANTAL; ANDREW G. HENDRICKX; KAREN SVERLOW; J. P. DUBEY; ANDPATRICIA A. CONRAD

    1996-01-01

    Neosporais a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related toToxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in

  11. [Internal parasites in calves and heifers in a central rearing barn].

    PubMed

    Bejsovec, J; Donát, K

    1982-07-01

    In the specialised rearing house for young cattle of all age groups the occurrence of endoparasites was followed. In the age group of 21 to 90 days, 56% of calves aged about 30 days eliminated oocysts of coccidia. On the whole, 49.3% of calves were infested by coccidia, 3% by enterohelminths. 90.3% of calves aged from three to six months were parasitised by coccidia, 7.4% by enterohelminths. Young cattle, aged from 6 to 12 months, were parasitised in 94.6% by coccidia and in 14.1% by enterohelminths. 86.6% of pregnant heifers at the age of 14 to 19 months had coccidia, 7.7% enterohelminths. The total farm capacity was about 950 animals. Throughout the year the number of examined animals amounted to 1,195, out of this number 958 animals, i. e. 80.2%, were infested by coccidia, 55.6% of animals by the species Eimeria bovis, 47.0% by E. zuernii, 43.3% by E. auburnensis, 39.4% by E. ellipsoidalis, 25.2% by E. cylindrica, 13.6% by E. subspherica, 3.1% by E. bukidnonensis, 1.7% by Isospora spp., 0.4% by E. brasiliensis, 0.08% by E. pellita. Enterohelminths were observed only in 96 animals, i. e. in 8.03%. Trichocephalus was found in 3.9% of animals, Cooperia in 2.4%, Ostertagia in 0.6%, Chabertia in 0.4%, Nematodirus in 0.3%, Capillaria in 0.2%, Oesophagostomum in 0.2%, Bunostomum in 0.1% and Trichostrongylus in 0.1%. The highest elimination of oocysts of coccidia was observed in August, January and February, of eggs of enterohelminths from August to October. In all age groups the most frequent was the occurrence of pathogenic species of coccidia. PMID:6812269

  12. Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Wasmuth, James D; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

  13. Year-long presence of Eimeria echidnae and absence of Eimeria tachyglossi in captive short-beaked echidnas ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ).

    PubMed

    Debenham, John J; Johnson, Robert; Vogelnest, Larry; Phalen, David N; Whittington, Richard; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The short-beaked echidna ( Tachyglossus aculeatus ) is 1 of 5 extant species of monotreme, found only in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to identify the species of coccidia present and establish a range of subclinical Eimeria spp. (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) oocyst shedding in echidnas from eastern Australia over 18 mo. The coccidia were detected in 89% (49/55) of fecal samples from 12 long-term monitored and healthy captive echidnas, 75% (3/4) of 4 healthy long-term captive echidnas, 83% (5/6) of 6 short-term captive echidnas, and 60% (6/10) of 10 wild echidnas. Echidnas captive for 4 to 23 yr shed 100-46,000 oocysts g(-1) of E. echidnae and remained clinically healthy during this study. Sub-adult and adult wild, and short-term captive, echidnas shed oocysts of both E. echidnae and E. tachyglossi . The lack of coccidia in juvenile short-beaked echidnas suggests these animals are probably non-immune and should not be placed in environments heavily contaminated with oocysts. In addition, no oocysts were found in captive long-beaked echidnas ( Zaglossus bartoni bartoni , n ?=? 2) housed at Taronga Zoo. This study represents an important step in understanding the host-parasite interaction between coccidia and short-beaked echidnas. PMID:22236183

  14. [The most important parasitic intestinal infections in calves and their role in diarrheal diseases].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V F; Pavlásek, I

    1990-04-01

    Various stock breeding herds in the USSR were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Coccidia of Cryptosporidium genus occurred in calves at the age of 3 to 4 days to one month, individually in older calves, too. Coccidia C. parvum infected the animals aged 14-15 days most frequently. Coccidia of Eimeria genus and intestinal round worm Strongyloides papilosus were registered sporadically in calves aged 13-15 days; most frequently they occurred in calves aged 1-2 months and older. Of the total number of the examined calves (aged 20 days), which were infected by Cryptosporidium, 77.7 resp. 89.8% were diarrhoeic. In cases of polyinfections with various species of coccidia of the Eimeria genus and S. papillosus, diarrhoea was recorded in 31.2% of one- to two-month-old calves. In cases of monoinfection with coccidia of the Eimeria genus diarrhoea was recorded in 15.8% of the calves, and in cases of infection with the intestinal worm S. Papillosus in 9.1% of the calves. PMID:2375066

  15. [Endoparasites of calves in large herds].

    PubMed

    Prokopic, J; Pavlásek, I

    1977-08-01

    The authors present preliminary results of the coprological examination of calves in large-capacity calf-houses. In a new large-capacity calf-house in the Benesov district in the Central-Bohemian region, 200 samples of faeces were examined according to Breza (1957) and further examinations were performed regularly in a group of 42 calves from the age of 0.5 to 6 months. The tests revealed 13 species of endoparasites, including eight species of coccidia: Eimeria auburnensis, E. alabamensis. E. bovis, E. cylindrica, E. elliposidalis, E. subspherica, E. zuernii, Isospora spp., and five species of helminths: Strongyloides papillosus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Trichocephalus ovis, Cooperia spp., and Ascaris suum. The following conclusions were derived from these findings: 1. The calves may carry the germs of coccidia and helminths on their hooves already during transportation to the new calf-house; 2. twelve- to twenty-day-old calves, coming to the calf-houses, are often already attacked by several species of coccidia and helminths; 3. the number of parasite species increases and the extensity of invasion rises with age; 4. it has been demonstrated that the invasion process of eight species of coccidia and five species of worms can take place under the conditions of modern calf-house; 5, stronglyloidosis, oesophagostomosis, and trichocephalosis can be treated as typical stable helminthoses; 6. some other speceis of helminths and coccidia occur in calves after transition to green forage with which they are probably carried to the calf-house. PMID:413242

  16. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.-H.; Olsen, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

  17. MORE INFORMATION ON THE COCCIDIAN PARASITES (PROTOZOA: EIMERIIDAE) OF THE COLORADO PIKA, Ochotona princeps, WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONALD W. DUSZYNSKI

    The prevalence of 7 species of Coccidia is reported from 137 Colorado pikas, Ochotona princeps, collected on Mt. Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado, during the summers of 1968, 1969, and 1971. Identification of the parasites was based on the structure of the unsporulated oocysts which, at least for those species that have been described to date from North American pika

  18. Effects of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance, digestibility of nutrients and mortality of rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Sk?ivanová; M Marounek; P Klein

    1999-01-01

    A total of 432 weaned Hyla 2000 rabbits was used to evaluate the effect of virginiamycin (a feed antibiotic), salinomycin (a coccidiostat) and their combination on performance, digestibility of nutrients, blood composition, slaughter parameters, incidence of coccidia and mortality. Virginiamycin and salinomycin were supplied at 30 and 20mg\\/kg of a granulated feed, respectively. In a feeding trial, 100 rabbits per

  19. A simple and efficient method for isolation of a single Eimeria oocyst from poultry litter using a micromanipulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken, which is the host for seven species of Eimeria, typically is infected simultaneously by multiple Eimeria species and the oocysts of coccidia are excreted in the feces. A prerequisite for investigation of individual Eimeria species is to isolate a single oocyst from fecal samples. A nov...

  20. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  1. Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.

    PubMed

    Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

    1979-04-01

    Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

  2. A family of cysteine-rich proteins is involved in the formation of the oocyst wall of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among apicomplexan parasites, the coccidia and Cryptosporidium spp. are important pathogens of livestock and humans and the environmentally resistant stage (oocyst) is essential for their transmission. Little is known of the chemical and molecular composition of the oocyst wall. Currently, the only ...

  3. Enteric coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a review of intestinal coccidiosis in cats and dogs. Coccidia are single celled parasites of mammals and birds.There are many species of coccidian that parasitize dogs and cats, and some of these are zoonotic. These parasites are normally found in intestines and are passed in a resistant st...

  4. RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

  5. INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A SPINNER DOLPHIN (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...

  6. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

  7. Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.

    PubMed

    Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605

  8. Coccidial infection does not influence preening behavior in American goldfinches.

    PubMed

    Surmacki, Adrian; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2014-01-01

    Preening behavior in birds is important for the maintenance of thermoregulatory and ornamental functions of plumage. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that birds trade off time between plumage maintenance and other activities. However, the condition-dependent constraints of preening remain virtually unstudied. Here, we present the first experimental test of the hypothesis that intestinal parasite infection impairs preening activity. We studied male American goldfinches (Spinus tristis), a species with carotenoid-based plumage coloration. Following pre-alternate (spring) molt, we manipulated the health of males by infecting some birds with Isospora spp. coccidia and keeping others free of the infection. Although the goldfinches increased preening throughout the captive period, we found no significant effect of coccidial treatment on preening behavior. The effect of coccidia on plumage maintenance may be more pronounced under natural conditions where birds have limited access to food and engage in more activities that might limit time available for preening. PMID:24882939

  9. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Parasites of Chickens in Selected Villages in the Subhumid Zones of South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, P. A.; George, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify and estimate the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites of village chicken between April and July 2008 in three local councils of Enugu state, Nigeria. A total of 1038 chickens comprising of 468 chicks, 207 growers and 363 adults were examined during the house to house survey for ectoparasites, gastrointestinal helminths and coccidia infections. Our finding showed that 41% were infected with ectoparasites with lice, fleas, and mites having prevalence rates of 62.2%, 35.7% and 2.1%, respectively. Helminths and coccidia had prevalence of 35.5% each. Among the helminths Ascaridia, galli was the most dominant species (17.2%). Generally, there was a significantly higher helminth infestation relative to the ectoparasites (P < .05), high prevalence of mixed infections and absence of tick infestation. Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. PMID:20700428

  10. A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

    2000-04-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

  11. [The number and biodiversity of the parasites from small mammals in the evacuation area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station].

    PubMed

    Labetskaia, A G; Kireenko, K M; Ba?dakova, I V; Tishechkina, I M

    1997-01-01

    The study of the micromammalian parasite complexes in the Belorussian part of the evacuation zone of the Chernobyl nuclear station revealed 13 species of Coccidia and 30 species of ectoparasitic Arthropoda. Total increase of abundance and biodiversity of both parasites and their hosts was observed. The part of ectoparasites being epidemically hazardous was significantly increased. An analysis of a long-term dynamics of parasite abundance reveals their adaptation to new conditions in the Belorussia. PMID:9479383

  12. First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

    2010-05-01

    Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

  13. Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haberkorn

    1996-01-01

    The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For

  14. Efficacy of Emodepside\\/Toltrazuril Suspension (Procox® Oral Suspension for Dogs) against Mixed Experimental Isospora felis\\/Isospora rivolta Infection in Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Petry; Eva Kruedewagen; Andreas Kampkoetter; Klemens Krieger

    2011-01-01

    The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox® oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9 mg emodepside?+?18 mg toltrazuril per ml) were\\u000a studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each

  15. PREVALENCE OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CAPTIVE BIRDS OF GUJARAT ZOOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Patel; A. I. Patel; R. K. Sahu; Raju Vyas

    A total of 106 group faecal samples of different wild birds from Kamal Nehru Zoo, Ahmedabad and Sayyajibaug Zoo, Vadodara, were examined. Out of this 51 (48.11%) were found positive for parasitic infection. Eggs of Ascaris and Capillaria species were observed in 22 (20.75%) and 14 (13.2%) group faecal samples respectively, while the oocyst of Coccidia (Eimeria spe- cies) were

  16. Oro?pharyngeal protozoa in captive bustards: Clinical and pathological considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Silvanose; J. H. Samour; J. L. Naldo; T. A. Bailey

    1998-01-01

    An oro?pharyngeal protozoal survey was carried out in captive bustards in the United Arab Emirates. .Endolimax spp., .Entamoeba gallinarum, Acanthamoeba spp., .Naegleria spp. and .Coccidia spp. were the protozoa isolated from the oro?pharynx of clinically normal birds. The protozoa species involved in oro?pharyngeal diseases were .Trichomonas gallinae and .Entamoeba anatis. Most of the protozoa observed in clinical cases were associated

  17. Research Note Effect of Eimeria acervulina Infections on Plasma L-Arginine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Allen; R. H. Fetterer

    As part of a program to study the patho- logical effects of coccidia infections on growth, we have examined the relationship of plasma L-arginine (ARG) levels to infective doses of Eimeria acervulina and infec- tion-associated changes in weight gain, plasma carot- enoids, and plasma NO2? + NO3?. Chickens consuming a starter ration containing 1.68% ARG were infected with a range

  18. Toltrazuril (Baycox) treatment against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sokó?, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most predominant parasitic disease affecting Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in commercial farms. Coccidiosis as a subclinical infection is difficult to diagnose without parasitological examinations. Oocysts of two Eimeria species, E. bateri and E. tsunodai, were determined in the analysed quail flock. Infected birds were administered Baycox 2.5% at the dose of: group I--7 mg toltrazuril/kg BW per day provided in drinking water (1.5 ml/0.5 1 H2O) that was available 24 h for 2 days, group II--14 mg/kg BW (3 ml/0.5 1 H2O), and group III-- 24.5 mg/kg BW (5 ml/0.5 1 H2O); in groups II and III, the solutions were available 8 h/24 h for 2 days. After the first day of the treatment, the number of excreted oocysts (OPG - oocysts per gram) increased, a steady decrease in oocyst counts began on the second day of Baycox administration and lasted until a three-day period when no oocyst were determined in faecal samples. Regardless of the dose applied, toltrazuril (Baycox) completely eliminated E. bateri coccidia and led to a highly significant reduction in the number of E. tsunodai oocysts. The results suggest that the effectiveness of toltrazuril varies depending on coccidia species and developmental stages of the parasite. From the clinical point of view, the treatment applied significantly reduces the number of coccidia oocysts in commercial flocks of Japanese quails. PMID:25286655

  19. Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

  20. Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J W; Spraker, T R; Gardiner, C H; Novilla, M N

    1979-11-01

    Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds. PMID:521379

  1. Nervous signs in bovine coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B; Richardson, J A

    1976-09-01

    In 2 outbreaks of coccidiosis due to E bovis and/or E zurnii infection in Canadian cattle, nervous signs included opisthotonos, medial strabismus, hypersensitivity, tetanic spasms, and convulsions. All of the affected animals died in convulsions after an illness of one to several days during which time they showed periodic nervous signs. Necropsy revealed a very severe enteritis with the most severe lesions in the spiral colon. Much of the intestinal mucosa in this area had been destroyed by the parasite. None of several suggested causes of such nervous signs was indicated by laboratory findings, but the possibility of toxins produced by the coccidia could not be ruled out. PMID:967151

  2. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. PMID:25660426

  3. A clinical trial to evaluate the effects of flumethrin or ivermectin treatment on hemoparasites, gastrointestinal parasites, conception and daily weight gain in a dairy farm in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamane, I; Arai, S; Nakamura, Y; Hisashi, M; Fukazawa, Y; Onuki, T

    2000-02-01

    A clinical trial was performed to compare the effects of flumethrin and ivermectin treatments of grazing heifers at one farm in central Japan. 64 heifers were randomly allocated into two groups. Flumethrin (1 mg/kg pour on) was applied approximately once every 3 weeks to heifers in one group and heifers in the second group were injected approximately once every month with ivermectin (200 microg/kg; id). Between groups, no significant differences were detected in the proportions of animals that showed parasitemia of Theileria sergenti and conception risks. Significantly lower average log-transformed nematode-egg counts and higher average daily weight gain were observed in the ivermectin-treated group. Animals with higher body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed total nematode-egg and coccidia-oocyst counts had higher odds of conceiving. Animals with ivermectin treatment, lower body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed coccidia-oocyst count had higher daily weight gain. Ivermectin may be more useful in this farm because of the higher productivity for cattle and lower cost for its usage. PMID:10782598

  4. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 ?m, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  5. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  6. Coccidian parasites of intertidal fishes from Wales: systematics, development, and cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Davies, A J

    1978-02-01

    Examination of littoral fish Blennius pholis and Cottus bubalis caught at Aberystwyth and Porth Cwyfan, Wales, U.K. revealed 2 species of coccidia. Eimeria dingleyi sp. n. Oocysts spherical (16.1-19.2) to subspherical (13.9-14.2 X 18.8-20.0) micron, with thin walls; sporulation outside the host to produce ellipsoid sporocysts; endogenous phases in epithelial cells throughout intestine; 26 of 58 B. pholis infected. Eimeria variabilis (Théohan) Reichenow. Oocysts spherical (11.9-14.6) to subspherical (9.2-10.9 X 13.9-14.3) micron, sporulation in lining of pyloric ceca and rectum; previously unrecorded schizonts and gametocytes present; 21 of 25 C. bubalis infected. Electron microscopy revealed that the oocyst wall of E. variabilis consists of a thin membrane whereas the sporocyst wall is thick and 3-layered. Typical oocyst wall-forming bodies were absent from the macrogamete. Cytochemical tests on the endogenous stages of E. dingleyi and E. variabilis indicated that in general they resembled other coccidia in their chemical constitution. PMID:660568

  7. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coccidian cephalopod parasites Aggregata octopiana and Aggregata eberthi (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) from the NE Atlantic coast using 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Gestal, Camino

    2013-08-01

    The coccidia genus Aggregata is responsible for intestinal coccidiosis in wild and cultivated cephalopods. Two coccidia species, Aggregata octopiana, (infecting the common octopus Octopus vulgaris), and A. eberthi, (infecting the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis), are identified in European waters. Extensive investigation of their morphology resulted in a redescription of A. octopiana in octopuses from the NE Atlantic Coast (NW Spain) thus clarifying confusing descriptions recorded in the past. The present study sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in A. octopiana and A. eberthi from the NE Atlantic coast in order to assess their taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Phylogenetic analyses revealed conspecific genetic differences (2.5%) in 18S rRNA sequences between A. eberthi from the Ria of Vigo (NW Spain) and the Adriatic Sea. Larger congeneric differences (15.9%) were observed between A. octopiana samples from the same two areas, which suggest the existence of two species. Based on previous morphological evidence, host specificity data, and new molecular phylogenetic analyses, we suggest that A. octopiana from the Ria of Vigo is the valid type species. PMID:23498588

  8. Host-Parasite Incongruences in Rodent Eimeria Suggest Significant Role of Adaptation Rather than Cophylogeny in Maintenance of Host Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kvi?erová, Jana; Hypša, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The degree of host specificity, its phylogenetic conservativeness and origin are virtually unknown in Eimeria. This situation is largely due to the inadequate sample of eimerian molecular data available for reliable phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we extend the data set by adding 71 new sequences of coccidia infecting 16 small-mammal genera, mostly rodents. According to the respective feasibility of PCR gene amplification, the new samples are represented by one or more of the following genes: nuclear 18S rRNA, plastid ORF 470, and mitochondrial COI. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences confirm the previous hypothesis that Eimeria, in its current morphology-based delimitation, is not a monophyletic group. Several samples of coccidia corresponding morphologically to other genera are scattered among the Eimeria lineages. More importantly, the distribution of eimerians from different hosts indicates that the clustering of eimerian species is influenced by their host specificity, but does not arise from a cophylogenetic/cospeciation process; while several clusters are specific to a particular host group, inner topologies within these clusters do not reflect host phylogeny. This observation suggests that the host specificity of Eimeria is caused by adaptive rather than cophylogenetic processes. PMID:23861732

  9. The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T. gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

  10. [Cryptosporidium: phylogeny and taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2007-03-01

    Members of the genus Cryptosporidium in the phylum Apicomplexa were long thought to be closely related to the coccidia. However, despite strong morphological similarities to these organisms, Cryptosporidium has notable differences with them and similarities with the gregarine protozoa. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of molecular data, some authors place Cryptosporidium at the basis of the phylum Apicomplexa, others consider species of this genus to be phylogenetically too distant from the coccidia and do not include them in this group of protozoa, and others think that Cryptosporidium is closely related to gregarines. The taxonomy of this genus and the naming of species are undergoing rapid change due to the new and increasing molecular information. Molecular characterization of oocysts using polymerase chain reaction based procedures has not only a major impact on resolving the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium at the species level but also on the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Today, it is recognized that this genus is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous assemblage of largely morphologically identical species and genotypes. Fourteen Cryptosporidium species and 21 C. parvum genotypes are currently recognized. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that genetically related hosts often have related forms of Cryptosporidium. Application of molecular techniques to taxonomy and epidemiology is helping to characterize new and existing species and determine the sources of the parasites that will facilitate the identification of sources of water-borne cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17432539

  11. Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A

    1996-01-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses. PMID:8727903

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

  13. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R.; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-01-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  14. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 ?m, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus. PMID:24395577

  15. Influence of whole wheat feeding on the development of coccidiosis in broilers challenged with Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Molan, A L

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of whole wheat (WW) feeding on performance, gizzard development, oocyst yield and intestinal lesion score of broilers challenged with Eimeria species. Diets (ground wheat (GW) and 300?g/kg WW replacing GW before or after pelleting) were offered ad libitum from day 1 or days 7-28 post-hatch. At 21 days of age, each dietary treatment was divided into two groups, one unchallenged control and the other inoculated with mixed species of coccidia (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella). The results showed that heavier gizzards and higher mortality were observed in WW-fed birds in comparison to GW-fed birds. Interestingly, the pattern of mortality in different dietary treatments paralleled changes in gizzard size. Based on increased mortality, it is concluded that WW feeding exacerbated the severity of coccidiosis infection, possibly via a mechanism involving enhanced gizzard development. PMID:25796367

  16. Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in central Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Seville, Robert S; Gruver, Jeffrey

    2004-04-01

    Feces from 60 bats representing 5 species and 4 genera collected in central Wyoming in 2001 were examined for the presence of coccidia. Two species of Eimeria were identified in 4 bats representing 2 species of Myotis. All infected animals harbored a single species; there was no multispecies infection. Eimeria catronensis was recovered from 3 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Eimeria californicensis was identified from a single long-legged myotis (Myotis volans). Both represent new geographic records and the second a new host record. Eimeria catronensis-like oocysts were recovered from a single silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Descriptions and taxonomic summaries for the eimerian species are presented in this study. PMID:15165058

  17. Health status of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in eastern Kansas.

    PubMed

    Williams, C K; Davidson, W R; Lutz, R S; Applegate, R D

    2000-01-01

    The health status of wild northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) from Lyon County, Kansas, was evaluated by conducting comprehensive health assessments on 25 birds. Gross lesions indicative of avian pox, ulcerative enteritis, and quail bronchitis were not present. Serologic tests for antibodies to Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and avian adenoviruses were all negative. Intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) were found in 36% of the birds. Only three species of helminth parasites were found: Dispharynx nasuta in two birds, Cyrnea colini in one bird, and larval Physaloptera sp. in four birds. Arthropod parasites (ticks, lice, mites, and/or chiggers) were present on 96% of the birds examined. Compared with wild bobwhite populations in the southeastern United States, the diversity, prevalence, and intensities of microbial and parasitic agents were low. PMID:11195653

  18. Electron microscopic study of the developmental stages of Eimeria intestinalis cheissin, 1948 in domestic rabbit. (Oryctolagus Cuniculus) with reference to endodyogeny.

    PubMed

    Elfayoumi, Hoda; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M

    2014-12-01

    The endogenous stages in Eimeria intestinalis were studied in experimentally infected coccidia-free rabbits by transmission electron microscopy. Four asexual generations were ob- served.Two types of merozoites were reported. Binucleated merozoites possess all the characteristics of apical complex indicating asexual reproduction by endodyogeny. While the second type, the mononuclear merozoites have one central nucleus. Gamonts were developed mainly from the third generation merozoites where the mature gamonts were recorded together with the fourth generation schizonts. Macro- and microgametogenesis were clearly observed. Development of microgametes and its fine structural characteristics were detected. Mature macrogametes with central large nucleus and the appearance of two types of wall forming body (I, II) were observed. Many reserve food materials including amylopectin granules and lipids droplets were very characteristic. Control experimentally infected rabbits shed unsporulated oocysts on the day eight p.i. PMID:25643495

  19. Prevalence of coccidial infection in dairy cattle in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Ting; Kong, Chunlin; Huang, Bing

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of coccidial infections in dairy cattle was examined in Shanghai from November 2010 to March 2011. In total, 626 fecal samples from 24 dairy farms were examined; oocysts were identified to the species level based on morphological features. All herds were infected with Eimeria species. The overall prevalence of coccidia was 47.1%, with the highest prevalence in <4-mo-old calves (51.8%) and the lowest in >12-mo-old cattle (27.0%). The number of oocysts per gram of feces was significantly higher in young calves than in weaners and adults. Ten species of Eimeria were identified, among which Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, and Eimeria alabamensis were the predominant species. Concurrent infection with 2-8 species was common. PMID:22590990

  20. Extracellular like-gregarine stages of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Rosales, M J; Cordón, G Peréz; Moreno, M Sánchez; Sánchez, C Marín; Mascaró, C

    2005-07-01

    The present study confirms the existence of extracellular stages of Cryptosporidiumparvum during in vitro culture on MDCK, HCT 8 and Vero cells as well as alveolar macrophages, by optic, Nomarski and transmission electron microscopy images. Extracellular trophozoite/gamont, stages in syzygy, zygotes and spores with eight sporozoites were seen in the supernatant of the cultures. The first ultrastructural images of extracellular stages of C. parvum are shown in this study. The morphology of these stages, which have characteristics similar to those of some gregarines, support the contention that Cryptosporidium has closer affinity with gregarines. It also supports the necessity of reconsidering the life cycle of Cryptosporidium and the classification within the coccidia. PMID:15907779

  1. Occurrence of Perkinsus olseni (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) and other parasites in the venerid commercial clam Pitar rostrata from Uruguay, southwestern Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Cremonte, Florencia; Balseiro, Pablo; Figueras, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted into the health status of natural populations of the venerid clam Pitar rostrata from Uruguay. Perkinsus sp. was detected in 22% of the clams. Severe hemocytic infiltration was detected in the tissues parasitized by this protozoan parasite. The sequencing of the ITS-5.8S gene cluster of the parasite confirmed that it belonged to the Perkinsus olseni species. Rickettsia or Chlamidia-like organisms were also found, with a prevalence of 11%, although without apparent host reaction; an unidentified species of Coccidia was found in the nephridia of 78% of the clams, with the intensity of infection ranging from moderate to high. A gregarine, Nematopsis-like organism was observed mainly in the epithelial cells of the intestine, without host response and with a prevalence of 56%. Of the metazoan parasites, trematodes were found in 11% of the individuals analyzed. PMID:15900692

  2. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  3. A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), from Kansas.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-04-01

    Between March 1989 and February 1994, 4 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) from various localities in Kansas were examined for coccidia. One (25%) of the bald eagles was found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Oocysts of Caryospora hanebrinki n. sp. are ellipsoidal to ovoidal with a bilayered wall and measure 48.1 × 42.1 ?m with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts are spheroidal, 24.8 ?m wide. Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent; a spheroidal sporocyst residuum is present; it measures 17.5 ?m and is composed of many intact homogenous globules with a few dispersed in a loose spiral around the sporocysts. This is the first caryosporan documented from the bald eagle and is the largest known Caryospora from raptors. PMID:22992168

  4. Ganoderma lucidum: a cause of pseudoparasitosis.

    PubMed

    Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Piankijagum, Anong; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Lertlaituan, Punpob; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chinabutr, Pisit

    2006-11-01

    We report a pseudoparasitosis case due to Ganoderma lucidum, (lingzhi or reishi mushroom); we believe this to be a first reported case in Thailand. A 49-year-old male patient with non-Hodgkins lymphoma presented with chronic watery diarrhea. He had a history of consumption of powdered lingzhi extract as a dietary supplement and herbal medicine. Stool examination demonstrated many spores of G. lucidum, which must be differentiated from intestinal helminth ova and coccidia. After discontinuation of mushroom spores ingestion, the diarrheal symptoms improved and fecal examination subsequently showed no Ganoderma spores. Many artifacts in the stool may be confused with parasites. Differentiation of parasites from artifacts depends on characterization of the size, shape, structure, and reactivity with common stains. PMID:17333761

  5. [Cyclospora cayetanensis infection. Laboratory diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Tsuji, O; Jiménez Domínguez, R; Campos Rivera, T; Valencia Rojas, S; Romero Cabello, R; Gamez Aranda, V; Martínez-Barbabosa, I

    2000-01-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an Apicomplexa protozoa which was found to cause gastroenteritis in humans in 1979. This paper reviews the laboratory diagnosis of the disease. The usefulness of direct examination of fresh fecal matter with special acid-fast stains is emphasized as well as the morphometric differentiation between this organism and other similar coccidia. The paper reviews the sporulation technique of Cyclospora cayetanensis for the recognition and differentiation of artifacts and green-blue algae. Another aspect discussed is the morphology of the parasite in histological sections and with electromicroscopic examination whereby tissue morphology changes caused by the microorganism can be identified. The experience of the Service and Laboratory of Parasitology of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría of Mexico in the laboratory diagnosis of this protozoosis is described. The paper is oriented towards the inclussion of Cyclospora cayetanensis in the diagnostic protocols for the study of diarrheas in our health Institutions. PMID:10948829

  6. A new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting Onychomys species (Rodentia: Muridae) in New Mexico and Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hnida, J A; Wilson, W D; Duszynski, D W

    1998-12-01

    Fecal samples from 3 species of Onychomys (Rodentia: Muridae) captured in New Mexico and Arizona were examined for coccidia. Six of the 59 (10%) were infected with a new species of Eimeria. Sporulated oocysts (n = 105) of this new species are subspheroidal, 17.4 x 16.1 (14-21 x 13-19) microm, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.4 x 5.7 (9-12 x 5-8) microm. This species occurred in 3 of 24 (13%) Onychomys arenicola, 2 of 31 (6%) Onychomys leucogaster from New Mexico, and 1 of 4 (25%) Onychomys torridus from Arizona. Isolates recovered from O. leucogaster and O. torridus were inoculated into O. leucogaster (n = 5) and produced infections with a prepatent period of 7 days and a patent period of 7-23 days. PMID:9920315

  7. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

  8. Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Wendte, Jered M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Jessup, David A.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443

  9. Broiler performance and intestinal alterations when fed drug-free diets.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; McElroy, A; Webb, K E; Sefton, A E; Novak, C

    2005-08-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of a drug-free feeding program on broiler performance and intestinal morphology. Chicks vaccinated against coccidia were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: 1) negative control (NC), basal diet; 2) positive control (PC), diet 1 + Lincomycin; 3) program 1 (PG1); diet 1 + Bio-Mos, Vegpro, MTB-100, Acid Pak 4-Way, and All-Lac XCL; 4) and program 2 (PG2), diet 1 + Bio-Mos and All-Lac XCL, each of which were assigned to 13 pens (48 birds in each of 52 pens). Growth traits (BW, feed intake, yield, mortality, BW gain, and feed conversion rate) were obtained through 49 d. At d 14, 3 chicks per pen were challenged with coccidia. Segments of duodenum, ileum, and ceca were removed to measure intestinal morphology at d 14, 28, 35, and 49. Final BW gain of broilers on PC (2.736 kg) was numerically higher than those for NC (2.650 kg). Cumulative feed conversion rate at d 49 was improved (P < 0.05) in birds consuming PC and PG2 compared with NC. Overall, mortality was higher for birds consuming the NC (P < 0.05) than the PC, PG1, and PG2 diets. Interaction of dietary treatments with age and age alone were evident (P < 0.0001) for morphology of duodenum, ileum, and ceca. Lamina propria in ceca was thicker (P < 0.008) in broilers consuming the NC than PG1 and PG2 diets. The results of this study indicated that feeding birds without growth promoters resulted in higher mortality and decreased growth performance than did feeding a diet with an antibiotic, and the combination of Bio-Mos and All-Lac XCL helped to reduce negative effects. PMID:16156214

  10. Cyclospora cayetanensis, a food- and waterborne coccidian parasite.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Linda S; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2004-12-01

    Food- and waterborne coccidia including Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis, and Isospora belli are cyst-forming apicomplexan protozoa that cause intracellular infections, predominantly in the epithelial cells of the intestine. They are transmitted by oocysts from person-to-person by the fecal-oral route or via contaminated water or food. The most common symptom of infection is diarrhea, however, asymptomatic infections occur. Infections are associated with intestinal inflammation, with pathological lesions such as villus blunting, and abnormal function such as malabsorption. Mild-to-moderate, self-limiting diarrhea is common in healthy individuals ingesting infective stages of these organisms. However, patients with immune dysfunction can have severe intestinal injury and prolonged diarrhea. Diagnosis in many cases is made by a microscopic examination of the stool, and the use of appropriate staining techniques, but more recently molecular methods for detection are used increasingly. Effective antimicrobial treatment for prolonged infection in immunocompromised patients is available for most of these infections. These gastrointestinal coccidial pathogens have important similarities in epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Although there are many other cyst-forming coccidia of public health, veterinary and/or economic importance, discussion in this chapter will be limited to C. cayetanensis, as an important example of the group. Aspects of the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, disease, treatment and control are considered. This parasite is considered to be an emerging pathogen. From 1990 to 2000, there were 11 foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporosis in North America that affected at least 3600 people. There are many outstanding questions regarding this parasite and under-reporting is common because general diagnostic methods for intestinal parasites are inadequate for detection of Cyclospora. PMID:15567580

  11. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  12. Host-parasite associations of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in kangaroos and wallabies of the genus Macropus (Marsupialia:Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Barker, I K; O'Callaghan, M G; Beveridge, I

    1989-05-01

    Faecal samples from 514 kangaroos and wallabies representing 12 species of the genus Macropus were examined for oocysts of Eimeria spp. Six species of Eimeria were redescribed from their type hosts, and on the basis of finding homologous oocysts in the faeces of other Macropus spp., host ranges for these coccidia were extended. Eimeria hestermani Mykytowycz, 1964 is redescribed from M. giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo) and is described from M. fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo), M. rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby), M. dorsalis (black-striped wallaby), and M. eugenii (tammar wallaby). E. toganmainensis Mykytowycz, 1964 is redescribed from M. rufus (red kangaroo) and the host range is extended to M. giganteus, M. fuliginosus, M. rufogriseus and M. eugenii. E. wilcanniensis Mykytowycz, 1964 is redescribed from M. rufus, and the host range is extended to M. giganteus, M. fuliginosus and M. robustus (euro or wallaroo). E. macropodis Wenyon & Scott, 1925 is redescribed from M. rufogriseus, and is described from M. giganteus, M. fuliginosus, M. rufus, M. irma (western brush wallaby), M. parryi (whip-tailed wallaby), M. dorsalis, M. eugenii, and M. parma (parma wallaby). E. fausti Yakimoff & Matschoulsky, 1936, E. cunnamullensis Mykytowycz, 1964 and E. purchasei Mykytowycz, 1964 are synonymized with E. macropodis. E. marsupialium Yakimoff & Matschoulsky, 1936 is redescribed from M. giganteus, and from M. fuliginosus. E. gungahlinensis Mykytowycz, 1964 is redescribed from M. fuliginosus, and from M. giganteus. Seven new species of Eimeria are described. E. flindersi, new species, is described from M. eugenii, M. rufogriseus, and M. antilopinus (antilopine wallaroo). E. prionotemni, new species, is described from M. eugenii, M. parryi, M. rufogriseus, M. agilis (agile wallaby) and M. dorsalis. E. mykytowyczi, new species, is described from M. agilis, M. antilopinus, and M. parryi. E. parryi, new species, is described from M. parryi. E. yathongensis, new species, is described from M. fuliginosus and M. giganteus. E. parma, new species, is described from M. parma, and E. desmaresti, new species, is described from M. rufogriseus. E. kogoni Mykytowycz, 1964, and E. rufusi Prasad, 1960 are considered species inquirendae. The host-parasite associations of these coccidia, and of similar species of Eimeria in other genera of Macropodoid marsupials, are discussed in relation to the postulated phylogeny of the hosts. PMID:2759765

  13. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  14. Evaluation of the EasyScreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Roberts, T; Ellis, J T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit (Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. A total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. When compared to real-time PCR and microscopy, the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit exhibited 92-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity and detected all commonly found genotypes and subtypes of clinically important human parasites. No cross reactivity was detected in stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and/or protozoan species. The EasyScreen™ PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the 5 most important diarrhoea-causing enteric parasites that infect humans. It should be noted, however, that the EasyScreen™ Kit does not substitute for microscopy or for additional PCRs as it does not detect the pathogenic Coccidia spp. Cystoisospora belli or Cyclospora cayetanensis and it does not differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba spp. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy; as such, molecular methods should be considered the diagnostic method of choice for enteric parasites. PMID:24286625

  15. Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Øines, Øivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

    2013-10-01

    In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

  16. First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.

    PubMed

    Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated. PMID:25055642

  17. Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W

    2013-06-01

    Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

  18. [The helminth and coccidial fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in view of the specific environmental conditions in pheasantries and in the wild].

    PubMed

    Gassal, Stefan; Schm?schke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Between October 1999 and January 2000 all together 151 male pheasants were examined for endoparasites. 33 one-year-old birds came from two pheasantries, the remaining 118 birds, aged between one and five years, were wildlife animals. The infestation extensy of all pheasants with endoparasites were 96.7%. A mostly low infestation with coccidia of the three species Eimeria (E.) phasiani, E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia were detected in 41% of all birds. E. tetartooimia was found in Germany for the first time. In 67.5% of the pheasants the five different species of capillaria (Capillaria (C.) annulata, C. bursata, C. contorta, C. perforans, C. phasianina) and in 84.1% the nematode Heterakis gallinarum were present. Pheasants in the capture group showed higher infestation intensy and extensy. In 51.5% of the pheasants of the capture group Syngamus trachea was present. In one pheasant an acanthocephalus (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus) was detected for the first time in Germany and in two pheasants a trematode of the genus Echinostoma was present. PMID:17009712

  19. Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR?=?14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR?=?4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds. PMID:22536128

  20. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. PMID:24021542

  1. A preliminary survey of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of beef cattle in the tropical livestock farming system in Nan Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Wongsamee, Sakchai

    2006-08-01

    Parasitism is a primary cause of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world, including Thailand. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine baseline data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of beef cattle in Nan Province, northern Thailand and to investigate the factors associated with the prevalence of parasitic infections. A total of 207 faecal and 162 blood samples were collected during the summer of 2005. The basic data of management were recorded, including the number of animals on the farm or in the village, major animal health problems, deworming programme and veterinary service. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections was 61% (126/207). The most common helminth infections in this study were rumen flukes 28% (58), followed by strongyles 27% (55), and the rest were due to Strongyloides 1% (2) and Trichuris 1% (2). The common protozoan infections were Buxtonella cysts 2% (5) and coccidia oocysts 2% (4). Of the 162 blood samples examined, 50% (81) contained Theileria sp., 2% (4) trypanosome, and 1% (1) microfilariae. The high rate of parasitic infections in these areas might be related to the poor management by the farmers, such as sharing the same grazing pasture. PMID:16565814

  2. Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.

    PubMed

    Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R

    2000-05-01

    Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

  3. Intestinal events and nutritional dynamics predispose Clostridium perfringens virulence in broilers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Edwin T

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringensA (CPA) entering the gastrointestinal system depends on favorable conditions to develop and subsequently extend pathogenicity. Reduction in digestive dynamics progressing from the duodenum decreases lumen oxygen, leading to anaerobic conditions in the distal lumen that favor CPA. When nutritional support is concurrently provided, an expanding population threatens the mucosa. Dietary nonstarch polysaccharides that increase viscosity further impair oxygen transfer from the mucosa, improving the ability of CPA to thrive. Incompletion of feed digestion early in the small intestine along with endogenous N provide additional support for population expansion. Glucosidase versatility with mucin elicited by distal CPA concurrently erodes the villus unstirred water layer at the apex, providing access to underlying binding sites for colonization. Proteolytic destruction within the lamina propria supports colonization to create subclinical necrotic enteritis. Eventual vascular entry of CPA and toxins provides a portal path for instituting cholangiohepatitis. Liver condemnations from inspection detect acute flock infection compared with preceding marginal losses in nutrient absorption that decrease feed efficiency. Enterocyte lysis by coccidia enable CPA access to binding sites, thereby extending villus necrosis and further impairing feed conversion. Loss of BW and increased mortality follow as mucosa involvement proceeds. In practice, supplemental feed hemicellulases that reduce digesta viscosity minimize a favorable environment for CPA, while superimposing a combination of amylase, phytase, and protease avoids nutritional support. Physical dynamics of the small intestine together with characteristics of feed that modify digesta viscosity and nutritional availability are central to establishing transient CPA as a pathogen. PMID:25260526

  4. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens. PMID:16050910

  5. The effects of sym. Triazinones on developmental stages of Eimeria tenella, E. maxima and E. acervulina: a light and electron microscopical study.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, H; Ortmann-Falkenstein, G; Haberkorn, A

    1984-01-01

    The development of three chicken coccidia (Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy. One group of chickens infected with 6000-20,000 oocysts received a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (comparable to approx. 25 ppm in the feed) Bay Vg 7183 or Bay Vi 9142 orally (on day 3 or 4 p.i.), whereas others received two doses (on days 3 and 4 or on days 4 and 5 p.i.). The animals were killed on days 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 p.i. and parts of the mucosa were dissected from the caecum (E. tenella), the ileum (E. maxima) and the duodenum (E. acervulina). Significant damage was observed in comparison to the controls, affecting nearly all of the parasites in those animals that had been treated twice, whereas some of the parasites remained microscopically unchanged after only one treatment. In general, the perinuclear space, mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum were found to be considerably enlarged. Nuclear divisions were disturbed in schizonts and microgamonts, thus resulting in a greatly reduced production of parasites. The most important damage occurring in the macrogamonts concerned the wall-forming bodies II. As they burst, the formation of intact oocyst-walls was hindered, even if fertilization had taken place. PMID:6720030

  6. Efficacy of toltrazuril in broilers and development of a laboratory model for sensitivity testing of Eimeria field isolates.

    PubMed

    Vertommen, M H; Peek, H W; van der Laan, A

    1990-07-01

    (1) The efficacy of toltrazuril (Baycox) against coccidiosis was established on a broiler farm in an intermittent application during five consecutive growing periods. Treated birds were fed a broiler ration without anticoccidials. The efficacy of Baycox was compared with the nicarbazin-salinomycin shuttle. It was concluded that Baycox retarded the onset of Eimeria infection for several weeks. During the fifth rearing period coccidiosis problems emerged on the farm in all birds during medication, suggesting development of resistance. (2) During a laboratory experiment the efficacy of Baycox was studied in birds after inoculation with different numbers of oocysts at 7, 10 or 15 days of age. Baycox was applied at 10 and 11 days of age. In all cases medication with Baycox protected birds from coccidiosis during a period of at least 7 days. This effect of Baycox could be due to the long-existing tissue levels of the product and its metabolites as well as its specific effect on the second generation of schizonts. (3) In another laboratory experiment coccidia obtained from field trials were tested for sensitivity to Baycox in conjunction with two strains obtained from farms were coccidiosis emerged during application. The inoculation model developed in this study was used for sensitivity testing. One of the Eimeria strains tested was resistant to the product, one strain was tolerant and the remaining two strains, including the control strain, were fully sensitive to Baycox. PMID:2219660

  7. Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, A

    1996-01-01

    The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized. In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency, is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For reasons of tolerability in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, after 3 months of therapy a maintenance treatment on 2 days a week has recently given very positive results. In cats, monensin and toltrazuril are effective against the intestinal developmental stages of Toxoplasma gondii, the later drug affecting to a reasonable extent the extraintestinal stages as well. Attempts to treat neosporosis and sarcocystosis remain in the initial stages. The same is true for cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. A number of highly effective drugs are available for prophylaxis of poultry coccidiosis. Increasing problems with resistance have led to new treatment schemes such as shuttle and rotation programs. In addition to a new polyether, semduramycin, a benzeneacetonitrile derivative (diclazuril) has been developed in recent years. After three decades a new drug (toltrazuril), a symmetrical triazinone derivative, has brought improvements for therapy and/or metaphylaxis in coccidiosis of poultry and mammals. The increasing possibilities for vaccination may result in new aspects for the use of chemotherapeutics, i.e., new combinations and/or shuttle or rotation programs. PMID:8801548

  8. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

  9. Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Turner, Wendy C.; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  10. Ditrypanocystis sp. (Apicomplexa, Gregarinia, Selenidiidae): the mode of survival in the gut of Enchytraeus albidus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) is close to that of the coccidian genus Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Butaeva, F; Paskerova, G; Entzeroth, R

    2006-01-01

    A selenid gregarine Ditrypanocystis sp. (Apicomplexa, Gregarinia, Selenidiidae), harboring the gut lumen of the oligochaete Enchytraeus albidus, was studied by light and electron microscopy. The trophozoite of Ditrypanocystis sp. is attached to the gut wall with its apical end to be anchored eventually between enterocytes in the crypts. Simultaneously, between the surfaces of the parasite and the host cell a peculiar contact is formed made of membranous channels and vesicles of unknown origin, the host cell surface in the contact area lacking cilia. The trophozoite becomes progressively enclosed within a parasitophorous vacuole made of layers of fused ciliar membranes of enterocytes. The fused cilia may be a source of membranes lining channels and vesicles of the contact area. Such a mode of parasitophorous arrangements has never been described before for gregarines, however, it bears a some likeness with that of the coccidian genus Cryptosporidium (similarity and differences being discussed). With regard to some molecular phylogeny constructions, claiming the "sister" relationship between gregarines and the coccidian genus Cryptosporidium (Carreno et al., 1999; Leander et al., 2003), this common feature in host-parasite relationships enabled us to put forward an idea of a possible evolutionary route from extracellularity of gregarines to intracellularity of coccidia, as exemplified by species of Cryptosporidium. PMID:17147263

  11. A genome-sequence survey for Ascogregarina taiwanensis supports evolutionary affiliation but metabolic diversity between a Gregarine and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Chen, Wei-June; Huang, Chin-Gi; Lancto, Cheryl A; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Zhu, Guan

    2010-02-01

    We have performed a whole-genome-sequence survey for the gregarine, Ascogregarina taiwanensis and herein describe both features unique to this early diverging apicomplexan and properties that unite it with Cryptosporidium, the Coccidia, and the Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic trees inferred from a concatenated protein sequence comprised of 10,750 amino acid positions, as well as the large subunit rRNA genes, robustly support phylogenetic affinity of Ascogregarina with Cryptosporidium at the base of the apicomplexan clade. Unlike Cryptosporidium, Ascogregarina possesses numerous mitochondrion-associated pathways and proteins, including enzymes within the Krebs cycle and a cytochrome-based respiratory chain. Ascogregarina further differs in the capacity for de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and amino acids. Ascogregarina shares with Cryptosporidium a Type I fatty acid synthase and likely a polyketide synthase. Cryptosporidium and Ascogregarina possess a large repertoire of multidomain surface proteins that align it with Toxoplasma and are proposed to be involved in coccidian-like functions. Four families of retrotransposable elements were identified, and thus, retroelements are present in Ascogregarina and Eimeria but not in other apicomplexans that have been analyzed. The sum observations suggest that Ascogregarina and Cryptosporidium share numerous molecular similarities, not only including coccidian-like features to the exclusion of Haemosporidia and Piroplasmida but also differ from each other significantly in their metabolic capacity. PMID:19778951

  12. Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease.

    PubMed

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  13. Rupture of bacteria by explosive decompression.

    PubMed

    FOSTER, J W; COWAN, R M; MAAG, T A

    1962-02-01

    Foster, John W. (University of Georgia, Athens), Robert M. Cowan, and Ted A. Maag. Rupture of bacteria by explosive decompression. J. Bacteriol. 83:330-334. 1962.-A device is described for instantaneously rupturing bacteria and other cells in a closed system under controlled conditions by explosive decompression. With this device, 31 to 59% of Serratia marcescens, ranging up to 20 mg (dry wt) of cells per ml, were ruptured after nitrogen saturation at 1740 psi. Under similar conditions, 10 to 25% of Brucella abortus and Staphylococcus aureus were ruptured. Rupture of these organisms produced readily separable cell walls. Centrifugation in linear glycerol gradients was applied to further separate cell walls from debris. Mycoplasma gallinarum, Leptospira pomona, and Eimeria tenella (avian coccidia) oöcysts were also broken up by the decompression chamber. Pressure and duration of saturation of cells with gas affected rupture efficiency. Within the limits of this study, concentration of organisms and volume of suspensions did not have a definite effect. PMID:13894242

  14. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild. PMID:10367647

  15. Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.

    PubMed

    Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

    2000-05-01

    Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

  16. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed. PMID:2024431

  17. Parasitic infections in an organic grazing cattle herd in Tuscany using geographic information systems to determine risk factors.

    PubMed

    Perrucci, Stefania; Pinello, Eleonora; Fichi, Gianluca; Ciardi, Edoardo; Bàrberi, Paolo; Moonen, Camilla; Ragaglini, Giorgio; Bibbiani, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    An organic grazing cattle herd in Tuscany (Italy) was monitored for parasites between 2002 and 2006. Every two to three months, faecal samples from cattle of different breeds and age were collected and examined for endoparasites, using both qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Several environmental parameters were monitored and data on biodiversity and field margin biodiversity of grazing areas were also collected. All data were geo-referenced and plotted on a vectorial map using geographic information systems (GIS) software. Soil was classified as silt and clay/sand. The hydraulic drainage was poor and water pooling was observed frequently. The biodiversity of field margins was relatively high. Cattle were infected by coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and trematodes. Prevalence and intensity of infestations were highly variable. In most cases, this variability was related to cattle breed, age, season and meteorological data. The Pisana breed was most commonly infected by Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomidae. These infestations were associated with more frequent flooding and water pooling in the areas grazed by this breed. PMID:20422517

  18. Pathology of runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shilton, C; Brown, G P; Chambers, L; Benedict, S; Davis, S; Aumann, S; Isberg, S R

    2014-09-01

    Extremely poor growth of some individuals within a birth cohort (runting) is a significant problem in crocodile farming. We conducted a pathological investigation to determine if infectious disease is associated with runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and to look for evidence of other etiologies. In each of 2005 and 2007, 10 normal and 10 runt crocodiles, with an average age of 5.5 months and reared under identical conditions, were sampled. Laboratory testing included postmortem; histological examination of a wide variety of tissues (with quantitation of features that were noted subjectively to be different between groups); hematology; serum biochemistry (total protein, albumin, globulins, total calcium, phosphorus, and iron); bacterial culture of liver and spleen (2005 only); viral culture of liver, thymus, tonsil, and spleen using primary crocodile cell lines (2007 only); and serum corticosterone (2007 only). The only evidence of infectious disease was mild cutaneous poxvirus infection in 45% of normal and 40% of runt crocodiles and rare intestinal coccidia in 5% of normal and 15% of runt crocodiles. Bacterial and viral culture did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. However, runt crocodiles exhibited significant (P < .05) increases in adrenocortical cell cytoplasmic vacuolation and serum corticosterone, decreased production of bone (osteoporosis), and reduced lymphoid populations in the spleen, tonsil, and thymus. Runts also exhibited moderate anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hypophosphatemia. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between runting and a chronic stress response (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). PMID:24395912

  19. Inhibition and biotransformation potential of veterinary ionophore antibiotics under different redox conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-11-18

    Veterinary ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether compounds used extensively in the livestock industry to promote animal growth and prevent coccidia infection. However, the environmental fate and impact of IPAs are not fully understood. In this study, the inhibition and biotransformation potential of the most commonly used IPAs, monensin (MON) and salinomycin (SAL), were investigated under well-defined aerobic, nitrate-reducing, fermentative/sulfate-reducing, and fermentative/methanogenic conditions. Batch assays were conducted with mixed cultures developed from poultry litter (PL), PL-fertilized soil, and municipal anaerobic sludge. Significant transformation of MON and SAL was observed in aerobic, low-buffer capacity culture series as a result of abiotic acid-catalyzed IPAs hydrolysis induced by nitrification. Biotransformation of IPAs was the main transformation process in aerobic, high-buffer capacity culture series. MON persisted under fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions, whereas SAL was transformed by fermentative bacteria. Both MON and SAL were stable under nitrate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. At IPAs concentrations up to 1 mg/L, MON inhibited only methanogenesis, whereas SAL did not impact any of the biological processes investigated in this study. Multiple, new primary IPA biotransformation products were observed on LC/MS, and their molecular structures were tentatively identified by analyzing LC/MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Overall, MON and SAL exhibited different inhibition and biotransformation patterns at each redox condition tested, which could greatly influence their fate and impact upon their release into the environment as a result of agricultural activities. PMID:25340528

  20. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  1. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

  2. Toxoplasma gondii: a monoclonal antibody that inhibits intracellular replication.

    PubMed

    Mineo, J R; Khan, I A; Kasper, L H

    1994-11-01

    During its intracellular life cycle within the infected host cell, Toxoplasma gondii is able to undergo rapid asexual replication. Neither the mechanism by which the parasite initiates this process nor the requirements for maintaining it are understood. We produced a monoclonal antibody, 1B8, that identifies a parasite antigen of approximate M(r) 97 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The epitope recognized by mAb 1B8 appears as a collection of vesicular structures scattered throughout the cell cytoplasm. When RH strain parasites are incubated with mAb 1B8 in the absence of serum complement, parasite growth is inhibited by > 90% as determined by radioisotope incorporation. Both attachment and invasion assays show that neither of these parasite-host cell interactions are inhibited by the mAb. However, a marked reduction in the number of intracellular rosettes was observed following mAb treatment of the parasites. Viable extracellular parasites are able to endocytose mAb 1B8. Once within the parasite cytosol the antibody recognizes the vesicular structures similar to those observed with fixed parasites. Immunofluorescence assays with Besnoitia jellisoni and Plasmodium falciparum show that the epitope recognized by mAb 1B8 is conserved among Coccidiae but not the kinetoplastid Leishmania. PMID:7525337

  3. Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  4. Application of a qPCR assay with melting curve analysis for detection and differentiation of protozoan oocysts in human fecal samples from Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Laura F; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  5. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp. (Testudines: Testudinidae), from the Dallas Zoo.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Roberts, David T

    2014-02-01

    During January 1994, feces from a captive juvenile Galápagos tortoise, Chelonoidis sp., from the Dallas Zoo, Dallas County, Texas was examined for coccidia. The tortoise was found to harbor an eimerian which is described as new. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria iversoni n. sp. were ovoidal with a smooth, single-layered wall (? 0.5-0.8) that measured (L × W) 13.5 × 10.3 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule(s) were all absent; 2 conical projections were present on 1 end of oocyst and measured 1.0-1.5. Sporocysts were elongate-ellipsoidal and measured 8.3 × 4.5 ?m, with L/W of 1.8; a Stieda body (? 0.5 high) was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was composed of 2-5 granules in a compact mass between sporozoites; sporozoites were banana-shaped and measured 9.5 × 2.5 in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. This is only the second time an eimerian has been reported from Galápagos tortoises. PMID:24006862

  6. A Genome-Sequence Survey for Ascogregarina taiwanensis Supports Evolutionary Affiliation but Metabolic Diversity between a Gregarine and Cryptosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Chen, Wei-June; Huang, Chin-Gi; Lancto, Cheryl A.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Zhu, Guan

    2010-01-01

    We have performed a whole-genome-sequence survey for the gregarine, Ascogregarina taiwanensis and herein describe both features unique to this early diverging apicomplexan and properties that unite it with Cryptosporidium, the Coccidia, and the Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic trees inferred from a concatenated protein sequence comprised of 10,750 amino acid positions, as well as the large subunit rRNA genes, robustly support phylogenetic affinity of Ascogregarina with Cryptosporidium at the base of the apicomplexan clade. Unlike Cryptosporidium, Ascogregarina possesses numerous mitochondrion-associated pathways and proteins, including enzymes within the Krebs cycle and a cytochrome-based respiratory chain. Ascogregarina further differs in the capacity for de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and amino acids. Ascogregarina shares with Cryptosporidium a Type I fatty acid synthase and likely a polyketide synthase. Cryptosporidium and Ascogregarina possess a large repertoire of multidomain surface proteins that align it with Toxoplasma and are proposed to be involved in coccidian-like functions. Four families of retrotransposable elements were identified, and thus, retroelements are present in Ascogregarina and Eimeria but not in other apicomplexans that have been analyzed. The sum observations suggest that Ascogregarina and Cryptosporidium share numerous molecular similarities, not only including coccidian-like features to the exclusion of Haemosporidia and Piroplasmida but also differ from each other significantly in their metabolic capacity. PMID:19778951

  7. Evidence for a recent population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi.

    PubMed

    Madubata, Chioma; Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Elkin, Brett; Oksanen, Antti; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for example, those assigned to the genus Besnoitia, remains poorly defined. Here, we characterize the extent of genetic variation among populations of Besnoitia tarandi, a parasite whose intermediate hosts include reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Isolates from the Canadian Arctic and Finnish sub-Arctic were genotyped at six microsatellite loci, the first internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA, and the RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) encoded in the plastid genome. Remarkably, all isolates exhibited the same multilocus genotype, regardless of the isolate's geographic origin. This absolute monomorphism occurred despite the capacity of these loci to vary, as established by evident differentiation between B. tarandi and two other species of Besnoitia, and variation among four isolates of B. besnoiti. The surprising lack of genetic variation across the sampled range suggests that B. tarandi may have experienced a recent population bottleneck. PMID:22742966

  8. The efficacy of anticoccidial products against Eimeria spp. in northern bobwhites.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; Lollis, L; Parr, C; McDougald, L R

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with 1 x 10(6) oocysts of a field isolate consisting primarily of Eimeria lettyae. Subsequently, we tested clopidol, lasalocid, salinomycin, diclazuril (1 ppm), and monensin against mixed-species field isolates containing E. lettyae, E. dispersa, E. colini, or all. Weight gain, gross intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 6 days postinfection were recorded. Lesion score, as previously reported, was unreliable as a measure of severity of infection in comparison with weight gain, fecal scores, and FCR. Excellent to good efficacy was found in clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), and in lasalocid, narasin and nicarbazin, robenidine, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin, and zoalene (150 ppm). Marginal protection was found using monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin, or a roxarsone/semduramicin combination. Amprolium, roxarsone, and zoalene (125 ppm) were ineffective at controlling coccidia. Two of the six isolates tested against diclazuril 1 ppm and clopidol demonstrated a high degree of resistance, but none of the six isolates was resistant to lasalocid. Four of the eight isolates showed mild to moderate, and moderate to high, resistance against monensin and salinomycin, respectively. These findings indicate that several available compounds are effective at controlling coccidiosis in bobwhites. PMID:21500637

  9. First isolation of Hammondia heydorni from dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Jie, Hu Jun; Yu, Meng; Fen, Yang Yan; Mei, Guo Yan; Yan, Yang; Esch, G W; QingTuan, Fu

    2013-10-18

    Fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in China from March 2010 to November 2011. In 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 ?m in size, were found. Their morphology was similar to those of Hammondia heydorni and Neospora caninum. Sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 KM mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. Oocysts were not excreted in the feces of dogs or rodents inoculated with oocysts. However, the dogs fed the tissues of gerbils or guinea pigs that were inoculated orally with oocysts excreted fresh oocysts. Dogs fed tissues from guinea pigs inoculated with brain and muscular homogenate from guinea pigs that were fed sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts did not excrete oocysts. These findings indicated that the oocysts from naturally infected dogs had an obligatory 2-host life cycle, with gerbils and guinea pigs as intermediate hosts. DNA isolated from these oocysts could not be amplified using N. caninum- and Toxoplasma gondii-specific primers. However, positive amplification with the H. heydorni-specific primers confirmed the presence of H. heydorni DNA in the samples. A comparison of the intron 1 sequence of the alpha tubulin gene with those from H. heydorni from dogs and H. triffittae from foxes showed that dog-derived oocysts possessed a different alpha tubulin gene. Both our dog-derived sequence and 2 previous alpha tubulin gene sequences from H. triffittae from foxes contained a 9-bp insertion relative to 3 sequences of H. heydorni from dogs. However, when the 9-bp insertion from H. triffittae sequences were compared, the 9-bp insertion in our dog-derived sequence had a nucleotide substitution. The present study, therefore, provides new evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs. This is the first survey for H. heydorni in dogs from China. PMID:23731857

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R

    1993-01-01

    Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial durgs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment. PMID:8285619

  11. Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    PubMed Central

    Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

  12. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log?? 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log?? 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

  13. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J. Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log10 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log10 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

  14. Eimeria from bats of the world. II. A new species in Tadarida femorosacca from Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W; Reduker, D W; Parker, B B

    1988-04-01

    Between 1979 and 1980, 104 bats representing 13 species in 4 families were collected in California and New Mexico, U.S.A., and Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and were examined for coccidia; only 3 (3%) had oocysts in their feces. Bats examined and their infection rates were: Molossidae: 0 of 12 Tadarida brasiliensis, 1 of 18 (6%) T. femorosacca; Natalidae: 0 of 1 Natalus stramineus; Phyllostomatidae: 0 of 1 Choeronycteris mexicana, 0 of 2 Leptonycteris sanborni, 0 of 1 Macrotus californicus; Vespertilionidae: 0 of 9 Antrozous pallidus, 0 of 28 Eptesicus fuscus, 0 of 1 Lasionycteris noctivagans, 0 of 3 Lasiurus borealis, 2 of 22 (9%) L. cinereus, 0 of 1 L. ega, 0 of 5 Pipistrellus hesperus. Sporulated oocysts were only found in T. femorosacca and these represent a new species, Eimeria tadarida n. sp. They are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 19 x 25 (16-23 x 20-30) microns; a micropyle is absent, and fragments within the oocyst may be oocyst residuum or multiple polar bodies. The oocyst wall, approximately 1.5 microns, is composed of a mammillated outer layer and smooth inner layer. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8 x 12 (6-9 x 10-14) microns, and have a small Stieda body and a wide substieda body. This is only the 14th eimerian to be described from bats worldwide. Only unsporulated or partially sporulated oocysts of an eimerian were seen in 2 L. cinereus. These measured 28 x 25 (27-29 x 24-26) microns and had a mammillated outer oocyst wall. PMID:3357122

  15. [Effects of the environment on health of feral pigeons (Columba livia)].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tim; Kamphausen, Ludger; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We examined 80 feral pigeons and their fecal samples from two feral pigeon lofts of the "Pigeon Action of Basel" (Switzerland) for different pathogens. The tested material harbored four pathogenic agents transmissible to humans (Chlamydia spp., Salmonella spec., Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptococcus neoformans) In addition several pathogens were found which are no zoonotic agents but potentially pathogenic for the pigeons themselves, such as Trichomonas gallinae, coccidia, helminths, ectoparasites and fungi. The number of pathogens and parasites detected in the fecal samples varied significantly between the two localities. The pigeons of the two investigated breeding flocks differed in nutritional status and the incidence of two species of feather lice, Columbicola columbae and Campanulotes bidentatus compar. The prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae between juveniles and adults was not significantly different but juveniles exhibited significantly heavier infestation if infected. Individuals with a good nutritional status tend to show heavier infestation with Trichomonas gallinae compared to birds with moderate or poor nutritional status. Birds with a poor nutritional status tend to suffer from a heavier infestation with the feather louse C. columbae, and birds with a good nutritional status show significant heavier infestation with C. bidentatus compar. It was remarkable that one of the two investigated breeding populations almost gave up its breeding activity for two years because of the loss of its familiar food source. Nevertheless, this population showed a better nutritional status than the population without restrictions in the acquisition of food. This fact could be interpreted by the existence of a biological control mechanism for suppression of the reproduction in degraded environmental conditions to ensure the survival of the adults. If this assumption is correct, the feeding of feral pigeons by animal lovers possibly causes impairment of pigeon's health in consequence of continuation of the breeding activity in spite of declined living conditions in the city. PMID:25876285

  16. Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. (US Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.

  17. A survey for selected viral, chlamydial, and parasitic diseases in wild dusky-headed parakeets (Aratinga weddellii) and tui parakeets (Brotogeris sanctithomae) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, K V; Lowenstine, L J; Gilardi, J D; Munn, C A

    1995-10-01

    Thirty-eight free-ranging dusky-headed parakeets (Aratinga weddellii) and 13 tui parakeets (Brotogeris sanctithomae) were caught and released in Parque Nacional del Manu in southeastern Peru from 19 July to 5 August 1993. Blood and fecal samples were collected and sera were evaluated for titers to Pacheco's disease herpesvirus, psittacine polyomavirus, paramyxovirus-1, and Chlamydia psittaci. Fecal samples were examined for evidence of ascarid or coccidial infection by fecal flotation, and blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Five (50%) of 10 A. weddellii serum samples tested by complement fixation (CF) for psittacine polyomavirus antibodies were positive, and three (19%) of 16 A. weddellii samples tested by virus neutralization (VN) for psittacine polyomavirus antibodies were positive, yielding a total of 8 (38%) of the 21 A. weddellii samples positive for psittacine polyomavirus. Based on CF for herpesvirus, four (11%) of 38 A. weddellii samples had antibodies against herpesvirus. All B. sanctithomae were negative for psittacine polyomavirus and psittacine herpesvirus. Thirty-five of the A. weddellii tested were negative for Chlamydia psittaci by CF, latex agglutination, and elementary body agglutination, and all B. sanctithomae were negative for Chlamydia psittaci by the CF test. Nine A. weddellii and eight B. sanctithomae evaluated for paramyxovirus-1 titers by the hemagglutination inhibition test were negative. All fecal samples were negative for ascarids or coccidia by fecal flotation, and all blood smears were negative for hemoparasites by direct microscopic examination. This is the first known description of psittacine polyomavirus and psittacine herpesvirus in free-ranging parrots. Serologic evidence of Pacheco's disease herpesvirus in wild A. weddellii is interesting in light of the fact that Aratinga spp. are considered to be possible carriers of this virus in captivity. PMID:8592384

  18. Effects of N-glycan precursor length diversity on quality control of protein folding and on protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips W

    2015-05-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of medically important protists have much to tell us about the evolution of N-glycosylation and of N-glycan-dependent quality control (N-glycan QC) of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. While host N-glycans are built upon a dolichol-pyrophosphate-linked precursor with 14 sugars (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), protist N-glycan precursors vary from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (Acanthamoeba) to Man9GlcNAc2 (Trypanosoma) to Glc3Man5GlcNAc2 (Toxoplasma) to Man5GlcNAc2 (Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Eimeria) to GlcNAc2 (Plasmodium and Giardia) to zero (Theileria). As related organisms have differing N-glycan lengths (e.g. Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Plasmodium, and Theileria), the present N-glycan variation is based upon secondary loss of Alg genes, which encode enzymes that add sugars to the N-glycan precursor. An N-glycan precursor with Man5GlcNAc2 is necessary but not sufficient for N-glycan QC, which is predicted by the presence of the UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) plus calreticulin and/or calnexin. As many parasites lack glucose in their N-glycan precursor, UGGT product may be identified by inhibition of glucosidase II. The presence of an armless calnexin in Toxoplasma suggests secondary loss of N-glycan QC from coccidia. Positive selection for N-glycan sites occurs in secreted proteins of organisms with N-glycan QC and is based upon an increased likelihood of threonine but not serine in the +2 position versus asparagine. In contrast, there appears to be selection against N-glycan length in Plasmodium and N-glycan site density in Toxoplasma. Finally, there is suggestive evidence for N-glycan-dependent ERAD in Trichomonas, which glycosylates and degrades the exogenous reporter mutant carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*). PMID:25475176

  19. The parasite specific substitution matrices improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function. PMID:23281791

  20. Description and phylogeny of a new species of Eimeria from double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) near Fort Gaines, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Gibbs, Samantha E J

    2006-04-01

    The renal parasite Eimeria auritusi has caused several mortality events in double-crested cormorants (DCC; Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Midwest and southeastern United States. This parasite has only been detected during large-scale outbreaks, and its presence and prevalence in healthy populations of cormorants is unknown. In this study, 80 DCC were collected from the Chattahoochee River near Fort Gaines, Georgia, and examined for kidney and intestinal coccidia. Eighteen (22.5%) and 56 (70%) of the DCC were positive for E. auritusi and a new species of intestinal Eimeria, respectively. Oocysts of the new intestinal Eimeria species had a thin colorless wall, were ovoid with rare bumps on the outer surface, and measured 17.1 microm +/- 1.5 x 14.7 microm +/- 1.0 (16-18.5 x 13-17), with an average length:width ratio of 1.17 microm (1.03-1.29). A prominent micropyle (4-4.5 microm) was present, and a large oval-to-round polar body (2.5 microm) was located beneath the micropyle. Sporocysts were ovoid and measured 9.6 microm +/- 0.6 x 5.9 microm +/- 0.5 (8.5-10.5 x 5-6.5), with an average length:width ratio of 1.63 (1.3-1.82) with small stieda body present. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that the 2 DCC Eimeria species and 2 Eimeria species from cranes were in a separate group from other Eimeriidae. These data indicate that E. auritusi and this new species of intestinal Eimeria are prevalent in this apparently healthy DCC population. The cause of renal coccidiosis outbreaks in other populations of cormorants is unknown but could be due to crowding or stress during the winter months or some other associated pathogen or immunosuppressor that might predispose individuals to clinical disease. PMID:16729699

  1. A comparative transcriptome analysis reveals expression profiles conserved across three Eimeria spp. of domestic fowl and associated with multiple developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Jeniffer; Rangel, Luiz Thibério L D; Ferro, Milene; Abe, Ricardo Y; Manha, Alessandra P S; de Mello, Joana C M; Varuzza, Leonardo; Durham, Alan M; Madeira, Alda Maria B N; Gruber, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Coccidiosis of the domestic fowl is a worldwide disease caused by seven species of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. The genome of the model species, Eimeria tenella, presents a complexity of 55-60MB distributed in 14 chromosomes. Relatively few studies have been undertaken to unravel the complexity of the transcriptome of Eimeria parasites. We report here the generation of more than 45,000 open reading frame expressed sequence tag (ORESTES) cDNA reads of E. tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, covering several developmental stages: unsporulated oocysts, sporoblastic oocysts, sporulated oocysts, sporozoites and second generation merozoites. All reads were assembled to constitute gene indices and submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. In the case of E. tenella, we also incorporated publicly available ESTs to generate an integrated body of information. Orthology analyses have identified genes conserved across different apicomplexan parasites, as well as genes restricted to the genus Eimeria. Digital expression profiles obtained from ORESTES/EST countings, submitted to clustering analyses, revealed a high conservation pattern across the three Eimeria spp. Distance trees showed that unsporulated and sporoblastic oocysts constitute a distinct clade in all species, with sporulated oocysts forming a more external branch. This latter stage also shows a close relationship with sporozoites, whereas first and second generation merozoites are more closely related to each other than to sporozoites. The profiles were unambiguously associated with the distinct developmental stages and strongly correlated with the order of the stages in the parasite life cycle. Finally, we present The Eimeria Transcript Database (http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb), a website that provides open access to all sequencing data, annotation and comparative analysis. We expect this repository to represent a useful resource to the Eimeria scientific community, helping to define potential candidates for the development of new strategies to control coccidiosis of the domestic fowl. PMID:22142560

  2. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

    1987-02-01

    Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

  3. The Toxoplasma gondii oocyst from cat feces.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Miller, N L; Frenkel, J K

    1970-10-01

    Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3-5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7-10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20-24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1-2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma cysts. The classification of T. gondii is discussed in relation to that of other isosporan coccidia of cats and dogs. The term "Toxoplasma oocyst" is introduced and Toxoplasma is classified in the family Toxoplasmidae of the suborder Eimeriina. The species Isospora bigemina is restricted to dogs, and I. cati to cats. I. felis and so-called I. rivolta from cats were noninfectious to dogs, and did not confer immunity to subsequent infection with I. canis and I. rivolta from dogs. PMID:4927658

  4. Tsetse challenge, trypanosome and helminth infection in relation to productivity of village Ndama cattle in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, A; Diack, A; Diaité, A; Seye, M; d'Ieteren, G D

    1999-03-01

    Data on tsetse fly, and on village Ndama cattle collected over a 4-year period in southern Senegal, were analysed. A total of 431 Ndama cattle in four herds of three villages in the Upper Casamance area of southern Senegal were monitored monthly. Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina palpalis gambiensis are present in the study area. Mean tsetse apparent density was 5.4 flies/trap/day. Trypanosome (Trypanosoma congonlense and Trypanosoma vivax) infection rate in flies was 2.4 (s.e. 0.37)%. Tsetse challenge index was 17.3 (s.e. 4.18). Mean monthly trypanosome prevalence in cattle was 2.5 (s.e. 0.51)%. Highest trypanosome prevalence occurred during the dry season, and animals less than 1-year old were more frequently infected than older animals. The linear relationship between the log10+1 tsetse challenge and the arcsine of the trypanosome prevalence was significant only when mean monthly values of these variables over the 4-year period were used with tsetse challenge preceding infection rate by 3 months. Mean monthly prevalence of strongyle, Strongyloides spp., Toxocara spp. and coccidia were 34.4 (s.e. 0.60), 2.1 (s.e. 0.18), 1.2 (s.e. 0.45) and 15.6 (s.e. 0.47)%, respectively. Calf mortality rate at 1,6 and 12 months of age was 2.1 (s.e. 2.1), 5.2 (s.e. 2.8) and 12.2 (s.e. 3.3)%, respectively. Calving interval (584 s.e. 58 days) was not influenced by trypanosome status of the cow during lactation. Calving interval was shorter by 167 days when the calf died before 1 year of age in comparison to calving intervals for which the calf survived beyond one year. Live weight at birth, 6 and 12 months of age were 15.8 (s.e. 0.54), 48.1 (s.e. 2.56) and 71.1 (s.e. 5.44) kg, respectively. Mean lactation length, total and daily milk offtake were 389 (s.e. 16) days, 231 (s.e. 15) litres and 0.69 (s.e. 0.037) litres, respectively. Trypanosome infection during lactation did not have a significant effect on the amount of milk extracted for human consumption nor did trypanosome status affect calf growth. PMID:10190867

  5. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

  6. [Epidemiology of digestive parasitic diseases of young cattle in northern Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Chollet, J Y; Martrenchar, A; Bouchel, D; Njoya, A

    1994-01-01

    Studies of gastro-intestinal parasites of zebu calves were carried out in traditional herds in Northern Cameroon through monthly faecal analysis in 17 herds for a period of two years. Toxocarosis appeared to be the most important parasitic infection in the North province where its prevalence reached 58% in calves aged 0-6 months; 60% of the infested calves passed large numbers of eggs at least once. Samples revealing high egg counts were more frequent in the dry season. Deworming calves aged one month with a cheap anthelmintic against Toxocara is likely to be economically profitable in the North. Seventy-five and a half per cent of the calves 0-12 months old were infested with Strongyloides; high counts of Strongyloides eggs were registered at least once for 31% of these calves. As for toxocarosis, calves seemed to be more often and more heavily infested with Strongyloides in the North than in the Far North province. Strongyloidosis was apparently of low clinical importance, with the rare clinical manifestations accompanied by toxocarosis. The importance of digestive tract strongylosis was difficult to evaluate. Every steer was affected at one stage of its life in a similar manner in the two provinces; 6.8% of samples showed high egg counts and 35% of the steers aged over six months passed large numbers of eggs at least once. These results did not permit a priori recommendation of a systematic deworming programme against strongyles; instead, several less intensive deworming programmes have to be tested in order to determine their economic profitability. Coccidia were found in 77.4% of calves aged 0-12 months, with heavier and more frequent infections in the North. However, infections of high intensity were generally rare. Trichuris, Moniezia, Fasciola and paramphistomes were rarely found. Concerning nematodosis, curative treatments and cost-profit studies of deworming programmes should be aimed at toxocarosis in calves aged 0-3 months in the North, and strongylosis in steers aged 6-12 months, in both provinces. PMID:7770660

  7. A pathogenic new species of Eimeria from the pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis, in Washington and Oregon, with description of the sporulated oocyst and intestinal endogenous stages.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Donald W; Harrenstien, Lisa; Couch, Lee; Garner, Michael M

    2005-06-01

    In January 2003, fecal samples from 13 live pygmy rabbits, Brachylagus idahoensis (Merriam, 1891), were collected at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, and sent to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be examined for coccidia. In July 2004, 14 more fecal samples were collected and sent to UNM, 6 from some of the same rabbits and 8 from 16 other rabbits (4 were pooled samples from siblings). In addition, tissue sections from 3 dead rabbits (2 from the Oregon Zoo, 1 from Washington State University) also were examined. Two of 4 (50%) pooled fecal samples and 8 of 17 (47%) 1-rabbit samples were positive for a single species of Eimeria, which we describe here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts were subspheroidal, 25.6 x 23.8 (22-28 x 21-27) microm, with a length:width (L:W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2). A micropyle (approximately 2 microm wide) and 0-1 polar granules were present, but an oocyst residuum was absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 13.4 x 8.1 (11-16.5 x 7.5-9) microm, with a L:W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and they had a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Tissue sections showed a heavy infection of the villous epithelial cells of the proximal and mid-small intestine with coccidial endogenous stages, but no stages were found in liver hepatocytes. Meronts with approximately 46 (26-70) merozoites per infected cell appeared to be fully developed and were subspheroidal, 14.8 x 13.9 (13-18 x 10.5-16.5) microm. Developing macro- and microgamonts were indistinguishable from each other and were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 10.4 x 9.5 (9-11 x 7.5-10.5) microm. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 14.2 x 13.7 (12-17 x 11-16) microm, and mature microgamonts were smaller and subspheroidal, 11.9 x 10.8 (10.5-13 x 9-12) microm. This eimerian seems to be extremely pathogenic to young pygmy rabbits, and given the precarious nature of this unique genetic population, it appears to be an emerging pathogen that deserves immediate further study. PMID:16108556

  8. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Microtus spp. (Rodentia: Arvicolidae) from the United States, Mexico, and Japan, with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Vance, T L; Duszynski, D W

    1985-06-01

    Beginning in July 1980, 149 voles (Microtus spp.) representing 9 species and 14 subspecies collected in Japan, Mexico and the United States were examined for coccidia; 67 (45%) had oocysts in their feces. These included 1 of 3 (33%) M. californicus sactidiegi; 0 of 1 M. longicaudus longicaudus; 0 of 1 M. l. macrurus; 48 of 111 (43%) M. mexicanus including 11 of 26 (42%) M. m. fulviventer, 1 of 2 (50%) M. m. fundatus, 13 of 31 (42%) M. m. mexicanus, 1 of 4 (25%) M. m. mogollonensis and 22 of 48 (46%) M. m. subsimus; 5 of 8 (63%) M. montanus arizonensis; 6 of 6 M. montebelli montebelli; 2 of 4 (50%) M. oregoni oregoni; 5 of 13 (38%) M. pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus; 0 of 1 M. quasiater and 0 of 1 M. townsendii townsendii. The following coccidians were identified from infected voles: Eimeria saxei n. sp. (syn. E. wenrichi "B") from M. c. sactidiegi; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, E. wenrichi (syn. E. wenrichi "A"), and Eimeria sp. from M. m. fulviventer, Eimeria sp. from M. m. fundatus; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp., E. wenrichi, and Eimeria sp. from M. m. mexicanus; E. wenrichi from M. m. mogollonensis; Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp., E. saxei, Eimeria subsimi n. sp., E. wenrichi, Eimeria sp., and Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. from M. m. subsimus; E. tamiasciuri and E. wenrichi from M. m. arizonensis; Eimeria spp. from M. m. montebelli; E. saxei and E. wenrichi from M. o. oregoni; and E. ochrogasteri and E. wenrichi from M. p. pennsylvanicus. Sporulated oocytsts of Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp. were ellipsoid, 29.6 X 19.6 (27-34 X 18-22) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.4 X 8.9 (13-18 X 8-10) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria saxei n. sp. were subspheroid, 13.0 X 11.0 (11-14 X 10-12) micron with ovoid sporocysts 7.5 X 4.0 (6-9 X 4-5) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria subsimi n. sp. were ovoid/subspheroid, 25.1 X 18.7 (22-28 X 17-21) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 13.9 X 7.4 (13-15 X 6-8) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp. were subspheroid, 25.4 X 20.3 (23-26 X 19-23) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 11.3 X 7.8 (10-13 X 7-9) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. were subspheroid, 23.7 X 23.1 (21-26 X 21-26) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.9 X 10.8 (12-16 X 10-12) micron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3891951

  9. [Cryptosporidia and other endoparasites in heifers imported into the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I

    1995-10-01

    Totally 887 heifers of Holstein-Friesian breed mostly in late pregnancy imported to the Czech Republic from France (597), Germany (89), Denmark (181) and Holland (20) were examined coprologically from September 1993 to March 1995 in the parasitological laboratory of the National Veterinary Institute (NVI). Prague. Feces were sampled individually, rectally, always on days 1-3 following importation from heifers housed in particular quarantine sheds. In compliance with presently valid veterinary regulations, all animals were examined for liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) and lungworm. Moreover, 634 heifers were submitted to qualitative coprological examination aimed at revealing the presence of cysts and oocysts of protozoa, eggs of taenias and nematodes of gastrointestinal tract. The method according to Pavlásek (1991), especially designed for proving oocysts of the genus Cryptosporidium, was applied in all fecal specimens delivered to the SVI from animals in quarantine (N = 887). From trematodes, 12 heifers imported from France were positive for eggs of Fasciola hepatica and in other two animals eggs of the genus Paramphistomum were found. None of the imported heifers showed lungworm disease. Summary of data on occurrence of endoparasites gained during qualitative examination of samples of feces taken from heifers imported from France, Germany and Denmark is presented in Tab. I. Parasitologically, 91.2 to 100% of imported animals were positive. Taeniasis (the genus Moniezia) was detected in 2.8% of heifers imported from France and in 9.8% animals from Denmark. Protozoal parasites were found in 58.8% (Denmark) and 92.8% (Germany) heifers. Coccidial oocysts most frequently observed represented the genus Eimeria (E. bovis, E. auburnensis and E. zuernii). Gastrointestinal nematodes of nine genera were found in 72.5 to 80.8% of heifers. The most frequent findings were genera Ostertagia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Oocysts, morphologically identical with Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer (1907), 1910, were detected in 4.5% of heifers imported into the Czech Republic from France and in 7.9% of those from Germany. In view of the fact the imported heifers were sampled always on days 1-3 of their quarantine following their importation it is quite impossible, considering the development of the protozoon, they could become infected just in the territory of the Czech Republic. Therefore, with the highest probability, our findings of C. muris-like oocysts in heifers are of priority importance for France and Germany because in the literature these countries do not report cattle as a host of this protozoon. We have found out 57.9% out of 19 animals positive for C. muris on one farm of a private cattle keeper. On the basis of a long-term monitoring of three dairy cows and one bull, the duration of the patent period is longer than 18 months, while we do not know precise onset of shedding oocysts of the protozoon in these naturally infected animals. Furthermore, the paper discusses the need of future studies of C. muris from the point of view of spread, pathogenicity, specificity and host spectrum. The author proposes and recommends obligatory examinations of imported animals with special attention paid to presence of coccidia of the genus Cryptosporidium in order to maintain, with respect to their zoonotic character, these protozoal infections under proper control. At present the parasitological laboratory of the NVI in Prague has a bank of oocyst isolates of the C. muris type from cattle (Bos taurus), from desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii Satunin, 1903) and camels (Camelus bactrianus). Experimental infections is permanently kept in laboratory mice following successful transmission from desert hamsters. PMID:8659084