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1

Coccidia of whooping cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.

1978-01-01

2

Coccidia of whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland. PMID:633514

Forrester, D J; Carpenter, J W; Blankinship, D R

1978-01-01

3

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians, &  

E-print Network

FA-110 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Dinoflagellates, Coccidia, Microsporidians in the identification of common freshwater fish parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial

Watson, Craig A.

4

Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.  

PubMed

New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38%, 21% in North Island robin, 38% in tui, and 25% in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

2013-05-01

5

New host and geographic records for coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from North American turtles.  

PubMed

Two-hundred-fifty-three turtles, representing 26 species within 5 families (Chelydridae, Emydidae, Kinosternidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae) were examined for coccidia. Of these, 127 (50%) were found to harbor 1 or more of 28 species of eimerians, or isosporan, or both. One-hundred-thirteen (89%) of the infected turtles were aquatic species, whereas only 14 (11%) of the infected turtles were terrestrial species. Two-fold more aquatic turtles were infected with coccidia (113 of 200, 57%) compared to only 26% (14 of 53) of the terrestrial species. This report documents 14 new host and 8 new geographic records for eimerians from turtles in Arkansas and Texas. PMID:7799150

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Trauth, S E

1994-12-01

6

Adelina tribolii Bhatia und A. mesnili Prez (Sporozoa, Coccidia) als Krankheitserreger bei vorratssch dlichen Insekten im Gebiet von Kosova, Jugoslawien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adelina tribolii Bhatia and A. mesnili Prez (Sporozoa, Coccidia) infecting insect pests of stores in Kosova region, Yugoslavia\\u000aTill now little is known about the three species of genusAdelina (Spor., Coccidia) living as pathogens in insects pests of stores. In the course of investigations in old mills in the Kosova region, Yugoslawia, twoAdelina species were found in insects.Adelina mesnili parasitized

K. Purrini

1976-01-01

7

Efficacy of ionophorous anticoccidial drugs against coccidia in farm-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from Illinois.  

PubMed

Litter samples obtained from a ring-necked pheasant propagation farm in Illinois contained coccidia: 57.5% of the oocysts were Eimeria duodenalis, 24.9% were E. tetartooimia, 8.8% were E. phasiani, and 8.8% were E. pacifica. Ionophorous anticoccidial drugs were tested for efficacy against the pheasant coccidia. All three drugs reduced oocyst production and prevented mortality in young pheasants; unmedicated infected controls had a 40% mortality rate. Monensin at 120 ppm in the feed was coccidiocidal against E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia, partly coccidiocidal against E. pacifica, and only partly coccidiostatic against E. phasiani. Salinomycin at 60 ppm in the feed was highly efficacious and coccidiocidal against all four species, but the salinomycin-medicated pheasants gained the least of all medicated birds. Lasalocid at 120 ppm in the feed was the most effective, with nearly complete coccidiocidal activity against all four coccidial species. PMID:3619826

McQuistion, T E

1987-01-01

8

Coccidia infections in homing pigeons of various age during the racing season.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. is a common parasitic disease in homing pigeons. The study objective was to evaluate the incidence of coccidia infections in pigeon lofts during racing season. The intensity of coccidiosis was determined by floatation analyses of faeces samples collected from three pigeon groups performed in three replications (before the racing season, in mid-season and after the end of racing season). The presence of coccidia oocysts was determined in all faeces samples in each replication. At the end of the racing season, the average oocyst counts in faeces samples collected from pigeons that were flown for the first time increased by around 10% in relation to oocysts counts determined before the race. In flown pigeons (aged 2-4 years) a 2.5-9.9% drop was noted in oocysts counts subject to flock, whereas an increase of 15.7-17.3% was reported in parent flocks (unflown pigeons). The results of the experiment indicate that coccidia infections are a common problem in homing pigeons during racing season, which affects racing results and contributes to bird loss. PMID:22165738

Ra?-Nory?ska, Ma?gorzata; Michalczyk, Maria; Sok?, Rajmund

2011-01-01

9

Two new species of coccidia, Eimeria leucuri and E. oreoecetes (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), in grouse from Colorado.  

PubMed

Eimeria leucuri is described from white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus), and E. oreoecetes from white-tailed ptarmigan and blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) from Colorado. Oocysts of E. leucuri are ellipsoidal, 26.6 by 17.7 micron, each bearing a micropyle, micropyle cap, up to 4 polar granules, but no oocyst residuum. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 15.4 by 6.7 micron, and have Stieda bodies and large amounts of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. Oocysts of E. oreoecetes are subspherical, 26.0 by 22.6 micron, and have up to 4 polar granules. The lemon-shaped sporocysts are 14.6 by 8.8 micron, and have both Stieda bodies and substiedal bodies and a large amount of sporocyst residuum. The sporocyst contents are enclosed in a membrane. These are the first coccidia to be described from these tetraonids. PMID:448611

Stabler, R M; Haskins, A G; Kitzmiller, N J; Olsen, O W; Braun, C E

1979-04-01

10

Immunization of chukar partridges against coccidia (Eimeria kofoidi and Eimeria legionensis) with low doses of live oocysts.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine whether chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) chicks would develop protective immunity after inoculation with coccidia. Young chukar chicks in battery cages inoculated with 100 or more oocysts of Eimeria kofoidi or Eimeria legionensis had significant protection at challenge 4 wk later, as measured by greatly reduced oocyst shedding and improved weight gain as compared with unvaccinated, challenged controls. However, when birds were housed in litter pens and vaccinated by various regimens (including two species of chukar coccidia at 100/dose), coccidiosis rapidly spread through all treatments and caused significant mortality. Vaccination with Coccivac-T or with 100 oocysts of Eimeria dispersa did not prevent mortality resulting from accidental contamination, and feed treatment with a Lactobacillus competitive-exclusion product had no benefit. Most if not all of the mortality was from E. kofoidi. This study illustrated the natural fecundity of chukar coccidia in a floor-pen environment where multiplication rate and reinfection combine to produce clinical disease from a small original exposure. Further, these results cast doubt on the potential use of low doses of live oocysts as a vaccine in the chukar partridge. PMID:22017029

Fuller, A L; Gerhold, R W; McDougald, L R

2011-09-01

11

Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L W) 18.6 16.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 17.5 ?m, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 15.7 ?m, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

2013-01-01

12

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotically replicating mitochondrial genome may be more suited for species level molecular work; however, only limited sequence data are available for Eimeria spp. infecting turkeys. The purpose of this study was to sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genomes from 5 Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Methods Six single-oocyst derived cultures of five Eimeria species infecting turkeys were PCR-amplified and sequenced completely prior to detailed annotation. Resulting sequences were aligned and used in phylogenetic analyses (BI, ML, and MP) that included complete mitochondrial genomes from 16 Eimeria species or concatenated CDS sequences from each genome. Results Complete mitochondrial genome sequences were obtained for Eimeria adenoeides Guelph, 6211bp; Eimeria dispersa Briston, 6238bp; Eimeria meleagridis USAR97-01, 6212bp; Eimeria meleagrimitis USMN08-01, 6165bp; Eimeria gallopavonis Weybridge, 6215bp; and Eimeria gallopavonis USKS06-01, 6215bp). The order, orientation and CDS lengths of the three protein coding genes (COI, COIII and CytB) as well as rDNA fragments encoding ribosomal large and small subunit rRNA were conserved among all sequences. Pairwise sequence identities between species ranged from 88.1% to 98.2%; sequence variability was concentrated within CDS or between rDNA fragments (where indels were common). No phylogenetic reconstruction supported monophyly of Eimeria species infecting turkeys; Eimeria dispersa may have arisen via host switching from another avian host. Phylogenetic analyses suggest E. necatrix and E. tenella are related distantly to other Eimeria of chickens. Conclusions Mitochondrial genomes of Eimeria species sequenced to date are highly conserved with regard to gene content and structure. Nonetheless, complete mitochondrial genome sequences and, particularly the three CDS, possess sufficient sequence variability for differentiating Eimeria species of poultry. The mitochondrial genome sequences are highly suited for molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics of coccidia and, potentially, genetic markers for molecular epidemiology. PMID:25034633

2014-01-01

13

Dose-response effects of diclazuril against pathogenic species of ovine coccidia and the development of protective immunity.  

PubMed

Twin lambs at pasture with their ewes, were divided into seven groups of 10 lambs. One group of 10 lambs served as a non-infected, untreated control. Five groups of 10 lambs were infected with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria crandallis and 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria ovinoidalis when they were 3 weeks old (day 21 of the study). This produced a good level of infection with high oocysts production and diarrhoea in the lambs. Fourteen days after the primary, artificial challenge (day 35) four of these groups were treated with oral diclazuril at 0.25, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0mg/kg. Diclazuril treatment was highly effective, dramatically reducing symptoms of diarrhoea and reducing faecal oocyst output by 79.7%, 97.3%, 99.4% and 99.5% respectively in the treated groups within four days. Two weeks post-treatment, and 28 days after the primary coccidial challenge (day 49 of the study), five groups of lambs were re-challenged with 100,000 oocysts of E. crandallis and 100,000 oocysts of E. ovinoidalis (secondary challenge). A group of lambs which had received neither the primary coccidia infection, nor drug treatment (susceptible controls) were also given the secondary challenge. All lambs given the secondary challenge produced high numbers of coccidia and exhibited varying degrees of diarrhoeic faeces. The lambs, which had previously received the higher doses of diclazuril at 2.0 and 4.0mg/kg, developed clinical signs of coccidiosis. These lambs were completely susceptible despite having received the early primary immunising infection of coccidia on day 21. The effects of the secondary challenge were more severe in the groups dosed with the two highest levels of diclazuril than in the susceptible control lambs, which had presumably been exposed to continued low levels of pasture contamination and had acquired a limited degree of immunity from this exposure. It would appear that treatment at the higher dose levels not only eliminated most of the oocysts from the primary challenge but also adventitious infection derived from the grazing paddocks. In contrast, lambs which had received the two lower drug levels of diclazuril (0.25 and 1.0mg/kg) whilst producing large numbers of oocysts, had only transient diarrhoea following secondary challenge. It was concluded that when used as a metaphylactic treatment, diclazuril works rapidly and is effective within four days of administration. Overall, a single dose of diclazuril at either 0.25-1.0mg/kg appears to be highly effective in the control of coccidiosis in young lambs at pasture whilst allowing the development of protective immunity against subsequent heavy coccidia challenge. PMID:21232870

Taylor, M A; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A; Catchpole, J; Bartram, D

2011-05-31

14

The effect of dietary betaine on intestinal and plasma levels of betaine in uninfected and coccidia-infected broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Chicks fed betaine supplemented diets and infected with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima had markedly higher levels of betaine in the duodenum and mid-gut than unsupplemented, infected chicks. Uninfected chicks fed betaine exhibited almost twice the levels of betaine in the gut as infected chicks. Plasma betaine levels were lower in E. maxima-infected chicks than in E. acervulina-or Eimeria tenella-infected chicks. Betaine supplementation reversed the decrease in weight gain in E. maxima- infected chicks but had no effect on the decrease in weight gains in E acervulina- and E. tenella-infected chicks. Coccidia-infected birds on normal diets regularly exhibit increases in plasma NO(2)(+)NO(3). This increase was abolished in E.tenella-infected birds on betaine supplement. Betaine feeding did not alter this effect in E. acervulina- and E. maxima-infected birds. Results indicate that betaine supplementation has a positive effect on gut betaine levels in birds infected with E. acervulina and E. maxima. In all treatment groups, infection lowered the levels of betaine. PMID:12700979

Fetterer, R H; Augustine, P C; Allen, P C; Barfield, R C

2003-07-01

15

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

16

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Hepatozoon catesbianae (Apicomplexa: Coccidia: Adeleorina), a Blood Parasite of the Green Frog, Lithobates (Formerly Rana) clamitans.  

PubMed

A complete mitochondrial genome for the blood parasite Hepatozoon catesbianae (Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Adeleorina; Hepatozoidae) was obtained through PCR amplification and direct sequencing of resulting PCR products. The mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae is 6,397 bp in length and contains 3 protein-coding genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI]; cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [COIII]; and cytochrome B [CytB]). Sequence similarities to previously published mitochondrial genomes of other apicomplexan parasites permitted annotation of 23 putative rDNA fragments in the mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae, 14 large subunit rDNA fragments, and 9 small subunit rDNA fragments. Sequences corresponding to rDNA fragments RNA5, RNA8, RNA11, and RNA19 of Plasmodium falciparum were not identified in the mitrochondrial genome sequence of H. catesbianae. Although the presence of 3 protein-coding regions and numerous putative rDNA fragments is a feature typical for apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes, the mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae possesses a structure and gene organization that is distinct among the Apicomplexa. This is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence obtained from any apicomplexan parasite in the suborder Adeleorina. PMID:24820055

Leveille, Alexandre N; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Tu, Hsiang-Hsien Abby; Barta, John R

2014-10-01

17

Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. At 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum. PMID:12790396

Augustine, P; Olsen, G; Danforth, H; Gee, G; Novilla, M

2001-03-01

18

Coccidia (Apicomplexa) from heteromyid rodents in the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico with three new species from Chaetodipus hispidus.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 223 heteromyid rodents of 4 genera and 13 species were collected from California, New Mexico, and Texas and from Baja California Norte and Sonora, Mexico. Of these, 84 (38%) were infected with coccidian oocysts; 72 of 84 (86%) infected animals had only 1 species of coccidian. Eleven species of coccidia were identified including 1 cyclosporan and 10 eimerians; the cyclosporan and 2 of the eimerians are described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Cyclospora angimurinensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 21.9 x 19.3 (19-24 x 16-22) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 11.9 x 9.5 (9-15 x 8-11) microns; it was found in 1 of 20 (4%) Chaetodipus hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chaetodipi n. sp. were subspheroidal, 16.7 x 14.6 (13-19.5 x 12-17) microns, with sporocysts ovoidal, 8.7 x 6.6 (7.5-10.5 x 5-7.5) microns; it was found in 3 of 20 (15%) C. hispidus. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria hispidensis n. sp. were subspheroidal, 20.5 x 17.4 (17-23 x 14-21) microns, with sporocysts lemon-shaped, 9.3 x 7.2 (7.5-10.5 x 5-9) microns; it was found in 4 of 20 (20%) C. hispidus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2352062

Ford, P L; Duszynski, D W; McAllister, C T

1990-06-01

19

Dietary betaine accumulates in the liver and intestinal tissue and stabilizes the intestinal epithelial structure in healthy and coccidia-infected broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to study the patterns of betaine accumulation into intestinal tissue, liver and plasma of broiler chicks with or without coccidial infection. The chicks were raised on a corn-based, low-betaine diet with or without 1000 ppm betaine supplementation and with or without intestinal microparasite (Eimeria maxima) challenge to the age of 21 days. Plasma, liver, intestinal tissue and digesta of non-challenged (NC) birds and plasma and intestinal tissue of coccidiosis challenged (CC) birds were analysed for betaine content. NC birds were also analyzed for homocysteine in plasma and S-adenosylmethionine (S-AM) in liver. The jejunal epithelium was histologically examined for the presence of coccidia and the crypt-villus ratio was measured. Dietary betaine supplementation decreased the plasma homocysteine concentration but had no effect on liver S-AM of NC birds. The data suggest that chicks on a low-betaine diet accumulate betaine into the intestinal tissue. When the diet was supplemented with betaine, betaine accumulated heavily into liver and to a lesser degree into intestinal tissue. The concentration of betaine in jejunal and ileal digesta was low suggesting that dietary betaine was mainly absorbed from the proximal small intestine. The coccidial challenge decreased the concentration of betaine in the liver, but greatly increased that in the intestinal tissue. The crypt-villus ratio was decreased by the dietary betaine supplementation in healthy and challenged chicks, suggesting that dietary betaine both protects the jejunal villi against coccidial infection and also stabilizes the mucosal structure in healthy broiler chicks. These results support our earlier findings suggesting that betaine is likely to act as an important intestinal osmolyte in broiler chicks. PMID:11691612

Kettunen, H; Tiihonen, K; Peuranen, S; Saarinen, M T; Remus, J C

2001-11-01

20

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents (Eutamias, Sciurus, Tamiasciurus spp.) from the western United States and northern Mexico with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 190 rodents in the family Sciuridae, representing three genera and nine species, have been collected in the western United States and northern Mexico and examined for coccidia; 71 (37%) had coccidian oocysts in their feces. These included 2 of 12 (17%) Eutamias canipes; 7 of 12 (58%) E. dorsalis; 18 of 50 (36%) E. merriami; 33 of 96 (34%) E. obscurus; 3 of 4 (75%) E. townsendii; 3 of 9 (33%) Sciurus aberti; 1 of 1 S. griseus; 1 of 1 Tamiasciurus hudsonicus mogollonensis; and 3 of 5 (60%) T. mearnsi. The following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. and Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. from E. canipes, E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, and E. tamiasciuri from E. dorsalis, E. dorsalis and E. tamiasciuri from E. merriami; E. cochisensis, E. dorsalis, E. tamiasciuri, and E. wisconsinensis from E. obscurus; E. cochisensis and E. dorsalis from E. townsendii; E. ontarioensis and E. tamiasciuri from S. aberti; E. tamiasciuri from S. griseus; E. tamiasciuri and E. toddi from T. h. mogollonensis; and E. tamiasciuri from T. mearnsi. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria dorsalis n. sp. were ovoid, 21.9 x 16.8 (17-24 x 14-20) micrometer with sporocysts ovoid, 11.5 x 6.9 (10-14 x 6-8) micrometer. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria cochisensis n. sp. were spheroid to subspheroid, 16.7 x 15.3 (15-18 x 14-17) micrometer, with sporocysts ovoid, 8.4 x 5.6 (6-11 x 4-7) micrometer. Fifty-five of 71 (77%) infected hosts had oocysts of only one eimerian species in their feces at the time they were examined. One eimerian, E. tamiasciuri, was found in seven of nine host species in three genera. A list is provided of all eimerians (22, including the species described here) that have been described in the literature from Eutamias, Sciurus, and Tamiasciurus spp. PMID:3735156

Hill, T P; Duszynski, D W

1986-05-01

21

Coccidia of sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis.  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis Yakinoff and Matschoulsky 1935, Eimeria reichenowi Yakimoff and Matschoulsky 1935, and an Adelina species are described from sandhill cranes in the United States. E. gruis was found in the feces of 11 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 62 of 72 greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) from Florida, 5 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 4 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis) from Texas. E. reichenowi was found in the feces of 12 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 66 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida, 4 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from Arizona, and 5 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes from Texas. Adelina sp. was found in the feces of 3 of 14 Florida sandhill cranes and 2 of 72 greater sandhill cranes from Florida. The Adelina species is considered to be a spurious parasite of the cranes. PMID:809566

Courtney, C H; Forrester, D J; Ernst, J V; Nesbitt, S A

1975-08-01

22

COCCIDIA PARASITISM INCREASES RESISTANCE OF MICE TO SUBCUTANEOUS INOCULATION  

E-print Network

, France). They weighed 20-25 g at the beginning of the experiments. lnoculation with E. falciformis The E killed by cervical dislocation six days after inoculation with S. abortus ovis, the time of maximal,, units, the mean and standard deviation of the mean were cal- culated from the logarithmic values. XZtest

Boyer, Edmond

23

Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

Dubey, J P

1982-12-01

24

An ?? T-cell-independent immunoprotective response towards gut coccidia is supported by ?? cells  

PubMed Central

Although ?? cells are commonly hypothesized to provide a first line of defence, ??-cell-deficient mice are generally only marginally more susceptible to pathogens. Because ?? cells are enriched within epithelia, it is important to resolve whether immunoprotective capacity towards epithelial-tropic pathogens is absent from the ??-cell compartment, or whether such activity is present but simply redundant with that of ?? T cells. In this work, following infection of the intestinal epithelium of ?? T-cell-deficient mice with the coccidian parasite, Eimeria vermiformis, ?? cells were shown to support the rapid activation of other lymphoid cells and to confer a transferable antipathogen effect that could be eradicated by neutralization of interferon-?. However, unlike ?? T cells, these effects of ?? cells showed no evidence of functional immunological memory. These results are directly relevant to coccidiosis, an economically significant disease of livestock, and should have general relevance to infections involving ?? T-cell deficiencies, e.g. cryptosporidiosis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:11106935

Smith, A L; Hayday, A C

2000-01-01

25

Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys  

E-print Network

experiments (EXP 3, 4, or 5) over time in which rtIFN? was administered to turkey poults one day post-hatch by intraperitoneal injection 30 min prior to per os challenge with Eimeria adenoeides (EA). In EXP 4 and 5, neonatal turkeys received a second...

Beltran, Ruben

2012-06-07

26

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the big bend slider, Trachemys gaigeae (Testudines: Emydidae), in New Mexico.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine Big Bend sliders Trachemys gaigeae (Hartweg, 1934) were collected from Socorro County, New Mexico, and their feces examined for coccidial parasites. Three (10%) of the turtles were found to be infected with at least 1 coccidian. Seven Eimeria spp. (E. chrysemydis, E. graptemydos, E. marginata, E. pseudemydis, E. pseudogeographica, E. stylosa, and E. trachemydis) were harbored by T. gaigeae. All represent new host and distributional records for these previously described coccidians. In addition, a single sympatric western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) harbored E. chrysemydis, E. graptemydos, and E. trachemydis. The latter coccidian is reported for the first time from C. picta bellii. PMID:7472884

McAllister, C T; Stuart, J N; Upton, S J

1995-10-01

27

Monoclonal antibodies specific for the two types of wall-forming bodies of Eimeria tenella macrogametes (Coccidia, Apicomplexa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against the macrogamonts of Eimeria tenella identified antigens located in the wall-forming bodies of type I (WF I) and type II (WF II) by indirect immunofluorescence and by immunoelectron microscopy. With these mAbs, the involvement of both types of wall-forming body at the protein level in the formation of the inner and outer oocyst walls

Aimdip Noutossi Mouafo; Andreas Weck-Heimann; Jean-Franois Dubremetz; Rolf Entzeroth

2002-01-01

28

Chimeric fluorescent reporter as a tool for generation of transgenic Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia) strains with stage specific reporter gene expression.  

PubMed

Progress in transfection of Eimeria sporozoites leads to transformed oocysts, however the output of mutants after passages in the host animals is low. Further enrichment of transgenic oocysts was dependent on fluorescent activated cell sorting and could not be achieved by drug selection. In this study, we fused the Toxoplasma gondii DHFR-TSm2m3 pyrimethamine resistance gene with the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) encoding sequence to provide continuous pyrimethamine resistance and fluorescence in the Eimeria parasite from a single transcript. The permanent YFP signal of transgenic parasites allows differentiating transgenic parasites from wild type parasites throughout the entire life cycle. The output of transformed oocysts increased up to more than 30% after initial transfection and completion of the life cycle in the host animal. Within three passages under pyrimethamine treatment, a strain with 100% transformed sporulated oocysts of the parasite could be isolated. This new method provides the potential to produce and monitor transgenic Eimeria strains without additional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The chimeric fluorescent reporter can be utilized as a continuous internal control for plasmids containing stage specific promoter. By this means we utilized an Eimeria tenella gamogony gene specific regulatory sequence to confer macrogamont specific tandem dimer tomato (tdtomato) reporter gene expression in Eimeria nieschulzi. PMID:22449589

Hanig, Sacha; Entzeroth, Rolf; Kurth, Michael

2012-09-01

29

A new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Cordillera striped shrew-rat, Chrotomys whiteheadi (Rodentia: Muridae), from the Philippines.  

PubMed

During July 2011, a single Cordillera striped shrew-rat (Chrotomys whiteheadi) was collected from the Philippines and its faeces examined for coccidian parasites. It harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria macarthuri sp. n. were spheroidal to subspheroidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length width, L W) 18.2 17.0 ?m, with an L/W ratio of 1.1. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9.0 6.4 ?m, with an L/W ratio of 1.3. A nipple-like Stieda body was present as well as a substieda body. A granular sporocyst residuum was present. To our knowledge, E. macarthuri represents the only coccidian ever described from a rodent of the Philippines. PMID:25236280

McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Duszynski, Donald W; Bush, Sarah E

2014-10-01

30

The effect of dietary betaine on intestinal and plasma levels of betaine in uninfected and coccidia-infected broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicks fed betaine supplemented diets and infected with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima had markedly higher levels of betaine in the duodenum and mid-gut than unsupplemented, infected chicks. Uninfected chicks fed betaine exhibited almost twice the levels of betaine in the gut as infected chicks. Plasma betaine levels were lower in E. maxima-infected chicks than in E. acervulina-or Eimeria tenella-infected

R. H. Fetterer; P. C. Augustine; P. C. Allen; R. C. Barfield

2003-01-01

31

New host and locality records of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from rodents in the southwestern and western United States.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven murid and heteromyid rodents were collected from various sites in the southwestern and western United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah) and Baja California Norte, Mexico, and their feces were examined for coccidial parasites. Of these, 53 (36%) were infected with at least 1 coccidian; 45 of 53 (85%) of the infected rodents harbored only 1 species of coccidian. Infected rodents included: 10 of 22 (45%) Neotoma albigula, 3 of 11 (27%) Neotoma floridana, 2 of 14 (14%) Neotoma lepida, 15 of 29 (52%) Neotoma micropus, 5 of 8 (63%) Peromyscus crinitis, 6 of 6 (100%) Peromyscus difficilis, 1 of 2 (50%) Peromyscus eremicus, 9 of 34 (26%) Sigmodon hispidis, and 2 of 3 (67%) Sigmodon ochrognathus; 4 Neotoma cinerea, 3 Neotoma devia, 3 Neotoma mexicana, 1 Peromyscus maniculatus, 1 Onychomys leucogaster, 1 Onychomys torridus, 3 Chaetodipus fallax, and 2 Chaetodipus penicillatus were negative. Although no new species was found, the following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria albigulae from N. albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, Eimeria antonellii from N. albigula and N. micropus, Eimeria ladronensis from N. albigula, N. floridana, N. lepida, and N. micropus, Eimeria arizonensis and Eimeria lachrymalis from P. crinitis and P. difficilis, Eimeria lachrymalis from P. eremicus, Eimeria tuskeegensis from S. ochrognathus, and Eimeria roperi, Eimeria sigmodontis, Eimeria tuskeegensis, Eimeria webbae, and an unidentified species of Eimeria from S. hispidis. This report documents 12 new host and several distributional records for Eimeria species from murid rodents in Arizona, Texas, and Utah. PMID:1779282

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Planz, J V; DeWalt, T S

1991-12-01

32

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Infecting Cricetid Rodents from Alaska, U.S.A., and Northeastern Siberia, Russia, and Description of a  

E-print Network

); 116/159 (73%) Microtus pennsylvanicus (E. saxei, E. wenrichi); 9/52 (17%) Microtus xanthognathus (E infections: 15/72 (21%) Lemmus trimucronatus (Eimeria spp. 3, 4, 5); 10/29 (34%) Microtus longicaudus (Eimeria saxei, Eimeria wenrichi); 41/88 (47%) Microtus miurus (Eimeria coahiliensis, Eimeria ochrogasteri

33

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep ( Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole

Dario Beraldi; Allan F. McRae; Jacob Gratten; Jill G. Pilkington; Jon Slate; Peter M. Visscher; Josephine M. Pemberton

2007-01-01

34

Responses of Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers to Essential Oil Blends Supplementation up to Forty-Nine Days of Age1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Coccidiosis control may become a greater problem as the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (GPA) and ionophores declines. Vaccination with live oocysts may turn into a popular alternative to the use of coccidiostats in broilers, although cocci vaccination is frequently linked to temporary lower performance in young flocks. This experiment evaluates the dietary supplementation of 2 specific essential oil (EO)

E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; S. Clemente-Hernandez; P. Williams; R. Losa

35

Coccidiosis of Farm Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Pathogenicity of coccidia for farm animals; General information on the biology of coccidia; Methods of studying coccidia; Coccidiosis of rabbits; Coccidiosis of chickens; Coccidiosis of turkeys; Coccidiosis of cattle; Coccidiosis of sheep; Cocci...

N. P. Orlov

1970-01-01

36

Dietary betaine accumulates in the liver and intestinal tissue and stabilizes the intestinal epithelial structure in healthy and coccidia-infected broiler chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to study the patterns of betaine accumulation into intestinal tissue, liver and plasma of broiler chicks with or without coccidial infection. The chicks were raised on a corn-based, low-betaine diet with or without 1000 ppm betaine supplementation and with or without intestinal microparasite (Eimeria maxima) challenge to the age of 21 days. Plasma, liver,

H Kettunen; K Tiihonen; S Peuranen; M. T Saarinen; J. C Remus

2001-01-01

37

Enzymes as Feed Additive to Aid in Responses Against Eimeria Species in Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Different Protein Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vacci- nated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then chal- lenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d- old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12

J. Parker; E. O. Oviedo-Rondon; B. A. Clack; S. Clemente-Hernandez; J. Osborne; J. C. Remus; H. Kettunen; E. M. Pierson

38

Observations on the Life History and Descriptions of Coccidia (Apicomplexa) from the Western Chorus Frog, Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, from Eastern Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and twenty-four anurans of 6 species (47 adults and 16 tadpoles of Rana blairi, 35 R. catesbeiana, 31 Hyla chrysoscelis, 30 adults and 46 tadpoles of Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, 11 Bufo woodhousii, and 8 Acris crepitans) from Pawnee Lake, Lancaster County, Nebraska, were surveyed for coccidian parasites during March 2001 to May 2002. Of these, 23 of 30

Matthew G. Bolek; Janovy John J. Jr; Armando R. Irizarry-Rovira

2003-01-01

39

Observations on the life history and descriptions of coccidia (Apicomplexa) from the western chorus frog, Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, from eastern Nebraska.  

PubMed

Two hundred and twenty-four anurans of 6 species (47 adults and 16 tadpoles of Rana blairi, 35 R. catesbeiana, 31 Hyla chrysoscelis, 30 adults and 46 tadpoles of Pseudacris triseriata triseriata, 11 Bufo woodhousii, and 8 Acris crepitans) from Pawnee Lake, Lancaster County, Nebraska, were surveyed for coccidian parasites during March 2001 to May 2002. Of these, 23 of 30 (77%) adults and 4 of 46 (9%) tadpoles of P. t. triseriata shed oocysts of Isospora cogginsi n. sp. Oocysts of I. cogginsi were ovoid, 19.3 x 15.1 (18-23 x 11-20) microm, with a thin, smooth, colorless, single-layered wall, with no micropyle or oocyst residuum. Sporocysts were ovoid, 13.3 x 9.9 (11-15 x 9-13) microm, with a thin, colorless, smooth wall, and Stieda body absent. Sporocyst residuum was present, 5.5 x 5.3 (4-7 x 4-7) microm, consisting of numerous granules. Histological examination of frogs and tadpoles infected with the new species revealed endogenous stages including mature meronts, developing microgamonts, mature microgametes, mature macrogamonts, and young unsporulated oocysts located in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Concurrently, 2 adult P. t. triseriata shed oocysts of Eimeria streckeri. Oocysts of E. streckeri were spherical, 15.7 x 15.4 (14-17 x 14-19) microm, with a thin, smooth, single-layered, colorless wall with an oocyst residuum composed of numerous granules surrounding a large vacuolated area, with a previously undescribed globularlike body present within the vacuole, and no micropyle. Sporocysts were ovoid, 9.1 x 6.1 (7-10 x 5-7) microm, with a thin, colorless, smooth wall with a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Our results are the first to document infection of adult and tadpole stages of frogs of the same species with the same species of coccidian, indicating that adult frogs may contaminate breeding ponds with oocysts during their breeding season and infect tadpoles directly by the ingestion of sporulated oocysts. PMID:12880252

Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John; Irizarry-Rovira, Armando R

2003-06-01

40

Use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of Eimeria gruis in the Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis).  

PubMed

Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. gruis in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes. These McAbs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of E. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using McAbs to study the early development of E. gruis in the intestines and visceral organs of cranes. At 6 hr postinoculation (PI), E. gruis sporozoites were found primarily from just proximal to Meckle's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer sporozoites were found in the ceca and rectum, and none were found in the duodenum. Most of the sporozoites were in the middle third of the villi and within the lamina propria. At 14 days PI, developmental stages were detected in the ceca, jejunum, liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. In the ceca and jejunum, the number, location, and maturity of the stages differed markedly. PMID:9638620

Augustine, P C; Klein, P N; Danforth, H D

1998-03-01

41

INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SARCOCYSTIS SPP. FROM GREYLAG (ANSER ANSER) AND WHITE-FRONTED (ANSER ALBIFRONS) GEESE TO OTHER CYST FORMING COCCIDIA USING 18S AND 28S rRNA GENE SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on cyst morphology, Sarcocystis cysts type I were found in one White-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and cysts type III in one Greylag goose (Anser anser) and two White-fronted geese. Sarcocysts isolated from infected birds as intermediate host have not been previously described and are unnamed. Type III sarcocysts detected in White-fronted and Greylag geese may illustrate the case of

Dalius Butkauskas; Aniolas Sruoga; Liuda Kutkien?; Petras Prakas

2007-01-01

42

COTTONTAIL (Sylvilagus floridanus) IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIAn  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccidia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E. minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from

J. P. WIGGINS; M. COSGROVE; H. ROTHENBACHER

43

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

E-print Network

Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in ...

Bushkin, G. Guy

44

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.H.; Olsen, G.H.

2006-01-01

45

Intestinal immune responses to coccidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal parasitism is a major stress factor leading to malnutrition and lowered performance and production efficiency of livestock and poultry. Coccidiosis is an intestinal infection caused by intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to several different species of Eimeria. Infection with coccidia parasites seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of chickens and costs the US poultry industry more than $1.5 billion

C. H Yun; H. S Lillehoj; E. P Lillehoj

2000-01-01

46

A parasitological survey of wild red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Guadalajara, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootiological survey of leishmaniosis, coccidiosis and parasitic helminths in 67 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was conducted in Guadalajara (central Spain). Examination for parasitic protozoa revealed prevalences of 74% Leishmania (determined by molecular methods) and 2.9% coccidia oocysts (fecal flotation). Survey of parasitic helminths (fecal flotation\\/necropsy) demonstrated the presence of nine species, including six nematodes, two cestodes and one trematode. Nematodes

A Criado-Fornelio; L Gutierrez-Garcia; F Rodriguez-Caabeiro; E Reus-Garcia; M. A Roldan-Soriano; M. A Diaz-Sanchez

2000-01-01

47

Eimeria Korros and E. Modesta Spp. N. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from a Snake and a Tree Shrew in South Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two new coccidia are described from vertebrates of Vietnam: Eimeria korros sp.n. from a snake, Ptayas korros, and Eimeria modesta sp. n. from the tree shrew, Tupaia glis modesta. Endogenous reproduction of the snake Eimeria occurred in the gall bladder ep...

P. F. D. Van Peenen, P. F. Ryan, T. J. McIntyre

1967-01-01

48

Evaluation of anticoccidial drugs in chicken embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections ofEimeria tenella in chicken embryos were used to compare the anticoccidial activity of ten drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal toxic concentration (MTC) were affected by the time of inoculation into the embryos and by the chemical nature of the compounds. Some compounds (nicarbazin, amprolium) had no effect on the development of coccidia when they were injected

M. Q. Xie; T. Fukata; J. M. Gilbert; L. R. McDougald

1991-01-01

49

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

50

Experimental study of Eimeria robertsoni (Protozoa, Eimeriidae) in the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus.  

PubMed

A 6 1/2-day prepatent period and a patent period of at least 22 days followed single oocyst infection of a young coccidia-free hare with Eimeria robertsoni. Size of oocysts increased significantly during patency and was negatively correlated with oocyst output. Oryctolagus cuniculus remained negative after inoculation per os of E. robertsoni of snowshoe hare origin. PMID:859077

Samoil, H P; Samuel, W M

1977-04-01

51

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

52

A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic

Ingrid M. Asmundsson; J. P. Dubey; Benjamin M. Rosenthal

2006-01-01

53

[Internal parasites of cattle in select Western Pomerania farms].  

PubMed

Internal parasites of cattle in select Western Pomerania farms. The studies were carried out in five farms, on 84 calves and 153 cows. The prevalence and intensity of the Coccidia and gastro-intestinal nematodes infection were determined by means of the Willis-Schlaafs and McMaster's methods. The Coccidia composition in the examined animals was determined by morphological features of the oocysts and the sporulation time. The following four Eimeria species were isolated: E. bovis, E. aubernensis, E. zrni and E. ellipsoidalis. Two methods were used for detection of Cryptosporidium sp. - the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique and coproantigen test. In cows, the overall prevalence was Eimeria sp. ranged from 5.5 to 23.4%, gastro-intestinal nematodes ranged from 12.7 to 42.6%. In calves, the overall prevalence Eimeria sp. was ranged from 10.0 to 36.8% oocysts and Cryptosporidium sp. 22.8%. PMID:16894721

Pilarczyk, Bogumi?a; Ramisz, Alojzy; Jastrzfbski, Grzegorz

2002-01-01

54

Isospora dromaii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae (Casuariiformes, Casuariidae).  

PubMed

A new species of Coccidia (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, which was observed in Brazil is described and named. Oocysts of Isospora dromaii n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoid in shape, measure 21.6??19.8?m, and have a double and smooth wall thickness of approximately 1.4?m. In this species, micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granules are absent. The sporocysts are slightly ovoid in shape and measure 13.7??10.0?m. Nipple-like Stieda body and prominent sub-Stieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small dispersed granules of varying sizes. The sporozoites are characterized by an oblong refractile body and one centrally located nucleus. This is the first description of isosporid coccidia infecting birds of the family Dromaiidae. PMID:25195056

Dos Santos Teixeira, Carina; Gallo, Samira Salim Mello; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

2014-11-01

55

A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcn Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.  

PubMed

Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

2000-04-01

56

A Cross-Sectional Survey on Parasites of Chickens in Selected Villages in the Subhumid Zones of South-Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A study was carried out to identify and estimate the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites of village chicken between April and July 2008 in three local councils of Enugu state, Nigeria. A total of 1038 chickens comprising of 468 chicks, 207 growers and 363 adults were examined during the house to house survey for ectoparasites, gastrointestinal helminths and coccidia infections. Our finding showed that 41% were infected with ectoparasites with lice, fleas, and mites having prevalence rates of 62.2%, 35.7% and 2.1%, respectively. Helminths and coccidia had prevalence of 35.5% each. Among the helminths Ascaridia, galli was the most dominant species (17.2%). Generally, there was a significantly higher helminth infestation relative to the ectoparasites (P < .05), high prevalence of mixed infections and absence of tick infestation. Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. PMID:20700428

Nnadi, P. A.; George, S. O.

2010-01-01

57

First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Trs Marias Reservoir, So Francisco Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Trs Marias Reservoir, Upper So Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the So Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

2010-05-01

58

Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015

Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

2013-10-15

59

Adenovirus group II-like infection in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar).  

PubMed

Seven live 5-to-6-wk-old chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) were examined because of increased lacrimation, swollen eyelids, and increased mortality. Gross lesions consisted of mildly enlarged and mottled white spleens, swollen eyelids with external scab formation, and watery intestinal contents. Microscopically, there were increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytic system cells in the spleen, some of which contained faintly staining basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, blepharoconjunctivitis, enteritis associated with coccidia and crop mycosis. Transmission electron microscopy of the spleen revealed icosahedral virus particles 65 to 75 nm in diameter, consistent with the morphology of adenovirus. Three out of seven chukars were positive for hemorrhagic enteritis virus by serology. PMID:18646470

Shivaprasad, H L

2008-06-01

60

Curcuma as a parasiticidal agent: a review.  

PubMed

Members of the Curcuma plant species (Zingiberaceae) have been used for centuries in cooking, cosmetics, staining and in traditional medicine as "omnipotent" remedies. Herbal preparations made with, and molecules extracted from, Curcuma have been shown to possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties against malignant proliferation, hormonal disorders, inflammation, and parasitosis among other conditions. This review evaluates Curcuma and its associated bioactive compounds, particularly focusing on studies examining the parasiticidal activity of these components against the tropical parasites Plasmodium, leishmania, Trypanosoma, Schistosoma and more generally against other cosmopolitan parasites (nematodes, Babesia, Candida, Giardia, Coccidia and Sarcoptes). PMID:21104602

Haddad, Mohamed; Sauvain, Michel; Deharo, Eric

2011-04-01

61

Parasites in grizzly bears from the central Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Standardized flotation techniques were used to survey 56 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) fecal samples for parasites. The samples were collected during the spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996 in the central Arctic of the Northwest Territories (Canada). Parasites of the genera Nematodirus, gastrointestinal coccidia, and an unidentified first stage protostrongylid larva are reported for the first time from grizzly bear feces in North America. Parasites of the genera Diphyllobothrium and Baylisascaris also were collected. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites were significantly different between the spring and autumn seasons (31% and 58% respectively). Thus, we provide evidence supporting the theory that bears void gastrointestinal parasites before hibernation. PMID:10479104

Gau, R J; Kutz, S; Elkin, B T

1999-07-01

62

An unusual coccidian parasite causing pneumonia in a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).  

PubMed

In June 1993 an unusual coccidian parasite was identified in lung tissue from a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), collected near Tucson, Arizona (USA), which died in respiratory distress. Histologically, there was evidence of severe, generalized interstitial pneumonia, associated with the parasite. Both asexual and sexual stages were seen. Schizonts, gamonts, and sporulated oocysts were seen in lung tissue. The parasite most closely resembled coccidia of the genus Lankesterella. This is the first report of such a coccidian parasite in the alveolar tissue of a cardinal. PMID:8627925

Baker, D G; Speer, C A; Yamaguchi, A; Griffey, S M; Dubey, J P

1996-01-01

63

Gastrointestinal parasites of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccictia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E.minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from 5 helminth species were found: Cittotaenia sp., Hastilesia tricolor, Passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type nematode species, and Trichuris sp. Five helminths were recovered from stomachs and small intestines: Cittotaenia sp. H. tricolor, Obeliscoides cuniculi,, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus. PMID:7463607

Wiggins, J P; Cosgrove, M; Rothenbacher, H

1980-10-01

64

Sensitivity of isolates of Eimeria from turkey flocks to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, clopidol, diclazuril, and monensin.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of field isolates of turkey coccidia from the United States to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, clopidol, diclazuril, and monensin was investigated. Clopidol and diclazuril were the most effective, followed by monensin and amprolium. Thirty-one isolates were classified as resistant to amprolium, 23 resistant to monensin, 10 resistant to diclazuril, and 6 resistant to clopidol. Six isolates were partially resistant to monensin, 10 partially resistant to clopidol, and 11 partially resistant to diclazuril. Four isolates were sensitive to monensin, 12 sensitive to diclazuril, and 17 sensitive to clopidol. PMID:19848080

Rathinam, T; Chapman, H D

2009-09-01

65

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the endemic Florida snake Tantilla relicta Telford (Serpentes: Colubridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endemic Florida snake Tantilla relicta Telford is parasitised by six species of coccidia. Caryospora tantillae n. sp. has nearly spherical ocysts, 19.6 18.9 m (1622 1621), with no polar body, and an ocyst length\\/width ratio (shape index, SI) of 1.04 (1.001.11). Ovoidal sporocysts are 15.1 11.6 m (1217 1013), with an SI of 1.30 (1.11.6),

Sam R. Telford Jr

1997-01-01

66

Sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.  

PubMed

Muscle from Sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (Felis domestica) and dogs (Canis familiaris). Only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. The prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. Sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. They contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (N=55). Doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administered to 5 domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Domestic rabbits did not become infected, suggesting a strict host specificity for the intermediate host S. floridanus. PMID:405509

Fayer, R; Kradel, D

1977-04-01

67

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

68

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

1979-01-01

69

Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds. PMID:521379

Carpenter, J W; Spraker, T R; Gardiner, C H; Novilla, M N

1979-11-01

70

Pulmonary lesions in disseminated visceral coccidiosis of sandhill and whooping cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (Grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (Grus americana), were studied. Eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC). The remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria reichenowi and/or E. gruis; five chicks served as controls. There were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. Necropsy of naturally infected adult birds revealed nodules in many organs, including the lung, air sacs, trachea and nares. Artificially infected sandhill cranes and the whooping crane chicks that died from DVC had congestion and consolidated areas in the lung with frothy fluid in the airways. Grossly visible nodules were observed from 10 days postinoculation. Granulomatous pneumonia and tracheitis were observed with light microscopy. Lesions were associated with merogonic and gametogonic stages of eimerian coccidia. Granulomas and granulomatous foci contained parasitized large mononuclear cells. Merogonic stages were seen in lymphoid cells by ultrastructural examination. Oocysts were observed in the trachea and bronchial mucosa and admixed with exudate in the airways, indicating that crane eimerians can complete their life cycle at these sites. Of the few eimeriid coccidia that have extraintestinal stages of development in birds and mammals, only the species in cranes complete their life cycle in both the digestive and respiratory tracts.

Novilla, M.N.; Carpenter, J.W.; Jeffers, T.K.; White, S.L.

1989-01-01

71

The pathogenicity of rabbit coccidium Eimeria coecicola Cheissin, 1947.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of Eimeria coecicola for rabbits has been demonstrated in our experiments. The animals suffered from prolonged affection of appendix lasting at least 20 days. Pathological changes appeared with the development of merogony since day 4 post infection (DPI) and were characterized by an inflammatory infiltration and abundant pyogenic component in lamina propria, swelling and coalescence of upper parts of appendix mucosa above atrophied domes, where spaces filled with stagnating inflammatory exudate, endogenic stages of coccidia, and desquamated epithelia are formed. The alteration of the epithelium and exposure of the appendix lamina propria occur in relation with the gametogony in the period of about 10 DPI. Since 8 DPI, the epithelium of the infected endogenic stages of coccidia becomes hyperplastic, proliferates into lamina propria and is subjected to necrosis. Groups of immature oocysts and their fragments remain in lamina propria and are resorbed, at least for 10 days, by granulomatous inflammatory structures with abundant multinucleate cells of the type of foreign body cells. PMID:2488044

Vtovec, J; Pakandl, M

1989-01-01

72

A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Ocysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 14.7 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 6.4 ?m, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

73

Pulmonary lesions in disseminated visceral coccidiosis of sandhill and whooping cranes.  

PubMed

Fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (Grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (Grus americana), were studied. Eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC). The remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria reichenowi and/or E. gruis; five chicks served as controls. There were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. Necropsy of naturally infected adult birds revealed nodules in many organs, including the lung, air sacs, trachea and nares. Artificially infected sandhill cranes and the whooping crane chicks that died from DVC had congestion and consolidated areas in the lung with frothy fluid in the airways. Grossly visible nodules were observed from 10 days postinoculation. Granulomatous pneumonia and tracheitis were observed with light microscopy. Lesions were associated with merogonic and gametogonic stages of eimerian coccidia. Granulomas and granulomatous foci contained parasitized large mononuclear cells. Merogonic stages were seen in lymphoid cells by ultrastructural examination. Oocysts were observed in the trachea and bronchial mucosa and admixed with exudate in the airways, indicating that crane eimerians can complete their life cycle at these sites. Of the few eimeriid coccidia that have extraintestinal stages of development in birds and mammals, only the species in cranes complete their life cycle in both the digestive and respiratory tracts. PMID:2810553

Novilla, M N; Carpenter, J W; Jeffers, T K; White, S L

1989-10-01

74

Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jimnez Rocha, Ana E; Hernndez Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sand, Janet; Nuez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

2009-03-01

75

A new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting Onychomys species (Rodentia: Muridae) in New Mexico and Arizona.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 3 species of Onychomys (Rodentia: Muridae) captured in New Mexico and Arizona were examined for coccidia. Six of the 59 (10%) were infected with a new species of Eimeria. Sporulated oocysts (n = 105) of this new species are subspheroidal, 17.4 x 16.1 (14-21 x 13-19) microm, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.4 x 5.7 (9-12 x 5-8) microm. This species occurred in 3 of 24 (13%) Onychomys arenicola, 2 of 31 (6%) Onychomys leucogaster from New Mexico, and 1 of 4 (25%) Onychomys torridus from Arizona. Isolates recovered from O. leucogaster and O. torridus were inoculated into O. leucogaster (n = 5) and produced infections with a prepatent period of 7 days and a patent period of 7-23 days. PMID:9920315

Hnida, J A; Wilson, W D; Duszynski, D W

1998-12-01

76

Health status of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in eastern Kansas.  

PubMed

The health status of wild northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) from Lyon County, Kansas, was evaluated by conducting comprehensive health assessments on 25 birds. Gross lesions indicative of avian pox, ulcerative enteritis, and quail bronchitis were not present. Serologic tests for antibodies to Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and avian adenoviruses were all negative. Intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) were found in 36% of the birds. Only three species of helminth parasites were found: Dispharynx nasuta in two birds, Cyrnea colini in one bird, and larval Physaloptera sp. in four birds. Arthropod parasites (ticks, lice, mites, and/or chiggers) were present on 96% of the birds examined. Compared with wild bobwhite populations in the southeastern United States, the diversity, prevalence, and intensities of microbial and parasitic agents were low. PMID:11195653

Williams, C K; Davidson, W R; Lutz, R S; Applegate, R D

2000-01-01

77

Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in central Wyoming.  

PubMed

Feces from 60 bats representing 5 species and 4 genera collected in central Wyoming in 2001 were examined for the presence of coccidia. Two species of Eimeria were identified in 4 bats representing 2 species of Myotis. All infected animals harbored a single species; there was no multispecies infection. Eimeria catronensis was recovered from 3 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Eimeria californicensis was identified from a single long-legged myotis (Myotis volans). Both represent new geographic records and the second a new host record. Eimeria catronensis-like oocysts were recovered from a single silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Descriptions and taxonomic summaries for the eimerian species are presented in this study. PMID:15165058

Seville, Robert S; Gruver, Jeffrey

2004-04-01

78

Gastrointestinal parasites in goats from Monte Castelo, Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of estimating the degree of gastrointestinal helminth infection in goats on the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina. Twelve young females and 11 adult females were used. Every 28 days, feces samples were taken to quantify the nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Larval culturing was performed on a pool of positive samples from the same group. The fecal egg counts (FECs) ranged from zero to 10,400 EPG in the young group and zero to 7,600 EPG in the adult group. The mean FECs were between 583.3 and 4441.7 in the young group and between 418.2 and 2181.8 in the adult group. Eggs of the order Strongylida and genera Moniezia and Toxocara, and oocysts of Coccidia, were observed. The young animals were more affected and Haemonchus was the most prevalent genus in the samples. PMID:22832756

Cardoso, Cristina Perito; Cardozo, Leonardo Leite; Silva, Bruna Fernanda da; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do

2012-01-01

79

Morphology and histopathology of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa: Calyptosporidae) in speckled peacock bass, Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), from the Maraj-Au River, Maraj Island, Brazil.  

PubMed

Several species of coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause infection in a wide variety of animal groups. Calyptospora is an important genus of protozoan, which infests both freshwater and marine fish. The hepatopancreases of 150 speckled peacock bass captured on Maraj Island, Brazil were studied macro- and microscopically. Oocysts were found in 84 (56%) of the specimens in both the examination of the fresh material by compression and the analysis of histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Small, circular, homogeneous forms in negative contrast had a mean diameter of 21.2 ?m, frequently with pyriform sporocysts, with a mean length of 9.2 ?m and width of 3.1 ?m, and a thin-walled capsule, were observed in both the hepatic and the pancreatic parenchyma, but were completely devoid of any inflammatory reaction. Calyptospora infections are documented for the first time in the Maraj-Au River. PMID:22200958

Santiago, Hrika; Corra, Jos Lus; Tortelly, Rogerio; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Matos, Patrcia; Matos, Edilson

2012-06-01

80

Determination of the activity of diclazuril against Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Diclazuril is a benzeneacetonitril anticoccidial that has excellent activity against the extraintestinal stages of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. It also is highly active against intestinal coccidia of poultry. The present study examined the efficacy of diclazuril in inhibiting merozoite production of Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula in bovine turbinate cell cultures. Diclazuril inhibited merozoite production by more than 80% in cultures of S. neurona or S. falcatula treated with 0.1 ng/ml diclazuril and greater than 95% inhibition of merozoite production was observed when infected cultures were treated with 1.0 ng/ml diclazuril. Diclazuril may have promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of S. neurona-induced equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses and S. falcatula infections in birds. PMID:10701584

Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

2000-02-01

81

A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), from Kansas.  

PubMed

Between March 1989 and February 1994, 4 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) from various localities in Kansas were examined for coccidia. One (25%) of the bald eagles was found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Oocysts of Caryospora hanebrinki n. sp. are ellipsoidal to ovoidal with a bilayered wall and measure 48.1 42.1 ?m with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts are spheroidal, 24.8 ?m wide. Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent; a spheroidal sporocyst residuum is present; it measures 17.5 ?m and is composed of many intact homogenous globules with a few dispersed in a loose spiral around the sporocysts. This is the first caryosporan documented from the bald eagle and is the largest known Caryospora from raptors. PMID:22992168

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

2013-04-01

82

DNA barcoding identifies Eimeria species and contributes to the phylogenetics of coccidian parasites (Eimeriorina, Apicomplexa, Alveolata).  

PubMed

Partial (? 780 bp) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and near complete nuclear 18S rDNA (? 1,780 bp) sequences were directly compared to assess their relative usefulness as markers for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). Fifteen new COI partial sequences were obtained using two pairs of new primers from rigorously characterised (sensu Reid and Long, 1979) laboratory strains of seven Eimeria spp. infecting chickens as well as three additional sequences from cloned laboratory strains of Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 and GT1) and Neospora caninum (NC1) that were used as outgroup taxa for phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on COI sequences yielded robust support for the monophyly of individual Eimeria spp. infecting poultry except for the Eimeria mitis/mivati clade; however, the lack of a phenotypically characterised strain of E. mivati precludes drawing any firm conclusions regarding this observation. Unlike in the 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic reconstructions, Eimerianecatrix and Eimeria tenella formed monophyletic clades based on partial COI sequences. A species delimitation test was performed to determine the probability of making a correct identification of an unknown specimen (sequence) based on either complete 18S rDNA or partial COI sequences; in almost all cases, the partial COI sequences were more reliable as species-specific markers than complete 18S rDNA sequences. These observations demonstrate that partial COI sequences provide more synapomorphic characters at the species level than complete 18S rDNA sequences from the same taxa. We conclude that COI performs well as a marker for the identification of coccidian taxa (Eimeriorina) and will make an excellent DNA 'barcode' target for coccidia. The COI locus, in combination with an 18S rDNA sequence as an 'anchor', has sufficient phylogenetic signal to assist in the resolution of apparent paraphylies within the coccidia and likely more broadly within the Apicomplexa. PMID:21515277

Ogedengbe, Joseph D; Hanner, Robert H; Barta, John R

2011-07-01

83

Self-Mating in the Definitive Host Potentiates Clonal Outbreaks of the Apicomplexan Parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause devastating disease outbreaks. PMID:21203443

Wendte, Jered M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Jessup, David A.; Grigg, Michael E.

2010-01-01

84

Walter T. Johnson (1892 to 1937): pioneer of coccidiosis research in the fowl.  

PubMed

Walter T. Johnson (1892 to 1937), veterinarian at Western Washington Agricultural Experiment Station (WWAES), Puyallup, Washington, USA, and subsequently poultry pathologist and professor of veterinary medicine at Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station (OSAES), Corvallis, Oregon, USA, made many important contributions to our understanding of the disease coccidiosis. His pioneering work included the first description of Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria praecox from the chicken and identification of four other species of Eimeria from the fowl. He demonstrated the relationship between numbers of oocysts ingested and severity of infection, and described the phenomenon of host specificity and the significance of immunity. Contrary to widespread opinion, he considered that coccidia were not involved in blackhead disease and other pathological conditions reported from the fowl. His views on control were ahead of his time and he anticipated the possibility of vaccinating birds by infecting them with live oocysts. In addition to his studies of coccidiosis, Johnson introduced a vaccine for fowlpox and ran a pullorum-testing laboratory. He produced numerous articles of an advisory nature on a diverse range of topics concerned with poultry and cattle. Much of Johnson's research was published in bulletins of the WWAES and OSAES that are not widely available and consequently have often been overlooked by the scientific community. Following his premature death, the director of OSAES claimed, "more information on the parasitic disease coccidiosis has been discovered at the Oregon Station than at almost any other place. The Oregon Station is probably the only institution in the world where six known species of coccidia of the chicken are available in pure culture" (Anonymous, 1938a). This is a claim that few institutions can match today. PMID:15276976

Chapman, H D

2004-04-01

85

Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 14.9 (1720 1416) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 7.6 (1011 78) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 21.3 (2835 1824) ?m, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 10.6 (1416 1012) ?m, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

2013-01-01

86

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Eimeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild-caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris , and Cynomys ludovicianus . The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values > 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciurus niger and Sciurus niger cinereus and to Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single, well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses. However, within the clade, there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E

2011-04-01

87

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Emeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Sciurid Rodents  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris, and Cynomys ludovicianus. The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values greater than 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciuris niger and Sciurus niger cinereus, and Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony analyses. However, within the clade there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E.

2011-01-01

88

Integrated Bioinformatic and Targeted Deletion Analyses of the SRS Gene Superfamily Identify SRS29C as a Negative Regulator of Toxoplasma Virulence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A ?sag1 ?sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations. PMID:23149485

Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.

2012-01-01

89

Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  

PubMed

Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W

2013-06-01

90

Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. Methods In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA). Results Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis. PMID:21645291

2011-01-01

91

Infectious agents associated with diarrhoea of calves in the canton of Tilarn, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

A case-control study of calves under 3 months of age was carried out by weekly visits to 15 farms in the canton of Tilarn, Costa Rica. Most farms were dedicated to beef or dual-purpose (DP) production. Faecal samples were collected over a 6-month period from a total of 194 calves with clinical signs and from 186 animals without clinical signs of diarrhoea as assessed by a scoring system. The samples were investigated for the presence of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Torovirus was detected for the first time in Costa Rica and was present in 14% of calves with diarrhoea and in 6% of the controls. Coronavirus and Rotavirus were less frequently encountered in either one of the groups (in 9 and 7% of scouring calves and in 1 and 2% of controls, respectively). Escherichia coli was detected in 94% of all the faecal samples, but isolates from only three samples from calves with diarrhoea contained the K99 antigen. Similarly, Salmonella was found only in scouring calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in animals with signs of diarrhoea, while other coccidia oocysts, Strongylida and Strongyloides eggs were frequently found in animals both with and without diarrhoea. A conditional logistic regression (CLR) analysis to compare healthy and scouring calves showed a significant difference with regard to the presence of Torovirus, Rotavirus and Coronavirus. PMID:9500174

Prez, E; Kummeling, A; Janssen, M M; Jimnez, C; Alvarado, R; Caballero, M; Donado, P; Dwinger, R H

1998-01-01

92

Evidence for a recent population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history and epidemiology of parasites may be reflected in the extent and geographic distribution of their genetic variation. Among coccidian parasites, the population structure of only Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively examined. Intraspecific variation in other coccidia, for example, those assigned to the genus Besnoitia, remains poorly defined. Here, we characterize the extent of genetic variation among populations of Besnoitia tarandi, a parasite whose intermediate hosts include reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Isolates from the Canadian Arctic and Finnish sub-Arctic were genotyped at six microsatellite loci, the first internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA, and the RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) encoded in the plastid genome. Remarkably, all isolates exhibited the same multilocus genotype, regardless of the isolate's geographic origin. This absolute monomorphism occurred despite the capacity of these loci to vary, as established by evident differentiation between B. tarandi and two other species of Besnoitia, and variation among four isolates of B. besnoiti. The surprising lack of genetic variation across the sampled range suggests that B. tarandi may have experienced a recent population bottleneck. PMID:22742966

Madubata, Chioma; Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Elkin, Brett; Oksanen, Antti; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

2012-12-01

93

Observations on the endogenous stages of Eimeria crandallis in domestic lambs (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Lambs reared coccidia-free were inoculated orally with various numbers of sporulated oocysts of E. crandallis and were killed between 1 and 22 days after inoculation; tissues were examined histologically. Sporozoites were seen 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation (DAI) in crypt epithelial cells in the mid-jejunum. Infected cells migrated into the lamina propria where the parasite within them developed into a first-generation meront containing about 250,000 merozoites at 10 DAI. A second generation of meronts was seen at 10-12 DAI, each containing up to about 10 merozoites, situated mainly at the bases of crypts in the jejunum and ileum but also in the caecum. From 11 DAI pro-gamonts were seen which were enveloped by the host cell nucleus and which divided in synchrony with the host cell for an undetermined number of generations. Mature gamonts began to develop from them by 16 DAI. Oocyst output began at 16 DAI and rose to a peak at about 22 DAI. Up to 10(8) oocysts were produced per oocyst inoculated. They showed wide variation in size and colour. PMID:2534531

Gregory, M W; Catchpole, J; Norton, C C

1989-12-01

94

Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.  

PubMed

In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

Davidson, Rebecca K; ines, ivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

2013-10-01

95

Two new species of Caryospora Lger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.  

PubMed

Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Ocysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, ocyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each ocyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated ocysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, ocyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each ocyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modr, D

2000-05-01

96

Frequency of intestinal parasites in adult cancer patients in Mexico.  

PubMed

Approximately 28% of the Mexican population has intestinal parasites. Oncologic patients receiving chemotherapy should have a coproparasitoscopic study to avoid disseminated parasitic infections. The frequency of intestinal parasites, including Cryptosporidium and Isospora, was evaluated in 100 diarrheic (DS) and 100 formed stools (FS) from adult patients recently diagnosed with cancer, using wet mounts stained with Kinyoun, saccharose and ZnSO4 procedures stained with Lugol's iodine. Seven patients with DS and three with FS had more than one parasite. Pathogenic intestinal parasites were seen in 26% of DS and 15% of FS. Of the frequent parasites, Entamoeba histolytica was found in 12 DS and in 2 FS (p = 0.01), Giardia lamblia in three DS and six FS and Hymenolepis nana in eight DS and 10 FS. Other pathogenic parasites were found only in DS: Cryptosporidium sp. in five patients, Ascaris lumbricoides in two, Strongyloides stercoralis in two and Isospora sp. in one. Cryptosporidium and Isospora were only identified by wet mounts stained with Kinyoun while other parasites were identified by flotation procedures. Since six (3%) of our patients had coccidia, the laboratory must perform special techniques for their detection. In epidemiologic settings where there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections the coproparasitoscopic studies should be performed and antiparasitic treatment provided before starting chemotherapy. PMID:9204612

Guarner, J; Matilde-Nava, T; Villaseor-Flores, R; Sanchez-Mejorada, G

1997-01-01

97

Pathology of runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia.  

PubMed

Extremely poor growth of some individuals within a birth cohort (runting) is a significant problem in crocodile farming. We conducted a pathological investigation to determine if infectious disease is associated with runting in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and to look for evidence of other etiologies. In each of 2005 and 2007, 10 normal and 10 runt crocodiles, with an average age of 5.5 months and reared under identical conditions, were sampled. Laboratory testing included postmortem; histological examination of a wide variety of tissues (with quantitation of features that were noted subjectively to be different between groups); hematology; serum biochemistry (total protein, albumin, globulins, total calcium, phosphorus, and iron); bacterial culture of liver and spleen (2005 only); viral culture of liver, thymus, tonsil, and spleen using primary crocodile cell lines (2007 only); and serum corticosterone (2007 only). The only evidence of infectious disease was mild cutaneous poxvirus infection in 45% of normal and 40% of runt crocodiles and rare intestinal coccidia in 5% of normal and 15% of runt crocodiles. Bacterial and viral culture did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. However, runt crocodiles exhibited significant (P < .05) increases in adrenocortical cell cytoplasmic vacuolation and serum corticosterone, decreased production of bone (osteoporosis), and reduced lymphoid populations in the spleen, tonsil, and thymus. Runts also exhibited moderate anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hypophosphatemia. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between runting and a chronic stress response (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). PMID:24395912

Shilton, C; Brown, G P; Chambers, L; Benedict, S; Davis, S; Aumann, S; Isberg, S R

2014-09-01

98

Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.  

PubMed

This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed. PMID:2024431

Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

1991-01-01

99

[Interaction between Karyolysus sp. and rock lizard liver cells during hibernation].  

PubMed

During the rock lizard hibernation, no nuclear division occurs in the exoerythrocytar trophozoites of Karyolysus sp., found in hepatocytes or Kupffer's cells. In addition, organelles of the apical complex are seen persisting in these trophozoites, unlike the situation routinely observed in the majority of other intracellular sporozoans. Thus, the parasites under study can be compared with hypnozoites of other coccidia. The material being examined from natural rather than experimental conditions, during lizards' hibernation, the dynamics of host-parasite interrelations can be followed that involves the appearance in the infected cell of autophagous vacuoles, changes in mitochondrial structure and pattern of endoplasmic reticulum, the connection of the system of lamellar channels with the space of the parasitophorous vacuole. The results of the present observations may suggest, first, that during the host hibernation, exoerythrocytar trophozoites of Karyolysus being intracellular in their spatial distribution, are able to obtain nutrients from the outer, extracellular space, through the system of lamellar channels; second, that these channels can represent intercellular connections, which makes one consider the exoerythrocytar trophozoites as intercellular rather than intracellular parasites. PMID:432965

Beier, T V

1979-03-01

100

[Prevalence of protozoans helminths among cats purchased for experimental use in the Kanto Area].  

PubMed

Prevalence of protozoan and helminth parasites in adult cats for experimental use obtained from Kanto area, Japan during the period of 1973-74 (91 cats) and 1980-81 (80 cats) was investigated by means of autopsy, fecal examination and serological tests. No protozoa were found in blood smear specimens. The rate of positive Toxoplasma antibody tests was 65.4% (hemagglutination test) in 1973-74 and 26.3% (latex agglutination test) in 1980-81. Oocysts of coccidia found in feces were Isospora felis and I. rivolta. In the intestine of 63.7% (1980-81) and 69.2% (1973-74) of the cats, one or more species of helminth parasites were found. The helminth parasites found in the intestine were Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra erinacei and Pharyngostomum cordatum. Physaloptera sp., Dirofilaria immitis, Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria plica were found in the stomach, heart, bile duct and urinary bladder, respectively. Differences between the results in 1973-74 and that in 1980-81 were discussed. PMID:6653679

Fujinami, F; Tanaka, H; Ohshima, S

1983-07-01

101

Sus scrofa domestica endoparasitic resistance in the Amazonas.  

PubMed

The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica L.) has been wild breeding in the Varzea Amazonian Estuary area. Without dietary supplement or medical prevention, the pigs survive, bringing economic benefits to local peasants. Endoparasitic diseases generate economic losses because of neonatal death and clinical disease. We assessed the nematoda (O. Nematoda) and coccidia (O. Eucoccidia) parasitic level and tolerance in 75 pigs (0-18 months) from 35 families using the following methods: (i) larvae culture, (ii) Hoffman, (iii) Willis-Mollay (Hoffman 1987) and (iv) postmortem examinations. We identified Eimeria species Strongyloidea and S. ransomi present in 60% of the cases, giving a mean of 336 and 520 EPG (eggs per gram of feces), respectively. Culturing the larvae showed S. ransomi in 47% and Oseophagostomum sp. in 17% of the cases. We found Stephanurus dentatus and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus adults in 77% and 23% of the postmortem tests, respectively. Pig resistance was demonstrated by lack of mortality and no clinical disease symptoms, in the presence of that high endoparasitic load. PMID:8784532

Rodrigues, D L; Hiraoka, M

1996-07-23

102

Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population.  

PubMed

Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population. PMID:6530713

Tuggle, B N; Crites, J L

1984-10-01

103

A simplified protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria species in field samples.  

PubMed

This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive and efficient protocol for molecular identification of chicken Eimeria spp. in field samples. Various methods for each of the three steps of the protocol were evaluated: oocyst wall rupturing methods, DNA extraction methods, and identification of species-specific DNA sequences by PCR. We then compared and evaluated five complete protocols. Three series of oocyst suspensions of known number of oocysts from Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella were prepared and ground using glass beads or mini-pestle. DNA was extracted from ruptured oocysts using commercial systems (GeneReleaser, Qiagen Stoolkit and Prepman) or phenol-chloroform DNA extraction, followed by identification of species-specific ITS-1 sequences by optimised single species PCR assays. The Stoolkit and Prepman protocols showed insufficient repeatability, and the former was also expensive and relatively time-consuming. In contrast, both the GeneReleaser protocol and phenol-chloroform protocols were robust and sensitive, detecting less than 0.4 oocysts of each species per PCR. Finally, we evaluated our new protocol on 68 coccidia positive field samples. Our data suggests that rupturing the oocysts by mini-pestle grinding, preparing the DNA with GeneReleaser, followed by optimised single species PCR assays, makes a robust and sensitive procedure for identifying chicken Eimeria species in field samples. Importantly, it also provides minimal hands-on-time in the pre-PCR process, lower contamination risk and no handling of toxic chemicals. PMID:17386979

Haug, Anita; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G

2007-05-15

104

Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.  

PubMed

A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the So Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild. PMID:10367647

Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

1999-03-01

105

Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp  

PubMed Central

Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW) on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A) Control diet (no YCW) plus anticoccidial vaccine); B) Control diet plus coccidiostat; C) YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D) YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses. PMID:19298670

Gomez-Verduzco, Gabriela; Cortes-Cuevas, Arturo; Lopez-Coello, Carlos; Avila-Gonzalez, Ernesto; Nava, Gerardo M

2009-01-01

106

Increased level of Eimeria sensitivity to diclazuril after using a live coccidial vaccine.  

PubMed

Anticoccidial vaccine and an anticoccidial drug rotation program were compared to determine which program was more effective in producing coccidia populations sensitive of 1 ppm diclazuril. The study used an anticoccidial drug-sensitivity battery test (AST) to determine the baseline level of diclazuril sensitivity to field isolates of Eimeria spp. from seven broiler complexes that had used diclazuril. Based on percentage reduction in weight gain and lesion scores, 25% or fewer of the isolates were effectively controlled by diclazuril. Following the baseline sampling, four of the complexes switched to a nondiclazuril in-feed anticoccidial drug program and three of the complexes switched to a vaccination program for two broiler grow-out cycles as the sole coccidiosis-control program. This study demonstrated that the vaccine used (Coccivac-B) contained anticoccidial drug-sensitive strains. Eimeria isolates were subsequently collected from the identical houses and diclazuril AST results were compared with the baseline AST results. Following the two grow-out cycles, sensitivity of the isolates to diclazuril from the four complexes that continued to use in-feed anticoccidial drugs remained essentially unchanged. The isolates from the three complexes that switched to the vaccination program demonstrated a marked increase in diclazuril sensitivity, with 60%-100% of the isolates from each complex effectively controlled by diclazuril. Vaccination with the anticoccidial drug-sensitive strains produced a measurable increase in the level of sensitivity to diclazuril. PMID:17039828

Mathis, G F; Broussard, C

2006-09-01

107

Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives.  

PubMed

The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized. In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency, is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For reasons of tolerability in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, after 3 months of therapy a maintenance treatment on 2 days a week has recently given very positive results. In cats, monensin and toltrazuril are effective against the intestinal developmental stages of Toxoplasma gondii, the later drug affecting to a reasonable extent the extraintestinal stages as well. Attempts to treat neosporosis and sarcocystosis remain in the initial stages. The same is true for cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. A number of highly effective drugs are available for prophylaxis of poultry coccidiosis. Increasing problems with resistance have led to new treatment schemes such as shuttle and rotation programs. In addition to a new polyether, semduramycin, a benzeneacetonitrile derivative (diclazuril) has been developed in recent years. After three decades a new drug (toltrazuril), a symmetrical triazinone derivative, has brought improvements for therapy and/or metaphylaxis in coccidiosis of poultry and mammals. The increasing possibilities for vaccination may result in new aspects for the use of chemotherapeutics, i.e., new combinations and/or shuttle or rotation programs. PMID:8801548

Haberkorn, A

1996-01-01

108

Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens. PMID:16050910

El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

2005-08-01

109

Histopathological observations on the activity of diclazuril (Vecoxan) against the endogenous stages of Eimeria crandallis in sheep.  

PubMed

Doses of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria crandallis were administered to 60 housed lambs aged 3-4 weeks that had been raised coccidia-free. Thirty of the lambs were medicated with diclazuril at intervals over a 20-day period post-infection with the remaining lambs serving as untreated controls. Lambs were euthanased between 5 and 22 days post-infection (dpi) and sections of the small intestine and caecum examined histologically. Untreated lambs showed loss of surface epithelial cells and villous atrophy associated with first-generation meronts, crypt destruction and crypt hyperplasia associated with pro-gamont stages. Diclazuril appeared to have a direct effect on several stages of the parasite life cycle, in particular, the large first-generation meront. Indications were that the drug also had an effect on second-generation meronts and gamont stages. Therapeutic benefits of diclazuril treatment appeared greatest when given early in the infection before damage to the intestine occurs although removal of coccidial stages did appear to reduce the pathology of the disease. PMID:14580801

Taylor, M A; Catchpole, J; Marshall, J; Marshall, R N; Hoeben, D

2003-10-30

110

Residual activity of anticoccidial drugs in chickens after withdrawal of medicated feeds.  

PubMed

Seven anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry (diclazuri), monensin, salinomycin, halofuginone, nicarbazin, robenidine, amprolium, and lasalocid) were tested for residual activity after withdrawal. In each test, the products were given at the recommended level to cages of 10 broiler chickens. Oral inoculation with coccidia was given after withdrawal of medication. Birds pretreated with 1 ppm of diclazuril and inoculated with Eimeria tenella after drug withdrawal had normal weight gain and very low lesion scores. Residual activity depleted gradually over several days, as shown by higher lesion scores when medication was withdrawn for up to 3 days before inoculation. Similar results were observed when young birds were inoculated with a mixture of E. tenella, E. maxima and E. acervulina, and also when birds were given diclazuril to market weight (6 weeks of age) and inoculated with a mixture of six species of Eimria (The above species plus E. brunetti, E. mitis, and E. necatrix) after withdrawal of medication for 2 days. In contrast, there was no evidence of residual anticoccidial activity with nicarbazin, halofuginone, lasalocid, amprolium, salinomycin or monensin. Overall, the residual activity was unique to diclazuril. PMID:9561697

McDougald, L R; Seibert, B P

1998-01-31

111

Two new coccidian parasites from the grand anglehead lizard, Gonocephalus grandis from Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

During 3 collecting expeditions between October 1996 and December 1996, fecal samples were obtained from 43 adult Gonocephalus grandis from Tanah Rata and the Cameron Highlands in Peninsular Malaysia. Two species of coccidia (Isospora gonocephali n. sp. [9/43, 23%] and Eimeria cameronensis n. sp. [3/43, 7%]) were discovered. Sporulated oocysts of I. gonocephali are subspherical to ovoidal, 22.3 x 18.7 (19-25 x 17-23) microm with a bilayered wall composed of a thin inner wall and a striated outer wall with a pitted surface; oocyst residuum absent; 1 polar granule present; sporocysts are almond-shaped, 13.5 x 9.2 (12-15 x 8.5-10) microm, Stieda body broad, domelike, substieda body fanlike, sporocyst residuum consisting of coarse, nonuniform granules in an amorphous cluster; sporozoites sausage-shaped with 1 large terminal, refractile body and lay randomly in the sporocyst. Sporulated oocysts of E. cameronensis are bilayered, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal, 26.5 x 12.4 (25-28 x 12-13) microm; with 1, small, polar granule composed of 2-3 splinter-like structures fused together; oocyst residuum absent; sporocysts ovoidal, almost rectangular-shaped 8.8 x 6.6 (8-9 x 5-7) microm, with no Stieda or substieda bodies, containing scattered residuum and 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites with 1 terminal, ovoidal refractile body. No individual lizard was host to both coccidian species. PMID:9920316

Maupin, R S; Diong, C H; McQuistion, T E

1998-12-01

112

Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

Tuggle, B.N.; Crites, J.L.

1984-01-01

113

Molecular detection of Capillaria aerophila, an agent of canine and feline pulmonary capillariosis.  

PubMed

Capillaria aerophila, a trichuroid nematode causing pulmonary infections in wild and domestic carnivores, is occasionally and potentially poorly recognized in infections of humans due to clinicopathological mimicry and a lack of accurate, robust laboratory diagnostics. The present work evaluated the efficiency of a DNA-based assay amplifying a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of C. aerophila in the diagnosis of lung capillariosis. Fecal samples from 34 dogs and 10 cats positive at parasitological examination for C. aerophila and other endoparasites (i.e., other lungworms, whipworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and/or coccidia) and from 44 animals negative for C. aerophila but positive for other endoparasites were molecularly examined. Of the 44 samples positive for C. aerophila at copromicroscopy, 43 scored positive (i.e., 33/34 dogs and 10/10 cats) in seminested PCR, resulting in a sensitivity of 97 to 100%. Samples that were copromicroscopy negative for C. aerophila although positive for other endoparasites never produced a PCR product or nonspecific amplicons. The specific PCR amplification of C. aerophila (i.e., specificity of 100%) was confirmed by a nucleotide sequence analysis of the cox1 amplicons. The potential implications of the molecular diagnosis of lung capillariosis are discussed. PMID:22442326

Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Paoletti, Barbara; Bartolini, Roberto; Traversa, Donato

2012-06-01

114

[The helminth and coccidial fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in view of the specific environmental conditions in pheasantries and in the wild].  

PubMed

Between October 1999 and January 2000 all together 151 male pheasants were examined for endoparasites. 33 one-year-old birds came from two pheasantries, the remaining 118 birds, aged between one and five years, were wildlife animals. The infestation extensy of all pheasants with endoparasites were 96.7%. A mostly low infestation with coccidia of the three species Eimeria (E.) phasiani, E. duodenalis and E. tetartooimia were detected in 41% of all birds. E. tetartooimia was found in Germany for the first time. In 67.5% of the pheasants the five different species of capillaria (Capillaria (C.) annulata, C. bursata, C. contorta, C. perforans, C. phasianina) and in 84.1% the nematode Heterakis gallinarum were present. Pheasants in the capture group showed higher infestation intensy and extensy. In 51.5% of the pheasants of the capture group Syngamus trachea was present. In one pheasant an acanthocephalus (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus) was detected for the first time in Germany and in two pheasants a trematode of the genus Echinostoma was present. PMID:17009712

Gassal, Stefan; Schm?schke, Ronald

2006-01-01

115

Intestinal events and nutritional dynamics predispose Clostridium perfringens virulence in broilers.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringensA (CPA) entering the gastrointestinal system depends on favorable conditions to develop and subsequently extend pathogenicity. Reduction in digestive dynamics progressing from the duodenum decreases lumen oxygen, leading to anaerobic conditions in the distal lumen that favor CPA. When nutritional support is concurrently provided, an expanding population threatens the mucosa. Dietary nonstarch polysaccharides that increase viscosity further impair oxygen transfer from the mucosa, improving the ability of CPA to thrive. Incompletion of feed digestion early in the small intestine along with endogenous N provide additional support for population expansion. Glucosidase versatility with mucin elicited by distal CPA concurrently erodes the villus unstirred water layer at the apex, providing access to underlying binding sites for colonization. Proteolytic destruction within the lamina propria supports colonization to create subclinical necrotic enteritis. Eventual vascular entry of CPA and toxins provides a portal path for instituting cholangiohepatitis. Liver condemnations from inspection detect acute flock infection compared with preceding marginal losses in nutrient absorption that decrease feed efficiency. Enterocyte lysis by coccidia enable CPA access to binding sites, thereby extending villus necrosis and further impairing feed conversion. Loss of BW and increased mortality follow as mucosa involvement proceeds. In practice, supplemental feed hemicellulases that reduce digesta viscosity minimize a favorable environment for CPA, while superimposing a combination of amylase, phytase, and protease avoids nutritional support. Physical dynamics of the small intestine together with characteristics of feed that modify digesta viscosity and nutritional availability are central to establishing transient CPA as a pathogen. PMID:25260526

Moran, Edwin T

2014-12-01

116

A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.  

PubMed

The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers. PMID:16488197

Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

2006-09-01

117

Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmen, T.E.

2005-01-01

118

Quantitative characterization, classification and reconstruction of oocyst shapes of Eimeria species from cattle.  

PubMed

This study reports on morphological variability of Eimeria species, which may be given either by drawings or as quantitative data. The drawings may be used to facilitate identification by eye of 'unknown' Eimeria specimens, whereas quantitative data may serve as a reference set for identification by multivariate statistical techniques. The morphology of 810 Eimeria specimens was defined in binary (b/w) digital images by pixels of their oocyst outline. A Fourier transform of pixel positions yielded size and shape features. To classify coccidia, the quantitative data were employed in an agglomerative clustering by average linkage algorithm with equal weight assigned to size and shape. An inverse Fourier transform served to reconstruct oocyst outlines, i.e. outlines of average shape and size, from mean values of features in resulting clusters. Clusters were subsequently identified based on their average morphology by comparison with drawings of species in an earlier taxonomical work. Five hundred oocyst outlines were simulated for each cluster representing a species, and shape/size variability was presented in contour diagrams. Differences in species shapes, and correspondence in length and width, were seen after reconstruction by inverse Fourier transform and comparison with earlier studies. PMID:9481770

Sommer, C

1998-01-01

119

Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy  

PubMed Central

Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR?=?14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR?=?4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds. PMID:22536128

Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata

2012-01-01

120

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Hammondia spp. microcysts in esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle, emphasized on their morphological differences.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis and Hammondia are two obligatory protozoan parasites. These genera belong to cyst-forming coccidia group of the phylum Apicomplexa. They both need two different hosts to complete their life cycles. Felids and canids can act as definitive hosts, while herbivores, such as sheep and cattle, are the most important intermediate hosts. Reports verify that no important disease has been caused by Hammondia spp.; on the other hand, Sarcocystis spp. can cause some severe infectious disease in livestock industry such as abortion. Economic losses are another concern due to carcass condemnation during meat inspection in abattoirs and decrease in the quality and quantity of milk and wool production. Due to the Sarcocystis and Hammondia tissue cysts being similar, the distinction between these different genera is so important. In this study, the prevalence of Sarcocystis and Hammondia in the esophagus tissue of sheep and cattle slaughtered in one of the industrial abattoir in Iran was reported and an easy and rapid method for accurate diagnosing of Sarcocystis and Hammondia bradyzoites was explained. PMID:25082016

Rassouli, Maryam; Ahmadpanahi, Javad; Alvandi, Ayda

2014-10-01

121

Histological survey of symbionts and other conditions of pod razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to carry out a survey of parasites and other conditions affecting pod razor clam populations, Ensis siliqua, in two beds from Galicia (NW Spain). In Galicia, the production of E. siliqua has increased in recent years due to the development of specific plans for its exploitation, however few and quite recent pathological studies have been carried out in this species. The results of this study showed the presence of different protozoa as the more prevalent group, especially Nematopsis sp. gregarines, unidentified branchial protozoa, renal coccidia and Trichodina sp. ciliates. Larval stages of trematodes and neoplastic disorders were also observed with lower prevalences. Furthermore, an ultrastructural analysis of two types of unidentified basophilic inclusions, both found in the digestive gland, revealed the presence of icosahedral viral particles and prokaryotic organisms, respectively. None of the parasites detected in E. siliqua from this study was notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the majority of the symbionts and conditions observed in their tissues did not cause host damage. Nevertheless, parasites like bucephalid digenean sporocysts, viral inclusions, prokaryotic infections, disseminated neoplasm or germinoma detected in some samples could cause moderate or severe damage to the host depending on the intensity of infection. PMID:23026702

Ruiz, Maite; Darriba, Susana; Rodrguez, Rosana; Lpez, Carmen

2013-01-01

122

Assessment of water buffalo health and productivity in a communal management system in the Philippines.  

PubMed

This study aimed to generate a profile of the health and productivity of water buffaloes in a communal setting. Using the Epi-Info version 6.04 for data management, a coded information system was used to accommodate data coming from the reference population. Calves and cows that were born and milked, respectively, were enrolled and monitored for six months. The key outcomes of interest monitored in this study included mortality, morbidity and productivity. Results of the study showed a 93.7 percent probability of the calves surviving up to six months with a calculated mortality true rate of 0.7 deaths per 1000 calf-days at risk. Three calves died during the six month observation period with a mean age at death of 3 days. Analysis of variance on productivity showed that the parasitic load, specifically coccidia, liver fluke and trypanosoma affected the growth rate of the calves. The productivity of cows in the study in terms of milk production was also highly affected by the endoparasitic load and disease condition of the animal. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between calf scouring and cow's mastitis (MASTITIS)(P=0.066). Meanwhile, for the cows, the parasitic load particularly fasciolosis (P=0.000), coccidiosis (P=0.002) and trypanosomosis (P=0.094) (P<0.10) also significantly affected the milk production. The results give a clearer view of the relationship between the health and productivity profiles of these animals. PMID:18551780

Mingala, Claro N; Gundran, Romeo S

2008-01-01

123

Eimeria from bats of the world. II. A new species in Tadarida femorosacca from Sonora, Mexico.  

PubMed

Between 1979 and 1980, 104 bats representing 13 species in 4 families were collected in California and New Mexico, U.S.A., and Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and were examined for coccidia; only 3 (3%) had oocysts in their feces. Bats examined and their infection rates were: Molossidae: 0 of 12 Tadarida brasiliensis, 1 of 18 (6%) T. femorosacca; Natalidae: 0 of 1 Natalus stramineus; Phyllostomatidae: 0 of 1 Choeronycteris mexicana, 0 of 2 Leptonycteris sanborni, 0 of 1 Macrotus californicus; Vespertilionidae: 0 of 9 Antrozous pallidus, 0 of 28 Eptesicus fuscus, 0 of 1 Lasionycteris noctivagans, 0 of 3 Lasiurus borealis, 2 of 22 (9%) L. cinereus, 0 of 1 L. ega, 0 of 5 Pipistrellus hesperus. Sporulated oocysts were only found in T. femorosacca and these represent a new species, Eimeria tadarida n. sp. They are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 19 x 25 (16-23 x 20-30) microns; a micropyle is absent, and fragments within the oocyst may be oocyst residuum or multiple polar bodies. The oocyst wall, approximately 1.5 microns, is composed of a mammillated outer layer and smooth inner layer. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8 x 12 (6-9 x 10-14) microns, and have a small Stieda body and a wide substieda body. This is only the 14th eimerian to be described from bats worldwide. Only unsporulated or partially sporulated oocysts of an eimerian were seen in 2 L. cinereus. These measured 28 x 25 (27-29 x 24-26) microns and had a mammillated outer oocyst wall. PMID:3357122

Duszynski, D W; Reduker, D W; Parker, B B

1988-04-01

124

Immunization of broiler chicks by in ovo injection of infective stages of Eimeria.  

PubMed

Immunization of chickens by in ovo injection of infective stages of 5 species of Eimeria was investigated. Fertile Hubbard x Petersen broiler chicken eggs were injected through the air cell on d 18 of incubation with oocysts of E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, or E. brunetti. Injected doses of all species ranged from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts per egg. Chicks receiving oocysts in ovo shed oocysts posthatch. After 2 wk in wire-floored cages, birds were given a challenge infection with the homologous Eimeria species. Chicks immunized by in ovo injection of oocysts had significantly reduced lesion scores, improved weight gain, or reduced oocyst output compared with their nonimmunized counterparts. In additional studies, eggs were injected with 1 x 10(5) sporozoites of E. tenella, E. maxima, or E. acervulina per egg. Sporozoites of E. acervulina were not infective for chick embryos when administered in phosphate-buffered saline, but if sporozoites were suspended in tissue culture medium when injected in ovo, hatched chicks shed oocysts with peak output occurring 3 to 4 d posthatch. Sporozoites of E. maxima and E. tenella were infective for 18-d-old embryos regardless of the vehicle. The results demonstrate that immunization of broiler chickens against several species of coccidia by in ovo injection of oocysts is feasible. The infectivity of sporozoites for 18-d-old chick embryos varied depending on the species of Eimeria and the vehicle in which the sporozoites were suspended prior to injection. PMID:15049491

Weber, F H; Genteman, K C; LeMay, M A; Lewis, D O; Evans, N A

2004-03-01

125

The efficacy of anticoccidial products against Eimeria spp. in northern bobwhites.  

PubMed

To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with 1 x 10(6) oocysts of a field isolate consisting primarily of Eimeria lettyae. Subsequently, we tested clopidol, lasalocid, salinomycin, diclazuril (1 ppm), and monensin against mixed-species field isolates containing E. lettyae, E. dispersa, E. colini, or all. Weight gain, gross intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 6 days postinfection were recorded. Lesion score, as previously reported, was unreliable as a measure of severity of infection in comparison with weight gain, fecal scores, and FCR. Excellent to good efficacy was found in clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), and in lasalocid, narasin and nicarbazin, robenidine, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin, and zoalene (150 ppm). Marginal protection was found using monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin, or a roxarsone/semduramicin combination. Amprolium, roxarsone, and zoalene (125 ppm) were ineffective at controlling coccidia. Two of the six isolates tested against diclazuril 1 ppm and clopidol demonstrated a high degree of resistance, but none of the six isolates was resistant to lasalocid. Four of the eight isolates showed mild to moderate, and moderate to high, resistance against monensin and salinomycin, respectively. These findings indicate that several available compounds are effective at controlling coccidiosis in bobwhites. PMID:21500637

Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; Lollis, L; Parr, C; McDougald, L R

2011-03-01

126

Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).  

PubMed

Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically nave kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304227 m. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes. PMID:23581440

Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

2013-04-01

127

Description and phylogeny of a new species of Eimeria from double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) near Fort Gaines, Georgia.  

PubMed

The renal parasite Eimeria auritusi has caused several mortality events in double-crested cormorants (DCC; Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Midwest and southeastern United States. This parasite has only been detected during large-scale outbreaks, and its presence and prevalence in healthy populations of cormorants is unknown. In this study, 80 DCC were collected from the Chattahoochee River near Fort Gaines, Georgia, and examined for kidney and intestinal coccidia. Eighteen (22.5%) and 56 (70%) of the DCC were positive for E. auritusi and a new species of intestinal Eimeria, respectively. Oocysts of the new intestinal Eimeria species had a thin colorless wall, were ovoid with rare bumps on the outer surface, and measured 17.1 microm +/- 1.5 x 14.7 microm +/- 1.0 (16-18.5 x 13-17), with an average length:width ratio of 1.17 microm (1.03-1.29). A prominent micropyle (4-4.5 microm) was present, and a large oval-to-round polar body (2.5 microm) was located beneath the micropyle. Sporocysts were ovoid and measured 9.6 microm +/- 0.6 x 5.9 microm +/- 0.5 (8.5-10.5 x 5-6.5), with an average length:width ratio of 1.63 (1.3-1.82) with small stieda body present. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that the 2 DCC Eimeria species and 2 Eimeria species from cranes were in a separate group from other Eimeriidae. These data indicate that E. auritusi and this new species of intestinal Eimeria are prevalent in this apparently healthy DCC population. The cause of renal coccidiosis outbreaks in other populations of cormorants is unknown but could be due to crowding or stress during the winter months or some other associated pathogen or immunosuppressor that might predispose individuals to clinical disease. PMID:16729699

Yabsley, Michael J; Gibbs, Samantha E J

2006-04-01

128

Evaluation of sodium bicarbonate, chloride, or sulfate with a coccidiostat in corn-soy or corn-soy-meat diets for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

During the period from January to June, combined-sex broiler chickens were inoculated with coccidia via drinking water at 14 d of age. In a completely randomized design (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) using built-up litter, experimental diets contained monensin plus 0.20% dietary sodium bicarbonate (SBC), which provided 0.054% sodium and 0.144% bicarbonate. Treatment with SBC significantly improved coccidial lesion score, 45-d body weight, and feed efficiency compared with monensin alone. In a 2 x 5 factorial trial using built-up litter pens (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) vs. each ionophore alone, 0.20% dietary SBC with monensin significantly improved body weight, uniformity, and feed efficiency; 0.20% SBC with halifuginone, lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly reduced mortality; and 0.20% SBC with lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly increased breast meat yield. In a 2x4 factorial trial (12 replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) on built-up litter, corn-soy and corn-soy-meat diets (higher potassium, lower chloride) with monensin were evaluated using 0.054% sodium from SBC, NaCl, or sodium sulfate decahydrate (SSD). With both diet types, SBC (0.20%) or NaCl (0.139% extra) significantly improved weight uniformity, feed efficiency, mortality, and breast meat yield; however, the SSD results were closer to controls. In a 21-d battery brooder test using similar diets and design (2x4 factorial; 4 replicate pens; 10 chicks per pen), SBC and NaCl significantly reduced coccidial lesion scores; SSD produced a significant, but weaker effect. Extra NaCl significantly increased water intake (approximately 37%), water excretion (approximately 27%), and litter moisture (approximately 22%) with both diet types. The SSD did not affect water intake. PMID:10515361

Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R; McNaughton, J L

1999-09-01

129

PALEOGENESIS AND PALEO-EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PRIMATE MALARIA.  

PubMed

The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood.The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the "quartan group" of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the "tertian group"; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent.Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe.It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question. PMID:14315710

BRUCE-CHWATT, L J

1965-01-01

130

Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial durgs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment. PMID:8285619

Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R

1993-01-01

131

Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.  

PubMed

Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups. PMID:21268542

Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

2010-12-01

132

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 20082010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

133

Endoparasites in the feces of arctic foxes in a terrestrial ecosystem in Canada  

PubMed Central

The parasites of arctic foxes in the central Canadian Arctic have not been well described. Canadas central Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change, which is predicted to cause shifts in parasite and wildlife species distributions, and trophic interactions, requiring that baselines be established to monitor future alterations. This study used conventional, immunological, and molecular fecal analysis techniques to survey the current gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna currently present in arctic foxes in central Nunavut, Canada. Ninety-five arctic fox fecal samples were collected from the terrestrial Karrak Lake ecosystem within the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Samples were examined by fecal flotation to detect helminths and protozoa, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and quantitative PCR with melt-curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) to detect coccidia. Positive qPCR-MCA products were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Arctic foxes from Karrak Lake were routinely shedding eggs from Toxascaris leonina (63%). Taeniid (15%), Capillarid (1%), and hookworm eggs (2%), Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts 3%), and Eimeria sp. (6%), and Cystoisospora sp. (5%) oocysts were present at a lower prevalence on fecal flotation. Cryptosporidium sp. (9%) and Giardia sp. (16%) were detected by IFA. PCR analysis detected Sarcocystis (15%), Cystoisospora (5%), Eimeria sp., and either Neospora sp. or Hammondia sp. (1%). Through molecular techniques and phylogenetic analysis, we identified two distinct lineages of Sarcocystis sp. present in arctic foxes, which probably derived from cervid and avian intermediate hosts. Additionally, we detected previously undescribed genotypes of Cystoisospora. Our survey of gastrointestinal endoparasites in arctic foxes from the central Canadian Arctic provides a unique record against which future comparisons can be made. PMID:24533320

Elmore, Stacey A.; Lalonde, Laura F.; Samelius, Gustaf; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Gajadhar, Alvin A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

2013-01-01

134

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.  

PubMed

Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

1987-02-01

135

Sophisticated Adaptations of Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa) Feeding Stages for Epicellular Parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background Gregarines represent a very diverse group of early emerging apicomplexans, parasitising numerous invertebrates and urochordates, and are considered of little practical significance. Recently, they have gained more attention since some analyses showed that cryptosporidia are more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combined microscopic approach, this study points out the spectacular strategy of Gregarina cuneata for attachment to host tissue and nutrient acquisition while parasitising the intestine of yellow mealworm larvae, and reveals the unusual dynamics of cellular interactions between the host epithelium and parasite feeding stages. Trophozoites of G. cuneata develop epicellularly, attached to the luminal side of the host epithelial cell by an epimerite exhibiting a high degree of morphological variability. The presence of contractile elements in the apical region of feeding stages indicates that trophozoite detachment from host tissue is an active process self-regulated by the parasite. A detailed discussion is provided on the possibility of reversible retraction and protraction of the eugregarine apical end, facilitating eventual reattachment to another host cell in better physiological conditions. The gamonts, found in contact with host tissue via a modified protomerite top, indicate further adaptation of parasite for nutrient acquisition via epicellular parasitism while keeping their host healthy. The presence of eugregarines in mealworm larvae even seems to increase the host growth rate and to reduce the death rate despite often heavy parasitisation. Conclusions/Significance Improved knowledge about the formation of host-parasite interactions in deep-branching apicomplexans, including gregarines, would offer significant insights into the fascinating biology and evolutionary strategy of Apicomplexa. Gregarines exhibit an enormous diversity in cell architecture and dimensions, depending on their parasitic strategy and the surrounding environment. They seem to be a perfect example of a coevolution between a group of parasites and their hosts. PMID:22900033

Valigurov, Andrea

2012-01-01

136

A pathogenic new species of Eimeria from the pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis, in Washington and Oregon, with description of the sporulated oocyst and intestinal endogenous stages.  

PubMed

In January 2003, fecal samples from 13 live pygmy rabbits, Brachylagus idahoensis (Merriam, 1891), were collected at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon, and sent to the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be examined for coccidia. In July 2004, 14 more fecal samples were collected and sent to UNM, 6 from some of the same rabbits and 8 from 16 other rabbits (4 were pooled samples from siblings). In addition, tissue sections from 3 dead rabbits (2 from the Oregon Zoo, 1 from Washington State University) also were examined. Two of 4 (50%) pooled fecal samples and 8 of 17 (47%) 1-rabbit samples were positive for a single species of Eimeria, which we describe here as a new species. Sporulated oocysts were subspheroidal, 25.6 x 23.8 (22-28 x 21-27) microm, with a length:width (L:W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2). A micropyle (approximately 2 microm wide) and 0-1 polar granules were present, but an oocyst residuum was absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 13.4 x 8.1 (11-16.5 x 7.5-9) microm, with a L:W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.2), and they had a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Tissue sections showed a heavy infection of the villous epithelial cells of the proximal and mid-small intestine with coccidial endogenous stages, but no stages were found in liver hepatocytes. Meronts with approximately 46 (26-70) merozoites per infected cell appeared to be fully developed and were subspheroidal, 14.8 x 13.9 (13-18 x 10.5-16.5) microm. Developing macro- and microgamonts were indistinguishable from each other and were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 10.4 x 9.5 (9-11 x 7.5-10.5) microm. Mature macrogamonts were spheroidal to subspheroidal, 14.2 x 13.7 (12-17 x 11-16) microm, and mature microgamonts were smaller and subspheroidal, 11.9 x 10.8 (10.5-13 x 9-12) microm. This eimerian seems to be extremely pathogenic to young pygmy rabbits, and given the precarious nature of this unique genetic population, it appears to be an emerging pathogen that deserves immediate further study. PMID:16108556

Duszynski, Donald W; Harrenstien, Lisa; Couch, Lee; Garner, Michael M

2005-06-01

137

Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni.  

PubMed

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as intermediate hosts. Herein, we describe the ability of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a wild carnivore that is commonly found from northern Argentina to northern South America, to serve as definitive host of H. heydorni. The whole masseter muscle and brain from two 2-year-old bovines were collected, minced and pooled together for the fox infection. The bovine pooled tissues were equally administered to four foxes, in two consecutive days. Two foxes shed subspherical unsporulated oocysts measuring 10-15microm, after 8 and 9 days post-infection, respectively. One of the foxes eliminated oocysts for 5 days, while the other fox shed oocysts for 9 days. A DNA sample of oocysts detected at each day of oocyst elimination was tested by two PCRs, one of them carried out employing primers directed to the common toxoplasmatiid 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA coding genes (PCR-ITS1) and the other based on heat-shock protein 70kDa coding gene (PCR-HSP70). These samples were also submitted to a N. caninum specific nested-PCR protocol based on a N. caninum specific gene (Nc5-nPCR). All of them were positive by PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 but negative by Nc5-nPCR. The PCR-ITS1 and PCR-HSP70 nucleotide sequences amplified from the oocysts shed by the foxes revealed 100% identity with homologous sequences of H. heydorni. In conclusion, it is clear that H. heydorni also uses the crab-eating fox as a definitive host. The crab-eating fox is usually reported to live in close contact with livestock in several regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that such carnivores may play an important role in the sylvatic and domestic cycles of H. heydorni infection. PMID:19303215

Soares, Rodrigo M; Cortez, Luiz R P B; Gennari, Solange M; Sercundes, Michelle K; Keid, Lara B; Pena, Hilda F J

2009-05-26

138

Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. field isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001.  

PubMed

Fifteen Eimeria spp. field isolates sampled on Dutch broiler farms were subjected to an Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test (AST) in a battery cage study. Four isolates dated from 1996, another four from 1999 and the last seven isolates from 2001. The selected anticoccidial drugs were monensin, narasin, salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin, diclazuril, halofuginone, maduramicin and meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate. Maduramicin and halofuginone were not included in the ASTs of 1999 and 2001, while meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate was not tested in 1996 and 1999. Eimeria acervulina present in each of the four 1996 field isolates showed resistance for almost all products tested except maduramicin (1/4) and salinomycin (114), which appeared to be reduced sensitive. In 1999 the same species presented a similar resistance pattern for most products, although reduced sensitivity occurred for salinomycin (1/4), and sensitivity was found for diclazuril (2/4), monensin (1/4) and narasin (1/4). In the year 2001 increased sensitivity to various products was found. Higher sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate (7/7) and salinomycin and narasin (both 4/7), followed by nicarbazin (3/7) and monensin (2/7). Reduced sensitivity was found for monensin (3/7), lasalocid (2/7), salinomycin and narasin (1/7). E. maxima was only found in one field isolate per year. The E. maxima from 1996 was resistant to all products except narasin (sensitive) and halofuginone (reduced sensitive). In 1999 this species was reduced sensitive to narasin and lasalocid, showing resistance for the other products. The strain originating from the 2001 isolate was reduced sensitive to most products except monensin and narasin (resistant). Full sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate. E. tenella was present in one isolate of 1996, two of 1999 and four isolates of 2001. The AST of 1996 showed reduced sensitivity for nicarbazin, and sensitive to narasin, maduramicin and halofuginone. All other products showed resistance. In 1999 both strains showed resistance to all products tested. For the year 2001 full sensitivity was found to meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate. Sensitivity was also found for salinomycin (1/4), nicarbazin (2/4), diclazuril (2/4) and lasalocid (2/4), monensin (1/4) and narasin (1/4). Reduced sensitivity was found for nicarbazin (1/4), lasalocid (1/4) and narasin (1/4). The different resistance patterns of Dutch coccidiosis isolates and resistance of coccidia in general is discussed. PMID:17585463

Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

2003-08-01

139

A novel serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5 from second-generation merozoite of Eimeria tenella is associated with diclazuril-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Screening the anticoccidial drug targets is very important for developing novel drugs and revealing the molecular basis of drug resistance in coccidia. Due to high effectivity and safety, diclazuril was used widely in the poultry industry. To assess the roles of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 5 of second-generation merozoites in Eimeria tenella (EtPP5) in the anticoccidial activity of diclazuril against chicken coccidiosis, EtPP5 was cloned using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ultrastructural changes in second-generation merozoites and mRNA expression level of EtPP5 were monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that the full length of the cloned EtPP5 cDNA (2,495 bp) encompassed a 1,647-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 548 residues with an estimated molecular mass of 60.82 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.89. Molecular analysis of EtPP5 reveals the presence of a C-terminal phosphatase domain and an extended N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat motif, a typical feature of protein phosphatases. The cDNA sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database with accession number JX987508. EtPP5 shared 89% homology with the published sequence of a PP5 ortholog of Toxoplasma gondii at the amino acid level (GenBank XP_002364442.1). TEM observed that diclazuril induced ultrastructural changes in second-generation merozoites. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that compared with the control group, the level of EtPP5 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated by 51.4% by diclazuril treatment. The high similarity of EtPP5 to previously described PP5 of other organisms, as well as its downregulated expression and connection with apoptosis in the second-generation merozoites induced by diclazuril, suggests that it could act an important role in understanding the signaling mechanism underlining the diclazuril-induced merozoites apoptosis. PMID:23417098

Zhou, Bian-hua; Wang, Hong-wei; Zhao, Zhen-sheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Wen-chao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Xue, Fei-qun

2013-04-01

140

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Microtus spp. (Rodentia: Arvicolidae) from the United States, Mexico, and Japan, with descriptions of five new species.  

PubMed

Beginning in July 1980, 149 voles (Microtus spp.) representing 9 species and 14 subspecies collected in Japan, Mexico and the United States were examined for coccidia; 67 (45%) had oocysts in their feces. These included 1 of 3 (33%) M. californicus sactidiegi; 0 of 1 M. longicaudus longicaudus; 0 of 1 M. l. macrurus; 48 of 111 (43%) M. mexicanus including 11 of 26 (42%) M. m. fulviventer, 1 of 2 (50%) M. m. fundatus, 13 of 31 (42%) M. m. mexicanus, 1 of 4 (25%) M. m. mogollonensis and 22 of 48 (46%) M. m. subsimus; 5 of 8 (63%) M. montanus arizonensis; 6 of 6 M. montebelli montebelli; 2 of 4 (50%) M. oregoni oregoni; 5 of 13 (38%) M. pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus; 0 of 1 M. quasiater and 0 of 1 M. townsendii townsendii. The following coccidians were identified from infected voles: Eimeria saxei n. sp. (syn. E. wenrichi "B") from M. c. sactidiegi; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, E. wenrichi (syn. E. wenrichi "A"), and Eimeria sp. from M. m. fulviventer, Eimeria sp. from M. m. fundatus; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp., E. wenrichi, and Eimeria sp. from M. m. mexicanus; E. wenrichi from M. m. mogollonensis; Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp., E. saxei, Eimeria subsimi n. sp., E. wenrichi, Eimeria sp., and Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. from M. m. subsimus; E. tamiasciuri and E. wenrichi from M. m. arizonensis; Eimeria spp. from M. m. montebelli; E. saxei and E. wenrichi from M. o. oregoni; and E. ochrogasteri and E. wenrichi from M. p. pennsylvanicus. Sporulated oocytsts of Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp. were ellipsoid, 29.6 X 19.6 (27-34 X 18-22) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.4 X 8.9 (13-18 X 8-10) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria saxei n. sp. were subspheroid, 13.0 X 11.0 (11-14 X 10-12) micron with ovoid sporocysts 7.5 X 4.0 (6-9 X 4-5) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria subsimi n. sp. were ovoid/subspheroid, 25.1 X 18.7 (22-28 X 17-21) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 13.9 X 7.4 (13-15 X 6-8) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp. were subspheroid, 25.4 X 20.3 (23-26 X 19-23) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 11.3 X 7.8 (10-13 X 7-9) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. were subspheroid, 23.7 X 23.1 (21-26 X 21-26) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.9 X 10.8 (12-16 X 10-12) micron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3891951

Vance, T L; Duszynski, D W

1985-06-01