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Coccidia of whooping cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (Grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. Eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and E. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. Fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of Isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. Oocysts of both species of Eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free-ranging Canadian sandhill cranes (G. canadensis rowani) from whooping crane wintering grounds in Texas. These coccidia were prevalent also in fecal samples from 14 sandhill cranes (of 4 subspecies) maintained in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Maryland.

Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Blankinship, D.R.



Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, D.J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.



Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Primates and the Scandentia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coccidia (protistan phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970) comprise a large group of obligate intracellular parasites commonly found in all classes of vertebrate hosts and in some invertebrates. This review focuses on the largest family in this group, Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903, because its members are among the most prevalent and specious of all parasite groups. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of

Donald W. Duszynski; Wade D. Wilson; Steve J. Upton; Norman D. Levine



Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.  


New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins). PMID:23468142

Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I



Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.  


There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M



The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between European starlings and bovine coccidiosis we collected samples from European starlings, cattle feed bunks, cattle water troughs, and cattle feces within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These samples were screened for coccidia spp. to investigate (i) the prevalence of coccidia in starlings using CAFOs; (ii) if there is a relationship between bovine coccidiosis and starling

James C. Carlson; George M. Linz; Lora R. Ballweber; Stacey A. Elmore; Susan E. Pettit; Alan B. Franklin



The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations.  


To investigate the relationship between European starlings and bovine coccidiosis we collected samples from European starlings, cattle feed bunks, cattle water troughs, and cattle feces within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These samples were screened for coccidia spp. to investigate (i) the prevalence of coccidia in starlings using CAFOs; (ii) if there is a relationship between bovine coccidiosis and starling numbers; (iii) if coccidia contamination of cattle feed and water is related to the number of starlings observed on CAFOs. Coccidia belonging to the genus Eimeria were detected in cattle feces and one water sample but no Eimeria spp. were detected in European starlings or cattle feed. However, many European starling samples were positive for Isospora. Starling use of CAFOs did not appear to be associated with coccidia spp. shedding by cattle and there was no correlation between starling numbers and contamination of cattle feed and water, suggesting that starling do not contribute to the amplification and spread of Eimeria in CAFOs. PMID:21536385

Carlson, James C; Linz, George M; Ballweber, Lora R; Elmore, Stacey A; Pettit, Susan E; Franklin, Alan B



[Formation and diversity of parasitophorous vacuoles in parasitic protozoa. The Coccidia (Sporozoa, Apicomplexa)].  


Data on parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation in host cells (HC) harbouring different intracellular protozoan parasites have been reviewed and critically analysed, with special reference to the main representatives of the Coccidia. The vacuole membrane (PVM) is the interface between host and parasite, playing a role in nutrient acquisition by the parasite from the HC. The PV phenomenon is regarded as a generalized HC response to the introduction of alien bodies (microorganisms), which eventually reflects the evolutionary established host-parasite relationships at cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Special attention has been paid to the existing morpho-functional diversity of the PVs within the same genera and species of parasites, and even at different stages of the parasite life cycle. The PVM is generally considered to derive from the HC plasmalemma, whose biochemical composition undergoes significant changes as the intravacuolar parasite grows. The original HC proteins are selectively excluded from the PVM, while those of the parasite are incorporated. As the result, the changed PVM becomes not fusigenic for HC lysosomes. For Toxoplasma gondii and other cyst-forming coccidia (Isospora, Sarcocystis), a definite correlation has been noticed between the extent of rhoptry and dense granule secrets released by a zoite during HC internalization, on the one hand, and the pattern of the PV that forms, on the other one. In T. gondii, tachyzoites, known to discharge abundant secrets, commonly force the development of PVs limited with a single unit membrane and equipped with a tubulovesicular network in the lumen. Unlike, bradyzoites known to be deficient in secretory materials trigger the formation of PVs with a three-membrane lining composed of the changed invaginated plasmalemma in addition to two membranes of endoplasmic reticulum. The two different types of PV harbour, respectively, exoenteric and enteric stages of T. gondii, the latter being confined to the cat intestine only. Unlike, all endogenous stages of the classic intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) develop within PVs limited with a single membrane, with some invaginations extending into the PV lumen. Unusual PV patterns are characteristic of the extracytoplasmic eimerian coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Epieimeria) and adeleid haemogreagarines (Karyolysus). In cyst-forming coccidia, the PVM is actively involved in tissue cyst wall formation, thus protecting the encysted parasites from recognition by the host immune system. All this strongly suggests that the PV is far from being an indifferent membraneous vesicle containing a parasite, but represents a metabolically active compartment in infected cells. Since all the coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites, the mode of their intimate interaction with the HC, largely accomplished via the PV and its membrane, is vital for their survival as biological species. PMID:14520865

Be?er, T V; Svezhova, N V; Radchenko, A I; Sidorenko, N V



Effects of in ovo interleukin-4-plasmid injection on anticoccidia immune response in a coccidia infection model of chickens.  


Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of an in ovo interleukin (IL)-4 plasmid injection in a coccidia infection model. In experiment I, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, chicks were hatched from eggs that had been vaccinated with coccidia and injected in ovo with an empty vector or with 10 or 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid, and then challenged posthatch with coccidia. In experiment II, the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid was 25% higher than the BW gain of birds hatched from eggs vaccinated with live oocysts plus empty plasmid. In both experiments I and II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection decreased fecal oocyst shedding, decreased the number of CD8(+) cells in the cecal tonsils, and decreased cecal tonsil lymphocyte cell proliferation postcoccidia challenge. In experiment I, splenic macrophages of chicks hatched from eggs injected with 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid had higher nitric oxide production than those of chicks hatched from eggs injected with the empty plasmid. In experiment II, a 15-?g IL-4-plasmid injection increased serum anticoccidia IgG postcoccidia challenge. It could be concluded that 15 ?g of IL-4 plasmid improved anticoccidia immune responses synergistically with in ovo coccidia vaccination in chickens. PMID:22582289

Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K



Drug resistance in coccidia: a robenidine-resistant strain of eimeria tenella.  

PubMed Central

Tests for resistance to a recently introduced anticoccidial drug, robenidine, were performed on a strain of Eimeria tenella recovered from broiler chickens infected with acute cecal coccidiosis. The strain was identified previously and again confirmed by the timing of mortality of the infected chickens (five to six days postinfection), the appearance of lesions and parasites in ceca only, and the measurements (21.6 +/- 1.9 micron X 19.8 +/- 2.4 micron) of the oocysts. The tests showed that the strain of E. tenella could establish infections in chickens medicated with fourfold the recommended level of robenidine in feed but no oocysts could be recovered from the feces of infected chickens when the level of drug was increased to eightfold. The decrease in mortality, in the severity of lesions and oocyst output and the increase in the average weight gain of infected chickens followed closely the increase in the level of robenidine in feed. In contrast, no infections were found in chickens infected with a sensitive strain of E. tenella and maintained on feed mixed with the recommended level of robenidine. This and other findings discussed here show that resistance to robenidine is developing in coccidia commonly found in broiler houses.

Lee, E H; Fernando, M A



Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep (Ovis aries).  


A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)<0.10). Ked count appeared to have very low h(2) in both lambs and adults. Genome scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. PMID:17067607

Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M



Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania.  


Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 ?m, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 ?m, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu. PMID:23984908

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Austin, Christopher C; Fisher, Robert N



Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.  


Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43%, coccidia 19.8% and cestodes 4.8%. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01) than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows) (P < 0.01). The general trend of eggs per gram (epg) of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg) of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01). In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. PMID:17883199

Pfukenyi, D M; Mukaratirwa, S; Willingham, A L; Monrad, J



Monoclonal antibodies raised against coccidia and malarial parasites recognize antigenic epitopes found in lankesterellid and adeleorin parasites.  


Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against poultry coccidia or murine malarial parasites were tested for cross-reactivity with 2 sporozoan parasites with different life histories and hosts: Lankesterella minima (Eimeriorina), an intraerythrocytic parasite of frogs that is transmitted by leeches; and Heptazoon catesbianae (Adeleinorina) that infects the red blood cells of frogs and is transmitted by mosquitoes. MAb 1209 recognized both refractile bodies of sporozoites of L. minima, using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique and immunoelectron microscopy, and recognized antigens with relative rates of migration (M(r)) of 17, 23, 26, 43, and 48 kDa on a chemiluminescent western blot of L. minima sporozoite antigens. MAbs C(3)4F1 and E12 demonstrated spotty cytoplasmic staining and labeling of the anterior pellicle of L. minima sporozoites, respectively. Gamonts of H. catesbianae labeled with only MAb E12, using IFA. These gamonts exhibited staining similar to that observed with the L. minima sporozoites. The presence of the cross-reactive epitopes recognized by these MAbs in the same conserved locations suggests that these antigens are homologous. PMID:7542709

Herzenberg, A M; Barta, J R; Desser, S S



Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Sauria: Scincidae), from Arkansas, USA.  


Between February 2011 and January 2014, 75 ground skinks, Scincella lateralis (Say) were collected from 13 counties of Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma, USA, and examined for coccidia. Two (3%) and 11 (15%) S. lateralis were found to be passing oöcysts of a new choleoeimerian and isosporan, respectively. Oöcysts of Choleoeimeria ouachitensis n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 27.2 × 15.6 ?m, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.8 ?m, L/W 1.3; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are present; the walls have two valves joined by longitudinal sutures; a sporocyst residuum consisted of dispersed granules between sporozoites. Oöcysts of Isospora koberi n. sp. are ovoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall and measure 25.1 × 20.5 ?m, L/W 1.2; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is rarely present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.4 × 8.6 ?m, L/W 1.3; a nipple-like Stieda body and a sub-Stieda body are present without a para-Stieda body; a sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. This is the second choleoeimerian and third isosporan reported from S. lateralis. PMID:24711115

McAllister, Chris T; Scott Seville, R; Connior, Matthew B; Trauth, Stanley E; Robison, Henry W



Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia Differing in Host Range and Transmission Strategy  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.; Harris, David; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Konen-Waisman, Stephanie; Latham, Sophia M.; Mourier, Tobias; Norton, Rebecca; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Sohal, Amandeep; Wasmuth, James D.; Brunk, Brian; Grigg, Michael E.; Howard, Jonathan C.; Parkinson, John; Roos, David S.; Trees, Alexander J.; Berriman, Matthew; Pain, Arnab; Wastling, Jonathan M.



Isospora suis in an Epithelial Cell Culture System - An In Vitro Model for Sexual Development in Coccidia  

PubMed Central

Coccidian parasites are of major importance in animal production, public health and food safety. The most frequently used representative in basic research on this group is Toxoplasma gondii. Although this parasite is well investigated there is no adequate in vitro model for its sexual development available and knowledge on this important life cycle phase is therefore scarce. The use of Isosporasuis, a sister taxon to T. gondii and the causative agent of piglet coccidiosis, could provide a solution for this. In the present study an in vitro model for neonatal porcine coccidiosis in cells representative for the in vivo situation in the piglet gut was developed and evaluated. The parasite development was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and optimum culture conditions were evaluated. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) adequately representing the natural host cells supported the development of all endogenous life cycle stages of I. suis, including gametocytes and oocysts. A concentration of 5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium led to highest gametocyte densities on day 12 post infection. Low infection doses (?1 sporozoite for 100 host cells) were best for oocyst and gametocyte development. The presented system can also be used for immunostaining with established antibodies developed against T. gondii (in our case, anti-TgIMC3 antibodies directed against the inner membrane complex 3). The complete life cycle of I. suis in a cell line representing the natural host cell type and species provides a unique model among coccidian parasites and can be used to address a wide range of topics, especially with regard to the sexual development of coccidia.

Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Ruttkowski, Barbel; Schwarz, Lukas; Witter, Kirsti; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Joachim, Anja



Tracing the emergence of drug-resistance in coccidia (Eimeria spp.) of commercial broiler flocks medicated with decoquinate for the first time in the United Kingdom.  


Decoquinate is a quinolone coccidiostat introduced during 1967 as an in-feed prophylactic for broiler chickens. Despite early drug-resistance problems and its age, the drug is still used commercially worldwide. Decoquinate here serves as a valuable model in a field study that addresses the dynamics and economic impact of the development of coccidial resistance to potent synthetic anticoccidial drugs. The results of this unique, hitherto unpublished, study on the initial emergence of resistance of avian coccidia (Eimeria spp.) to a new drug in the field may be of strategic value in the continued use of decoquinate or the introduction of new drugs. The commercial performance of the first 3-5 crops of broilers to be medicated with decoquinate on each of six farms was monitored during 14 months in 1968-1969, supplemented by assessments of the species, population dynamics and decoquinate-resistance of coccidia isolated from each farm. During the rearing of each flock in a single shed on each farm, oocysts were counted in fresh faecal samples collected on three occasions, and the species were identified by their morphology if possible, supported if necessary by the biological characteristics of infections in chickens. E. acervulina was the most common species, followed by E. mitis, E. maxima, E. tenella and E. praecox. E. brunetti occurred rarely, and E. necatrix was not found. Decoquinate-resistance was evident in several species during the rearing of the first decoquinate-medicated crop on each farm, although clinical coccidiosis did not occur. It was concluded that inherently resistant mutants of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. tenella, and probably also E. mitis and E. praecox, were selected from field populations by 6 weeks during their first exposure to decoquinate. During up to four more subsequent crops, cycling of resistant parasites stimulated host immunity, which had no obvious adverse impact on commercial performance. There was no apparent seasonal effect. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the sudden and rapid emergence of quinolone-resistance in the coccidia, and why bird health was not thereby compromised in these circumstances. PMID:16289564

Williams, R B



Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  


In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes



Use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (Eimeria) to study invasion and development of Eimeria reichenowi in Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. Until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) elicited against Eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react with sporozoites and developmental stages of E. reichenowi in the tissues of Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). With these Mabs, E. reichenowi sporozoites were found in specimens taken at 6 hr postinoculation (PI) from just proximal to Meckel's diverticulum in the jejunum to the ileocecal juncture. Fewer were found in the ceca and rectum and none in the duodenal loop. At 24 hr PI, there were markedly fewer sporozoites and their location had shifted to the duodenum. No stages were seen in intestinal cells at 5 days PI (DPI), but trophozoites had developed in the liver and spleen. Ar 10 DPI, sexual stages were detected in the intestine from the duodenal loop through Meckel's diverticulum but not in other organs. By 14 DPI, numerous developmental stages were detected in the intestine (ceca and jejunum), liver, and lungs but not in the heart, kidney, or brain. The number, location, and maturity of the stages in the ceca differed markedly from those in the jejunum.

Augustine, P.C.; Olsen, G.H.; Danforth, H. D.; Gee, G.F.; Novilla, M.



[Eight new species of coccidia (Sporozoa, Coccidia) in fishes from the continental waters of Russia].  


Description of coccidian species infecting freshwater fishes is given. Localities: Neman river, Goussia peleci sp. n.--oocyst 37.5-45 x 35-42.5 microns, oocyst residuum (OR) absent, sporocysts 20-22.5 x 15-17.5 microns, Stieda body (SB) absent, sporocyst residuum (SR) present, host (h)--Pelecus cultratus; G. cultrati sp. n.--oocyst 22.5-30 microns, OR absent, sporocysts 12.5 x 15 microns, SR, SB absent, wall 2-2.5 microns, h--P. cultratus; G. arinae sp. n.--oocyst 12.5 x 17.5 microns, OR present, sporocysts 5-7.5 microns, SR, SB absent, h--P. cultratus; G. vimbae sp. n.--oocyst 15-22.5 microns, OR absent, wall 2.5 microns, sporocysts 5-7.5 microns, SR, SB absent, h--Vimba vimba vimba; G. gymnocephali sp. n.--oocyst 25 x 25 microns, OR absent, sporocysts 10 x 12.5 microns, SR, SB absent, h--Gymnocephalus cernuus; G. cernui sp. n.--oocyst 15-22.5 microns, OR present, sporocysts 5-12.5 microns, SR, SB absent, h--Gym. cernuus; G. luciopercae sp. n.--oocyst 30-35 x 30 microns, OR absent, sporocysts 12.5-15 x 10-12.5 microns, SB absent, SR present, h--Stizostedion lucioperca; Eimeria fluviatili sp. n.--oocyst 20-22.5 microns, OR present, sporocysts 7.5 x 12.5 microns, SB present, SR absent, h--Perca fluviatilis. PMID:11558339

Belova, L M; Krylov, M V



Identification of surface antigens of Sarcocystis muris (Coccidia).  


Zoites of Sarcocystis muris were recovered from the skeletal muscles of infected mice by trypsin digestion. Extracts of zoites prepared by freeze-thaw, Triton X-100 (0.1%), or a combination of the two treatments contained antigenic components. Testing of these antigens by agar gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis against sera from infected mice showed one major precipitin band. SDS-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracts revealed at least eight detectable polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from 10,000 to 220,000. The antigenic components of the extract were identified by labeling the parasite surface with [125I] and precipitation of the [125I]-labeled antigens with immune sera. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed three antigens with molecular weights of 27,500, 43,000 and 90,000. The smallest of these was the predominant antigen as suggested by labeling intensity. PMID:6415269

Abbas, M K; Powell, E C



Growth factor antagonism studies with coccidia in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Eimeria tenella growing in monolayer cultures of chick kidney cells in vitro, interactions have been shown between thiamine and amprolium, pAB and sulphonamides, nicotinamide and 6-aminonicotinamide, and pyridoxine and 4-desoxypyridoxine. It was not possible to demonstrate effects involving biotin, riboflavine, purines or pyrimidines with a number of potential antagonists. It is suggested that the tissue culture system may be

John F. Ryley; Robert G. Wilson



Improved excystation protocol for Eimeria nieschulzi (Apikomplexa, Coccidia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of sporozoites are a crucial prerequisite for in vitro experiments with Eimeria species. There are no protocols to obtain high amounts of vital purified sporozoites of Eimeria nieschulzi; therefore, an improved excystation protocol is urgently needed. Most excystation procedures for Eimeria oocysts use a mechanical disruption method for the release of sporocysts, assuming that oocyst disruption of Eimeria

Michael Kurth; Rolf Entzeroth



Development and application of a standardized assay for chemical disinfection of coccidia oocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a standardized model for testing of anticoccidial disinfectants are described. Due to its economic impact, tenacity of oocysts, and reproducibility of the course of infection Eimeria tenella has been chosen as test organism. Oocysts of the Houghton strain were more susceptible to disinfection with 4% TP4 (Preventol) than oocysts of a field isolate (FI 292\\/1)

A Daugschies; R Böse; J Marx; K Teich; K. T Friedhoff



Development and application of a standardized assay for chemical disinfection of coccidia oocysts.  


The development and application of a standardized model for testing of anticoccidial disinfectants are described. Due to its economic impact, tenacity of oocysts, and reproducibility of the course of infection Eimeria tenella has been chosen as test organism. Oocysts of the Houghton strain were more susceptible to disinfection with 4% TP4 (Preventol) than oocysts of a field isolate (FI 292/1) as determined by sporulation inhibition and lysis. Scoring of intestinal lesions and of oocyst numbers in mucosal scrapings in chicken infected with various doses of oocysts were found unsuitable for assessment of disinfectants. Because strain differences were observed only Houghton strain oocysts were applied for further testing. Guidelines for standardized in vivo testing of disinfectants have been stipulated by the German Veterinary Society (DVG) on the basis of these studies. When applied for testing of Neopredisan (NP) in two separate laboratories similar results were obtained. Inhibitory activity (IA; proportion of inactivated oocysts) of 92.9 and 90.6% were calculated for 3% NP and of 95.2 and 96.8% for 4% NP after treatment with the disinfectant over 120 min. According to the guidelines IA of at least 95% is required for certification of sufficient disinfecting efficacy by the DVG. PMID:11777608

Daugschies, A; Böse, R; Marx, J; Teich, K; Friedhoff, K T



New species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) from marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new coccidian species are described from marine fish collected on the French Mediterranean coast near Banyuls-sur-Mer and on the coast of Newfoundland. All have sporocysts with well-developed Stieda bodies and are placed into the genusEimeria: E. catalana sp. nova from the intestine ofCrenilabrus mediterraneus, E. hexagona sp. nova from the digestive tract ofOnos tricirratus, E. ivanae sp. nova from

Ji?í Lom; Iva Dykovfi



Reporter gene expression in cell culture stages and oocysts of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi is a suitable model for transfection studies and was used as an additional model organism for the genus Eimeria. We describe the transfection of this apicomplexan parasites and the cultivation of transformed stages in cell culture and\\u000a in vivo. The ?-galactosidase or yellow fluorescent protein was expressed in all parasitic stages up to the second

Michael Kurth; Rolf Entzeroth



Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the lowland European bison Bison bonasus bonasus (L.).  


Coprological studies conducted between 2007 and 2011 in free-roaming and captive European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Poland revealed 11 species of Eimeria infecting the host, i.e., Eimeria alabamensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria brasiliensis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria pellita, Eimeria subspherica, and Eimeria zuernii. The typical host for all isolated species is cattle. The most prevalent species was E. bovis (29.7%), while E. brasiliensis was the rarest (0.5%). Five of the species (E. bovis, E. bukidnonensis, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. zuernii) have been observed previously in bison by other authors, 3 species were noticed by us in bison previously (E. alabamensis, E. cylindrica, E. pellita), while for 3 species (E. auburnensis, E. brasiliensis, and E. subspherica) these are new host and locality records. Oocysts of two species (E. brasiliensis, E. bukidnonensis) were noted only in the feces of bison kept in captivity. Moreover, the prevalence of positive samples was higher in the group of captive animals (55.4%) in comparison with the free-roaming herds (29.5%); although, oocysts per gram (OPG), counted with the conventional McMaster technique, was comparable in both groups, reaching maximally 6550 and 6400 in free-roaming and captive individuals, respectively. Overall, 142 fecal samples from 424 samples examined were positive for Eimeria (prevalence=33.5%). Age-related analysis revealed a higher percentage of Eimeria spp. positive samples and higher OPG values in bison under 1 year old as compared to older individuals (93.3% and 50-4050; 37.3% and 50-550, respectively). Additionally, greater eimerian species diversity was present among calves in comparison with older bison. In most cases single-species infections were observed (59.8%) with a predominance of E. bovis (85.9%). Multiple-species infections consisted of 2-7 species, usually including E. bovis. The observation was made that E. bovis infection appears conducive to the host acquiring more eimerian species. No symptoms of clinical coccidiosis occurred during the study. PMID:24702772

Pyziel, Anna M; Jó?wikowski, Micha?; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W



On the Investigations of Sarcocystis (Protista: Coccidia) Fauna in Moose (Alces Alces) in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct types (Type I and Type II) of Sarcocystis cysts were established in moose (Alces alces) skeletal muscles by light microscope. The wall of Type I cysts is thin (0.8.–1.0 ?), smooth, without any apparent protrusions. Banana-shaped merozoites are 13.4–16.2 ? in length. The wall of Type II cysts has clearly visible finger- or palisade-like (up to 2.0 ?)

Liuda Kutkien?



The present state of species-systematics in Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882 (Protista, Sporozoa, Coccidia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882, including the synonymous genus Frenkelia Biocca, 1968, (Sarcocystidae Poche, 1913) is revised on the basis of named species. A list is given of 189 species in continuation of the earlier lists of Levine & Tadros (1980, with 93 species) and Levine (1986, with 122 species; 1988, with 123 species including Frenkelia). Fourteen species are declared

Klaus Odening



Six new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from East African chameleons (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae).  


Coprological examination of 83 East African chameleon specimens revealed 32.5% prevalence of coccidian parasites. Six species are described as new: Eimeria tilburyi n. sp. from Chamaeleo jacksonii has cylindrical oocysts, 28.9 (26-33) x 16.0 (14-18) microm and occasionally a small polar granule. Sporocysts are oval to ellipsoidal, 10.6 (9-12) x 7.2 (6-8) microm, without Stieda and substieda bodies; endogenous stages were found in the gall bladder. Oocysts of Eimeria largeni n. sp. from Chamaeleo gracilis are broadly cylindrical, 31.2 (29.5-34) x 19.3 (18.5-20) microm, with 1-3 polar granules. Sporocysts are oval, 10.2 (10-11) x 7.6 (7-8.5) microm, without Stieda and substieda bodies. Eimeria bohemii n. sp. from Chamaeleo melleri has cylindrical oocysts, 25.0 (24-26) x 14.0 (13-15) microm, without a polar granule. Sporocysts are broadly oval, 9.4 (9-10) x 6.5 (6-7) microm, without Stieda and substieda bodies. Isospora wildi n. sp. from Chamaeleo dilepis has subspherical to broadly oval oocysts, 25 (22-28) x 21.4 (18-24) microm, with a smooth wall 1 microm thick. Sporocysts are broadly oval to ellipsoidal, 12.3 (12-13) x 9.7 (9-10) microm, with Stieda and substieda bodies. Oocysts of Isospora necasi n. sp. from C. melleri are subspherical to broadly oval, 26.6 (21-30) x 24.3 (20-27) microm, with a velvetlike wall 2 microm thick. Sporocysts are broadly ellipsoidal, 12.8 (12-14) x 9.8 (9-10) microm, with slightly pointed end and with Stieda and substieda bodies. Oocysts of Isospora munriyu n. sp. from C. jacksonii are spherical to subspherical, 23.6 (21.5-25) x 21.9 (21-23) microm, with a finely granulated wall 1.5 microm thick. Sporocysts are broadly ellipsoidal, 12.4 (12-13) X 8.7 (8-10) microm, with Stieda and substieda bodies. PMID:10780560

Modrý, D; Slapeta, J R; Koudela, B



The methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in coccidia: presence and sensitivity to fosmidomycin.  


The apicoplast is a recently discovered, plastid-like organelle present in most apicomplexa. The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis is one of the metabolic pathways associated with the apicoplast, and is a new promising therapeutic target in Plasmodium falciparum. Here, we check the presence of isoprenoid genes in four coccidian parasites according to genome database searches. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis, which have no plastid genome, lack the MEP pathway. In contrast, gene expression studies suggest that this metabolic pathway is present in several development stages of Eimeria tenella and in tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. We studied the potential of fosmidomycin, an antimalarial drug blocking the MEP pathway, to inhibit E. tenella and T. gondii growth in vitro. The drug was poorly effective even at high concentrations. Thus, both fosmidomycin sensitivity and isoprenoid metabolism differs substantially between apicomplexan species. PMID:17399705

Clastre, Marc; Goubard, Armelle; Prel, Anne; Mincheva, Zoia; Viaud-Massuart, Marie-Claude; Bout, Daniel; Rideau, Marc; Velge-Roussel, Florence; Laurent, Fabrice



Dose–response effects of diclazuril against pathogenic species of ovine coccidia and the development of protective immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twin lambs at pasture with their ewes, were divided into seven groups of 10 lambs. One group of 10 lambs served as a non-infected, untreated control. Five groups of 10 lambs were infected with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria crandallis and 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria ovinoidalis when they were 3 weeks old (day 21 of the study). This produced a good

M. A. Taylor; R. N. Marshall; J. A. Marshall; J. Catchpole; D. Bartram



The First Data on Brain Parasites of the Genus Frenkelia (Protista: Coccidia) in some Small Rodent Species in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

All 560 individuals of small rodents belonging to six species of the families Cricetidae and Muridae were trapped in different habitats of various districts in Lithuania in 1995–2001. To determine Frenkelia infection, brain samples were examined. Cysts of Frenkelia were detected in the brain of three vole species only. The average rate of infection in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was

Jadvyga Grikienien?; Reda Mažeikyt?; Linas Bal?iauskas



Coccidia of Brazilian mammals: Eimeria marajoensis N. Sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae).  


Feces from a juvenile specimen of the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla from Ponta de Pedras, Marajó, Pará, northern Brazil, contained three different coccidial oocysts: Eimeria tamanduae Lainson, 1968; E. corticulata Lainson & Shaw, 1990; and a third species previously unrecorded and described here as Eimeria marajoensis n. sp. Oocysts of the latter parasite are spherical to subspherical, 13.9 +/- 1.5 x 13.4 +/- 1.4 (11.1-16.5 x 11.1-16.5) microns, shape index (length/width) 1.0 (1.0-1.2). The oocyst wall is a single, colorless layer about 0.6-1.0 microns thick with no striations or micropyle. There is no oocyst residuum, but a single, round, oval or irregularly shaped polar granule of about 0.75-2.5 microns is consistently present. The sporocysts are broadly ellipsoidal, 7.1 +/- 0.7 +/- 5.3 +/- 0.6 (6.0-8.8 x 4.0-5.7) microns, shape index 1.3 (1.2-1.5), with a delicate wall bearing minute stieda body. No sub-stieda body was visible. The sporocyst residuum consists of some 10-20 rounded granules, lying between the two slightly curved sporozoites which measure approximately 6.5 x 2.0 microns. Sporocyst refractile bodies were not discernable. PMID:1997674

Lainson, R; Shaw, J J



Molecular frequency and isolation of cyst-forming coccidia from free ranging chickens in Bahia State, Brazil.  


The Toxoplasmatinae parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia spp. have carnivores as definitive hosts that shed the parasite oocysts in their feces. Birds that feed directly from the soil, such as chickens, are exposed to infection and may serve as indicators of the presence of the parasite in the environment and as a source of infection for other animals. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of infection by these parasites in free ranging chickens, to test whether chickens are intermediate hosts of Hammondia spp., and to isolate N. caninum from chickens. One hundred chickens, which were raised in contact to cattle and dogs, were bought in five towns located in Bahia, Brazil. Blood and tissues (brain and heart) were used for serology, molecular tests and bioassay in mice for parasite isolation. T. gondii DNA was detected in 29 chickens, and N. caninum DNA was observed in six animals. Hammondia spp. DNA was not detected in tissues from any chicken. Tissues from eight N. caninum seropositive chickens were bioassayed in interferon-gamma gene knockout mice, but the mice did not become infected; T. gondii was isolated from six of 14 seropositive chickens after bioassay in outbreed Swiss mice. The authors concluded that: chickens seem to be better hosts for T. gondii when compared to N. caninum, based on the molecular and bioassay results; Hammondia spp. probably does not infect chickens or is rarely found in this animal species. PMID:22673105

Gonçalves, I N; Uzêda, R S; Lacerda, G A; Moreira, R R N; Araújo, F R; Oliveira, R H M; Corbellini, L G; Gondim, L F P



Ultrastructural observations on the sexual stages and oocyst formation in Eimeria laureleus (Protozoa, Coccidia) of perch, Perca flavescens , from Lake Sasajewun, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural features of the sexual stages and oocyst formation ofEimeria laureleus are described from the intestinal epithelium of naturally infected perch (Perca flavescens). Daughter nuclei in maturing microgamonts became aligned in the peripheral cytoplasm opposite thickenings in the limiting membrane. A pair of centrioles, originally arranged at right angles, transformed into basal bodies from which two axonemes arose during the

Sherwin S. Desser; Lianxiang Li



Two Eimerian Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Critically Endangered Arakan Forest Turtle Heosemys depressa (Testudines: Geoemydidae), with Description of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Coprological examination of nine Arakan forest turtles Heosemys depressa freshly imported from Myanmar revealed the presence of two species of Eimeria, one of which is described as a new species. Oocysts of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp. are broadly oval to subspherical, 28.0 (24-30) × 23.6 (22-25) µm, with a smooth, colourless, uni-layered wall ~ 0.6 µm thick, possessing a




Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium molnari (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).  


Cryptosporidium molnari was experimentally transmitted to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax) by oral infection with infected stomach scrapings. The infection was also cross-transmitted from infected gilthead sea bream to sea bass by cohabitation. The course of the infection was assessed after necropsy by three microscopic diagnostic methods and their sensitivity was compared. At the end of all the experiments the prevalence of infection reached 100%. In the oral experiments, both fish hosts appeared infected as early as 7 days post exposure (p.e.), but gilthead sea bream exhibited a higher intensity of infection and infection proceeded at a faster rate than in sea bass. The cellular host reaction was stronger in sea bass than in sea bream, whereas the histopathological effect was lower in the former. Transmission could be favoured by cannibalism among cohabiting fish. This is the first report on piscine Cryptosporidium transmission. The implications for the aquaculture industry are discussed. PMID:12923629

Sitjà-Bobadilla, A; Alvarez-Pellitero, P



Infection of the Fowl by the Parenteral Inoculation of Oocysts of Eimeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNDER natural conditions infection with coccidia occurs as a result of the ingestion of viable sporulated oocysts, and this method of infection, that is, the inoculation of oocysts per os, is used experimentally to establish coccidia in laboratory animals.

S. F. M. Davies; L. P. Joyner



Coccidia of Brazilian mammals: Eimeria corticulata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae) and Eimeria zygodontomyis n. sp. from the cane mouse Zygodontomys lasiurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).  


Feces from a specimen of Tamandua tetradactyla (Linn.) from Portel, Pará State, north Brazil, contained two different coccidial oocysts; one identified as Eimeria tamanduae Lainson 1968, and the other as a new species, described here as Eimeria corticulata n. sp. Oocysts of E. corticulata are ellipsoidal, 37.4 x 30.4 (31.2-43.7 x 23.7-35.0) microns, shape index (length/width) 1.2 (1.0-1.5). Oocyst wall 2.5-3.7 microns thick and composed of two layers; an outer thick, brown-yellow one with radial striations, and a thin inner smooth one: no visible micropyle. Oocyst residuum a large globule of about 10.7 x 10.3 microns, usually accompanied by a number of smaller attached globules. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 21.0 x 11.0 (20.0-22.5 x 10.0-12.5) microns, with a conspicuous Stieda body; shape index 1.9 (1.6-2.2). Sporocyst residuum a small number of scattered granules: sporozoites 18.7 x 5.0 microns, with a large posterior refractile body. Eimeria zygodontomyis n. sp. is described in feces from Zygodontomys lasiurus (Lund) from the Serra dos Carajás, Pará. Oocysts ellipsoidal to cylindrical, 16.5 x 12.0 (13.7-18.7 x 11.2-12.3) microns, shape index 1.4 (1.2-1.5). Wall colorless, smooth, single-layered and about 0.6 micron thick: no micropyle. No oocyst residuum, but a polar granule of about 1.8 x 1.0 microns is sometimes present. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 8.4 x 5.5 (7.5-8.7 x 5.0-6.2) microns, shape index 1.5 (1.4-1.7), with a thin colorless wall and a delicate Stieda body. Sporozoites enclose a compact residuum of about 2.5 x 3.7 microns. PMID:2406431

Lainson, R; Shaw, J J




Microsoft Academic Search

Transmura! lymphocytic enteritis was diagnosed in thirteen Nashville warblers (Ver- mivora ruficapilla) during an epornitic with high mortality. In the intestinal lesions, asexual stages of coccidia were present within lymphocytes and asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were present within intestinal vi!lar epithelium. Ultrastructurally, the infiltrating lymphocytes resembled gran- ular (\\

David E. Swayne; David Getzy; Richard D. Slemons


Coccidiosis as a cause of transmural lymphocytic enteritis and mortality in captive Nashville warblers (Vermivora ruficapilla).  


Transmural lymphocytic enteritis was diagnosed in thirteen Nashville warblers (Vermivora ruficapilla) during an epornitic with high mortality. In the intestinal lesions, asexual stages of coccidia were present within lymphocytes and asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were present within intestinal villar epithelium. Ultrastructurally, the infiltrating lymphocytes resembled granular ("intraepithelial") lymphocytes, a cell known to be important in the life cycle of some avian coccidia. Gross and histopathologic features of this enteritis resemble intestinal changes described for Isospora/Atoxoplasma spp. in other passeriformes and lymphoproliferative disease in gold-finches. PMID:1758027

Swayne, D E; Getzy, D; Slemons, R D; Bocetti, C; Kramer, L



Besnoitiosis in Rodents from Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rod...

G. E. Dagle R. R. Adee T. F. Winsor



Common Intestinal Protozoa of Man: Life Cycle Charts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven basic life cycle charts of Amebae, Flagellates, Ciliate, and Coccidia that parasitize the human intestinal tract. The charts present the fundamentals of the life cycles but omit survival times, prepatent and patent periods and modes of transmission...

M. M. Brooke D. M. Melvin



Parasites in Patients with Malabsorption Syndrome: A Clinical Study in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intestinal parasites not only cause diarrheal diseases but also significant malabsorption. Literature on the role of parasites,\\u000a such as intestinal coccidia and microsporidia in malabsorption syndrome is limited. Methods: Three consecutive stool samples from 50 adult and 50 children patients with malabsorption syndrome and an equal number of\\u000a healthy controls without diarrhea were examined for intestinal coccidia, microsporidia and

Bijayini Behera; B. R. Mirdha; Govind K. Makharia; Shinjini Bhatnagar; Siddhartha Dattagupta; J. C. Samantaray



Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi).  


Passerines are frequently parasitized by coccidia, especially species of the genus Isospora, with extra-intestinal stages that can be highly pathogenic causing serious clinical damage in young birds. Whilst there is still no effective treatment to completely clear isosporoid coccidia with extra-intestinal stages from a host species, our results showed that prolonged treatment with toltrazuril (BAYER AG, Leverkusen, Germany) can decrease the oocysts in faeces and thus reduce the extra-intestinal phase of the infection. The toltrazuril treatment is therefore probably indirectly effective against the systemic form of atoxoplasmosis. PMID:24224549

Jamriška, Ján; Lavilla, Lourdes A; Thomasson, Ann; Barbon, Alberto R; Lopéz, Javier F; Modrý, David



Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in a wild white-naped crane (Grus vipio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) was unexpectedly recognized in a wild white-naped crane (Grits vipio) killed by phosphamidon insecticide. On gross pathologic examination, widely disseminated white nodules were found on the serosa of the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestine, as well as on the surface and in the parenchyma of liver, spleen, and cardiac muscle. Microscopically, asexual stages of a coccidia were observed in some nodules. However, the species of coccidia could not be determined because no oocysts were found on fecal examination. This is believed to be the first reported case of DVC in a wild white-naped crane infected with Eimeria spp.

Kwon, Y.K.; Jeon, W.J.; Kang, M.I.; Kim, J.H.; Olsen, G.H.



Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert.

Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne



Crab-eating fox ( Cerdocyon thous), a South American canid, as a definitive host for Hammondia heydorni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hammondia heydorni is a cyst forming coccidia closely related to other apicomplexans, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi with a two-host life cycle. Dogs and other canids as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) may serve as definitive hosts for H. heydorni. Sporulated oocysts are infective for cattle, sheep and goats, which may serve as

Rodrigo M. Soares; Luiz R. P. B. Cortez; Solange M. Gennari; Michelle K. Sercundes; Lara B. Keid; Hilda F. J. Pena



A New Wide-spectrum Coccidiostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

NINE species of coccidia are known to parasitize the domestic fowl. During the past 25 years a succession of drugs has made it possible to control coccidiosis to an increasing degree, but until recently no drug was known which would effectively suppress all species. Wide-spectrum prophylaxis has been most successfully accomplished by the use of mixtures such as amprolium +

R. A. Bowie; J. P. Cairns; M. S. Grant; A. Hayes; W. G. M. Jones; J. F. Ryley



Evaluation of anticoccidial drugs in chicken embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections ofEimeria tenella in chicken embryos were used to compare the anticoccidial activity of ten drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal toxic concentration (MTC) were affected by the time of inoculation into the embryos and by the chemical nature of the compounds. Some compounds (nicarbazin, amprolium) had no effect on the development of coccidia when they were injected

M. Q. Xie; T. Fukata; J. M. Gilbert; L. R. McDougald



Residual activity of anticoccidial drugs in chickens after withdrawal of medicated feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry (diclazuril, monensin, salinomycin, halofuginone, nicarbazin, robenidine, amprolium, and lasalocid) were tested for residual activity after withdrawal. In each test, the products were given at the recommended level to cages of 10 broiler chickens. Oral inoculation with coccidia was given after withdrawal of medication. Birds pretreated with 1 ppm of diclazuril and inoculated with

Larry R. McDougald; Barbara P. Seibert



A Preliminary In Vitro Trial on the Efficacy of Products of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus Spp. on Eimeria Oocyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The increased resistance of avian coccidia to anticoccidial drugs currently used by in poultry industry has stimulated the search for new methods of its control. In the last decades plant extracts were widely used for the controlling of avian coccidiosis and improving poultry performance worldwide. Anticoccidial efficacy of symbiotic bacterial proteins of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. has been

Hanan A. El-Sadawy; Rabab M. El-Khateeb; Mohamed A. Kutkat



Microsoft Academic Search

Renal coccidiosis is reported for the first time in an auk (Alcidae). Infection was detected in seven of 50 nestling Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) and a new species of coccidia, Eimeria fraterculae sp. n., is described. The structure and sporulation of oocysts are characterized. Meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts were present in collecting duct epithelium of medullary cones. The predominant

Frederick A. Leighton; Alvin A. Gajadhar


Current research on Sarcocystis species of domestic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Sarcocystis is composed of about 130 species of heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidia with differences in life cycle and pathogenicity. Pathogenic Sarcocystis spp. can cause disease in their intermediate hosts, in particular in ruminants. Research on Sarcocystis infections has been impeded by several facets of the parasites. Intermediate as well as definitive hosts can be parasitized by several different species

Astrid M. Tenter



Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  


Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C



Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp.

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C




EPA Science Inventory

This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...


Metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in St Kilda Soay sheep.  


For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep. PMID:18215336

Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M



Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.  


A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605

Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M



Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).  


Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox. PMID:20299771

Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung



Cryptosporidiosis in deer calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam:– Cryptosporidium sp. is a small ubiquitous protozoan parasite which lacks host-specificity. Clinical infections with diarrhoea and sub-clinical infections have been reported in many species.(1) The organisms are pathogenic for much younger animals than those affected by other coccidia,(8) and housed artificially reared calves,(1) lambs(7) and fawns(8) seem particuarly susceptible. Infection is diagnosed histologically or by the demonstration of oocysts

Marjorie B. Orr; C. G. Mackintosh; J. M. Suttie



First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.  


Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia



Note sur une coccidic rencontrée chez quelques Ploceidae du Tchad: Isospora xerophila n. sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  The authors describe a coccidia belonging to the genusIsospora, which they found onQuelea quelea and other birds of the Ploceidae family in Chad. Its shape is spherical or subspherical; the mean size of the ookyst is 21,4\\u000a on 19,5 ?m. It contains 2 sporocytes, each having 4 sporozoïtes with two large vacuoles.\\u000a \\u000a The sporulation occurs in 24 hrs at 28°

Nicolas Barré; Pierre-Maurice Troney



Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected\\u000a with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens

George Nnamdi Anosa; O. Josephine Okoro



Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For

A. Haberkorn



Relationship between Iberian ibex ( Capra pyrenaica ) sperm quality and level of parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between parasite infection rates and reproductive function in wild Iberian ibexes. The\\u000a animals examined were 43 adult males shot during the rutting season. Gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes, intestinal\\u000a cestodes and intestinal coccidia were determined by coprological analysis. Protozoa in the muscles were detected by biopsy.\\u000a Epididymal spermatozoa were collected from recovered testes. Sperm motility, the

Julian Santiago-Moreno; Monica Luzón; Miguel Angel Coloma; Antonio Pulido-Pastor; Félix Gómez-Guillamón; Ricardo Salas de la Vega; Adolfo Toledano-Díaz; Antonio López-Sebastián



Eimeria fragilis and E. wambaensis, Two New Species of Eimeria Schneider (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from African Anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Two new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from Kenyan frogs. Eimeria fragilis sp. n., described from Chiromantis petersii, has ellipsoidal oocysts, 18.5 (17-19.5) × 15.2 (14.5-16) µm; lacking micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule. Sporocysts are dizoic, navicular, 10.6 (9.5-12) × 6.8 (6-7) µm. Oocysts of Eimeria wambaensis sp. n. found in Hyperolius viridiflavus are ellipsoidal to

Miloslav JIRK; David MODRÝ


Identifikation von Merozoiten der vier cystenbildenden Coccidien ( Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Frenkelia ) auf Grund feinstruktureller Kriterien  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary  Cyst stages of the speciesSarcocystis tenella, Frenkelia spec.,Besnoitia jellisoni, andToxoplasma gondii are compared on the electron microscope. Ultrastructural differences between these 4 species are found sufficient to serve\\u000a as a basis for their exact taxonomic identification. Merozoites, which closely resemble merozoites of other coccidia in regard\\u000a to shape and ultrastructure, are found in cysts of all 4 species. In addition

Erich Scholtyseck; Heinz Mehlhorn; Bodo E. G. Müller



Toltrazuril treatment of cystoisosporosis in dogs under experimental and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidia of the genus Cystoisospora cause mild to severe diarrhoea in dogs. The effects of toltrazuril treatment on cystoisosporosis were studied under experimental\\u000a and field conditions. Twenty-four puppies were experimentally infected each with 4?×?104 oocysts of the Cystoisospora ohioensis group. Three groups of six puppies were treated 3?dpi with 10, 20 or 30?mg\\/kg body weight of toltrazuril suspension (5%);\\u000a the

A. Daugschies; H.-C. Mundt; Valeria Letkova



Histopathological observations on the activity of diclazuril (Vecoxan ®) against the endogenous stages of Eimeria crandallis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doses of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria crandallis were administered to 60 housed lambs aged 3–4 weeks that had been raised coccidia-free. Thirty of the lambs were medicated with diclazuril at intervals over a 20-day period post-infection with the remaining lambs serving as untreated controls. Lambs were euthanased between 5 and 22 days post-infection (dpi) and sections of the small intestine

M. A. Taylor; J. Catchpole; J. Marshall; R. N. Marshall; D. Hoeben



Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.  


The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015

Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A



Curcuma as a parasiticidal agent: a review.  


Members of the Curcuma plant species (Zingiberaceae) have been used for centuries in cooking, cosmetics, staining and in traditional medicine as "omnipotent" remedies. Herbal preparations made with, and molecules extracted from, Curcuma have been shown to possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties against malignant proliferation, hormonal disorders, inflammation, and parasitosis among other conditions. This review evaluates Curcuma and its associated bioactive compounds, particularly focusing on studies examining the parasiticidal activity of these components against the tropical parasites Plasmodium, leishmania, Trypanosoma, Schistosoma and more generally against other cosmopolitan parasites (nematodes, Babesia, Candida, Giardia, Coccidia and Sarcoptes). PMID:21104602

Haddad, Mohamed; Sauvain, Michel; Deharo, Eric



Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.



Sensitivity of isolates of Eimeria from turkey flocks to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, clopidol, diclazuril, and monensin.  


The sensitivity of field isolates of turkey coccidia from the United States to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, clopidol, diclazuril, and monensin was investigated. Clopidol and diclazuril were the most effective, followed by monensin and amprolium. Thirty-one isolates were classified as resistant to amprolium, 23 resistant to monensin, 10 resistant to diclazuril, and 6 resistant to clopidol. Six isolates were partially resistant to monensin, 10 partially resistant to clopidol, and 11 partially resistant to diclazuril. Four isolates were sensitive to monensin, 12 sensitive to diclazuril, and 17 sensitive to clopidol. PMID:19848080

Rathinam, T; Chapman, H D



Parasites in grizzly bears from the central Canadian Arctic.  


Standardized flotation techniques were used to survey 56 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) fecal samples for parasites. The samples were collected during the spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996 in the central Arctic of the Northwest Territories (Canada). Parasites of the genera Nematodirus, gastrointestinal coccidia, and an unidentified first stage protostrongylid larva are reported for the first time from grizzly bear feces in North America. Parasites of the genera Diphyllobothrium and Baylisascaris also were collected. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites were significantly different between the spring and autumn seasons (31% and 58% respectively). Thus, we provide evidence supporting the theory that bears void gastrointestinal parasites before hibernation. PMID:10479104

Gau, R J; Kutz, S; Elkin, B T



Prevalence of cryptosporidium species in paediatric patients in Eastern Nepal.  


Cryptosporidium species have been implicated as an important cause of childhood diarrhoea. We determined the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in HIV seronegative children 15 years of age and below presenting with diarrhoea in the BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. Faeces were collected over a 12-month period. Coccidian oocysts were detected using modified acid-fast staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 9.15% of diarrhoeal stool. Coccidian parasites were observed in 4.4% (with 4.1% cryptosporidium and two cyclospora). Coccidia were the most recurrent parasite found in this study. The detection was throughout the year with clustering during the rainy season. PMID:21109609

Amatya, Ritu; Poudyal, Nimesh; Gurung, Rajendra; Khanal, Basudha



Looks can deceive: molecular identity of an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite in Australian gliders.  


Two yellow-bellied gliders (Petaurus australis) had an intraerythrocytic parasite closely related to the cyst-forming coccidia (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). The parasitaemia persisted for 3 months or more but was observed to clear within 3 years in captivity. The parasite appears not to significantly debilitate its infected host. Traditionally, using morphological identification, the intraerythrocytic parasite would have been classified within the Hepatozoon species typically found in red blood cells. However, molecular diagnostic techniques targeting the parasite's SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA demonstrated the unusual identity of this blood parasite and disputed its identity as a haemogregarine parasite of the genus Hepatozoon. The sequence was compared with available sequences from diverse mammalian and non-mammalian blood parasites (malaria, piroplasms, hemosporidia and sarcosporidia). The intraerythrocytic blood parasite was found to be most closely related to the cyst-forming coccidia including Besnoitia spp., Cystoisospora spp., Hammondia spp., Hyaloklossia lieberkuehni, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii. The life cycle of this intraerythrocytic parasite remains unknown. The presented DNA identification demonstrates its suitability for an improved identification of blood parasites. PMID:19028015

Zhu, Bing Y; Hartigan, Ashlie; Reppas, George; Higgins, Damien P; Canfield, Paul J; Slapeta, Jan



Parasitic infections detected by FLOTAC in zoo mammals from Warsaw, Poland.  


The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans. PMID:24827109

Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura



Porcine Neonatal Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

Coccidia were identified in intestinal sections from 82 piglets comprising 37 consignments from 34 farms, and represented a yearly increasing incidence in the three years 1978 to 1980. Piglets were primarily from medium to large farms with intensive, continuous-farrowing, confinement-rearing programs. Piglets, usually five days to 15 days old, had yellow, fluid diarrhea, became unthrifty and sometimes died. In six piglets from two farms, a green, adherent, fibrinonecrotic membrane was seen throughout most of the jejunum and ileum. Significant gross lesions were not observed in the other 76 piglets. Moderate to severe villous atrophy of jejunum and ileum was seen histologically. Various asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were seen within parasitophorous vacuoles of villar epithelial cells. Multifocal erosions with necrosis of villar tips and occasionally more diffuse mucosal necrosis with fibrinocellular exudate were seen. Isospora suis oocysts were identified in feces from several weaners from one farm. Amprolium and decoquinate mixed in the sow ration at 1 kg/tonne for three weeks prior to and postfarrowing was moderately successful in stopping outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea associated with coccidiosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.

Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.



Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme



Herbal formulations as feed additives in the course of rabbit subclinical coccidiosis.  


Two simultaneous experiments were carried out in a breeding farm of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domesticus) to determine the feasibility of replacing coccidiostats with garlic and oregano preparation. The research took place during June and July, the period of the greatest threat of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). In one investigation, 40 rabbits aged 1-3 months were divided into four groups of ten animals: Group A being a control which received no coccidiostats in feed, Group B receiving the coccidiostat Baycox in water once at weaning, Group C receiving the coccidiostat robenidine in feed, and group D receiving herbal extracts in feed. In the second trial, six mated females were allocated equally to three groups analogous to A, C, and D above during pregnancy and lactation. Bulk stool samples were collected from each group of rabbits at weekly intervals for coproscopic analysis, and the production results of the animals were recorded. In the young rabbits, both the faecal coccidia oocyst counts and body weight gains were more favourable in group D than the remaining groups. Also, the female rabbits of group D were the least infected. The results demonstrate that garlic and oregano feed additives exert a positive influence on the level and course of coccidia infection, with regard to maintaining a good level of animal productivity, and these herbal extracts appear to have potential value in coccidiosis prophylaxy. PMID:24930248

Nosal, Pawe?; Kowalska, Dorota; Biela?ski, Pawe?; Kowal, Jerzy; Korna?, S?awomir



[Influence of animal breeding manner on the occurence of internal parasites].  


On the turn of July and August the prevalence and intensity of internal parasites of cattle, deer, and primitive Polish horses were estimated. It was determined, that all groups of animals were infected with parasites. The prevalence and intensity of infection were diversified and depended on the animal species, breed, age, and even sex. For instance, dairy cows of lowland black-and-white breed were six times stronger infected than Polish red breed, despite using the same pasture and the same cowshed. Nematodes and coccidia were present in calves using small, frequently wet, calf-runs and at heifers grazed on pasture since early spring. Their parasites were gastrointestinal nematodes and tapeworms. Mares were infected solely with strongylids, while the sucking foals--additionally with ascarid nematodes. Mares of primitive Polish horses were infected by hookworm strongylids, ascarids, and tapeworms while stallions harboured only toothed strongylids. The animals surveyed were infected chiefly with nematodes and to a considerably smaller degree with tapeworms and coccidia. PMID:16865981

Romaniuk, Konstanty; Reszka, Katarzyna; Lasota, Ewa



The 2-methylcitrate cycle is implicated in the detoxification of propionate in Toxoplasma gondii.  


Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa phylum. The Coccidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that establish infection in their mammalian host via the enteric route. These parasites lack a mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but have preserved the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) as a possible pathway to generate acetyl-CoA. Importantly, degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine could lead to concomitant accumulation of propionyl-CoA, a toxic metabolite that inhibits cell growth. Like fungi and bacteria, the Coccidia possess the complete set of enzymes necessary to metabolize and detoxify propionate by oxidation to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC). Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the 2-MCC was acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In T.?gondii tachyzoites, this pathway is split between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Although the rate-limiting enzyme 2-methylisocitrate lyase is dispensable for parasite survival, its substrates accumulate in parasites deficient in the enzyme and its absence confers increased sensitivity to propionic acid. BCAA is also dispensable in tachyzoites, leaving unresolved the source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:23279335

Limenitakis, Julien; Oppenheim, Rebecca D; Creek, Darren J; Foth, Bernardo J; Barrett, Michael P; Soldati-Favre, Dominique



Responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to natural forest fires.  


We investigated the responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to fire in a boreal forest ecosystem. Because fire affects the environmental conditions and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem, the life cycle of parasites may also be affected because of the absence of intermediate hosts in the environment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of endoparasites would be influenced by the parasites' life cycle and habitat characteristics (forest vs. burned). We found that prevalence of endoparasites was different between forested and burned habitats (chi(2)=37.49, P<0.001). Cestodes, nematodes, and coccidia showed different responses to habitat alteration (chi(2)=37.43, P<0.001). There was a higher prevalence of cestodes in forested (53.5%) than burned habitats (35.0%). However, there was higher prevalence of coccidia in burned (55.0%) than forested (42.9%) habitats. Furthermore, although prevalence of cestode infection was lower in burned than forested habitat, individuals in both habitats had similar intensities of cestodes. Our study showed that habitat can significantly affect the parasite communities, depending on specific parasite life cycles. PMID:20090027

Hwang, Y T; Gardner, S L; Millar, J S



Host-Parasite Incongruences in Rodent Eimeria Suggest Significant Role of Adaptation Rather than Cophylogeny in Maintenance of Host Specificity  

PubMed Central

The degree of host specificity, its phylogenetic conservativeness and origin are virtually unknown in Eimeria. This situation is largely due to the inadequate sample of eimerian molecular data available for reliable phylogenetic analyses. In this study, we extend the data set by adding 71 new sequences of coccidia infecting 16 small-mammal genera, mostly rodents. According to the respective feasibility of PCR gene amplification, the new samples are represented by one or more of the following genes: nuclear 18S rRNA, plastid ORF 470, and mitochondrial COI. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences confirm the previous hypothesis that Eimeria, in its current morphology-based delimitation, is not a monophyletic group. Several samples of coccidia corresponding morphologically to other genera are scattered among the Eimeria lineages. More importantly, the distribution of eimerians from different hosts indicates that the clustering of eimerian species is influenced by their host specificity, but does not arise from a cophylogenetic/cospeciation process; while several clusters are specific to a particular host group, inner topologies within these clusters do not reflect host phylogeny. This observation suggests that the host specificity of Eimeria is caused by adaptive rather than cophylogenetic processes.

Kvicerova, Jana; Hypsa, Vaclav



Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at P<0.05?0.01 (250 spots), P<0.01?0.001 (248 spots), and P<0.001 (314 spots) were excised and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified in 172 spots. A total of 46 different proteins were identified. Of the spots with a corresponding protein identification, 57 showed a main effect of coccidia infection and/or 2-way interaction of coccidia infection×broiler genetic line at P<0.001. Conclusions/Significance Several of the metabolic enzymes identified in this study are potential candidates for early diagnostic markers of E. acervulina infection including malate dehydrogenase 2, NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex 9, and an ATP synthase. These proteins were detected only in Line A birds that were inoculated with E. acervulina. Results from this study provide a basic framework for future research aimed at uncovering the complex biochemical mechanisms involved in host response to Eimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods.

Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.



An outbreak of besnoitiosis in miniature donkeys.  


Fourteen miniature donkeys (Equus asinus) in a mid-Michigan herd of 38 animals presented with clinical signs of besnoitiosis, including the presence of typical tissue cysts in the ocular sclera, the buccal and nasal mucosa, together with characteristic dermatitis in specific areas of the body. The common histopathological change seen was the presence of many 100-200-microm diameter, thick walled, typical Besnoitia sp. tissue cysts together with a chronic cellular response associated with degenerating cysts. Microscopy of isolated scleral cysts and skin biopsies showed the presence of protozoal organisms consistent in morphology with that of Besnoitia bennetti bradyzoites. Molecular analysis of these parasites indicates that they differ from previously described coccidia, including Besnoitia sp., from rabbits and opossums. Isolated cases of infection with this agent have been reported infrequently in equids; however, this is the first report of an outbreak in a herd of donkeys in the United States. PMID:17089758

Elsheikha, Hany M; Mackenzie, Charles D; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Marteniuk, Judith V; Steficek, Barbara; Windsor, Sharon; Saeed, A Mahdi; Mansfield, Linda S



In vivo expression of in vitro anticoccidial activity.  

PubMed Central

Large-scale screening has led to the identification of several experimental compounds that have very potent intrinsic activity against coccidia, but the lack of translation to in vivo efficacy has been a major hurdle in developing such leads into effective new drugs. We developed methods to explore the impact of oral availability and appropriate distribution in tissue, both of which are potentially important factors in the expression of activity in vivo. For the compounds that we examined, neither oral absorption nor distribution to the site of infection appeared to be the critical barrier to in vivo expression of intrinsic anticoccidial activity. Elucidation of the nature of additional factors that might be involved could assist greatly in the identification of useful new anticoccidial agents.

Ricketts, A P; Olson, J A; Rice, J R



Internal parasite levels and response to anthelmintic treatment by beef cows and calves.  


Albendazole (methyl 5-propylthio-1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) was used as an anthelmintic in a 3-yr study involving 578 beef cows and 438 nursing calves. Infection levels for nematodes, coccidia, and tapeworm were relatively low throughout the 3-yr period. Eggs per gram of feces in cows and calves were lower (P less than .01) 2 wk posttreatment but were not different 5 mo later, when calves were weaned. Cow weight gain, rate and time of conception, and adjusted calf weaning weights were not affected significantly by deworming of either cows or calves. Level of nematode infection measured as eggs per gram of feces was higher (P less than .01) in younger cows than in mature cows. Although deworming with Albendazole lowered (P less than .01) nematode infection levels, no responses were observed in cow or calf performance. PMID:2061261

Ward, J K; Ferguson, D L; Parkhurst, A M; Berthelsen, J; Nelson, M J



Effect of subclinical coccidiosis in kids on subsequent trichostrongylid infection after weaning.  


Seven-week-old female kids of the Murciana-Granadina breed naturally infected with coccidia were superinfected with a multispecific Eimeria inoculum (300,000 oocysts) or treated to control the coccidial infection with Amprolium (50 mg kg-1 liveweight day-1; 4 days every 14 days); 80 days later both animal groups received 2500 third-stage larvae of a sheep-derived mixture of Trichostrongylus colubriformis (50%), Teladorsagia circumcincta (40%) and Haemonchus contortus (10%). Kids experimentally superinfected with Eimeria showed reduced food intake at the early patency period, higher numbers of oocysts passed at weaning time and lower liveweight gain than the Amprolium-medicated kids. In the Eimeria superinfected kids the trichostrongyle infection caused a tendency to result in chronic coccidial infections. Further, these animals had higher numbers of nematode eggs in their faeces, lower dressed weights on slaughter and inferior meat quality. PMID:8447060

de la Fuente, C; Cuquerella, M; Carrera, L; Alunda, J M



Pathogenicity and control of Eimeria mitis infections in broiler chickens.  


The pathogenicity of two strains (B4 and C2) of Eimeria mitis was studied using young broiler chickens. Both strains of coccidia were pathogenic, and C2 strain was more virulent than B4. Growth of the broilers was depressed as early as day 3 postinoculation (PI), but the depression was greatest during days 5 and 6 PI. Feed conversion and shank skin pigment of the young broiler chickens were concomitantly affected by infections of E. mitis. Infection subsided by day 7 or 8 PI and was accompanied by a compensatory growth. The drugs effective against the infections were halofuginone, lasalocid, monensin, and nicarbazin. The least efficacious were zoalene and amprolium plus ethopabate. PMID:1567309

Fitz-Coy, S H; Edgar, S A



Causes of death of wild birds of the family Fringillidae in Britain.  


The provision of supplementary food for wild birds in gardens during the winter months is common in the UK, but it is possible that it may precipitate infectious diseases in the birds. This paper describes the results of postmortem examinations of 116 wild finches carried out over a period of four years. The two commonest causes of death in areas where high mortality had been reported were infections with the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT40 and Escherichia coli O86. Coccidia of the genera Atoxoplasma or Isospora were found in several of the birds but were considered to be incidental. Megabacteria were also identified in some of the birds, for the first time in flocks of wild birds in the UK, but they were not considered to be significant. PMID:9746945

Pennycott, T W; Ross, H M; McLaren, I M; Park, A; Hopkins, G F; Foster, G



Helminthiasis and toxoplasmosis among exotic mammals at the Santiago National Zoo.  


Parasitologic evaluations of 112 fecal specimens from 292 mammals from the Santiago National Zoo (36 specimens were pooled specimens from greater than or equal to 2 animals) indicated that 51 mammals had protozoa or helminths in their feces. Most of the parasites in the herbivorous species were trichurids and strongylids, whereas most of the parasites in the carnivorous species were ascarids. Coccidia spp and Giardia spp were the most frequently detected protozoans in the mammals evaluated. Of 127 captive mammals serologically evaluated for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (indirect hemagglutination test), 35 (27.5%) were positive for T gondii: 7 (46.6%) of 15 carnivores, 24 (25.2%) of 95 artyodactyls, and 4 (22.5%) of 17 nonhuman primates. Antibodies against T gondii also were found in 8 of 10 domestic cats captured within the zoo and in 6 of 13 volunteer zookeepers. PMID:3505930

Gorman, T R; Riveros, V; Alcaíno, H A; Salas, D R; Thiermann, E R



Some corrections of coccidian (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) nomenclature.  


The following nomenclatural corrections and changes are introduced for the coccidia. NEW SPECIES: Cryptosporidium rhesi from the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta; Cryptosporidium serpentis from the snakes Elaphe guttata, Elapha subocularis, Crotalus horridus, and Sanzinia madagascarensis; Eimeria perazae from the lizard Cnemidophorus l. lemniscatus; and Eimeria tarichae from the salamander Taricha toirosa. NEW COMBINATIONS: Orcheobius carinii for Cariniella carinii from the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus; Schellackia iguanae for Lainsonia iguanae from the iguana Iguana iguana; Schellackia weinbergi for Haemogregarina weinbergi from the lizard Tupinambis nigropunctatus; Dorisa harpia for Dorisiella harpia from the bat Harpiocephalus harpia lasyurus; Barrouxia labbei for Echinospora labbei from the centipedes Lithobius mutabilis and L. pyrenaicus; and Barrouxia ventricosa for Echinospora ventricosa from the centipede Lithobius hexodus. The generic names Lainsonia and Gordonella are synonymized with Schellackia; Echinospora with Barrouxia; and Cariniella with Orcheobius. PMID:7463253

Levine, N D



Relevance and treatment of coccidiosis in domestic pigeons (Columba livia forma domestica) with particular emphasis on toltrazuril.  


Coccidia are common pathogenic parasites in pigeons (Columba livia). Coccidiosis is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. The reported prevalence of infection is 5.1%-71.9%, and worldwide mortality in juvenile pigeons varies from 5% to 70%, with most deaths occurring in the third and fourth month of life. This article summarizes the life cycle of E. columbarum and E. labbeana, the route of transmission, and the common clinical and pathologic signs of coccidiosis. Chemotherapeutic options discussed include amprolium, sulfonamides, clazuril, and toltrazuril. Reasons to use toltrazuril include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium, the extended effectiveness compared with other substances, for example, clazuril, and the ability of pigeons to develop immunity during treatment. PMID:19530399

Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Zebisch, Ralph; Schmidt, Volker



Dieldrin poisoning and botulism in Australian pelicans (Pelecanus conspicillatus).  


Autopsies and laboratory examinations of material from 24 Australian pelicans found sick or dead in southern coastal Queensland in 1977 to 1979 revealed dieldrin poisoning in 8 from the Brisbane region and botulism in 8 from Brisbane, Bundaberg and Gladstone. In those diagnosed as dieldrin poisoning, brain and liver samples contained 12.1 to 27.4 and 34.0 to 48.1 mg/kg dieldrin respectively. All of these birds were emaciated, 2 had convulsed and 1 had muscle tremors. Low and probably insignificant residues of DDE were detected in many birds. Type C botulism was confirmed in 4 of the 6 birds tested with specific antiserums. A large number of parasites including mites, lice, nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, coccidia and Sarcocystis sp were found but were thought to have had only a limited effect on the health of these birds. PMID:7126063

McKenzie, R A; Freudigmann, C L; Mawhinney, H; Eaves, L E; Green, P E; Rees, G J



Diagnosis-based treatment of helminths in captive and wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  


This study was designed to identify endoparasites in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) living in a seminatural captive environment in north-central Namibia. Results were used to assess the need for anthelmintic treatment and for the selection of an appropriate drug. The study assessed fecal parasite excretion qualitatively and quantitatively using a fecal flotation method during the winter of 2009. Four different species of parasites (two nematodes and two coccidias) were identified. Parasite excretion rates were found to be significantly lower than that of wild cheetahs living in the same area. Samples of the wild cheetahs were obtained at the time of anesthesia or were attributed to the wild individuals using genetic profiling. Captive cheetahs were dewormed with fenbendazole, whereas wild cheetahs were treated using ivermectin. Efficacy of these treatments was demonstrated at the end of the study. PMID:23272366

Mény, Marie; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L



Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).  


This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan



Sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction detection of Toxoplasma gondii for veterinary and medical diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii. A universal- and a T. gondii-specific primer was used to amplify a region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. This approach allows for a theoretical detection limit of 0.01 zoite of T. gondii per sample assayed. Experiments showed that this PCR method could detect 0.1 pg of T. gondii DNA, which represents about one organism. Polymerase chain reaction tests using DNAs of cat, dog, swine, cattle, human, Sarcocystis cruzi, Eimeria ahsata, E. vermiformis, and Escherichia coli indicated no cross-reaction with nucleic acids of hosts, related coccidia, or bacteria. Data on the sensitivity and specificity suggest that this PCR assay could be extremely useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for food safety surveys. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

MacPherson, J M; Gajadhar, A A



Parasitism and physiological trade-offs in stressed capybaras.  


Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with the immune response to control helminths. PMID:23894644

Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Costa, Sebastián A; Marini, M Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J; Robles, M Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G; Beldomenico, Pablo M



Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea.  


Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 ?m, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 ?m, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 ?m, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 ?m, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 ?m, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema. PMID:24827096

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C



Detection and differentiation of coccidian oocysts by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.  


Rapid and reliable detection and identification of coccidian oocysts are essential for animal health and foodborne disease outbreak investigations. Traditional microscopy and morphological techniques can identify large and unique oocysts, but they are often subjective and require parasitological expertise. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay using melting curve analysis (MCA) to detect, differentiate, and identify DNA from coccidian species of animal health, zoonotic, and food safety concern. A universal coccidia primer cocktail was designed and employed to amplify DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and several species of Eimeria, Sarcocystis, and Isospora using qPCR with SYBR Green detection. MCA was performed following amplification, and melting temperatures (T(m)) were determined for each species based on multiple replicates. A standard curve was constructed from DNA of serial dilutions of T. gondii oocysts to estimate assay sensitivity. The qPCR assay consistently detected DNA from as few as 10 T. gondii oocysts. T(m) data analysis showed that C. cayetanensis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, T. gondii, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria acervulina, Isospora suis, and Sarcocystis cruzi could each be identified by unique melting curves and could be differentiated based on T(m). DNA of coccidian oocysts in fecal, food, or clinical diagnostic samples could be sensitively detected, reliably differentiated, and identified using qPCR with MCA. This assay may also be used to detect other life-cycle stages of coccidia in tissues, fluids, and other matrices. MCA studies on multiple isolates of each species will further validate the assay and support its application as a routine parasitology screening tool. PMID:21506835

Lalonde, Laura F; Gajadhar, Alvin A



Molecular Detection of Capillaria aerophila, an Agent of Canine and Feline Pulmonary Capillariosis  

PubMed Central

Capillaria aerophila, a trichuroid nematode causing pulmonary infections in wild and domestic carnivores, is occasionally and potentially poorly recognized in infections of humans due to clinicopathological mimicry and a lack of accurate, robust laboratory diagnostics. The present work evaluated the efficiency of a DNA-based assay amplifying a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of C. aerophila in the diagnosis of lung capillariosis. Fecal samples from 34 dogs and 10 cats positive at parasitological examination for C. aerophila and other endoparasites (i.e., other lungworms, whipworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and/or coccidia) and from 44 animals negative for C. aerophila but positive for other endoparasites were molecularly examined. Of the 44 samples positive for C. aerophila at copromicroscopy, 43 scored positive (i.e., 33/34 dogs and 10/10 cats) in seminested PCR, resulting in a sensitivity of 97 to 100%. Samples that were copromicroscopy negative for C. aerophila although positive for other endoparasites never produced a PCR product or nonspecific amplicons. The specific PCR amplification of C. aerophila (i.e., specificity of 100%) was confirmed by a nucleotide sequence analysis of the cox1 amplicons. The potential implications of the molecular diagnosis of lung capillariosis are discussed.

Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Paoletti, Barbara; Bartolini, Roberto



Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.  


Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira



Effects of curcumin on Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro.  


Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite having peculiarities among the apicomplexa that could be responsible for its resistance to some drugs and disinfectants against coccidia. The awareness of Cryptosporidium as a health problem in man and animal is increasing and potent drugs are urgently needed. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been found to be active against a variety of diseases including anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal effects. We investigated the effects of curcumin on infectivity and development of C. parvum in a recently established in vitro system combining infection of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cell cultures with quantification of intracellular parasites by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Curcumin was found to be effective (>95% inhibition of parasite growth) at 50 microM for 24 h when infected cultures were exposed for more than 12 h. Withdrawal of curcumin after 24 h of exposure did not result in a significant resumption of C. parvum growth. The invasion of host cells by sporozoites (infectivity) was found to be inhibited at least 65% in the presence of 200 microM curcumin. No significant reduction of viability of C. parvum oocysts after incubation with curcumin was recorded. Altogether, curcumin showed promising anticryptosporidial effects under in vitro conditions and deserves further exploration. PMID:19557435

Shahiduzzaman, M; Dyachenko, V; Khalafalla, R E; Desouky, A Y; Daugschies, A



Single and Low-level Oocyst Infections of Drug-resistant Field Strains of Eimeria tenella in Medicated Birds  

PubMed Central

Five out of ten birds infected with a single oocyst of strain Gt2 of Eimeria tenella and medicated with the recommended level of robenidine were found positive in the first experiment and four in the second in comparison with seven and six respectively in nonmedicated birds. Six birds out of ten were found positive in the two groups of similarly medicated birds infected with two or four oocysts each. Although single oocyst infections of strain Lilly 155 were unsuccessful, six out of ten birds were found positive in birds infected with ten oocysts each. All single and low-level oocyst infections were accomplished with oocysts previously treated with ?-glucuronidase and broken into sporocysts prior to infections. The overall results suggested that when a coccidium became resistant to an anticoccidial drug, only one or a few occysts were needed to start an infection if the drug was continued. The results also showed that, perhaps, successful single or low-level oocyst infections can also be used as a criterion for demonstrating drug resistance in coccidia.

Lee, Eng-Hong



Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp  

PubMed Central

Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW) on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A) Control diet (no YCW) plus anticoccidial vaccine); B) Control diet plus coccidiostat; C) YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D) YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

Gomez-Verduzco, Gabriela; Cortes-Cuevas, Arturo; Lopez-Coello, Carlos; Avila-Gonzalez, Ernesto; Nava, Gerardo M



Analysis of global transcriptional responses of chicken following primary and secondary Eimeria acervulina infections  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of host transcriptional responses during coccidia infections can provide new clues for the development of alternative disease control strategies against these complex protozoan pathogens. Methods In the current study, we compared chicken duodenal transcriptome profiles following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria acervulina using a 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA). Results Gene Ontology analysis showed that primary infection significantly modulated the levels of mRNAs for genes involved in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates as well as those for innate immune-related genes. By contrast, secondary infection increased the levels of transcripts encoded by genes related to humoral immunity and reduced the levels of transcripts for the innate immune-related genes. The observed modulation in transcript levels for gene related to energy metabolism and immunity occurred concurrent with the clinical signs of coccidiosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that altered expression of a specific set of host genes induced by Eimeria infection may be responsible, in part, for the observed reduction in body weight gain and inflammatory gut damage that characterizes avian coccidiosis.



Necrotic enteritis in chickens: development of a straightforward disease model system.  


The interaction between Eimeria species and Clostridium perfringens was investigated in two different necrotic enteritis (NE) models: 120-day-old broilers were used in two separate experiments consisting of six groups (n=10) each. Besides controls, chickens were infected with coccidia on study day (SD) 18 (Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina (experiment 1) or Eimeria tenella and Eimeria brunetti (experiment 2) and/or a NetB toxin positive C perfringens strain (both experiments: SD 14 or SD 22, respectively)). Body weight, feed intake, mortality rate, clinical disease, Eimeria species oocyst excretion and C perfringens counts were recorded. NE and coccidiosis specific lesion scores were assessed (SD 24 and SD 30). In coinfected groups, NE-typical clinical signs occurred. Coccidiosis-specific lesions were most severe in coinfected groups (significant for E tenella, P<0.05). Most pronounced NE lesions occurred in coinfected chickens compared with C perfringens monoinfected groups (experiment 2, C perfringens infections on SD 22: P<0.05). In experiment 2, E tenella antibody levels were (non-significantly) higher in coinfected groups than in Eimeria species monoinfected groups. Thus, infection with E tenella and Eimeria brunetti followed by C perfringens inoculation is regarded as an easy to handle and suitable model for investigations into NE of chickens. PMID:24714053

Alnassan, A A; Kotsch, M; Shehata, A A; Krüger, M; Daugschies, A; Bangoura, B



Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy  

PubMed Central

Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR?=?14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR?=?4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds.

Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata



Eimeria infections in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed laying hens in Sweden.  


1. Coccidiosis, caused by different Eimeria species, is believed to be a more prominent problem in loose-housed layers kept on litter than in battery cages. In this study, the impact and development of Eimeria infections were investigated in layers kept in litter-based, high stocking density systems for loose-housed hens. 2. Layers from 57 flocks on 26 farms were followed by necropsy of a representative sample of birds that died or had to be culled. Coccidiosis was diagnosed in 11 flocks (19.3%) from 9 (31%) of the farms. The outbreaks occurred when the birds were 19 to 32 weeks old. E. maxima was identified in 6 and E. tenella in 3 of the outbreaks. 3. Sixteen of the flocks were also monitored with faecal and litter samples collected at regular intervals. Oocysts were detected in samples from all these flocks. The pattern of oocyst excretion was similar in most of the flocks, with maximum counts at 4 to 8 weeks after introduction to the laying house. There was no significant correlation between the levels of oocysts in faeces and clinical coccidiosis. 4. Raising pullets without any coccidiostat, to increase their chance to develop immunity against coccidia, was not found to decrease the risk of coccidiosis during the production period when compared to the practice of giving amprolium and ethopabate during the rearing period. PMID:11128384

Lundén, A; Thebo, P; Gunnarsson, S; Hooshmian-Rad, P; Tauson, R; Uggla, A



Residual activity of anticoccidial drugs in chickens after withdrawal of medicated feeds.  


Seven anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry (diclazuri), monensin, salinomycin, halofuginone, nicarbazin, robenidine, amprolium, and lasalocid) were tested for residual activity after withdrawal. In each test, the products were given at the recommended level to cages of 10 broiler chickens. Oral inoculation with coccidia was given after withdrawal of medication. Birds pretreated with 1 ppm of diclazuril and inoculated with Eimeria tenella after drug withdrawal had normal weight gain and very low lesion scores. Residual activity depleted gradually over several days, as shown by higher lesion scores when medication was withdrawn for up to 3 days before inoculation. Similar results were observed when young birds were inoculated with a mixture of E. tenella, E. maxima and E. acervulina, and also when birds were given diclazuril to market weight (6 weeks of age) and inoculated with a mixture of six species of Eiméria (The above species plus E. brunetti, E. mitis, and E. necatrix) after withdrawal of medication for 2 days. In contrast, there was no evidence of residual anticoccidial activity with nicarbazin, halofuginone, lasalocid, amprolium, salinomycin or monensin. Overall, the residual activity was unique to diclazuril. PMID:9561697

McDougald, L R; Seibert, B P



The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.  


Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions. PMID:20390538

Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F



Safety evaluation of lasalocid use in Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  


Coccidiosis remains a significant threat to the welfare of game farm-reared pheasants in the United States. Although lasalocid has been demonstrated to be effective against pheasant specific coccidia, information regarding its safety in this species is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather data on the safety of lasalocid when fed to Chinese ring-necked pheasants at one, two, and three times the recommended high dose of lasalocid used for prevention of coccidiosis in other poultry at three times the normal treatment period. Pheasant chicks (approximately 1 day-old; n = 160) were randomly blocked by sex into four treatment groups and given their respective diets continuously for 6 wk. No significant differences were observed in overall feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion rates, clinical pathology measurements, or tissue gross and histopathologic evaluations between controls and treatment groups associated with lasalocid administration. Based on the results of this study it appears that lasalocid fed at the recommended rate of 125 ppm is safe in Chinese ring-necked pheasants. PMID:24689172

Dzikamunhenga, R S; Wilberts, B; Yaeger, M; Burrough, E; Hostetter, J; Bender, H; Larson, W; Griffith, R W



The efficacy of a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphaquinoxaline against Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria in the domesticated fowl Gallus gallus.  


The apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum has not been much studied from the veterinary standpoint. Although it causes malaria in domesticated chickens, no effective drugs appear to be commercially available. A mixture of trimethoprim and sulphaquinoxaline (TMP/SQX, ratio 1:3), with a wide spectrum of activity against bacteria and coccidia, is here shown to be also efficacious against blood-induced P. gallinaceum malaria when administered therapeutically in the feed of chickens for 5-day periods, beginning on the day before infection, or on the day of infection, or up to four days after infection. Chickens were protected against mortality and reduction of weight gain. Three other criteria of efficacy, which showed good correlation with each other and also with the two commercial performance criteria, were the production of green diarrhoea (due to biliverdin), parasitaemia and reduced haematocrit values. When TMP/SQX treatments were initiated sooner than five days after infection, parasites were almost entirely eliminated from the blood, whereas treatments initiated later than four days after infection failed to protect birds against clinical disease. Birds protected by TMP/SQX against primary infection with P. gallinaceum were immune to clinical malaria when exposed to a severe blood-induced challenge of P. gallinaceum 28 days later. PMID:15845274

Williams, R B



Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.  


In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

Davidson, Rebecca K; Øines, Øivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E



Effects of Different Sizes of Glass Beads on the Release of Sporocysts from Eimeria tenella Oocysts  

PubMed Central

The oocyst wall is severed by means of mechanical injury or chemical agents. This study reports the percentage of in vitro sporocyst release following mechanical shaking in the presence of varying sizes of glass beads. Glass beads measured 0.5, 1, and 3 mm in diameter and were shaken with the oocysts for different times ranging from 5 sec to 5 min. Approximately 80% of sporocysts were released with 5 min of shaking in the presence of 3 mm glass beads, as well as 30 sec with 0.5 mm beads and 1 mm glass beads. The release of sporocysts of E. tenella was most efficient using 1 mm glass beads and treatment times of 30 sec to 1 min. Therefore, the use of 1 mm glass beads with 30 sec to 1 min of agitation is recommended in order to maximize sporocyst release and recovery and to improve the yield of viable sporozoites for use in biochemical, tissue culture, and immunological applications of coccidia.



Ultrastructural aspects of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli) in continuous cell lines.  


Cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. The lack of animal models susceptible to C. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. This study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of C. belli in Monkey Rhesus Kidney Cells (MK2) and Human Ileocecal Adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8). Zoites of C. belli exhibited typical morphological features of coccidia, which included a trilaminar pellicle, an apical complex formed by a conoid, polar rings, rhoptries, and micronemes, in addition to dense granules and the endoplasmic reticulum. No crystalloid body was observed but various lipid and amylopectin granules were usually present in the cytoplasm of zoites. We observed a tendency of the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell to be located near the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Merozoites were formed by endodyogeny and during replication, the apical complex of the mother cell remained intact. The formation of gametes or oocysts was not observed. The ultrastructural findings of C. belli are further evidence of its proximity to Sarcocystidae family members and corroborate their reclassification as Cystoisospora spp. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:472-478, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24771702

Resende, Deisy V; Assis, Dnieber C; Ribeiro, Múcio F Barbosa; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Frenkel, Jacob K; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B



Plasmid DNA could be delivered into Eimeria maxima unsporulated oocyst with gene gun system.  


Eimerian coccidia are the most common parasitic organisms infecting chickens. The feasibility of genetic manipulation of these parasites via electroporation is proven, but this method is cumbersome and time consuming. Here we report our endeavour to develop a rapid and simple transfection method by gene gun. Tungsten particles coated with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) were used for the bombardment of Eimeria maxima unsporulated oocysts. Seven Mpa (1015 psi) helium pressure, 65 mm target distance and -0.098 Mpa (24.8? Hg) chamber vacuum were the optimised parameters for bombardment. After sporulation, the bombarded oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and the progeny oocysts were checked under fluorescent microscope and subjected to genomic DNA extraction, which was used either for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification or plasmid rescue assay. Although the expression of EYFP was not observed, the gene was amplified from both genomic DNA and the rescued plasmid, suggesting that the plasmid DNA existed in the form of episome. These results are encouraging for the genetic processing of the sporogony stage of eimerian parasites. PMID:23160025

Li, Jianan; Zou, Jun; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun



Integrated Bioinformatic and Targeted Deletion Analyses of the SRS Gene Superfamily Identify SRS29C as a Negative Regulator of Toxoplasma Virulence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A ?sag1 ?sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations.

Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.



Gastrointestinal parasites in relation to host traits and group factors in wild meerkats Suricata suricatta.  


SUMMARY Meerkats are one of the most endearing of South African's wildlife celebrities and one of the most highly studied social mammals. However, although parasites are widely recognized as important regulatory factors in animal population, basic knowledge on meerkats' parasites is lacking. Here 100 fresh fecal samples of wild meerkats were examined for the presence of endoparasitic infection. Endoparasitic taxa identified by the presence of eggs or oocysts included Toxocara suricattae, Oxynema suricattae, Pseudandrya suricattae, Cystoisospora sp. and Eimeria sp. Non-specific diagnoses were made for parasites in the Order Strongylida, Order Spirurida and coccidian based on the morphology and size of the eggs and oocysts. The prevalence of infection with T. suricattae and the strongylate species increased with age, while prevalence of coccidia and intensity of infection by the strongylate species increased with decreasing group size, suggesting that stress associated with living in smaller group may increase susceptibility to parasitism. Moreover, parasite communities were more similar between individuals from the same group than between individuals from different groups, suggesting an important role of the environment in parasite infestation. We did not detect any differences between males and females. This study represents the first detailed report of gastrointestinal parasites in wild meerkats, and is a key starting point for future studies on the effect of endoparasite load in the life history of this species. PMID:24560215

Leclaire, Sarah; Faulkner, Charles T



[Prevalence of protozoa infections in synanthropic rodents in Valdivia City, Chile].  


In order to determine the prevalence of infection by blood and intestinal protozoa in 57 synanthropic rodents from Valdivia city, a study was carried out in the period march-september 1986. The group of rodents studied was constituted by 31 Mus musculus, 19 Rattus rattus and 7 Oryzomys longicaudattus, being 42 males and 15 females. Diagnostic forms of protozoa were found in 70.2% of the investigated animals. The presence of five species of enteroprotozoa and one species of hemoflagelate was detected. The number and the corresponding percentages of infected animals were the following: Giardia muris, 21 (36.8%), Hexamita muris, 22 (38.6%), Trichomonas muris, 27 (47.4%), Entamoeba muris 9 (15.8%), Eimeria sp. 15 (26.3%) and Trypanosoma lewisi 9 (15.8%). Not significant differences were observed when considering host or sex of the species found infected. Furthermore, the yielding of fecal examination considering direct examination, sugar solution flotation and SAFS were compared. The sugar solution flotation technique showed the highest percentage diagnosis of coccidia, whereas SAFS was more efficient for detecting G. muris and E. muris. PMID:8762669

Franjola, R; Soto, G; Montefusco, A



High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.  


A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun



Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.  


The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia. PMID:23756961

Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J



Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.  


Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. PMID:24021542

Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R



Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.  


Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens. PMID:16050910

El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M



Isosporoid coccidiosis in translocated cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus).  


Four of 17 cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus) involved in a trial translocation in 2004 for conservation purposes died and were examined postmortem. Two of the cirl buntings showed intestinal and hepatic lesions, including necrotising enteritis, consistent with isosporoid coccidiosis, and a third had an intestinal infestation of isosporoid coccidia. Sporulated oocysts from faecal samples from the birds were identified as Isospora normanlevinei, a parasite previously detected in cirl bunting populations in continental Europe. In a subsequent translocation of 75 cirl buntings from Devon to Cornwall in 2006, each brood of birds was placed in strict quarantine at low stocking density, with improved hygienic precautions and detailed health surveillance, and each bird was treated prophylactically with toltrazuril in an attempt to control the disease but not eliminate the I normanlevinei parasites. Seventy-two of the 75 birds were successfully reared and released, and there were no apparent clinical or pathological signs of isosporoid coccidiosis in any bird. I normanlevinei was detected in the released population, an indication that it had been successfully conserved. PMID:21257466

McGill, I; Feltrer, Y; Jeffs, C; Sayers, G; Marshall, R N; Peirce, M A; Stidworthy, M F; Pocknell, A; Sainsbury, A W



Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).  


We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings. PMID:18262668

Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H



The dynamics of the nematode Anguillicola crassus, Kuvahara 1974 in eel Anguilla anguilla (L. 1758) in the Sebou estuary (Morocco).  


The European eel is a vulnerable fish by its complex life cycle, by the impact of pollution of the near total of freshwater aquatic environments, and by the gravity and the diversity of its parasites (nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, the Copepoda, Coccidia...). It is classified in the red book of threatened species. The anguillulose is the principal parasitic pathology of an eel either in the natural environment or in the aquaculture. The eels taken in the three zones of the Sebou estuary of varied environmental conditions were dissected for the research of parasites. Of the fish, 85.7% are infested upstream of the estuary, whereas only 71% shelter this parasite in their swim bladder, with an abundance of 2.09 per fish downstream and 83.8 in zone 2. The present study suggests the development stage of the fish, and therefore its diet, has an influence on the parasitic infestation. The estuaries and the lagoons constitute a very significant medium for the safeguarding and the disinfection of parasitized eels. PMID:17096144

Loukili, Abdechahid; Belghyti, Driss



Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids.  


Reproductive losses in camelids are due to infertility, pregnancy loss, udder diseases and neonatal mortality caused by a variety of infectious diseases. Uterine infection and abortion represent the major complaint in camelid veterinary practice. The major infectious organisms in endometritis and metritis are E. coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. Abortion rates due to infectious diseases vary from 10% to more than 70% in some areas. Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and chlamydiosis have been diagnosed as the major causes of abortion in llamas and alpacas. In camels, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis represent the major causes of infectious abortion in the Middle East and Africa. Mastitis is rare in South American camelids. The prevalence of subclinical udder infection in camels can reach very high proportions in dairy camels. Udder infections are primarily due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. Neonatal mortality is primarily due to diarrhea following failure of passive transfer and exposure to E. coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, Coccidia and Salmonella. This paper reviews the etio-pathogenesis of these causes of reproductive losses, as well as the major risk factors and strategies to prevent their occurrence. PMID:16697037

Tibary, A; Fite, C; Anouassi, A; Sghiri, A



Molecular detection of Capillaria aerophila, an agent of canine and feline pulmonary capillariosis.  


Capillaria aerophila, a trichuroid nematode causing pulmonary infections in wild and domestic carnivores, is occasionally and potentially poorly recognized in infections of humans due to clinicopathological mimicry and a lack of accurate, robust laboratory diagnostics. The present work evaluated the efficiency of a DNA-based assay amplifying a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of C. aerophila in the diagnosis of lung capillariosis. Fecal samples from 34 dogs and 10 cats positive at parasitological examination for C. aerophila and other endoparasites (i.e., other lungworms, whipworms, roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and/or coccidia) and from 44 animals negative for C. aerophila but positive for other endoparasites were molecularly examined. Of the 44 samples positive for C. aerophila at copromicroscopy, 43 scored positive (i.e., 33/34 dogs and 10/10 cats) in seminested PCR, resulting in a sensitivity of 97 to 100%. Samples that were copromicroscopy negative for C. aerophila although positive for other endoparasites never produced a PCR product or nonspecific amplicons. The specific PCR amplification of C. aerophila (i.e., specificity of 100%) was confirmed by a nucleotide sequence analysis of the cox1 amplicons. The potential implications of the molecular diagnosis of lung capillariosis are discussed. PMID:22442326

Di Cesare, Angela; Castagna, Giuseppe; Otranto, Domenico; Meloni, Silvana; Milillo, Piermarino; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Paoletti, Barbara; Bartolini, Roberto; Traversa, Donato



Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.  


Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R



Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.  


A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C



Broiler breeders with an efficient innate immune response are more resistant to Eimeria tenella.  


In previous studies we characterized the innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines (A and B) and compared their resistance against Salmonella, Enterococcus, and Campylobacter challenges. In all cases, line A was more responsive and more resistant than line B. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this trend was also observed following challenge with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella. In 3 separate experiments, 14-d-old chickens from lines A and B were challenged orally with 15 to 50 × 10(3) E. tenella oocysts. Birds were killed 6 d postchallenge and the ceca was removed and scored for lesions and weight gain compared with noninfected controls. Line A birds were more resistant to intestinal pathology as demonstrated by lower lesion scores compared with line B birds. As might be expected, the lower lesion scores in line A chickens were often accompanied by higher weight gain compared with line B chickens, thus reducing potential revenue loss associated with low carcass weights often observed with coccidia-infected birds. The results from this study showed that in addition to having enhanced resistance against bacterial infections, line A chickens were also more resistant to coccidial infections compared with line B birds. Taken together with all of our earlier studies using these lines of birds, an efficient innate immune response protects against a broad range of foodborne and poultry pathogens, including costly coccidial infections. PMID:21489948

Swaggerty, C L; Genovese, K J; He, H; Duke, S E; Pevzner, I Y; Kogut, M H



Application of a qPCR assay with melting curve analysis for detection and differentiation of protozoan oocysts in human fecal samples from Dominican Republic.  


A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

Lalonde, Laura F; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A



Another African disease in Central Europa: Besnoitiosis of cattle. I. Light and electron microscopical study.  


The paper reports the first detection of besnoitiosis of cattle in Germany. Just 2 years after the first appearance of the African Bluetongue disease (BTD) of cattle in Central Europe, another African agent of disease has arrived in Germany. While it was proven that the BTD virus was transmitted (after its first appearance) by endemic midges of the genus Culicoides (C. obsoletus, C. pulicaris), nothing is known, how the infectious stages of Besnoitia besnoiti-a member of the so-called cyst-forming coccidia-found their way to a herd in Southern Germany. The infected animals showed all characteristic clinical symptoms of besnoitiosis such as hyposclerodermia, hyperkeratosis, alopecia, and whitish tissue cysts in subcutaneous tissues as well as in the cornea. These cysts had diameters of up to 3 mm and consisted of a dense outer layer (=secondary cyst wall), which surrounded a host cell, that had been enormously enlarged by an inner parasitophorous vacuole containing thousands of 7-9 x 2 mum sized, banana-shaped cyst merozoites (=cystozoites, bradyzoites).Their fine structure was identical to that of published stages of B. besnoiti. During cyst development, the nucleus of the host cell had been hypertrophied and had apparently undergone several divisions, since many flattened, but very large nuclei were seen in light and electron microscopy. Thus, this study proves the arrival of another serious agent of disease of ruminants in Central Europe-a fact which is especially important, since in this species, there is neither information on the way of transmission from animal to animal nor exists concrete information on an efficacious therapy or on the modalities of its import into Germany. PMID:19082626

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven; Schein, Eberhard; Heydorn, Alfred Otto; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Selmair, Josef



Identification of a New Rhoptry Neck Complex RON9/RON10 in the Apicomplexa Parasite Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites secrete and inject into the host cell the content of specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, which take part into critical processes such as host cell invasion and modulation of the host cell immune response. The rhoptries are structurally and functionally divided into two compartments. The apical duct contains rhoptry neck (RON) proteins that are conserved in Apicomplexa and are involved in formation of the moving junction (MJ) driving parasite invasion. The posterior bulb contains rhoptry proteins (ROPs) unique to an individual genus and, once injected in the host cell act as effector proteins to co-opt host processes and modulate parasite growth and virulence. We describe here two new RON proteins of Toxoplasma gondii, RON9 and RON10, which form a high molecular mass complex. In contrast to the other RONs described to date, this complex was not detected at the MJ during invasion and therefore was not associated to the MJ complex RON2/4/5/8. Disruptions of either RON9 or RON10 gene leads to the retention of the partner in the ER followed by subsequent degradation, suggesting that the RON9/RON10 complex formation is required for proper sorting to the rhoptries. Finally, we show that the absence of RON9/RON10 has no significant impact on the morphology of rhoptry, on the invasion and growth in fibroblasts in vitro or on virulence in vivo. The conservation of RON9 and RON10 in Coccidia and Cryptosporidia suggests a specific relation with development in intestinal epithelial cells.

Lamarque, Mauld H.; Papoin, Julien; Finizio, Anne-Laure; Lentini, Gaelle; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Candolfi, Ermanno; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Lebrun, Maryse



Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies.

Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.



Blackhead disease in turkeys: direct transmission of Histomonas meleagridis from bird to bird in a laboratory model.  


The spread of Histomonas meleagridis infections through groups of turkeys in the absence of the cecal worm vector (Heterakis gallinarum) was studied in a battery cage model. Battery-reared poults were exposed at 2 wk of age by commingling with infected birds into cages that had the floor lined with paper. One treatment received no exposure, whereas other birds were commingled with two, three, or four birds/cage (25%, 37.5%, or 50%) inoculated per cloaca with cultured H. meleagridis (200,000/bird). Inoculated birds died at 7-13 days postinoculation (DPI) showing typical liver and cecal lesions of histomoniasis. By 14 DPI, 87.5% of the directly inoculated birds died or had severe lesions of histomoniasis. Turkeys commingled with two, three, or four infected birds became infected at the rate of 72%, 80%, or 75%, respectively. In another experiment, two birds/cage (25%) were inoculated with Histomonas from culture and allowed to commingle with other birds for 1, 2, 3, or 4 days. Two of 12 (16.7%) birds had minor cecal lesions after contact with inoculated birds for 1 day, but 87.5%-100% became infected if inoculated birds remained in the cage for 2-4 days. Contemporaneous inoculation with cecal coccidia (Eimeria adenoeides) as a predisposing factor in blackhead infections was studied using the model. Turkey poults directly inoculated with Histomonas were allowed to commingle for 5 days with uninoculated birds that had received inoculation with 0, 10(3), or 10(4) sporulated oocysts. The coccidian infection appeared to interfere with transmission of blackhead infection by 7 DPI, as suggested by lessened severity of cecal lesions and a lower percentage of infected birds. These studies confirm that histomoniasis is transmitted readily from directly exposed young turkeys to others in the absence of the cecal worm vector, and that this phenomenon can be reproduced in battery cages as an experimental model. PMID:16252483

McDougald, L R; Fuller, L



Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.  


Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial drugs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment. PMID:8285619

Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R



The efficacy of anticoccidial products against Eimeria spp. in northern bobwhites.  


To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with 1 x 10(6) oocysts of a field isolate consisting primarily of Eimeria lettyae. Subsequently, we tested clopidol, lasalocid, salinomycin, diclazuril (1 ppm), and monensin against mixed-species field isolates containing E. lettyae, E. dispersa, E. colini, or all. Weight gain, gross intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 6 days postinfection were recorded. Lesion score, as previously reported, was unreliable as a measure of severity of infection in comparison with weight gain, fecal scores, and FCR. Excellent to good efficacy was found in clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), and in lasalocid, narasin and nicarbazin, robenidine, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin, and zoalene (150 ppm). Marginal protection was found using monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin, or a roxarsone/semduramicin combination. Amprolium, roxarsone, and zoalene (125 ppm) were ineffective at controlling coccidia. Two of the six isolates tested against diclazuril 1 ppm and clopidol demonstrated a high degree of resistance, but none of the six isolates was resistant to lasalocid. Four of the eight isolates showed mild to moderate, and moderate to high, resistance against monensin and salinomycin, respectively. These findings indicate that several available compounds are effective at controlling coccidiosis in bobwhites. PMID:21500637

Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; Lollis, L; Parr, C; McDougald, L R



Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.  


The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis. PMID:20717723

Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine



Immunization of broiler chicks by in ovo injection of infective stages of Eimeria.  


Immunization of chickens by in ovo injection of infective stages of 5 species of Eimeria was investigated. Fertile Hubbard x Petersen broiler chicken eggs were injected through the air cell on d 18 of incubation with oocysts of E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, or E. brunetti. Injected doses of all species ranged from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts per egg. Chicks receiving oocysts in ovo shed oocysts posthatch. After 2 wk in wire-floored cages, birds were given a challenge infection with the homologous Eimeria species. Chicks immunized by in ovo injection of oocysts had significantly reduced lesion scores, improved weight gain, or reduced oocyst output compared with their nonimmunized counterparts. In additional studies, eggs were injected with 1 x 10(5) sporozoites of E. tenella, E. maxima, or E. acervulina per egg. Sporozoites of E. acervulina were not infective for chick embryos when administered in phosphate-buffered saline, but if sporozoites were suspended in tissue culture medium when injected in ovo, hatched chicks shed oocysts with peak output occurring 3 to 4 d posthatch. Sporozoites of E. maxima and E. tenella were infective for 18-d-old embryos regardless of the vehicle. The results demonstrate that immunization of broiler chickens against several species of coccidia by in ovo injection of oocysts is feasible. The infectivity of sporozoites for 18-d-old chick embryos varied depending on the species of Eimeria and the vehicle in which the sporozoites were suspended prior to injection. PMID:15049491

Weber, F H; Genteman, K C; LeMay, M A; Lewis, D O; Evans, N A



Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts.  


Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study, the effect of MS on the viability and infectivity of ocysts was investigated. The development of isolated, unsporulated oocysts of both Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima was inhibited, in a dose-related manner (IC(50) 8 to 14 microg/ml), by exposure to aqueous MS. Most treated oocysts failed to develop beyond early stages of sporulation. To determine the effect of MS on infectivity, isolated oocysts of E. tenella , Eimeria acervulina , and E. maxima were exposed for 24 hr to aqueous concentrations of MS ranging from 0 to 1,000 microg/ml. Treated oocysts were inoculated into chickens, and parameters of coccidiosis infection were compared to chickens inoculated with equal numbers of untreated oocysts. In a dose-related manner, MS significantly reduced the infectivity of oocysts with maximum effect observed at a dose of 300 microg/ml. When a mixture of oocysts containing 3 coccidian species was exposed to 300 microg/ml MS, from 0 to 24 hr, infectivity of oocysts was significantly reduced after a minimum of 12 hr of exposure. Treatment of aqueous slurries of litter samples obtained from commercial poultry houses, with 300 microg/ml MS for 24 hr, prevented the sporulation of eimerian oocysts in the litter samples relative to untreated control samples. The results indicate that MS could be used to reduce coccidial contamination of poultry litter. PMID:20557209

Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Miska, K B; Cain, G D



Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.  


A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in comparison to broilers not given the probiotics or the specific EO blends as feed supplements. PMID:21793655

Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O



Development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using X-irradiated Eimeria acervulina oocysts  

SciTech Connect

Sporulated oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of X-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. Irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. Insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad X-irradiation. Sporozoites exposed to 15 or 20 krad irradiation conferred significant protection against the appearance of intestinal lesions after parasite challenge. Sporozoites subjected to the highest dose level (30 krad) did not produce any significant level of protection. To investigate this phenomenon further and assess intracellular parasite development, susceptible outbred strains of chickens were administered either nonirradiated (0 krad) oocysts or oocysts that were exposed to an optimal dose (15 krad) or a high dose (30 krad) of X-irradiation. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from each treatment group at various intervals after the initial administration of irradiated parasites indicated that sporozoites exposed to 15 krad irradiation were as capable of invading the host intestinal epithelium as nonirradiated sporozoites. However, at 48, 60, 72, and 96 hr, there was a marked reduction in merogonic development in groups receiving irradiated sporozoites compared to those inoculated with nonirradiated parasites. The latter parasites underwent profuse merogonic development; in contrast, irradiated parasites demonstrated little (15 krad) or no (30 krad) merogonic development. These results suggest that induction of a protective immune response occurs during a critical period early in intracellular development of E. acervulina.

Jenkins, M.C.; Augustine, P.C.; Barta, J.R.; Castle, M.D.; Danforth, H.D. (US Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))



The parasite specific substitution matrices improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A number of apicomplexan genomes have been sequenced successfully in recent years and this would help in understanding the biology of apicomplexan parasites. The members of the phylum Apicomplexa are important protozoan parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium etc) that cause some of the deadly diseases in humans and animals. In our earlier studies, we have shown that the standard BLOSUM matrices are not suitable for compositionally biased apicomplexan proteins. So we developed a novel series (SMAT and PfFSmat60) of substitution matrices which performed better in comparison to standard BLOSUM matrices and developed ApicoAlign, a sequence search and alignment tool for apicomplexan proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the higher specificity of these matrices and make an attempt to improve the annotation of apicomplexan kinases and proteases. Results The ROC curves proved that SMAT80 performs best for apicomplexan proteins followed by compositionally adjusted BLOSUM62 (PSI-BLAST searches), BLOSUM90 and BLOSUM62 matrices in terms of detecting true positives. The poor E-values and/or bit scores given by SMAT80 matrix for the experimentally identified coccidia-specific oocyst wall proteins against hematozoan (non-coccidian) parasites further supported the higher specificity of the same. SMAT80 uniquely detected (missed by BLOSUM) orthologs for 1374 apicomplexan hypothetical proteins against SwissProt database and predicted 70 kinases and 17 proteases. Further analysis confirmed the conservation of functional residues of kinase domain in one of the SMAT80 detected kinases. Similarly, one of the SMAT80 detected proteases was predicted to be a rhomboid protease. Conclusions The parasite specific substitution matrices have higher specificity for apicomplexan proteins and are helpful in detecting the orthologs missed by BLOSUM matrices and thereby improve the annotation of apicomplexan proteins which are hypothetical or with unknown function.



Absorption and deposition of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with three dosages of Eimeria acervulina oocysts.  


Abstract 1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of oocysts of Eimeria acervulina on intestinal absorption and skin deposition of xanthophylls (XAs) in broilers. 2. A total of 192 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups: an uninfected control group and three groups inoculated with either 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina by gavaging at 21 d. There were 4 replicate pens (2 male and 2 female) per group. 3. Plasma xanthophyll (PX) and skin yellowness (SY) were measured in live birds weekly. At 42 d of age, SY was measured in the breast and abdomen after chilling and in the breast 24 h post-processing on refrigerated carcasses. 4. In general, in all challenged treatments, and for the duration of the study, the average PX decreased by 0.02 ?g/ml (R(2) = 61.6%) for every 1000 inoculated oocysts, whereas PX increased by 1.26 ?g/ml/d in uninfected birds. 5. The average SY in live birds from 21 to 42 d of age decreased by 0.019 b*/every 1000 oocysts administered, while SY of uninfected controls increased by 0.57 b*/d. It was also noted that in all treatments females had a greater SY (6.17 b*) than males for the duration of the study. The SY of the breast and abdomen was correlated (r = 0.76) in chilled carcasses. Breast SY in 24 h refrigerated carcasses was greater in the control group and for female birds. 6. Oocyst excretion was different between inoculated treatments only on 7 d post-inoculation (PI). Coccidia lesion scores in the duodenum averaged 1+ in infected birds and 2+ in birds given the highest oocyst dose. PMID:24720798

Hernández-Velasco, X; Chapman, H D; Owens, C M; Kuttappan, V A; Fuente-Martínez, B; Menconi, A; Latorre, J D; Kallapura, G; Bielke, L R; Rathinam, T; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G



Prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitisation: a cross-sectional study among outpatients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Catalonia, Spain.  


The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool specimens from outpatients in Catalonia (Spain), and to evaluate the association of age, seasonality, and gender on general parasitisation and by the most frequent detected species. A total of 13,913 samples from 8,313 patients (1-3 specimens per patient) reporting digestive disorders were examined between 1999 and 2005 as a part of medical examinations. Samples were fixed with MIF solution and microscopically examined as wet mounts. Permanent stain was obtained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for intestinal coccidia. Nineteen species of intestinal parasites were identified. Blastocystis hominis (585 patients) was the predominant species, followed by Giardia duodenalis (321), Dientamoeba fragilis (131), Entamoeba coli (60) and Cryptosporidium sp. (59). Prevalence of helminths was low, being Enterobius vermicularis as the most frequently reported helminth (49 patients). The overall parasitisation was 1,136/8,313 (13.7%); prevalence in adults was 19.8% with a maximum in spring (14.8%). In the adjusted models, age was the main factor associated with infection: adults, with B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (odds ratio (OR)?=?6.0 and OR?=?8.5, respectively) and children, with Cryptosporidium and Giardia (OR?=?2.0 and OR?=?3.3, respectively). However, seasonality cannot be considered related with infection. The total prevalence was low, taking into account that all the subjects examined presented gastrointestinal symptoms and that species traditionally considered as non-pathogenic were included in the study. PMID:20862495

González-Moreno, Olga; Domingo, Laia; Teixidor, Jaume; Gracenea, Mercedes



Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs) against prepatent and patent infection with Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex in dogs.  


Three randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox(®) suspension for dogs) against Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex. Unweaned puppies were experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of I. canis and/or I. ohioensis-complex. In each study, one group was treated during prepatency (2 or 4 days post infection) while dogs in the second group were treated individually after the onset of oocyst excretion of the respective coccidia species. The dogs were treated with the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Daily faecal oocyst counts from both groups were compared to placebotreated control groups to determine efficacy.Dogs treated during prepatent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infection showed significantly lower oocyst counts for up to 12 days compared to the control group. Oocyst counts were reduced by 90.2 - 100 % while the control groups continued to exhibit an adequate infection, except for one study where efficacy against prepatent I. canis infection faded 13 days after treatment. Following treatment of patent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infections, significantly lowered oocyst counts were observed for up to 9 days compared to the control group. Faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 91.5 - 100 %. In all three studies the number of days with diarrhoea was significantly lower when dogs were treated during prepatent Isospora spp. infection compared to the control groups. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the studies. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated that emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is an efficient coccidiocide for dogs. PMID:21739371

Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Schroeder, Iris; Joachim, Anja; Settje, Terry; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J



Toxoplasma gondii: susceptibility and development of resistance to anticoccidial drugs in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Anticoccidial drugs were evaluated for activity and for the development of resistance in a model of Toxoplasma gondii growing in human fibroblast cultures. Of 13 anticoccidial drugs tested, 9 had selective antitoxoplasma activity (50% inhibitory concentration, in micrograms per milliliter): decoquinate (0.005), arprinocid-N-oxide (0.015), robenidine (0.03), the aryl triazine CP-25,415 (0.2), toltrazuril (0.4), clopidol (1), dinitolmide (Zoalene; Dow) (10), and the carboxylic acid ionophores monensin (0.001) and salinomycin (0.04). Glycarbylamide, amprolium, nicarbazin, and the 6-(p-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro analog of halofuginone (Stenorol; Roussel-UCLAF) (CP-63,567) were toxic for the fibroblasts. Since Eimeria tenella has a similar drug susceptibility profile, anticoccidial durgs can be viewed as a potential source of new antitoxoplasma therapies. The development of resistance has limited the usefulness of most of these drugs as anticoccidial agents; in coccidia, resistance to all except the ionophores occurs readily in vivo. We explored the development of resistance in T. gondii by attempting to select mutants in vitro from parasites mutagenized with ethylnitrosourea. Mutants that had 20- to 50-fold-reduced susceptibility to decoquinate, arprinocid-N-oxide, and CP-25,415 were obtained. Ionophore-resistant T. gondii mutants were also selected in vitro; however, there was only a twofold difference in susceptibility between these mutants and the wild type. For three drugs (clopidol, robenidine, and toltrazuril), we were unable to select resistant mutants. For experimental anticoccidial drugs, there is currently no in vitro method for assessing the risk of development of resistance in Eimeria species. Our results suggest that T. gondii may offer a useful surrogate for this assessment.

Ricketts, A P; Pfefferkorn, E R



Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations.  


Translocations of species are expected to be used increasingly to counter the undesirable effects of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, including loss of species. Methods to assess the risk of disease associated with translocations have been compiled in a comprehensive manual of disease-risk analysis for movement of domestic animals. We used this manual to devise a qualitative method for assessing the probability of the occurrence of disease in wild animals associated with translocations. We adapted the method such that we considered a parasite (any agent of infectious or noninfectious disease) a hazard if it or the host had crossed an ecological or geographical barrier and was novel to the host. We included in our analyses hazards present throughout the translocation pathway derived from the interactions between host immunity and the parasite, the effect of parasites on populations, the effect of noninfectious disease agents, and the effect of stressors on host-parasite interactions. We used the reintroduction of Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) to England to demonstrate our method. Of the 24 hazards identified, 1 was classified as high risk (coccidia) and 5 were medium risk (highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, Mycobacterium avium, Aspergillus fumigatus, tracheal worms [Syngamus sp. and Cyathostoma sp.], and Tetrameres spp.). Seventeen other hazards were considered low or very low risk. In the absence of better information on the number, identity, distribution, and pathogenicity of parasites of wild animals, there is uncertainty in the risk of disease to translocated animals and recipient populations. Surveys of parasites in source and destination populations and detailed health monitoring after release will improve the information available for future analyses of disease risk. We believe our method can be adapted to assess the risks of disease in other translocated populations. PMID:22533691

Sainsbury, Anthony W; Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca J



Stage-specific expression of protease genes in the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria tenella  

PubMed Central

Background Proteases regulate pathogenesis in apicomplexan parasites but investigations of proteases have been largely confined to the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, little is known about proteases in other Apicomplexa, particularly in the sexual stages. We screened the Eimeria tenella genome database for proteases, classified these into families and determined their stage specific expression. Results Over forty protease genes were identified in the E. tenella genome. These were distributed across aspartic (three genes), cysteine (sixteen), metallo (fourteen) and serine (twelve) proteases. Expression of at least fifteen protease genes was upregulated in merozoites including homologs of genes known to be important in host cell invasion, remodelling and egress in P. falciparum and/or T. gondii. Thirteen protease genes were specifically expressed or upregulated in gametocytes; five of these were in two families of serine proteases (S1 and S8) that are over-represented in the coccidian parasites, E. tenella and T. gondii, distinctive within the Apicomplexa because of their hard-walled oocysts. Serine protease inhibitors prevented processing of EtGAM56, a protein from E. tenella gametocytes that gives rise to tyrosine-rich peptides that are incorporated into the oocyst wall. Conclusion Eimeria tenella possesses a large number of protease genes. Expression of many of these genes is upregulated in asexual stages. However, expression of almost one-third of protease genes is upregulated in, or confined to gametocytes; some of these appear to be unique to the Coccidia and may play key roles in the formation of the oocyst wall, a defining feature of this group of parasites.



A seasonal survey of gastrointestinal parasites in captive wild impala antelope on a game facility south of Lusaka, Zambia.  


Faecal samples (n = 1947) from captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) were examined over a period of 14 months to determine quantitative seasonal helminth egg excretion patterns and qualitative protozoan oocyst excretion patterns. Geometric mean monthly faecal egg counts (FECs) ranged from 20 to 575 and coprocultures revealed three parasite genera, namely Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Strongyloides. Larvae of the Trichostrongylus spp. were most predominant from faecal cultures. No trematode eggs or lungworms were detected and eggs of the cestode Monezia were only seen in two samples during the entire study period. The nematode FECs showed a marked seasonal variation, being higher during the rainy season, moderate during the cool dry season and low during the hot dry season. The rainy season had significantly higher FECs than the dry season (P < 0.01). The percentage of helminth-egg positive faecal samples ranged from 90.6 to 100% in the rainy season and 72.4 to 85.6% in the dry season. Overall mean FECs in unpelleted faeces were significantly higher than in pelleted faeces (P < 0.01). However, the FECs were not significantly different among seasons in unpelleted faeces (P>0.05), but were significantly higher in pelleted faeces in the rainy season than the dry season (P < 0.05). Pellet size had a significant effect on FEC, with smaller pellets having higher FEC (P < 0.05). Strongyloides eggs and coccidia oocysts were only seen during the rainy season. This represents the first documentation of seasonal parasitic infestation in captive wild antelopes in Zambia. Treatment and control strategies for helminths in these captive wild impala are also suggested based on the findings from this study. PMID:22071007

Nalubamba, K S; Mudenda, N B; Malamo, M R



Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography.  


The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross-reactivity was seen with 10 different protozoa (152 challenges), nine different helminths (35 challenges), or human cells (4 challenges) found in fecal specimens. This rapid test system may be very beneficial in the absence of trained microscopists; however, for patients who remain symptomatic after a negative result, the ova and parasite examination and special stains for other coccidia and the microsporidia should always remain options. PMID:12517850

Garcia, Lynne S; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank



A survey of the coccidian parasites of reptiles from islands of the Galápagos Archipelago: 1990-1994.  


From 1990 through 1994, fecal samples were collected and examined for coccidian parasites from 26 giant land tortoises Geochelone nigra, from 715 lava lizards Tropidurus spp., from 139 land iguanas Conolophus subcristatus, and from 128 marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, all of which inhabit various islands in the Galápagos Archipelago. None of the samples from A. cristatus or from C. subcristatus was infected with coccidia. Only 1 of 26 (4%) G. nigra was infected with a single Eimeria species that we describe here as new. A total of 262 of 715 (37%) individuals representing 3 species of Tropidurus discharged oocysts of 1-3 different coccidian species; these included 2 previously described species Eimeria tropidura and Isospora insularius, and an eimerian that we describe here as new. Additionally, 104 fecal samples from Tropidurus spp. were from 51 animals recaptured in either 2 or 3 yr; 21 had no infections in any year, 15 were infected at least once, 14 were infected in 2 yr, and only 1 was infected during 3 yr. No animal was recaptured and sampled during each of the 4 yr of this study. Of the 262 infected individuals, 30 (12%) had multiple coccidial infections at the time of collection (eimerian and isosporan, or 2 eimerians). Where determination of the sexes was possible in the lava lizards, there was no difference in prevalence rates between males (39%) and females (41%). Sporulated oocysts of the new eimerian from Tropidurus are ellipsoidal, 27.1 x 15.6 (25-31 x 14-18) microns, with a polar body, but without a micropyle or oocyst residuum; they contain ellipsoidal sporocysts, 11.8 x 6.7 (10-14 x 6-8) microns, without Stieda, sub-, or parastieda bodies, but with a sporocyst residuum. Sporulated oocysts of the new eimerian from G. nigra are ellipsoidal to ovoidal, 21.6 x 18.1 (18-25 x 16-20) microns, with a large polar body, but without a micropyle or oocyst residuum; they contain ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.7 x 7.0 (8-12 x 5-8) microns, with Stieda body but no sub- or parastieda bodies. Also present is a sporocyst residuum of medium to large granules randomly distributed among the sporocysts. PMID:8636848

Couch, L; Stone, P A; Duszynski, D W; Snell, H L; Snell, H M



A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

Tuggle, B. N.



Sensitivity of avian Eimeria spp. to seven chemical and five ionophore anticoccidials in five Belgian integrated broiler operations.  


Coccidia were isolated from 122 Belgian broiler farms without clinical coccidiosis. Shuttle programs including robenidin or nicarbazine in the starter (7-14 days) followed by an ionophore or diclazuril in the grower ration were most commonly used. Out of 215 coccidiosis-positive groups, 146 Eimeria acervulina, 65 E. maxima, and 88 E. tenella isolates were tested without further laboratory propagation in 17 sensitivity profiles. For each profile, oocytes were pooled from 9 +/- 4 farms (mean +/- SD) that used the same anticoccidial program and that belonged to the same integrated broiler operation. Each suspension contained an equal number of isolates and oocyst numbers from each farm tested. Each profile included an unmedicated uninfected group, an unmedicated infected group, and 11 medicated infected groups, consisting each of three replicates of three Ross chicks. Medication started at 8 days of age, and each inoculated bird received 50,000 sporulated oocysts at 10 days. Results were related to the anticoccidial program that had been in use. Chemical drugs showed the highest activity against Eimeria, whereas ionophores were less efficacious. Of the latter, monensin (110 ppm) was least active; narasin (70 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), and maduramicin (5 ppm) took an intermediate position, and lasalocid (90 ppm) was most active. A 50% improvement in weight gain was obtained in 7 to 10 out of 17 profiles with 100 + 8.35 ppm clopidol/methylbenzoquate (10), 125 ppm nicarbazin (9), 3 ppm halofuginone (8), and 1 ppm diclazuril (7). A 50% improvement in feed conversion was obtained in 7 to 11 profiles with nicarbazin (11), halofuginone (10), diclazuril (9), 33 ppm robenidine (9), clopidol/methylbenzoquate (7), and lasalocid (7). Based on relative oocyst output, the highest activity against E. acervulina was obtained with clopidol/methylbenzoquate (8/16); the highest activity against E. maxima was obtained with lasalocid (6/6), diclazuril (5/6), and halofuginone (5/6); and the highest activity against E. tenella was obtained with diclazuril (8/8), amprolium/ethopabate (5/8), halofuginone (4/8), maduramicin (4/8), and nicarbazin (4/8). PMID:7832701

Peeters, J E; Derijcke, J; Verlinden, M; Wyffels, R




PubMed Central

Coccidian oocysts resembling those of Isospora bigemina were excreted by cats fed Toxoplasma. In order to identify these oocysts with Toxoplasma infectivity a number of critical comparisons were made. The appearance of oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity was simultaneous in the feces of 23 of 24 adult cats, 3–5 days after feeding of Toxoplasma cysts; in the feces of 4 out of 9 cats, 7–10 days after feeding of trophozoites; and in 8 out of 17 cats, 20–24 days after feeding of cat feces containing oocysts. Oocysts and infectivity were present in similar numbers, and they disappeared simultaneously from the feces of cats. Oocysts and infectivity were also observed simultaneously in the feces of 9 kittens, 1–2 days old, fed Toxoplasma cysts. Oocysts could not be separated from infectivity by filtration, by continuous particle electrophoresis, or by density gradient centrifugation. Excystation of oocysts was followed by an increase in titer of Toxoplasma infectivity. Unsporulated oocysts in fresh cat feces were noninfectious to mice, but oocyst sporulation was associated quantitatively with the development of infectivity at different temperatures and conditions of oxygenation. Maximum oocyst sporulation at 48 hr correlated with the development of maximum Toxoplasma infectivity. 1 and 2% sulfuric acid, and 2.5% potassium dichromate were found to be the best preservatives for sporulation of oocysts and for the development of Toxoplasma infectivity. Low sporulation rates in 0.1% formalin, 20% ethanol, and in water were associated with low infectivity in these reagents. Neither Toxoplasma infectivity nor oocysts developed in 0.3% formalin, 1% ammonium hydroxide, or 1% iodine in 20% ethanol. Oocysts, sporocysts, and sporozoites were stained specifically with Toxoplasma antibody in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Typical coccidian stages, schizonts, and male and female gametocytes were found in the epithelium of the small intestine of kittens fed Toxoplasma cysts. The classification of T. gondii is discussed in relation to that of other isosporan coccidia of cats and dogs. The term "Toxoplasma oocyst" is introduced and Toxoplasma is classified in the family Toxoplasmidae of the suborder Eimeriina. The species Isospora bigemina is restricted to dogs, and I. cati to cats. I. felis and so-called I. rivolta from cats were noninfectious to dogs, and did not confer immunity to subsequent infection with I. canis and I. rivolta from dogs.

Dubey, J. P.; Miller, Nancy L.; Frenkel, J. K.



Immune responses to dietary beta-glucan in broiler chicks during an Eimeria challenge.  


Escalating consumer concerns regarding pathogen resistance have placed the poultry industry under mounting pressure to eliminate the use of chemotherapeutic agents as feed additives. One possible alternative receiving increased attention is the use of immunomodulators such as ?-glucan. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a yeast-derived ?-glucan (Auxoferm YGT) on broiler chick performance, lesion scores, and immune-related gene expression during a mixed Eimeria infection. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% YGT. On d 8 posthatch, one-half of the replicate pens were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Measurements were taken and samples collected on d 4, 10, 14, and 21 posthatch. Dietary supplementation had no effect on performance or mortality. On d 14, 3 birds per pen (n = 24/treatment) were scored for intestinal coccidia lesions. Gross lesion severity was significantly reduced in birds supplemented with 0.1% YGT. On d 10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was downregulated in the jejunum of challenged birds fed 0.1% YGT. Expression of iNOS in the ileum was downregulated in the nonchallenged birds, but upregulated in the challenged birds fed 0.1% YGT on d 14. Interleukin (IL)-18 was upregulated in the jejunum of 0.1% YGT-treated birds. Interferon (IFN)-? expression was decreased in challenged and nonchallenged birds fed 0.1% YGT. The IL-4 expression was downregulated in the nonchallenged birds with 0.1% YGT diet supplementation. The IL-13 and mucin-1 levels were also reduced due to ?-glucan supplementation. Mucin-2 expression was increased in the nonchallenged birds, but decreased in the infected birds fed 0.1% YGT. These results suggest that although Auxoferm YGT at doses of 0.02 and 0.1% does not influence performance, it significantly reduces lesion severity and is capable of altering immune-related gene expression profiles, favoring an enhanced T helper type-1 cell response during coccidiosis. PMID:21076097

Cox, C M; Sumners, L H; Kim, S; McElroy, A P; Bedford, M R; Dalloul, R A



Serologic, parasitic, and bacteriologic assessment of captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae) in Brazil.  


Captive cracids (Aves: Galliformes: Cracidae), including endangered species, were studied (n = 130) for the assessment of health status, including Aburria jacutinga (black-fronted piping-guan, n = 42), Crax blumenbachii (red-knobbed curassow, n = 54), Craxfasciolata (bare-faced curassow, n = 28), and Penelope obscura (dusky-legged guan, n = 6). The exposure to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Salmonella pullorum (SP), Salmonella gallinarum (SG), avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were determined by serology, and SG and SP also were evaluated by culture. Ectoparasites and endoparasites were identified using light microscopy. Sera were negative by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to MG or MS, although serum was reactive to MG (32%, 42/130) by the rapid serum agglutination test (SAT). Although positive reactions (26.9%, 35/130) for SP and SG were detected by SAT, cloacal swab cultures were negative for SP and SG. IBDV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two dusky-legged guans (1.5%, 2/130). HI antibody titers to APMV-1 were found in 20 (15.3%) cracids, with titers ranging from 16 to 1,024. Fifty percent of birds (65/130) had ectoparasites. Lice (Menacanthus spp.) and mites (Astigmata: Analgesidae, Megninidae; Megninia spp.) were found in red-knobbed curassow; Megninia spp. also were found in bare-faced curassow, black-fronted piping-guan, and dusky-legged guan. Eleven black-fronted piping-guans presented dual parasitism by Megninia spp. and Ornithonyssus spp. Endoparasites were detected in 16.1% (21/130) of birds, and some with multiple parasites. Oocysts of coccidia and eggs of Capillaria spp. (Nematoda: Trichuroidea) were found in the feces of red-knobbed curassow. Eggs of Strongyloides spp. were found in the feces of bare-faced curassow, and eggs of Ascaridia spp., Capillaria spp., and Strongyloides spp. were found in black-fronted piping-guan. Cysts of Blastocystis spp. were found in dusky-legged guan. Antibodies to IBDV and APMV-1 indicate previous exposure. However, considering that birds were clinically normal, immune stimulation might have been from live chicken vaccine strain infections that are widely used in Brazilian poultry. The high parasitism levels indicate that a routine inspection for internal and external parasites is warranted. PMID:23505700

Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Junior, Francisco Carlos Ferreira; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva



Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.  


Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from female Simmenthal calves. Clinical coccidiosis (diarrhea) was observed in 74 cases, and (semi-)liquid diarrhea (56 animals) was significantly correlated with OPG (p < 0.05). Linear regression on the OPG data showed that OPG values significantly decreased with increasing age of the calves, while the percentage of positive samples increased with age (p < 0.05 for both). The term "coccidia" was familiar to 45% of the farmers, and anticoccidial treatment was performed by 13.51% of them, most commonly with toltrazuril. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence and the possible clinical and economic relevance of calf eimeriosis, infections should receive increased attention by both farmers and veterinarians. PMID:22167365

Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W