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1

Coccidia of whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland. PMID:633514

Forrester, D J; Carpenter, J W; Blankinship, D R

1978-01-01

2

Coccidia of whooping cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.

1978-01-01

3

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians, &  

E-print Network

FA-110 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians in the identification of common freshwater fish parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial

Watson, Craig A.

4

Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.  

PubMed

There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

Hauck, Rdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

2012-03-01

5

Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.  

PubMed

New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38%, 21% in North Island robin, 38% in tui, and 25% in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

2013-05-01

6

Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia  

E-print Network

Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia, Canada, 8 Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found

Arnold, Jonathan

7

Efficacy of ionophorous anticoccidial drugs against coccidia in farm-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from Illinois.  

PubMed

Litter samples obtained from a ring-necked pheasant propagation farm in Illinois contained coccidia: 57.5% of the oocysts were Eimeria duodenalis, 24.9% were E. tetartooimia, 8.8% were E. phasiani, and 8.8% were E. pacifica. Ionophorous anticoccidial drugs were tested for efficacy against the pheasant coccidia. All three drugs reduced oocyst production and prevented mortality in young pheasants; unmedicated infected controls had a 40% mortality rate. Monensin at 120 ppm in the feed was coccidiocidal against E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia, partly coccidiocidal against E. pacifica, and only partly coccidiostatic against E. phasiani. Salinomycin at 60 ppm in the feed was highly efficacious and coccidiocidal against all four species, but the salinomycin-medicated pheasants gained the least of all medicated birds. Lasalocid at 120 ppm in the feed was the most effective, with nearly complete coccidiocidal activity against all four coccidial species. PMID:3619826

McQuistion, T E

1987-01-01

8

Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys  

E-print Network

as the coccidia. Eimeria are parasites of man and many domestic animals, but exert the most severe economic losses on the commercial poultry industry by parasitizing the intestine of floor-reared chickens and turkeys. Presently, there are seven species... the intestine. Infection with coccidial parasites seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of poultry, characteristics of the disease conditions that represent the largest economic losses incurred by producers (Yun et al. , 2000). Part...

Beltran, Ruben

2002-01-01

9

Effects of in ovo interleukin-4-plasmid injection on anticoccidia immune response in a coccidia infection model of chickens.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of an in ovo interleukin (IL)-4 plasmid injection in a coccidia infection model. In experiment I, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been vaccinated with coccidia and injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid was 25% higher than the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus empty plasmid. In both experiments I and II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection decreased fecal oocyst shedding, decreased the number of CD8(+) cells in the cecal tonsils, and decreased cecal tonsil lymphocyte cell proliferation postcoccidia challenge. In experiment I, splenic macrophages of chicks hatched from eggs injected with 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid had higher nitric oxide production than those of chicks hatched from eggs injected with the empty plasmid. In experiment II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection increased serum anticoccidia IgG postcoccidia challenge. It could be concluded that 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid improved anticoccidia immune responses synergistically with in ovo coccidia vaccination in chickens. PMID:22582289

Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K

2012-06-01

10

The effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia oocyst shedding in a wild mammal host with intermittent cestode infection.  

PubMed

While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host's active season. Also, the marmot's response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. PMID:25506065

Vclav, Radovan; Blaekov, Jana

2014-01-01

11

Nematode-coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2014-08-01

12

Two new species of coccidia, Eimeria leucuri and E. oreoecetes (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), in grouse from Colorado.  

PubMed

Eimeria leucuri is described from white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus), and E. oreoecetes from white-tailed ptarmigan and blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) from Colorado. Oocysts of E. leucuri are ellipsoidal, 26.6 by 17.7 micron, each bearing a micropyle, micropyle cap, up to 4 polar granules, but no oocyst residuum. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 15.4 by 6.7 micron, and have Stieda bodies and large amounts of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. Oocysts of E. oreoecetes are subspherical, 26.0 by 22.6 micron, and have up to 4 polar granules. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 14.6 by 8.8 micron, and have both Stieda bodies and substiedal bodies and a large amount of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. These are the first coccidia to be described from these tetraonids. PMID:448611

Stabler, R M; Haskins, A G; Kitzmiller, N J; Olsen, O W; Braun, C E

1979-04-01

13

Occurrence of coccidia infection in pigeons in amateur husbandry. Diagnosis and prevention.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. is a common parasitic disease posing a serious problem in pigeon keeping. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition, the degree of coccidia infection and the effect of the coccidiostat used in the course of the disease in two pigeon lofts located in the West Pomerania province. The material for the study came from 180 birds. A total of 330 faecal samples were investigated with two methods: Willis-Schlaafs (qualitative) and McMaster's (quantitative). The pigeons were given the Baycox (Bayer) coccidiostat with toltrazuril as an active substance. The medicament was administered for two days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight at three-day intervals. Three species of protozoa were isolated: Eimeria labbeana, E. columbarum, E. columbae, and the infections were mixed. The occurrence of E. labbeana was most commonly reported, which was shown, depending on the pigeon loft and the age of the birds, in 89-93% of young pigeons and in 63-55% of adults. The species E. columbarum and E. columbae were found less frequently. Baycox coccidiostat proved to be highly effective against coccidiosis in pigeons and may also be used in prophylaxis. PMID:25115060

Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a

2014-01-01

14

Novel components of the Apicomplexan moving junction reveal conserved and coccidia-restricted elements  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites generally invade their host cells by anchoring the parasite to the host membrane through a structure called the moving junction (MJ). This moving junction is also believed to sieve host proteins from the nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane, which likely protects the pathogen from lysosomal destruction. Previously identified constituents of the Toxoplasma MJ have orthologues in Plasmodium, indicating a conserved structure throughout the Apicomplexa. We report here two novel MJ proteins, RON5 and RON8. While RON5 is conserved in Plasmodium, RON8 appears restricted to the coccidia. RON8, which is likely essential, coimmunoprecipitates RON5 and known MJ proteins from extracellular parasites, indicating a preformed complex exists within the parasites. Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the host plasma membrane. To examine interactions between RON8 and the host cell, we expressed RON8 in mammalian cells and show that it targets to its site of action at the periphery in a manner dependent on the C-terminal portion of the protein. The discovery of RON5 and RON8 provides new insight into conserved and unique elements of the MJ, furthering our understanding of how the moving junction contributes to the intricate mechanism of Apicomplexan invasion. PMID:19134112

Straub, Kurtis W.; Cheng, Stephen J.; Sohn, Catherine S.; Bradley, Peter J.

2009-01-01

15

Large-scale management systems and parasite populations: coccidia in rabbits.  

PubMed

Broiler rabbit production has become an important branch of animal protein and fur production, not only in the traditionally rabbit breeding and consuming countries, but recently in many other countries of the world. The profitability of the rabbit industry is dependent primarily on the good feed conversion. Aspects of this include factors such as morbidity and mortality of infections, adequate knowledge and fulfilment of both accommodation and nutritional requirements, appropriate breeding systems, etc. There is much controversy about the role of coccidia in the losses of intensified rabbit breeding enterprises. There is no doubt about the significance of Eimeria stiedai which may cause condemnation of large amounts of liver as a result of infection in rabbit colonies of small holders. However, this parasite is rare in large scale rabbit farms. In the latter, intestinal coccidiosis is most frequently--although not invariably--incriminated either as a primary or more often as a predisposing factor of intestinal enteropathies causing severe mortality, mainly in the early post-weaning period. The ability to isolate and maintain species of Eimeria in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits has made it possible to characterize them, such as the most pathogenic E. intestinalis and E. flavescens: the pathogenic E. magna, E. irresidua and E. piriformis; and the least pathogenic E. perforans, E. neoleporis (syn. of E. coecicola) and E. media species. Prophylactic measures are dealt with briefly, and laboratory and field trials with the currently most promising rabbit anti-coccidial drugs (Lerbek, robenidine and salinomycin) are dealt with in more detail. PMID:6891527

Varga, I

1982-08-01

16

Cross-protection against four species of chicken coccidia with a single recombinant antigen.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA clone, SO7', from an Eimeria tenella cDNA library was inserted into the high-expression vector pJC264 and was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, CheY-SO7', with a molecular mass of approximately 36 kDa. By using the purified recombinant antigen to immunize young chicks, it was demonstrated that a single dose, without adjuvant, not only protected against severe coccidiosis induced by infection with E. tenella but also protected chicks challenged with the heterologous species Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, and E. necatrix. By using rabbit antiserum raised against recombinant CheY-SO7', Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of sporulated oocysts of all seven major species of chicken coccidia showed that all species tested contained proteins characteristic of the B class of antigens, of which CheY-SO7' is representative. It seems likely that a single B antigen could protect chickens against severe coccidiosis caused by infection with any of these Eimeria species. Although chicks exposed to prolonged, natural infection develop antibodies to B antigen, active immunization of young chicks with a protective dose of CheY-SO7' does not elicit a humoral antibody response, suggesting that the partial protection results from cell-mediated effector mechanisms. In addition, the cross-protective nature of the immunity indicates that the response to B antigen is different from that induced by natural infection, which elicits a species-specific immunity. To date, the protection induced by B antigen immunization, although remarkable for a single recombinant protein, is not sufficient to compete with prophylactic chemotherapy. Images PMID:2004809

Crane, M S; Goggin, B; Pellegrino, R M; Ravino, O J; Lange, C; Karkhanis, Y D; Kirk, K E; Chakraborty, P R

1991-01-01

17

Cryptosporidium is more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia as shown by phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites inferred using small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic placement of gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa: Gregarinasina) within the Apicomplexa was derived by comparison of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Gregarine sequences were obtained from Gregarina niphandrodes Clopton, Percival, and Janovy, 1991, and Monocystis agilis Stein, 1848 (Eugregarinorida Lger 1900), as well as from Ophriocystis elektroscirrha McLaughlin and Myers, 1970 (Neogregarinorida Grass 1953). The sequences were aligned with several other gregarine and apicomplexan sequences from GenBank and the resulting data matrix analyzed by parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The gregarines form a monophyletic clade that is a sister group to Cryptosporidium spp. The gregarine/ Cryptosporidium clade is separate from the other major apicomplexan clade containing the coccidia, adeleids, piroplasms, and haemosporinids. The trees indicate that the genus Cryptosporidium has a closer phylogenetic affinity with the gregarines than with the coccidia. These results do not support the present classification of the Cryptosporidiidae in the suborder Eimerioirina Lger, 1911. PMID:10540950

Carreno, R A; Martin, D S; Barta, J R

1999-11-01

18

Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia  

PubMed Central

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Brbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

2013-01-01

19

Isospora suis in an epithelial cell culture system - an in vitro model for sexual development in coccidia.  

PubMed

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia. PMID:23861983

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Brbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja

2013-01-01

20

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Ocysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7נ20.2?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1?m thick. Both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0נ8.3m, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

21

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

22

Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H.D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.

2001-01-01

23

Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum. PMID:12790396

Augustine, P; Olsen, G; Danforth, H; Gee, G; Novilla, M

2001-03-01

24

New species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), coccidia of bile-bladders of reptiles, illustrating a multiplicity of host cell-parasite interrelations.  

PubMed

Oocyst characteristics and histological features of the endogenous development of bile-bladder coccidia of the genus Choleoeimeria Paperna and Landsberg, 1989 are described and the main features for species differentiation are discussed for the following new species: C. allogamae n. sp. from Agama sp., Cameroon, West Africa; C. allogehyrae n. sp. from Gehyra australis, Magnetic Island (type) and mainland N Queensland, Australia; C. boulii n. sp. from Gehyra variegata, SW Queensland, Australia; C. calotesi n. sp. from Calotes mystaceus, Xiang-Mai, Thailand; C. heteronotis n. sp. from Heteronotia binoei, N Queensland, Australia; C. lygosomis n. sp. from Lygosoma buringi, Kon-Kaen, Thailand; C. sylvatica n. sp. from Carlia rhomboidalis, N Queensland, Australia, and C. xiangmaii n. sp. from Hemidactylus frenatus, Xiang-Mai, Thailand. Oocyst characteristic of Choleoeimeria are also reported from Oedura castelnaui, N Queensland. The described species demonstrate a diversity of associations with the bile-bladder epithelial lining, from a single parasite in a single hypertrophic host cell to multiple infections inducing the hypertrophied cells to form stratified layers, or merge into branched clumps. PMID:18412050

Paperna, I

2007-06-01

25

Coccidia (Apicomplexa) from heteromyid rodents in the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico with three new species from Chaetodipus hispidus.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 223 heteromyid rodents of 4 genera and 13 species were collected from California, New Mexico, and Texas and from Baja California Norte and Sonora, Mexico. Of these, 84 (38%) were infected with coccidian oocysts; 72 of 84 (86%) infected animals had only 1 species of coccidian. Eleven species of coccidia were identified including 1 cyclosporan and 10 eimerians; the cyclosporan and 2 of the eimerians are described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Cyclospora angimurinensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 21.9 x 19.3 (19-24 x 16-22) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 11.9 x 9.5 (9-15 x 8-11) microns; it was found in 1 of 20 (4%) Chaetodipus hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chaetodipi n. sp. were subspheroidal, 16.7 x 14.6 (13-19.5 x 12-17) microns, with sporocysts ovoidal, 8.7 x 6.6 (7.5-10.5 x 5-7.5) microns; it was found in 3 of 20 (15%) C. hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria hispidensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 20.5 x 17.4 (17-23 x 14-21) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 9.3 x 7.2 (7.5-10.5 x 5-9) microns; it was found in 4 of 20 (20%) C. hispidus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2352062

Ford, P L; Duszynski, D W; McAllister, C T

1990-06-01

26

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents (Eutamias, Sciurus, Tamiasciurus spp.) from the western United States and northern Mexico with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 190 rodents in the family Sciuridae, representing three genera and nine species, have been collected in the western United States and northern Mexico and examined for coccidia; 71 (37%) had coccidian oocysts in their feces. These included 2 of 12 (17%) Eutamias canipes; 7 of 12 (58%) E. dorsalis; 18 of 50 (36%) E. merriami; 33 of 96 (34%) E. obscurus; 3 of 4 (75%) E. townsendii; 3 of 9 (33%) Sciurus aberti; 1 of 1 S. griseus; 1 of 1 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus mogollonensis; and 3 of 5 (60%) T. mearnsi. The following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. and Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. from E. canipes, E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, and E. tamiasciuri from E. dorsalis, E. dorsalis and E. tamiasciuri from E. merriami; E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, E. tamiasciuri, and E. wisconsinensis from E. obscurus; E. cochisensis and E. dorsalis from E. townsendii; E. ontarioensis and E. tamiasciuri from S. aberti; E. tamiasciuri from S. griseus; E. tamiasciuri and E. toddi from T. h. mogollonensis; and E. tamiasciuri from T. mearnsi. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. were ovoid, 21.9 x 16.8 (17-24 x 14-20) micrometer with sporocysts ovoid, 11.5 x 6.9 (10-14 x 6-8) micrometer. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. were spheroid to subspheroid, 16.7 x 15.3 (15-18 x 14-17) micrometer, with sporocysts ovoid, 8.4 x 5.6 (6-11 x 4-7) micrometer. Fifty-five of 71 (77%) infected hosts had oocysts of only one eimerian species in their feces at the time they were examined. One eimerian, E. tamiasciuri, was found in seven of nine host species in three genera. A list is provided of all eimerians (22, including the species described here) that have been described in the literature from Eutamias, Sciurus, and Tamiasciurus spp. PMID:3735156

Hill, T P; Duszynski, D W

1986-05-01

27

Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters.  

PubMed

The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers when tested at days 7 and 14 post hatch with the peak response at day 43. Serum anticoccidial titers were highest in birds fed a non-medicated diet compared with those vaccinated or fed medicated diets. Total number of Eimeria oocysts and the composition of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples from different treatment groups varied depending on the type of anticoccidial program. Oocyst counts in general ranged from 3.710(3) to 7.010(4) per g of litter. Importantly, both morphological and molecular typing studies revealed four major predominant Eimeria spp., E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella in the litter samples. Collectively, these results indicate that the field anticoccidial programs influenced the type and abundance of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples and also modulated host immune response to Eimeria. PMID:21641010

Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Pags, Marc; Bautista, Daniel A; Pope, Conrad R; Ritter, G Donald; Lillehoj, Erik P; Neumann, Anthony P; Siragusa, Gregory R

2012-08-01

28

Coccidia of sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis.  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis Yakinoff and Matschoulsky 1935, Eimeria reichenowi Yakimoff and Matschoulsky 1935, and an Adelina species are described from sandhill cranes in the United States. E. gruis was found in the feces of 11 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 62 of 72 greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) from Florida, 5 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 4 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis) from Texas. E. reichenowi was found in the feces of 12 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 66 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida, 4 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 5 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes from Texas. Adelina sp. was found in the feces of 3 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 2 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida. The Adelina species is considered to be a spurious parasite of the cranes. PMID:809566

Courtney, C H; Forrester, D J; Ernst, J V; Nesbitt, S A

1975-08-01

29

Biological effects of gamma-irradiation on laboratory and field isolates of Eimeriatenella (Protozoa; Coccidia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporulated oocysts of a field strain (FS-111) and a laboratory strain (WIS) of Eimeriatenella were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy of gamma-radiation from a 60Co source. Irradiated oocysts of WIS and FS-111 were not significantly more fragile after irradiation as shown by the release\\u000a of sporocysts after 5105?s of vortex agitation with glass beads. Excystation was

J. M. Gilbert; A. L. Fuller; T. C. Scott; L. R. McDougald

1998-01-01

30

Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice.  

PubMed

Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, five newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that were inoculated with C. felis sporulated sporocysts. Asexual and sexual development occurred in enterocytes throughout the villi of the small intestine. The number of asexual generations was not determined with certainty, but there were different sized merozoites. At 24h, merogony was seen only in the duodenum and the jejunum. Beginning at 48h, the entire small intestine was parasitized. At 24h, meronts contained 1-4 zoites, and at 48h up to 12 zoites. Beginning with 72h, the ileum was more heavily parasitized than the jejunum. At 96 and 120h, meronts contained many zoites in various stages of development; some divided by endodyogeny. The multiplication was asynchronous, thus both immature multinucleated meronts and mature merozoites were seen in the same parasitophorous vacuole. Gametogony occurred between 96 and 120h, and oocysts were present at 120h. For the study of the development of C. felis in murine tissues, mice were killed from day 1 to 720 d after having been fed 10(5) sporocysts, and their tissues were examined for the parasites microscopically, and by bioassay in cats. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) Cystoisospora felis most frequently invaded the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice and remained there for at least 23mo. (2) It also invaded the spleen, liver, brain, lung, and skeletal muscle of mice, but division was not seen based on microscopical examination. (3) This species could not be passed from mouse to mouse. PMID:25041145

Dubey, J P

2014-01-01

31

Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa) Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells  

PubMed Central

The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus) concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species. PMID:23862053

Wiedmer, Stefanie; Entzeroth, Rolf

2013-01-01

32

Immunomodulatory effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins in chickens infected with coccidia.  

PubMed

The potential for Fusarium mycotoxins to modulate immunity was studied in chickens raised to 10 weeks of age using an enteric coccidial infection model. Experimental diets included: control, diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, and diets containing contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Contaminated diets contained up to 3.8 microg/g deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.3 microg/g 15-acetyl DON and 0.2 microg/g zearalenone. An optimized mixture (inducing lesions without mortality) of Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella was used to challenge birds at 8 weeks of age. Immune parameters were studied prior to challenge, at the end of the challenge period (7 days post-inoculation, PI), and at the end of the recovery period (14 days PI). Total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG concentrations in challenged birds fed the contaminated diet were higher than controls at the end of the challenge period. Serum concentration of IgA, but not IgG, was significantly decreased at the end of the recovery period in birds fed the contaminated diet. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations in blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly at the end of the challenge period in birds fed the control or the contaminated diet compared to their percentages prior to challenge. The pre-challenge percentage of CD8+ population was restored at the end of the recovery period only in birds fed the control diet. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene expression in caecal tonsils was up-regulated in challenged birds fed the contaminated diet at the end of the challenge period. No significant effect of diet was observed on oocyst counts despite the changes in the studied immune parameters. It was concluded that Fusarium mycotoxins modulate the avian immune system. This modulation involves alteration of gene expression but apparently does not enhance susceptibility or resistance to a primary coccidial challenge. PMID:18824722

Girgis, George N; Sharif, Shayan; Barta, John R; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K

2008-11-01

33

Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

Dubey, J P

1982-12-01

34

Enhanced egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites by splenic lymphocytes from coccidia-infected chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular paras...

35

Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

36

An update on approaches to controlling coccidia in poultry using botanical extracts.  

PubMed

1. This paper reviews the use of botanical extracts in the control of coccidial infection in poultry. 2. Some plants and their respective volatile oils and extracts have the potential to alleviate coccidiosis and reduce its severity. 3. Most plant bioactives improve some, but not all, aspects of coccidiosis with variable effectiveness against different species of Eimeria. 4. Difficulties in comparing research findings have arisen from the use of different experimental models, different active components and infectious dose of Eimeria. 5. Current knowledge of their potential anti-coccidial effects may provide guidance for the use of botanical extracts in the control of the coccidiosis. PMID:24397508

Bozkurt, M; Giannenas, I; Kkyilmaz, K; Christaki, E; Florou-Paneri, P

2013-01-01

37

Characterization of novel lytic peptide secreted by intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes infected with coccidia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The inflammatory response to parasites is mediated by multiple host factors. In this report, we present molecular and functional characterizations of a novel immune mediator whose gene expression increased following infection with Eimeria. NK-lysin is an anti-microbial and anti-tumor protein expre...

38

Phylogenetic analysis of of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18SrRNA gene of Sarcocystis nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinit...

39

IMMUNOSTIMULATING COMPLEXES INCORPORATING E. TENELLA ANTIGENS AND PLANT SAPONINS AS AN EFFECTIVE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR COCCIDIA VACCINE IMMUNIZATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are a unique, multimolecular structure formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins of plant origin and are an effective delivery system for various kinds of antigens. The uses of ISCOMs formulated with saponins from plants native to Kazakhs...

40

New host and locality records of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from rodents in the southwestern and western United States.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven murid and heteromyid rodents were collected from various sites in the southwestern and western United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah) and Baja California Norte, Mexico, and their feces were examined for coccidial parasites. Of these, 53 (36%) were infected with at least 1 coccidian; 45 of 53 (85%) of the infected rodents harbored only 1 species of coccidian. Infected rodents included: 10 of 22 (45%) Neotoma albigula, 3 of 11 (27%) Neotoma floridana, 2 of 14 (14%) Neotoma lepida, 15 of 29 (52%) Neotoma micropus, 5 of 8 (63%) Peromyscus crinitis, 6 of 6 (100%) Peromyscus difficilis, 1 of 2 (50%) Peromyscus eremicus, 9 of 34 (26%) Sigmodon hispidis, and 2 of 3 (67%) Sigmodon ochrognathus; 4 Neotoma cinerea, 3 Neotoma devia, 3 Neotoma mexicana, 1 Peromyscus maniculatus, 1 Onychomys leucogaster, 1 Onychomys torridus, 3 Chaetodipus fallax, and 2 Chaetodipus penicillatus were negative. Although no new species was found, the following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria albigulae from N. albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, Eimeria antonellii from N. albigula and N. micropus, Eimeria ladronensis from N. albigula, N. floridana, N. lepida, and N. micropus, Eimeria arizonensis and Eimeria lachrymalis from P. crinitis and P. difficilis, Eimeria lachrymalis from P. eremicus, Eimeria tuskeegensis from S. ochrognathus, and Eimeria roperi, Eimeria sigmodontis, Eimeria tuskeegensis, Eimeria webbae, and an unidentified species of Eimeria from S. hispidis. This report documents 12 new host and several distributional records for Eimeria species from murid rodents in Arizona, Texas, and Utah. PMID:1779282

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Planz, J V; DeWalt, T S

1991-12-01

41

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep ( Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole

Dario Beraldi; Allan F. McRae; Jacob Gratten; Jill G. Pilkington; Jon Slate; Peter M. Visscher; Josephine M. Pemberton

2007-01-01

42

Immunoenhancing effects of Montanide ISA oil-based adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria acervulina infection.  

PubMed

The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with one of four adjuvants (ISA 70 VG, ISA 71 VG, ISA 201 VG or ISA 206 VG), and body weight gains, fecal oocyst shedding, and humoral and innate immune responses were evaluated following oral challenge infection with live E. acervulina oocysts. Immunization with profilin plus ISA 70 VG or ISA 71 VG increased body weight gains compared with vaccination with profilin alone. Profilin plus ISA 71 VG also reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with vaccination in the absence of adjuvant. All adjuvants enhanced profilin serum antibody titers. Increased levels of gene transcripts encoding IL-2, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-gamma, but decreased levels of IL-15 mRNAs, were seen in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes of chickens immunized with profilin plus adjuvants compared with immunization with profilin alone. Finally, increased infiltration of lymphocytes, especially CD8(+) lymphocytes at the site of immunization was observed in birds given profilin plus ISA 71 VG compared with profilin alone. These results demonstrate that vaccination with the E. acervulina profilin subunit vaccine in combination with Montanide adjuvants enhances protective immunity against avian coccidiosis. PMID:20541870

Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Park, Myeong Seon; Bauchan, Gary R; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bertrand, Franois; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sebastien

2010-09-20

43

Effect of dietary zinc level on serum carotenoid levels, body and shank pigmentation of chickens after experimental infection with coccidia.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of a dietary zinc amino acid complex (Zn-AA) and an anticoccidial drug on Eimeria acervulina or Eimeria tenella infections. In each experiment, 288 day-old Three-Yellow-Chickens were used in a 2 x 3 factorial experimental design. Six groups were arranged randomly to receive three levels of Zn-AA (0, 40, or 80 mg/kg) alone or with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). Additionally an uninfected group was set as negative control. At the age of 21 days birds in Exp. 1 were inoculated with 3 x 10(4) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts, while birds in Exp. 2 were inoculated with 1.5 x 10(4) sporulated E. tenella oocysts. In Exp. 1, E. acervulina did not suppress growth performance significantly, but in groups without salinomycin it significantly reduced serum carotenoid levels on day 7 after inoculation and body and shank pigmentation on day 42. Salinomycin medication maintained serum carotenoids and visual colour of inoculated birds, but Zn-AA did not influence these parameters. In Exp. 2, growth performances of infected and uninfected chickens were similar. Infection decreased to only serum carotenoid levels on day 14 after infection, and colour scores on day 42 in the inoculated group without salinomycin and Zn-AA supplementation. The birds that received Zn-AA had significantly higher serum carotenoid levels and colour scores than those that did not. Although supplementation of Zn-AA cannot avoid coccidial damage of caecum, it prevents the reduction of serum carotenoids and pigmentation of Three-Yellow-Chicken infected with E. tenella, but not after infection with E. avervulina. The interactive effects between Zn-AA and salinomycin on growth performance and pigmentation were not significant. PMID:16736856

Zhao, Jian; Guo, Yuming; Suo, Xun; Yuan, Jianmin

2006-06-01

44

REDESCRIPTION OF NEOSPORA CANINUM DUBEY, CARPENTER, SPEER, TOPPER, UGGLA, 1988 AND ITS DIFFERENTIATION FROM RELATED COCCIDIA ESPECIALLY ISOSPORA BIGEMINA AND HAMMONDIA HEYDORNI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals, which before 1984, was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Infection with this parasite is a major cause of abortion in cattle and causes paralysis in dogs. Since the original description of N. caninum in 1988, considerable progress has been mad...

45

Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

1998-03-01

46

Protective effect of egg-propagated Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes as vaccine(s) against mixed species of coccidia in chickens.  

PubMed

Egg propagated gametocytes of Eimeria tenella (local isolates) were used to prepare the adjuvanted (Amphigen) and nonadjuvanted vaccine(s) and evaluated on the basis of cellular, humoral, and challenge responses. Modified splenic cell migration inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay were used to assess the cellular and humoral responses, respectively. Chicken in groups A, B, C, and D were given adjuvanted vaccine (orally), adjuvanted vaccine (subcutaneously, s/c), nonadjuvanted vaccine (orally), and nonadjuvanted vaccine s/c, respectively. Control groups E, F, G, and H were given adjuvant (orally), adjuvant (s/c), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + adjuvant (orally), and PBS + adjuvant (s/c), respectively. On 5 and 15 days post vaccination after boosting, significantly higher (P<0.05) cell-mediated and humoral responses were detected in vaccinated chicken compared to control. No significant effect of adjuvant and vaccination route on the immune responses was found. Maximum percent protection (survivors after challenge) against mixed species of genus Eimeria was observed in group A (71.42%) followed by group C (63.63%), B (59.09%), and group D (54.54). Significantly higher (P<0.05) oocysts per gram (OPG) of droppings was observed in the control groups compared to the vaccinated chickens. Maximum percent reduction in OPG was also recorded in group A (86) followed by group C (84), group B (83), and group D (82). From these results, it was concluded that egg-propagated gametocytes (E. tenella) that gave protection upon challenge may be due to the control of E. tenella. Further studies on its feasibility as commercial vaccine are underway. PMID:16416294

Abdul Hafeez, M; Akhtar, Masood; Hussain, Iftikhar

2006-05-01

47

Enzymes as Feed Additive to Aid in Responses Against Eimeria Species in Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Different Protein Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vacci- nated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then chal- lenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d- old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12

J. Parker; E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; B. A. Clack; S. Clemente-Hernandez; J. Osborne; J. C. Remus; H. Kettunen; E. M. Pierson

48

INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SARCOCYSTIS SPP. FROM GREYLAG (ANSER ANSER) AND WHITE-FRONTED (ANSER ALBIFRONS) GEESE TO OTHER CYST FORMING COCCIDIA USING 18S AND 28S rRNA GENE SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on cyst morphology, Sarcocystis cysts type I were found in one White-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and cysts type III in one Greylag goose (Anser anser) and two White-fronted geese. Sarcocysts isolated from infected birds as intermediate host have not been previously described and are unnamed. Type III sarcocysts detected in White-fronted and Greylag geese may illustrate the case of

Dalius Butkauskas; Aniolas Sruoga; Liuda Kutkien?; Petras Prakas

2007-01-01

49

Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei n.sp. from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) and Eimeria choloepi n.sp. from the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Par State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless

Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw

1982-01-01

50

Evidence for a population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for ...

51

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

E-print Network

Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in ...

Bushkin, G. Guy

52

ENTERIC COCCIDIOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites normally found in the intestinal tract. They belong to phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozoasida, order Eucoccidiorida, and, depending on the species, family Eimeriidae, Cryptosporidiidae, or Sarcocystidae. Coccidian genera that infect cats and dogs are Iso...

53

Fall and Winter Health Problems in Cow-Calf Herds  

E-print Network

with coccidia (microorganisms that multiply in the intestinal tract) from cow manure. Nursing calves lie on these grounds and may ingest many coccidial cysts, which leads to coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract. Several health problems... are associated with round bale-feeding of cows and nursing calves. For calves, these include: ? Coccidiosis (coccidial scours), an intestinal disease caused by a parasite called coccidia and resulting in diarrhea ? Cryptosporidiosis (crypto scours), caused...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-09-09

54

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.-H.; Olsen, G.H.

2006-01-01

55

Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi).  

PubMed

Passerines are frequently parasitized by coccidia, especially species of the genus Isospora, with extra-intestinal stages that can be highly pathogenic causing serious clinical damage in young birds. Whilst there is still no effective treatment to completely clear isosporoid coccidia with extra-intestinal stages from a host species, our results showed that prolonged treatment with toltrazuril (BAYER AG, Leverkusen, Germany) can decrease the oocysts in faeces and thus reduce the extra-intestinal phase of the infection. The toltrazuril treatment is therefore probably indirectly effective against the systemic form of atoxoplasmosis. PMID:24224549

Jamrika, Jn; Lavilla, Lourdes A; Thomasson, Ann; Barbon, Alberto R; Lopz, Javier F; Modr, David

2013-12-01

56

OXIDATIVE STRESS DURING AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is known that oxidative stress occurs during the acute phase (days 5-7 post infection) of primary avian coccidia infections. This is a period of much host tissue destruction that is associated with maturation and shedding of oocysts. However, little is known about the host redox status during e...

57

Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

58

A parasitological survey of wild red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Guadalajara, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootiological survey of leishmaniosis, coccidiosis and parasitic helminths in 67 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was conducted in Guadalajara (central Spain). Examination for parasitic protozoa revealed prevalences of 74% Leishmania (determined by molecular methods) and 2.9% coccidia oocysts (fecal flotation). Survey of parasitic helminths (fecal flotation\\/necropsy) demonstrated the presence of nine species, including six nematodes, two cestodes and one trematode. Nematodes

A Criado-Fornelio; L Gutierrez-Garcia; F Rodriguez-Caabeiro; E Reus-Garcia; M. A Roldan-Soriano; M. A Diaz-Sanchez

2000-01-01

59

Eimeria that infect fish are diverse and are related to, but distinct from, those that infect terrestrial vertebrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Eimeria are ubiquitous Apicoplexan parasites (family: coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and rel...

60

MORE INFORMATION ON THE COCCIDIAN PARASITES (PROTOZOA: EIMERIIDAE) OF THE COLORADO PIKA, Ochotona princeps, WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of 7 species of Coccidia is reported from 137 Colorado pikas, Ochotona princeps, collected on Mt. Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado, during the summers of 1968, 1969, and 1971. Identification of the parasites was based on the structure of the unsporulated oocysts which, at least for those species that have been described to date from North American pika

DONALD W. DUSZYNSKI

61

Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne

2006-01-01

62

Experimental study of Eimeria robertsoni (Protozoa, Eimeriidae) in the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus.  

PubMed

A 6 1/2-day prepatent period and a patent period of at least 22 days followed single oocyst infection of a young coccidia-free hare with Eimeria robertsoni. Size of oocysts increased significantly during patency and was negatively correlated with oocyst output. Oryctolagus cuniculus remained negative after inoculation per os of E. robertsoni of snowshoe hare origin. PMID:859077

Samoil, H P; Samuel, W M

1977-04-01

63

Case report of systemic coccidiosis in a radiated tortoise ( Geochelone radiata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 30 species of coccidian parasites have been described in Chelonidae (tortoises and turtles). Eimeria spp. are apparently the most common coccidia in chelonians. Findings of Caryospora cheloniae, Isospora sp., and Mantonella sp. have also been published, but reports about systemic coccidiosis are rare. We describe a case of a coccidiosis diagnosed\\u000a cytologically in a radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata)

Volker Schmidt; Viktor Dyachenko; Heike Aupperle; Michael Pees; Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns; Arwid Daugschies

2008-01-01

64

Immunopathology and Cytokine Responses in Broiler Chickens Coinfected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens Using an Animal Model of Necrotic Enteritis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens (CP) infection in commercial poultry has been increasing at an alarming rate. While pre-exposure of chickens to coccidia infections is believed to be one of the major risk factors leading to NE, the underlying mechanisms of CP ...

65

21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...monensin intended for use in chickens, turkeys, and quail shall bear the following statements...allow horses, other equines, mature turkeys, or guinea fowl access to feed containing...layers only. (vii) Some strains of turkey coccidia may be monensin tolerant or...

2010-04-01

66

21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...monensin intended for use in chickens, turkeys, and quail shall bear the following statements...allow horses, other equines, mature turkeys, or guinea fowl access to feed containing...layers only. (vii) Some strains of turkey coccidia may be monensin tolerant or...

2014-04-01

67

21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...monensin intended for use in chickens, turkeys, and quail shall bear the following statements...allow horses, other equines, mature turkeys, or guinea fowl access to feed containing...layers only. (vii) Some strains of turkey coccidia may be monensin tolerant or...

2011-04-01

68

21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...monensin intended for use in chickens, turkeys, and quail shall bear the following statements...allow horses, other equines, mature turkeys, or guinea fowl access to feed containing...layers only. (vii) Some strains of turkey coccidia may be monensin tolerant or...

2012-04-01

69

21 CFR 558.355 - Monensin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monensin intended for use in chickens, turkeys, and quail shall bear the following statements...allow horses, other equines, mature turkeys, or guinea fowl access to feed containing...layers only. (vii) Some strains of turkey coccidia may be monensin tolerant or...

2013-04-01

70

Studies on coccidiosis in goats in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out in a flock consisting of 110 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci. Eighty-one percent of adults and 100% of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per gram of feces in kids ranged form 1200 to

A Balicka-Ramisz

1999-01-01

71

INTESTINAL COCCIDIOSIS IN A SPINNER DOLPHIN (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed histologically in the small intestine of a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Numerous intralesional coccidia were present in mucosal epithelial cells. Schizonts, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were seen. Schizonts were up to 30 x 20 m and contained ...

72

Enteric coccidiosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a review of intestinal coccidiosis in cats and dogs. Coccidia are single celled parasites of mammals and birds.There are many species of coccidian that parasitize dogs and cats, and some of these are zoonotic. These parasites are normally found in intestines and are passed in a resistant st...

73

Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605

Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M

2013-09-01

74

[Oocyst structure and problem of coccidian taxonomy].  

PubMed

A comparative ultrastructural study was made of both thin- and thick-walled oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. According to the authors' findings, all the oocysts in C. parvum should be considered as thin-walled, since their walls have been composed of a single membrane or of two, closely apposed membranes without any additional substance in between. Despite the presence of two types of wall-forming bodies (WFB) in the maturing macrogamete or zygote, there is no evidence of their involvement in oocyst wall formation. In this concern, the function and destiny of WFB in C. parvum oocysts still remain obscure. Similar structure of the oocysts wall was reported elsewhere for thin-walled oocysts of fish coccidia of the genera Goussia and Eimeria. In C. parvum, the "thick-walled" oocysts differ from oocysts with thin walls in the availability in the former of a single sporocyst. The sporocyst wall consists of two unequal layers: a thin outer layer and a thicker inner one, in which a characteristic suture line is occasionally seen. By this feature the thick-walled oocysts of C. parvum bear similarities with oocysts of the cyst-forming coccidia (Cystoisospora, Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis) and of the genus Goussia: in all these the valves making up the sporocyst wall are joint just along the suture line. The literary and the authors' own data make it possible to suppose that the suture detected in C. parvum oocysts is located in the sporocyst wall, joining its valves, rather than in the oocyst wall proper, known to be composed of one or two, closely apposed unit membranes. Again, the availability of a suture (or sutures) in the sporocyst hardly provides enough reason to relate C. parvum with either cyst-forming, or fish coccidia, since this structure itself may be of a convergency character, rather than of systematic value. This may be substantiated, at least in part, by the authors' previous findings (Beyer, Sidorenko, 1984) of a similar structure, originally referred to as a "slit channel", in the intraerythrocytic capsule around gamont stage of haemogregarines--the adeleid coccidia of the genus Karyolysus. The suture-like structure could have originated in the evolution independently in different groups of parasitic protozoa to serve eventually as a suitable mechanism for immediate separation of elements involved in protective formation harbouring different developmental stages, including, for example, sporozoites in the eimeriid coccidia, or gamonts in the adeleid coccidia. PMID:11840774

Be?er, T B; Svezhova, N V; Sidorenko, N V

2001-01-01

75

A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcn Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.  

PubMed

Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

2000-04-01

76

Coccidial infection does not influence preening behavior in American goldfinches.  

PubMed

Preening behavior in birds is important for the maintenance of thermoregulatory and ornamental functions of plumage. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that birds trade off time between plumage maintenance and other activities. However, the condition-dependent constraints of preening remain virtually unstudied. Here, we present the first experimental test of the hypothesis that intestinal parasite infection impairs preening activity. We studied male American goldfinches (Spinus tristis), a species with carotenoid-based plumage coloration. Following pre-alternate (spring) molt, we manipulated the health of males by infecting some birds with Isospora spp. coccidia and keeping others free of the infection. Although the goldfinches increased preening throughout the captive period, we found no significant effect of coccidial treatment on preening behavior. The effect of coccidia on plumage maintenance may be more pronounced under natural conditions where birds have limited access to food and engage in more activities that might limit time available for preening. PMID:24882939

Surmacki, Adrian; Hill, Geoffrey E

2014-01-01

77

The efficacy of monensin as a coccidiostat, and its effect on feed efficiency in Angora goats  

E-print Network

of resistance comparable to non-treated, infected controls without the weight loss suffered by the controls. Although amprolium is a suitable chemoprophylactic agent for cattle, sheep, and goats, Horton and Stockdale (1979) showed that amprolium had...'s anticoccidial activity depends upon the greater suscep- tibility of coccidia mitrochondria than host mitochondria to these effects. Horton and Stockdale (1979) compared the effects of monensin and amprolium on oocyst discharge, feed utilization and ruminal...

Hinkle, Marilyn Lee

2012-06-07

78

Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a

Jered M. Wendte; Melissa A. Miller; Dyanna M. Lambourn; Spencer L. Magargal; David A. Jessup; Michael E. Grigg

2010-01-01

79

Toltrazuril treatment of cystoisosporosis in dogs under experimental and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidia of the genus Cystoisospora cause mild to severe diarrhoea in dogs. The effects of toltrazuril treatment on cystoisosporosis were studied under experimental\\u000a and field conditions. Twenty-four puppies were experimentally infected each with 4??104 oocysts of the Cystoisospora ohioensis group. Three groups of six puppies were treated 3?dpi with 10, 20 or 30?mg\\/kg body weight of toltrazuril suspension (5%);\\u000a the

A. Daugschies; H.-C. Mundt; Valeria Letkova

2000-01-01

80

Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For

A. Haberkorn

1996-01-01

81

Efficacy of Emodepside\\/Toltrazuril Suspension (Procox Oral Suspension for Dogs) against Mixed Experimental Isospora felis\\/Isospora rivolta Infection in Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9mg emodepside?+?18mg toltrazuril per ml) were\\u000a studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each

Gabriele Petry; Eva Kruedewagen; Andreas Kampkoetter; Klemens Krieger

2011-01-01

82

First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Trs Marias Reservoir, So Francisco Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Trs Marias Reservoir, Upper So Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the So Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

2010-05-01

83

Long-term monitoring of endoparasites in birds-of-paradise at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Doha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We evaluated,results,of over 4400 documented,faecal,parasitological,examinations,between,2000 and 2007 in more than 90 individuals of six species of Birds of Paradise (BoP). Between 2000 and 2007, 83.2% of investigated samples were negative for parasites, and the number of negative samples increased consistently over the years; in positive samples, the proportion of Capillaria sp decreased (from 100% to 4.8%) and that,of Coccidia

2009-01-01

84

Toltrazuril (Baycox) treatment against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is the most predominant parasitic disease affecting Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in commercial farms. Coccidiosis as a subclinical infection is difficult to diagnose without parasitological examinations. Oocysts of two Eimeria species, E. bateri and E. tsunodai, were determined in the analysed quail flock. Infected birds were administered Baycox 2.5% at the dose of: group I--7 mg toltrazuril/kg BW per day provided in drinking water (1.5 ml/0.5 1 H2O) that was available 24 h for 2 days, group II--14 mg/kg BW (3 ml/0.5 1 H2O), and group III-- 24.5 mg/kg BW (5 ml/0.5 1 H2O); in groups II and III, the solutions were available 8 h/24 h for 2 days. After the first day of the treatment, the number of excreted oocysts (OPG - oocysts per gram) increased, a steady decrease in oocyst counts began on the second day of Baycox administration and lasted until a three-day period when no oocyst were determined in faecal samples. Regardless of the dose applied, toltrazuril (Baycox) completely eliminated E. bateri coccidia and led to a highly significant reduction in the number of E. tsunodai oocysts. The results suggest that the effectiveness of toltrazuril varies depending on coccidia species and developmental stages of the parasite. From the clinical point of view, the treatment applied significantly reduces the number of coccidia oocysts in commercial flocks of Japanese quails. PMID:25286655

Sok?, R; Gesek, M; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Michalczyk, M

2014-01-01

85

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds. PMID:521379

Carpenter, J W; Spraker, T R; Gardiner, C H; Novilla, M N

1979-11-01

86

An unusual coccidian parasite causing pneumonia in a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).  

PubMed

In June 1993 an unusual coccidian parasite was identified in lung tissue from a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), collected near Tucson, Arizona (USA), which died in respiratory distress. Histologically, there was evidence of severe, generalized interstitial pneumonia, associated with the parasite. Both asexual and sexual stages were seen. Schizonts, gamonts, and sporulated oocysts were seen in lung tissue. The parasite most closely resembled coccidia of the genus Lankesterella. This is the first report of such a coccidian parasite in the alveolar tissue of a cardinal. PMID:8627925

Baker, D G; Speer, C A; Yamaguchi, A; Griffey, S M; Dubey, J P

1996-01-01

87

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

88

Sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.  

PubMed

Muscle from Sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (Felis domestica) and dogs (Canis familiaris). Only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. The prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. Sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. They contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (N=55). Doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administered to 5 domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Domestic rabbits did not become infected, suggesting a strict host specificity for the intermediate host S. floridanus. PMID:405509

Fayer, R; Kradel, D

1977-04-01

89

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

1979-01-01

90

Parasitic infections detected by FLOTAC in zoo mammals from Warsaw, Poland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans. PMID:24827109

Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

2014-06-01

91

The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T.?gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

2013-02-01

92

The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T. gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

2013-01-01

93

Pulmonary lesions in disseminated visceral coccidiosis of sandhill and whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (Grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (Grus americana), were studied. Eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC). The remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria reichenowi and/or E. gruis; five chicks served as controls. There were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. Necropsy of naturally infected adult birds revealed nodules in many organs, including the lung, air sacs, trachea and nares. Artificially infected sandhill cranes and the whooping crane chicks that died from DVC had congestion and consolidated areas in the lung with frothy fluid in the airways. Grossly visible nodules were observed from 10 days postinoculation. Granulomatous pneumonia and tracheitis were observed with light microscopy. Lesions were associated with merogonic and gametogonic stages of eimerian coccidia. Granulomas and granulomatous foci contained parasitized large mononuclear cells. Merogonic stages were seen in lymphoid cells by ultrastructural examination. Oocysts were observed in the trachea and bronchial mucosa and admixed with exudate in the airways, indicating that crane eimerians can complete their life cycle at these sites. Of the few eimeriid coccidia that have extraintestinal stages of development in birds and mammals, only the species in cranes complete their life cycle in both the digestive and respiratory tracts. PMID:2810553

Novilla, M N; Carpenter, J W; Jeffers, T K; White, S L

1989-10-01

94

Responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to natural forest fires.  

PubMed

We investigated the responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to fire in a boreal forest ecosystem. Because fire affects the environmental conditions and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem, the life cycle of parasites may also be affected because of the absence of intermediate hosts in the environment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of endoparasites would be influenced by the parasites' life cycle and habitat characteristics (forest vs. burned). We found that prevalence of endoparasites was different between forested and burned habitats (chi(2)=37.49, P<0.001). Cestodes, nematodes, and coccidia showed different responses to habitat alteration (chi(2)=37.43, P<0.001). There was a higher prevalence of cestodes in forested (53.5%) than burned habitats (35.0%). However, there was higher prevalence of coccidia in burned (55.0%) than forested (42.9%) habitats. Furthermore, although prevalence of cestode infection was lower in burned than forested habitat, individuals in both habitats had similar intensities of cestodes. Our study showed that habitat can significantly affect the parasite communities, depending on specific parasite life cycles. PMID:20090027

Hwang, Y T; Gardner, S L; Millar, J S

2010-01-01

95

Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jrme

2010-11-01

96

Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jimnez Rocha, Ana E; Hernndez Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sand, Janet; Nuez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

2009-03-01

97

Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

PubMed

Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals. PMID:23568915

Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

2013-04-01

98

The enteritis complex in domestic rabbits: A field study  

PubMed Central

A study of the causative agents of enteritis in domestic rabbits from 44 different accessions is described. In descending order of frequency, the organisms most commonly demonstrated were intestinal and hepatic coccidia (Eimeria species), Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp., Salmonella, Bacillus piliformis, and rotavirus. The species of Eimeria identified included those moderately pathogenic and coccidia of low pathogenicity. Using seven antisera against known enterpathogenic strains of E. coli, only one strain, O15, was identified in three cases. Clostridium perfringens or C. spiroforme was demonstrated in the intestinal contents in 11 cases, and lesions compatible with clostridial enteropathy were identified on gross and histopathology. In a serological survey, over 50% of 200 fryer rabbits submitted to Ontario abattoirs and of animals from commercial rabbitries had detectable antibody to rotavirus, indicating the widespread distribution of rotaviral infections in this species. In the cases of enteritis studied, two or more potentially pathogenic organisms were frequently identified, emphasizing that several different organisms may be acting in concert to produce clinical disease. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424177

Percy, Dean H.; Muckle, C. Anne; Hampson, Robert J.; Brash, Marina L.

1993-01-01

99

Herbal formulations as feed additives in the course of rabbit subclinical coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Two simultaneous experiments were carried out in a breeding farm of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domesticus) to determine the feasibility of replacing coccidiostats with garlic and oregano preparation. The research took place during June and July, the period of the greatest threat of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). In one investigation, 40 rabbits aged 1-3 months were divided into four groups of ten animals: Group A being a control which received no coccidiostats in feed, Group B receiving the coccidiostat Baycox in water once at weaning, Group C receiving the coccidiostat robenidine in feed, and group D receiving herbal extracts in feed. In the second trial, six mated females were allocated equally to three groups analogous to A, C, and D above during pregnancy and lactation. Bulk stool samples were collected from each group of rabbits at weekly intervals for coproscopic analysis, and the production results of the animals were recorded. In the young rabbits, both the faecal coccidia oocyst counts and body weight gains were more favourable in group D than the remaining groups. Also, the female rabbits of group D were the least infected. The results demonstrate that garlic and oregano feed additives exert a positive influence on the level and course of coccidia infection, with regard to maintaining a good level of animal productivity, and these herbal extracts appear to have potential value in coccidiosis prophylaxy. PMID:24930248

Nosal, Pawe?; Kowalska, Dorota; Biela?ski, Pawe?; Kowal, Jerzy; Korna?, S?awomir

2014-01-01

100

Coccidian parasites of intertidal fishes from Wales: systematics, development, and cytochemistry.  

PubMed

Examination of littoral fish Blennius pholis and Cottus bubalis caught at Aberystwyth and Porth Cwyfan, Wales, U.K. revealed 2 species of coccidia. Eimeria dingleyi sp. n. Oocysts spherical (16.1-19.2) to subspherical (13.9-14.2 X 18.8-20.0) micron, with thin walls; sporulation outside the host to produce ellipsoid sporocysts; endogenous phases in epithelial cells throughout intestine; 26 of 58 B. pholis infected. Eimeria variabilis (Thohan) Reichenow. Oocysts spherical (11.9-14.6) to subspherical (9.2-10.9 X 13.9-14.3) micron, sporulation in lining of pyloric ceca and rectum; previously unrecorded schizonts and gametocytes present; 21 of 25 C. bubalis infected. Electron microscopy revealed that the oocyst wall of E. variabilis consists of a thin membrane whereas the sporocyst wall is thick and 3-layered. Typical oocyst wall-forming bodies were absent from the macrogamete. Cytochemical tests on the endogenous stages of E. dingleyi and E. variabilis indicated that in general they resembled other coccidia in their chemical constitution. PMID:660568

Davies, A J

1978-02-01

101

Host-Parasite Incongruences in Rodent Eimeria Suggest Significant Role of Adaptation Rather than Cophylogeny in Maintenance of Host Specificity  

PubMed Central

The degree of host specificity, its phylogenetic conservativeness and origin are virtually unknown in Eimeria. This situation is largely due to the inadequate sample of eimerian molecular data available for reliable phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we extend the data set by adding 71 new sequences of coccidia infecting 16 small-mammal genera, mostly rodents. According to the respective feasibility of PCR gene amplification, the new samples are represented by one or more of the following genes: nuclear 18S rRNA, plastid ORF 470, and mitochondrial COI. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences confirm the previous hypothesis that Eimeria, in its current morphology-based delimitation, is not a monophyletic group. Several samples of coccidia corresponding morphologically to other genera are scattered among the Eimeria lineages. More importantly, the distribution of eimerians from different hosts indicates that the clustering of eimerian species is influenced by their host specificity, but does not arise from a cophylogenetic/cospeciation process; while several clusters are specific to a particular host group, inner topologies within these clusters do not reflect host phylogeny. This observation suggests that the host specificity of Eimeria is caused by adaptive rather than cophylogenetic processes. PMID:23861732

Kvi?erov, Jana; Hypa, Vclav

2013-01-01

102

Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at P<0.05?0.01 (250 spots), P<0.01?0.001 (248 spots), and P<0.001 (314 spots) were excised and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified in 172 spots. A total of 46 different proteins were identified. Of the spots with a corresponding protein identification, 57 showed a main effect of coccidia infection and/or 2-way interaction of coccidia infectionbroiler genetic line at P<0.001. Conclusions/Significance Several of the metabolic enzymes identified in this study are potential candidates for early diagnostic markers of E. acervulina infection including malate dehydrogenase 2, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 9, and an ATP synthase. These proteins were detected only in Line A birds that were inoculated with E. acervulina. Results from this study provide a basic framework for future research aimed at uncovering the complex biochemical mechanisms involved in host response to Eimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods. PMID:21297942

Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.

2011-01-01

103

Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan

2013-09-01

104

Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.  

PubMed

In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

Takcs, Andrs; Szab, Lszl; Juhsz, Lajos; Takcs, Andrs Attila; Lanszki, Jzsef; Takcs, Pter Tams; Heltai, Mikls

2014-03-01

105

Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in central Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces from 60 bats representing 5 species and 4 genera collected in central Wyoming in 2001 were examined for the presence of coccidia. Two species of Eimeria were identified in 4 bats representing 2 species of Myotis. All infected animals harbored a single species; there was no multispecies infection. Eimeria catronensis was recovered from 3 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Eimeria californicensis was identified from a single long-legged myotis (Myotis volans). Both represent new geographic records and the second a new host record. Eimeria catronensis-like oocysts were recovered from a single silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Descriptions and taxonomic summaries for the eimerian species are presented in this study. PMID:15165058

Seville, Robert S; Gruver, Jeffrey

2004-04-01

106

Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.  

PubMed

Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment. PMID:19530399

Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker

2009-03-01

107

Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.823.2 (22-2720-25) m, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.68.3 (10.5-137.5-9) m, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

1999-01-01

108

Diagnosis-based treatment of helminths in captive and wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

This study was designed to identify endoparasites in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) living in a seminatural captive environment in north-central Namibia. Results were used to assess the need for anthelmintic treatment and for the selection of an appropriate drug. The study assessed fecal parasite excretion qualitatively and quantitatively using a fecal flotation method during the winter of 2009. Four different species of parasites (two nematodes and two coccidias) were identified. Parasite excretion rates were found to be significantly lower than that of wild cheetahs living in the same area. Samples of the wild cheetahs were obtained at the time of anesthesia or were attributed to the wild individuals using genetic profiling. Captive cheetahs were dewormed with fenbendazole, whereas wild cheetahs were treated using ivermectin. Efficacy of these treatments was demonstrated at the end of the study. PMID:23272366

Mny, Marie; Schmidt-Kntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L

2012-12-01

109

A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), from Kansas.  

PubMed

Between March 1989 and February 1994, 4 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) from various localities in Kansas were examined for coccidia. One (25%) of the bald eagles was found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Oocysts of Caryospora hanebrinki n. sp. are ellipsoidal to ovoidal with a bilayered wall and measure 48.1 42.1 ?m with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts are spheroidal, 24.8 ?m wide. Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent; a spheroidal sporocyst residuum is present; it measures 17.5 ?m and is composed of many intact homogenous globules with a few dispersed in a loose spiral around the sporocysts. This is the first caryosporan documented from the bald eagle and is the largest known Caryospora from raptors. PMID:22992168

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

2013-04-01

110

Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L W) 19.2 16.9 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 6.7 ?m, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 2.7 ?m, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L W) 23.0 18.3 ?m, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 8.4 ?m, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

111

Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras  

PubMed Central

Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastin A.; Marini, M. Roco; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

2013-01-01

112

Walter T. Johnson (1892 to 1937): pioneer of coccidiosis research in the fowl.  

PubMed

Walter T. Johnson (1892 to 1937), veterinarian at Western Washington Agricultural Experiment Station (WWAES), Puyallup, Washington, USA, and subsequently poultry pathologist and professor of veterinary medicine at Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station (OSAES), Corvallis, Oregon, USA, made many important contributions to our understanding of the disease coccidiosis. His pioneering work included the first description of Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria praecox from the chicken and identification of four other species of Eimeria from the fowl. He demonstrated the relationship between numbers of oocysts ingested and severity of infection, and described the phenomenon of host specificity and the significance of immunity. Contrary to widespread opinion, he considered that coccidia were not involved in blackhead disease and other pathological conditions reported from the fowl. His views on control were ahead of his time and he anticipated the possibility of vaccinating birds by infecting them with live oocysts. In addition to his studies of coccidiosis, Johnson introduced a vaccine for fowlpox and ran a pullorum-testing laboratory. He produced numerous articles of an advisory nature on a diverse range of topics concerned with poultry and cattle. Much of Johnson's research was published in bulletins of the WWAES and OSAES that are not widely available and consequently have often been overlooked by the scientific community. Following his premature death, the director of OSAES claimed, "more information on the parasitic disease coccidiosis has been discovered at the Oregon Station than at almost any other place. The Oregon Station is probably the only institution in the world where six known species of coccidia of the chicken are available in pure culture" (Anonymous, 1938a). This is a claim that few institutions can match today. PMID:15276976

Chapman, H D

2004-04-01

113

Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 14.9 (1720 1416) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 7.6 (1011 78) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 21.3 (2835 1824) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 10.6 (1416 1012) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

2013-01-01

114

Two new species of Caryospora Lger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.  

PubMed

Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Ocysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, ocyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each ocyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated ocysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, ocyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each ocyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modr, D

2000-05-01

115

Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.  

PubMed

In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

Davidson, Rebecca K; ines, ivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

2013-10-01

116

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Emeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Sciurid Rodents  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris, and Cynomys ludovicianus. The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values greater than 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciuris niger and Sciurus niger cinereus, and Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony analyses. However, within the clade there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E.

2011-01-01

117

Pathology of runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.  

PubMed

Extremely poor growth of some individuals within a birth cohort (runting) is a significant problem in crocodile farming. We conducted a pathological investigation to determine if infectious disease is associated with runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and to look for evidence of other etiologies. In each of 2005 and 2007, 10 normal and 10 runt crocodiles, with an average age of 5.5 months and reared under identical conditions, were sampled. Laboratory testing included postmortem; histological examination of a wide variety of tissues (with quantitation of features that were noted subjectively to be different between groups); hematology; serum biochemistry (total protein, albumin, globulins, total calcium, phosphorus, and iron); bacterial culture of liver and spleen (2005 only); viral culture of liver, thymus, tonsil, and spleen using primary crocodile cell lines (2007 only); and serum corticosterone (2007 only). The only evidence of infectious disease was mild cutaneous poxvirus infection in 45% of normal and 40% of runt crocodiles and rare intestinal coccidia in 5% of normal and 15% of runt crocodiles. Bacterial and viral culture did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. However, runt crocodiles exhibited significant (P < .05) increases in adrenocortical cell cytoplasmic vacuolation and serum corticosterone, decreased production of bone (osteoporosis), and reduced lymphoid populations in the spleen, tonsil, and thymus. Runts also exhibited moderate anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hypophosphatemia. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between runting and a chronic stress response (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). PMID:24395912

Shilton, C; Brown, G P; Chambers, L; Benedict, S; Davis, S; Aumann, S; Isberg, S R

2014-09-01

118

Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. Methods In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA). Results Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis. PMID:21645291

2011-01-01

119

Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Formin 3, an Actin Nucleator Dispensable for Tachyzoite Growth and Motility  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity. PMID:22210829

Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France

2012-01-01

120

[The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel (Scombridae: Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782) in the central-eastern Atlantic (Atlantic coast of the Northern Africa and the Azores Archipelago banks)].  

PubMed

The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus Houtuym, 1782 was studied from the neritic areas of Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania and from the banks of the Azores Archipelago (the Great Meteor Bank, the Hyeres Bank and the Irving Bank) in 1994-2001. Twenty eight species of parasites of following group have been were found: Coccidia (1 species), Microsporidia (1), Myxosporea (4), Monogenea (4), Cestoda (5), Trematoda (5), Acanthocephala (1) and Nematoda (6). The differences between mackerel parasite fauna in the neritic areas and from of the Azores Archipelago banks were established. Peculiarities of the mackerel parasite fauna in two areas (Morocco--Western Sahara and Mauritania) corroborate the hypothesis that two populations of chub mackerel are available: "Sahara-Moroccan" and "Senegal-Mauritanian". Ontogenetic variability of parasite fauna was related to food demands of mackerel and its feeding habits in the areas Morocco and Mauritania. Kudoa histolytica has negative influence on the commercial value of S. japonicus. These parasites were localized in the muscles of mackerel from Mauritania (40%, TL = 20-25 cm). Parasites being dangerous for human health were presented by larvae of Bolbosoma sp. (occurred on the banks of the Azores Archipelago), Anisakis simplex and Contracaecum sp. (occurred in all areas investigated). PMID:15174392

Shukhgalter, O A

2004-01-01

121

[The helminth and coccidial fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in view of the specific environmental conditions in pheasantries and in the wild].  

PubMed

Between October 1999 and January 2000 all together 151 male pheasants were examined for endoparasites. 33 one-year-old birds came from two pheasantries, the remaining 118 birds, aged between one and five years, were wildlife animals. The infestation extensy of all pheasants with endoparasites were 96.7%. A mostly low infestation with coccidia of the three species Eimeria (E.) phasiani, E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia were detected in 41% of all birds. E. tetartooimia was found in Germany for the first time. In 67.5% of the pheasants the five different species of capillaria (Capillaria (C.) annulata, C. bursata, C. contorta, C. perforans, C. phasianina) and in 84.1% the nematode Heterakis gallinarum were present. Pheasants in the capture group showed higher infestation intensy and extensy. In 51.5% of the pheasants of the capture group Syngamus trachea was present. In one pheasant an acanthocephalus (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus) was detected for the first time in Germany and in two pheasants a trematode of the genus Echinostoma was present. PMID:17009712

Gassal, Stefan; Schm?schke, Ronald

2006-01-01

122

Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  

PubMed

Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W

2013-06-01

123

Evidence for a recent population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for example, those assigned to the genus Besnoitia, remains poorly defined. Here, we characterize the extent of genetic variation among populations of Besnoitia tarandi, a parasite whose intermediate hosts include reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Isolates from the Canadian Arctic and Finnish sub-Arctic were genotyped at six microsatellite loci, the first internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA, and the RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) encoded in the plastid genome. Remarkably, all isolates exhibited the same multilocus genotype, regardless of the isolate's geographic origin. This absolute monomorphism occurred despite the capacity of these loci to vary, as established by evident differentiation between B. tarandi and two other species of Besnoitia, and variation among four isolates of B. besnoiti. The surprising lack of genetic variation across the sampled range suggests that B. tarandi may have experienced a recent population bottleneck. PMID:22742966

Madubata, Chioma; Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Elkin, Brett; Oksanen, Antti; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

2012-12-01

124

A Genome-Sequence Survey for Ascogregarina taiwanensis Supports Evolutionary Affiliation but Metabolic Diversity between a Gregarine and Cryptosporidium  

PubMed Central

We have performed a whole-genome-sequence survey for the gregarine, Ascogregarina taiwanensis and herein describe both features unique to this early diverging apicomplexan and properties that unite it with Cryptosporidium, the Coccidia, and the Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic trees inferred from a concatenated protein sequence comprised of 10,750 amino acid positions, as well as the large subunit rRNA genes, robustly support phylogenetic affinity of Ascogregarina with Cryptosporidium at the base of the apicomplexan clade. Unlike Cryptosporidium, Ascogregarina possesses numerous mitochondrion-associated pathways and proteins, including enzymes within the Krebs cycle and a cytochrome-based respiratory chain. Ascogregarina further differs in the capacity for de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and amino acids. Ascogregarina shares with Cryptosporidium a Type I fatty acid synthase and likely a polyketide synthase. Cryptosporidium and Ascogregarina possess a large repertoire of multidomain surface proteins that align it with Toxoplasma and are proposed to be involved in coccidian-like functions. Four families of retrotransposable elements were identified, and thus, retroelements are present in Ascogregarina and Eimeria but not in other apicomplexans that have been analyzed. The sum observations suggest that Ascogregarina and Cryptosporidium share numerous molecular similarities, not only including coccidian-like features to the exclusion of Haemosporidia and Piroplasmida but also differ from each other significantly in their metabolic capacity. PMID:19778951

Templeton, Thomas J.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Chen, Wei-June; Huang, Chin-Gi; Lancto, Cheryl A.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.; Zhu, Guan

2010-01-01

125

Interferon-? enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay as a tool to study T cell responses to Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.  

PubMed

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool to quantify the number of interferon (IFN)-?-producing cells and offers a viable alternative for the quantitative measurement of T cell functions in chickens. To study the development of cell-mediated immunity in Eimeria-infected chickens, we measured the number of IFN-?-producing cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ELISPOT after 3 oral inoculations of Eimeria tenella oocysts at 2-wk intervals. We found that the number of IFN-?-producing cells was significantly increased at 2 wk after the primary infection compared with the control group. The IFN-?-producing cells were further increased after repeated infections, and there was a statistically significant increase in the number of IFN-?-producing cells after the third infection than after the first infection. Our results indicated that the ELISPOT assay can be used to quantitatively measure antigen-specific T cell responses to coccidia or other avian pathogens. PMID:23776262

Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Jingxia; Suo, Xun

2013-07-01

126

Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:21354144

Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

2011-06-01

127

Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and an organic mycotoxin adsorbent on immune cell dynamics in the jejunum of chickens infected with Eimeria maxima.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins, common animal feed contaminants, on intestinal immune responses to coccidia (Eimeria) in chickens. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) on immune cell populations were studied in the jejunum of broiler breeder pullets using an Eimeria maxima infection model. Birds were fed a control diet, a diet naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, contaminated diet plus 0.2% GMA, or control diet plus 0.2% GMA. Contaminated diets contained up to 6.5?g/g deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.47?g/g 15-acetyl-DON and 0.73?g/g zearalenone. Birds received a primary oral inoculation (1000 oocysts/bird) with E. maxima USDA strain 68 at 2 weeks of age and a secondary oral inoculation (30,000 oocysts/bird) with the same strain at 4 weeks of age. Diet-related differences in CD4(+) cell, CD8(+) cell and macrophage recruitment pattern into the jejunum were observed following both the primary and secondary infections. It was concluded that feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and GMA have the potential to modulate immune response to coccidial infections. PMID:20800290

Girgis, George N; Barta, John R; Girish, Channarayapatna K; Karrow, Niel A; Boermans, Herman J; Smith, Trevor K

2010-12-01

128

Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on immune functions of broilers challenged with Eimeria tenella.  

PubMed

Three hundred sixty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 6 groups with a 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Three supplemental levels (0, 0.25, and 0.50%) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XP) were fed to control and Eimeria tenella-infected broilers. Growth performance and immune response criteria were measured after coccidian infection. Broiler ADG was lowered (P<0.01) by coccidian infection and improved by XP supplementation (P=0.04). Supplementation of XP increased CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts (P<0.05) and the ratio CD4+:CD8+ in blood (P=0.06) and spleen (P=0.04) as well as ileum intraepithelial lymphocyte count, cecal tonsil secretory IgA counts, serum lysozyme content (P<0.01), and albumin:globulin ratio (P=0.02). These results suggest that dietary XP supplementation could improve immune function and growth performance in coccidia-infected broilers. PMID:19762868

Gao, J; Zhang, H J; Wu, S G; Yu, S H; Yoon, I; Moore, D; Gao, Y P; Yan, H J; Qi, G H

2009-10-01

129

Effect of dinitolmide intercalated into Montmorillonite on E. tenella infection in chickens.  

PubMed

To enhance the anti-coccidial effect of dinitolmide and reduce its residual, the dinitolmide/MMT compounds were synthesized by the method of solution intercalation via dinitolmide intercalated into Na + -montmorillonite (Na?+?-MMT). The structure of compounds was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared. Its anti-coccidial effect was examined by Eimeria tenella infection experiment. One hundred fifty AA broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Chickens were orally inoculated with 5 10(4) E. tenella oocysts after dinitolmide was given. Their curative effects were observed. The results showed that intercalated dinitolmide expanded the basal spacing (d 001) of MMT from 12.6 to 15.2 . The IR bands of amide group in dinitolmide/MMT were detected at 1,533 cm(-1) which showed that dinitolmide was successfully intercalated into the interlayer spaces of MMT. The dinitolmide/MMT showed higher anti-coccidian oocyst activity compared with dinitolmide (p < 0.05). The dinitolmide/MMT compound can significantly increase body weight gains and reduce bloody diarrhea, lesion score, and oocyst excretion. The anti-coccidia index of dinitolmide/MMT group (165.21) is much higher than dinitolmide group (88.84). The dinitolmide/MMT hybrid systems can be more effective in control of coccidiosis in comparison to dinitolmide. PMID:24481902

Qu, Daofeng; Ma, Wenxiu; Ye, Yongmeng; Han, Jianzhong

2014-03-01

130

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Hammondia spp. microcysts in esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle, emphasized on their morphological differences.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis and Hammondia are two obligatory protozoan parasites. These genera belong to cyst-forming coccidia group of the phylum Apicomplexa. They both need two different hosts to complete their life cycles. Felids and canids can act as definitive hosts, while herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, are the most important intermediate hosts. Reports verify that no important disease has been caused by Hammondia spp.; on the other hand, Sarcocystis spp. can cause some severe infectious disease in livestock industry such as abortion. Economic losses are another concern due to carcass condemnation during meat inspection in abattoirs and decrease in the quality and quantity of milk and wool production. Due to the Sarcocystis and Hammondia tissue cysts being similar, the distinction between these different genera is so important. In this study, the prevalence of Sarcocystis and Hammondia in the esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle slaughtered in one of the industrial abattoir in Iran was reported and an easy and rapid method for accurate diagnosing of Sarcocystis and Hammondia bradyzoites was explained. PMID:25082016

Rassouli, Maryam; Ahmadpanahi, Javad; Alvandi, Ayda

2014-10-01

131

Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.  

PubMed

Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. PMID:24021542

Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

2013-11-15

132

Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.  

PubMed

A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the So Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild. PMID:10367647

Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

1999-03-01

133

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Eimeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild-caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris , and Cynomys ludovicianus . The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values > 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciurus niger and Sciurus niger cinereus and to Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single, well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses. However, within the clade, there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E

2011-04-01

134

The fine structure of reptilian Isospora species with intranuclear endogenous development.  

PubMed

The fine structure of the endogenous stages of five species of Isospora of lacertile hosts is reviewed and compared. All species were intranuclear and were the following: I. deserti, from Agama pallida from Israel; I. cannoni, from Diporiphora australis from Queensland, Australia; and new, yet undescribed species from Hemidactylus turcicus from Israel. Heteronota binoei from Queensland, and Carlia rhomboidalis from Queensland. In young infections the intranuclear parasitophorous vacuole (PV) maintained at one point a junction zone with the nucleolemma. Finding couples of trophozoites sharing the same PV suggests a binary division (or endodyogeny?) prior to merogony. There was some overall conformity in structure among the respective stages of the different species, particularly of the gamonts. Some interspecific differences were, however, evident in the texture of the wall-forming bodies. The wall formation followed the scheme described for avian and mammalian eimeriid coccidia. The smaller size Isospora from C. rhomboidalis exhibited fine structural peculiarities and affected its host nucleus differently. More conspicuous peculiarities were evident in the differentiation process of I. cannoni meronts, involving a formation of centrally positioned large inclusions, a mitochondrial plaque-like organelle and large uniquely structured vesicular mitochondria. PMID:10376285

Paperna, I; Finkelman, S

1998-09-01

135

Isosporoid coccidiosis in translocated cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus).  

PubMed

Four of 17 cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus) involved in a trial translocation in 2004 for conservation purposes died and were examined postmortem. Two of the cirl buntings showed intestinal and hepatic lesions, including necrotising enteritis, consistent with isosporoid coccidiosis, and a third had an intestinal infestation of isosporoid coccidia. Sporulated oocysts from faecal samples from the birds were identified as Isospora normanlevinei, a parasite previously detected in cirl bunting populations in continental Europe. In a subsequent translocation of 75 cirl buntings from Devon to Cornwall in 2006, each brood of birds was placed in strict quarantine at low stocking density, with improved hygienic precautions and detailed health surveillance, and each bird was treated prophylactically with toltrazuril in an attempt to control the disease but not eliminate the I normanlevinei parasites. Seventy-two of the 75 birds were successfully reared and released, and there were no apparent clinical or pathological signs of isosporoid coccidiosis in any bird. I normanlevinei was detected in the released population, an indication that it had been successfully conserved. PMID:21257466

McGill, I; Feltrer, Y; Jeffs, C; Sayers, G; Marshall, R N; Peirce, M A; Stidworthy, M F; Pocknell, A; Sainsbury, A W

2010-10-23

136

Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668

Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H

2008-04-17

137

Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia. PMID:23756961

Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J

2013-08-01

138

Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens. PMID:16050910

El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

2005-08-01

139

Influence of monensin on the performance of cattle.  

PubMed

Performance data on nearly 16,000 head of cattle that were used in trials to document effects of monensin on feedlot cattle were summarized. Cattle fed monensin-containing diets gained 1.6% faster, consumed 6.4% less feed and required 7.5% less feed/100 kg gain than cattle fed control diets. Monensin resulted in the greatest improvement in feed/gain at 2.9 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet dry matter (DM). Within the range of monensin concentrations used in the trials that were summarized (31.8 +/- 7.5 mg/kg DM), high monensin concentrations did not improve feed/gain over that obtained with lower concentrations. Carcass characteristics were not significantly influenced by monensin. Responses of cattle to monensin and implants were additive. Energy metabolism data suggested that monensin improved digestibility of DM, reduced fasting heat production and increased dietary net energy maintenance (NEm) values more than it increased net energy gain (NEg) values. Data showing the response of cattle to monensin when fed various dietary protein concentrations or sources of supplemental N suggested that monensin had a protein sparing effect. Monensin has also been shown to reduce lactic acid production, aid in the control of coccidia and bloat and to be toxic to face and horn fly larva in feces of monensin-fed cattle. In pasture trials, monensin improved daily gains. When fed to beef cows, monensin reduced amounts of feed required to maintain cow weight. PMID:6378865

Goodrich, R D; Garrett, J E; Gast, D R; Kirick, M A; Larson, D A; Meiske, J C

1984-06-01

140

Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmen, T.E.

2005-01-01

141

Concurrent presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts, Besnoitia darlingi tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis inghami sarcocysts in naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana).  

PubMed

Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are exposed to a wide range of coccidia through feeding on a variety of foods, including, but not limited to, carrion, insects, and nestling birds. Abundant D. virginiana populations in urban and suburban areas can be important reservoirs of parasitic infection because of their profuse and prolonged excretion of the sporocysts of several species of Sarcocystis, their omnivorous diet, and their relatively long life span. This report describes 2 adult female opossums found to be simultaneously infected with the tissue cysts of Besnoitia darlingi, sarcocysts of Sarcocystis inghami, as well as with the intestinal sporocysts of S. neurona. Cysts typical of B. darlingi based on gross, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics were disseminated throughout the visceral organs, musculature, ears, and skin. The S. neurona and B. darlingi infections were confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified diagnostic genetic loci. Sarcocysts of S. inghami are also described. Such examples of multiple parasitic infections show that concurrent infections occur naturally. The propensity for species to coexist should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa and may have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications. PMID:15305752

Elsheikha, H M; Fitzgerald, S D; Rosenthal, B M; Mansfield, L S

2004-07-01

142

Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  

PubMed

Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T

2014-06-01

143

Description and phylogeny of a new species of Eimeria from double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) near Fort Gaines, Georgia.  

PubMed

The renal parasite Eimeria auritusi has caused several mortality events in double-crested cormorants (DCC; Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Midwest and southeastern United States. This parasite has only been detected during large-scale outbreaks, and its presence and prevalence in healthy populations of cormorants is unknown. In this study, 80 DCC were collected from the Chattahoochee River near Fort Gaines, Georgia, and examined for kidney and intestinal coccidia. Eighteen (22.5%) and 56 (70%) of the DCC were positive for E. auritusi and a new species of intestinal Eimeria, respectively. Oocysts of the new intestinal Eimeria species had a thin colorless wall, were ovoid with rare bumps on the outer surface, and measured 17.1 microm +/- 1.5 x 14.7 microm +/- 1.0 (16-18.5 x 13-17), with an average length:width ratio of 1.17 microm (1.03-1.29). A prominent micropyle (4-4.5 microm) was present, and a large oval-to-round polar body (2.5 microm) was located beneath the micropyle. Sporocysts were ovoid and measured 9.6 microm +/- 0.6 x 5.9 microm +/- 0.5 (8.5-10.5 x 5-6.5), with an average length:width ratio of 1.63 (1.3-1.82) with small stieda body present. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that the 2 DCC Eimeria species and 2 Eimeria species from cranes were in a separate group from other Eimeriidae. These data indicate that E. auritusi and this new species of intestinal Eimeria are prevalent in this apparently healthy DCC population. The cause of renal coccidiosis outbreaks in other populations of cormorants is unknown but could be due to crowding or stress during the winter months or some other associated pathogen or immunosuppressor that might predispose individuals to clinical disease. PMID:16729699

Yabsley, Michael J; Gibbs, Samantha E J

2006-04-01

144

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

2013-01-01

145

The parasite specific substitution matrices improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function. PMID:23281791

2012-01-01

146

A New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum (Caudata: Ambystomatidae), from northern Louisiana.  

PubMed

Between December 2002 and June 2004, 10 marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, were examined for coccidian parasites. Salamanders were collected in Bradley (n = 2), Little River (n = 1), Miller (n = 1), and Sevier (n = 1) Counties, Arkansas; Webster Parish, Louisiana (n = 2); and Bowie (n = 1) and Nacogdoches (n = 2) Counties, Texas. Two of 10 (20%) A. opacum from Louisiana harbored an undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria trauthi n. sp. were ellipsoidal, 36.6 x 33.1 (33-40 x 29-37) microm, with a thin, single-layered wall; shape index 1.1. Polar granule(s) and micropyle were absent. Oocyst residuum was composed of hundreds of loosely packed homogenous granules of various sizes enclosing a vacuole. Sporocysts were elongate-ellipsoidal, 20.8 x 8.1 (19-22 x 7-9) microm; shape index 2.6. Sporocyst residuum was spherical and composed of a cluster of granules often membrane-bound. This is the first time a coccidium has been reported from an amphibian species in Louisiana and the second time a coccidium has been described from this salamander host. In addition, the following 26 salamanders from various counties in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas were surveyed during the study period and were negative for coccidia: Ambystomatidae, 4 spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and 7 mole salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum); Cryptobranchidae, 4 Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi); Plethodontidae, 6 spotted dusky salamanders (Desmognathus conanti) and 3 many-ribbed salamanders (Eurycea multiplicata multiplicata); and Salamandridae, 2 central newts (Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis). PMID:18605797

McAllister, Chris T; Upton, Steve J

2008-06-01

147

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 20082010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

148

Polymorphism of eimerian oocysts can be a problem in naturally infected hosts: an example from subterranean rodents in Bolivia.  

PubMed

Since 1986, 364 tuco-tucos (Ctenomys spp.) representing 7 species were collected from 16 major collecting areas representing at least 4 distinct ecological habitats in Bolivia, South America. All were examined for coccidia, and 125 (34%) had oocysts in their feces including 84 of 236 (36%) Ctenomys boliviensis from tropical palm/savanna habitats; 1 of 3 (33%) Ctenomys conoveri from a chaco thorn forest; 3 of 7 (33%) Ctenomys frater from medium altitude grass habitats; and 6 of 8 (75%) Ctenomys lewisi and 31 of 35 (88%) Ctenomys opimus from high altitude/puna habitats. None of 3 Ctenomys leucodon (high altitude/puna) or 72 Ctenomys steinbachi (tropical palm/savanna) were passing oocysts when examined. The 5 infected host species all had oocysts of Eimeria opimi Lambert, Gardner, and Duszynski, 1988, in their feces. These oocysts and their sporocysts varied greatly in size, both within and between host species, but qualitative characters (e.g., residua and wall texture) remained constant. Our conclusion, that all oocysts seen were E. opimi, was supported by multigroup discriminant analysis of 256 individual oocysts, 30-67 selected randomly from each Ctenomys sp. Minimum polygons enclosing the centroid (= multivariate mean) and the spread of individuals for each species group (OTU) showed significant overlap in discriminant space, and Geisser classification showed a 55% miss rate of individuals being classified into the wrong OTUs. Thus, oocyst and sporocyst lengths and widths cannot be used to separate morphotypes of E. opimi from different Ctenomys spp. from different geographic regions of Bolivia. PMID:2254815

Gardner, S L; Duszynski, D W

1990-12-01

149

Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of Disease and Disorder and Physiological System Development and Function. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

2011-01-01

150

Comparative microarray analysis of intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infection in the chicken.  

PubMed

Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of "Disease and Disorder" and "Physiological System Development and Function". Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P

2011-01-01

151

Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.  

PubMed

Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks. PMID:23639264

El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

2013-07-01

152

Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis. PMID:20717723

Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

2011-01-01

153

Paleogenesis and paleo-epidemiology of primate malaria*  

PubMed Central

The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood. The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the quartan group of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the tertian group; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent. Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe. It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question. PMID:14315710

Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

1965-01-01

154

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

1987-02-01

155

Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox() oral suspension for dogs) against prepatent and patent infection with Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex in dogs.  

PubMed

Three randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox() suspension for dogs) against Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex. Unweaned puppies were experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of I. canis and/or I. ohioensis-complex. In each study, one group was treated during prepatency (2 or 4 days post infection) while dogs in the second group were treated individually after the onset of oocyst excretion of the respective coccidia species. The dogs were treated with the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Daily faecal oocyst counts from both groups were compared to placebotreated control groups to determine efficacy.Dogs treated during prepatent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infection showed significantly lower oocyst counts for up to 12 days compared to the control group. Oocyst counts were reduced by 90.2 - 100 % while the control groups continued to exhibit an adequate infection, except for one study where efficacy against prepatent I. canis infection faded 13 days after treatment. Following treatment of patent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infections, significantly lowered oocyst counts were observed for up to 9 days compared to the control group. Faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 91.5 - 100 %. In all three studies the number of days with diarrhoea was significantly lower when dogs were treated during prepatent Isospora spp. infection compared to the control groups. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the studies. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated that emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is an efficient coccidiocide for dogs. PMID:21739371

Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Schroeder, Iris; Joachim, Anja; Settje, Terry; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

2011-08-01

156

Efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (Procox oral suspension for dogs) against mixed experimental Isospora felis/Isospora rivolta infection in cats.  

PubMed

The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox() oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril per ml) were studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each with a total of 1 x 10(5) oocysts of a mixture of Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta. In the infectious material, the quantitative relation of I. felis and I. rivolta was about 1:5. Following a three-days period after infection, two groups of 6 kittens were treated during the prepatent period with either a single dose of 0.45 mg emodepside + 9 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight or 0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight. A group of six kittens without any treatment served as a control. On day 5 post infection, the untreated kittens started the excretion of oocysts. Treatment with both toltrazuril doses significantly reduced oocyst excretion. Following the single higher dose, the reduction of oocysts of both Isospora spp. was more pronounced (96.7 % to 100 %) in comparison to the lower dose (57.2 % to 100 %). The Procox() application was well tolerated and no adverse events were seen with any of the applied dosages.When administered to kittens and as a single treatment during the prepatent period, Procox() is suitable to control the number of oocysts excreted in the faeces in case of an Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta infection. PMID:21739373

Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Kampkoetter, Andreas; Krieger, Klemens

2011-08-01

157

Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial durgs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment. PMID:8285619

Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R

1993-01-01

158

Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada  

PubMed Central

The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canadas central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

Elmore, Stacey A.; Lalonde, Laura F.; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

2013-01-01

159

Prevalence of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in Northern Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).  

PubMed

A total of 206 Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) collected from the mid-Michigan region, United States, during a period extending from 1996 to 2002 were sampled for the presence of Sarcocystis spp sporocysts. All isolates were phenotypically identified as Sarcocystis spp and genotyped to the species level by PCR-based techniques. The overall prevalence of Sarcocystis spp in opossums was 18% (37/206). The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp differed significantly with age ( P<0.001) and adult opossums were more commonly infected (14.6%; 30/206) than juveniles (3.4%; 7/206). No significant difference in the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp infection was observed between male and female ( P<0.15). The highest prevalence was recorded during summer (9.2%; 19/206). PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated the majority of Sarcocystis isolates to be S. neurona, with some animals co-infected with sporocysts of S. falcatula. Out of the 37 Sarcocystis-infected opossums, 23 (62%) had sporocysts of S. neurona only, four (11%) had sporocysts of S. falcatula only, and eight (22%) had a mixture of S. neurona and S. falcatula sporocysts. These findings indicate that mixed Sarcocystis infections in opossums are common. The propensity for Sarcocystis spp to co-exist in the opossum gut enhances dissemination and environmental contamination with these coccidia. Additionally, this increases the chance for sexual recombination between Sarcocystis spp, given the proclivity of these species to reproduce sexually at high numbers in the intestinal cells of their definitive host. PMID:15205944

Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

2004-08-01

160

Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic  

PubMed Central

Background HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. Methodology One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Principal Findings The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years) and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3). Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively). Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%). Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively), were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively). The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ? 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent regardless of their diarrheal status. Opportunistic infections were reported. Improving the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasite infections and the knowledge on their local risk factors is warranted. PMID:24662743

Paboriboune, Phimpha; Phoumindr, Niranh; Borel, Elisabeth; Sourinphoumy, Khamphang; Phaxayaseng, Saykham; Luangkhot, Elodie; Sengphilom, Bouachanh; Vansilalom, Yathmany; Odermatt, Peter; Delaporte, Eric; Etard, Jean- Franois; Rabodonirina, Meja

2014-01-01

161

Intestinal microbial ecology of broilers vaccinated and challenged with mixed Eimeria species, and supplemented with essential oil blends.  

PubMed

Intestinal microbiota is an important component in the development of defense mechanisms in the gut mucosa. This project determined the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) of broilers vaccinated at first day of age with live oocysts of Eimeria species and fed diets supplemented with 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated-uninfected (UU) control; 2) unmedicated-infected (UI) control; 3) vaccinated with Advent cocci-vaccine and without feed additive (COV) supplements; 4) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CP; and 5) vaccinated with Advent and supplemented with CA. The EO blends were added at 100 ppm to the same basal diets. Chicks were gavage-infected at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before the infection and 7 d after the challenge, pooled in 6 samples, and frozen. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of amplicon patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci infection. The EO blends CP and CA did affect MC in all gut sections. The cocci-infection caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). The CP-supplemented birds had higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC in duodenal and ileal (73.3, 81.8%) than COV (66.4, 66.5%). However, COV broilers had the smallest changes in cecal MC after infection (79.5% SC). We concluded that cocci-vaccination causes small changes in intestinal MC, but challenge causes drastic shifts. The EO blend supplementation modulates MC in cocci-vaccinated broilers, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed coccidia infection. Correlations between MC dynamics and host responses are discussed. PMID:16673762

Oviedo-Rondn, E O; Hume, M E; Hernndez, C; Clemente-Hernndez, S

2006-05-01

162

Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.  

PubMed

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

2009-05-26

163

A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

Tuggle, B.N.

1982-01-01

164

A pathogenic new species of Eimeria from the pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis, in Washington and Oregon, with description of the sporulated oocyst and intestinal endogenous stages.  

PubMed

In January 2003, fecal samples from 13 live pygmy rabbits, Brachylagus idahoensis (Merriam, 1891), were collected at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, and sent to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be examined for coccidia. In July 2004, 14 more fecal samples were collected and sent to UNM, 6 from some of the same rabbits and 8 from 16 other rabbits (4 were pooled samples from siblings). In addition, tissue sections from 3 dead rabbits (2 from the Oregon Zoo, 1 from Washington State University) also were examined. Two of 4 (50%) pooled fecal samples and 8 of 17 (47%) 1-rabbit samples were positive for a single species of Eimeria, which we describe here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts were subspheroidal, 25.6 x 23.8 (22-28 x 21-27) microm, with a length:width (L:W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2). A micropyle (approximately 2 microm wide) and 0-1 polar granules were present, but an oocyst residuum was absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 13.4 x 8.1 (11-16.5 x 7.5-9) microm, with a L:W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and they had a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Tissue sections showed a heavy infection of the villous epithelial cells of the proximal and mid-small intestine with coccidial endogenous stages, but no stages were found in liver hepatocytes. Meronts with approximately 46 (26-70) merozoites per infected cell appeared to be fully developed and were subspheroidal, 14.8 x 13.9 (13-18 x 10.5-16.5) microm. Developing macro- and microgamonts were indistinguishable from each other and were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 10.4 x 9.5 (9-11 x 7.5-10.5) microm. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 14.2 x 13.7 (12-17 x 11-16) microm, and mature microgamonts were smaller and subspheroidal, 11.9 x 10.8 (10.5-13 x 9-12) microm. This eimerian seems to be extremely pathogenic to young pygmy rabbits, and given the precarious nature of this unique genetic population, it appears to be an emerging pathogen that deserves immediate further study. PMID:16108556

Duszynski, Donald W; Harrenstien, Lisa; Couch, Lee; Garner, Michael M

2005-06-01

165

Transfer of Cystoisospora suis-specific colostral antibodies and their correlation with the course of neonatal porcine cystoisosporosis.  

PubMed

Cystoisospora suis is the most pathogenic species of coccidia in suckling piglets, affecting them predominantly within their first three weeks of life. The clinical signs of neonatal cystoisosporosis include watery diarrhea and wasting, leading to significant economic losses for the farmer. Since neonatal piglets have an immature immune system, colostral transfer of maternal factors such as immune cells or antibodies is essential for controlling infections at that age. However, the role of C. suis-specific antibodies transferred from the sow to the piglets and possible correlations between antibody levels in the piglets acquired from colostrum with the clinical outcome of disease are currently not understood. To address this issue, 12 non-infected piglets and 14 piglets experimentally infected with C. suis on the third day of life were examined during their first four weeks of life. IgG, IgA, and IgM titers in the blood serum specific for sporozoites and merozoites of C. suis were evaluated, along with oocyst excretion and fecal consistency. Additionally, the antibody content in the colostrum and milk of three mother sows was determined. A transfer of naturally acquired C. suis-specific antibodies from sows to piglets with the colostrum could be demonstrated. Maternal antibodies in piglets' blood sera did not persist for longer than 14-21 days except for IgG which was present in high titers until the end of the study. Within 2-3 weeks after birth the onset of endogenous antibody production was noticed. Titers in blood serum showed a correlation with the severity of diarrhea which was positive for IgG and IgM (possibly due to increased consumption or loss of these antibodies) and negative for IgA. C. suis-specific mucus antibodies isolated from infected and non-infected piglets (n=6/group) on the 28th day of life were present in both groups, showing significantly higher titers of IgA and IgM in infected piglets. Maternally transferred antibodies acquired by natural infections of sows as observed in this study did not provide protection against the clinical manifestation of disease. The level and effect of transferrable maternal factors necessary for protection still need to be elucidated. However, correlations between antibody titers and fecal consistency in the piglets indicate that C. suis-specific antibodies might be useful markers for the expectable clinical severity of cystoisosporosis. PMID:23932639

Schwarz, Lukas; Joachim, Anja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia

2013-11-01

166

Descriptions of six new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Guatemalan snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae and Viperidae).  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy snakes were collected in Guatemala and examined for coccidia. Of these, 8 individuals representing 6 host species were positive for Caryospora spp., 6 of which are described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Caryospora bothriechis n. sp. from Bothriechis aurifer are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 12.7 x 12.5 (12-14 x 12-13) microm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.0; they lack a micropyle (M) or oocyst residuum (OR), but 1 large polar granule (PG) is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 9.0-7.5 (8-10 x 7-8) microm, and have a L/W ratio of 1.2, and a Stieda body (SB) and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Caryospora coniophanis n. sp. from Coniophanes imperialis are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 18.8 x 18.1 (17-20.5 x 16-20) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0; they lack a M and OR, but 1 large PG is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 13.2 x 9.4 (12-15 x 8-10) microm with a L/W ratio of 1.4, and a SB, substieda body (SSB), and SR. Oocysts of Caryospora conophae n. sp. from Conophis lineatus are spheroid to subspheroidal, 20.4 x 19.5 (17-26 x 17-25) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0; they lack a M and OR, but 1 large PG is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 13.1 x 9.8 (11-15 x 8-11) microm with a L/W ratio of 1.3 and a SB, SSB, and SR. Oocysts of Caryospora guatemalensis n. sp. from Lampropeltis triangulum are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 23.9 x 23.2 (20-27 x 20-26) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0; they lack a M and OR, but 1 large PG is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.4 x 10.6 (13-18 x 9-13) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.4 and a SB, SSB, and SR. Oocysts of Caryospora mayorum n. sp. from Conophis lineatus are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 25.6 x 24.4 (24-27 x 24-25) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0; they lack a M and OR, but 1 large PG is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 16.3 x 11.9 (16-18 x 11-13) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.4 and a SB, SSB, and SR. Oocysts of Caryospora zacapensis n. sp. from Masticophis mentovarius are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 22.5 x 21.8 (19-25 x 18-25) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0; they lack a M and OR, but 1 large PG is usually present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.6 x 11.4 (11-16 x 10-13) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.3 and a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:16539030

Seville, Robert S; Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Campbell, Jonathan A

2005-12-01

167

Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.  

PubMed

Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from female Simmenthal calves. Clinical coccidiosis (diarrhea) was observed in 74 cases, and (semi-)liquid diarrhea (56 animals) was significantly correlated with OPG (p < 0.05). Linear regression on the OPG data showed that OPG values significantly decreased with increasing age of the calves, while the percentage of positive samples increased with age (p < 0.05 for both). The term "coccidia" was familiar to 45% of the farmers, and anticoccidial treatment was performed by 13.51% of them, most commonly with toltrazuril. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence and the possible clinical and economic relevance of calf eimeriosis, infections should receive increased attention by both farmers and veterinarians. PMID:22167365

Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

2012-05-01