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Sample records for cochliomyia macellaria fabricius

  1. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  2. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS FOR DISCRIMINATING COCHLIOMYIA HOMINIVORAX FROM C. MACELLARIA (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most important pests of livestock in the Western Hemisphere. During early immature stages, it is morphologically similar to the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). to develop markers for each species, the random amp...

  3. Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) released from rotten chicken liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), is an important blowfly species affecting both livestock and humans. It can transmit pathogenic disease agents mechanically and is an agent of facultative myiasis, which leads to economic losses. The adult flies are attracted to decomposing carca...

  4. Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) released from rotten chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei J; Chaudhury, Muhammad F; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Skoda, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), is an important blowfly species affecting both livestock and humans. It can transmit pathogenic disease agents mechanically and is an agent of facultative myiasis, which leads to economic losses. The adult flies are attracted to decomposing carcasses, carrion, or rotten meat in order to deposit their eggs, and the hatched larvae develop on these decaying organic materials. This research was aimed to identify volatiles emitted from rotten chicken livers that were reported previously to attract gravid females. In laboratory oviposition assays, gravid females laid significantly more eggs on rotten livers than on fresh livers, and rotten chicken liver was more attractive than rotten beef liver. Volatiles from the two livers were collected using solid phase microextraction. Significantly different volatile profiles were detected from the rotten livers of beef and chicken. Electroantennography (EAG) was performed to determine antennal responses to chemicals released from the most attractive chicken liver that are candidate oviposition attractants. Seven compounds from rotten chicken liver elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of gravid females. Oviposition assays showed that the 7-component blend stimulated gravid females to lay significantly more eggs than the other combinations tested. This 7-component blend may have potential for use in monitoring and sampling populations of secondary screwworm and their associated disease epidemiology. PMID:24174348

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the forensically important genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Yusseff-Vanegas, Sohath; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Cochliomyia Townsend includes several abundant and one of the most broadly distributed, blow flies in the Americas, and is of significant economic and forensic importance. For decades, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) have received attention as livestock parasites and primary indicator species in forensic entomology. However, Cochliomyia minima Shannon and Cochliomyia aldrichi Del Ponte have only been subject to basic taxonomy and faunistic studies. Here we present the first complete phylogeny of Cochliomyia including numerous specimens per species, collected from 13 localities in the Caribbean. Four genes, the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear EF-1α, 28S rRNA, and ITS2, were analyzed. While we found some differences among gene trees, a concatenated gene matrix recovered a robustly supported monophyletic Cochliomyia with Compsomyiops Townsend as its sister group and recovered the monophyly of Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Cochliomyia minima. Our results support a close relationship between Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi. However, we found Cochliomyia aldrichi containing Cochliomyia minima, indicating recent speciation, or issues with the taxonomy of the group. We provide basic information on habitat preference, distribution and feeding habits of Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi that will be useful for future forensic studies in the Caribbean. PMID:27563274

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the forensically important genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Yusseff-Vanegas, Sohath; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cochliomyia Townsend includes several abundant and one of the most broadly distributed, blow flies in the Americas, and is of significant economic and forensic importance. For decades, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) have received attention as livestock parasites and primary indicator species in forensic entomology. However, Cochliomyia minima Shannon and Cochliomyia aldrichi Del Ponte have only been subject to basic taxonomy and faunistic studies. Here we present the first complete phylogeny of Cochliomyia including numerous specimens per species, collected from 13 localities in the Caribbean. Four genes, the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear EF-1α, 28S rRNA, and ITS2, were analyzed. While we found some differences among gene trees, a concatenated gene matrix recovered a robustly supported monophyletic Cochliomyia with Compsomyiops Townsend as its sister group and recovered the monophyly of Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Cochliomyia minima. Our results support a close relationship between Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi. However, we found Cochliomyia aldrichi containing Cochliomyia minima, indicating recent speciation, or issues with the taxonomy of the group. We provide basic information on habitat preference, distribution and feeding habits of Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi that will be useful for future forensic studies in the Caribbean. PMID:27563274

  7. Evaluation of larval density Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for therapeutic use in the recovery of tegumentar injuries.

    PubMed

    Nassu, Mariana Prado; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Larval therapy (LT) is the application of carrion flies (Diptera) sterile larvae on chronic or infected wounds to promote or accelerate the healing process. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. This study evaluated the behavior and larval density of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Calliphoridae), one of the most appropriate species for debridement of injuries with necrotic tissue. Tegumentar lesions were induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneously application of 0.2 ml of a 1:4 hydrochloric acid and sterile distilled water in the dorsal region. Five experimental groups were set up: (LT 5) treatment with 5 larvae/cm(2); (LT 15) 15 larvae/cm(2); (LT 25) 25 larvae/cm(2); (DEB) mechanical debridement, and (NUL) animals that did not receive any treatment. In the LT groups, larvae used were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and maintained for 12 h in the lesions. The healing process was assessed qualitatively (macroscopically and microscopically) and quantitatively (time interval to complete healing). It was observed that the immature fed only on necrotic tissue, thus C. macellaria is an excellent candidate for use in LT. There was no significant difference in healing time between experimental groups. However, it was observed that in LT 25, there was greater vascularization in tissues when compared to the other treatments. The mechanisms involved in this process are unknown, but it is evident that the larvae have an important role in modulating the host immune response. It is essential that future applications of larval therapy consider using a higher density of larvae (minimum of 25 larvae/cm(2)) than is currently recommended. PMID:26022143

  8. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphologically, early immature stages of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exc...

  9. Histological patterns in healing chronic wounds using Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae and other therapeutic measures.

    PubMed

    de Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Nassu, Mariana Prado; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    The healing process occurs due to the interaction of cellular, molecular, and biochemical events. Regarding lesions difficult to heal, especially in immunocompromised patients, monitoring and intervention to promote healing is a constant focus of research. Another aggravating factor is the increase in the number of reported cases of microbial resistance, indicating that various dressings and drugs have been increasingly inefficient. Larval therapy (LT) involves the application of sterile fly larvae on chronic and/or infected wounds, and it is an area emerging as an alternative therapy. Before the 1940s, the LT was widely used, but fell into disuse after the appearance of antibiotics. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. However, many mechanisms of action of the larvae in this system remain poorly understood. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate histopathological findings and to evaluate possible mechanisms of action of dipteran larvae during tissue repair. Lesions were induced in 24 male Wistar rats, to evaluate the effect of the type of treatment applied. The animals were divided into four groups: larval therapy (LT), LT associated with foam dressing with silver release (LTSIL), mechanical debridement and silver foam dressing (DEBSIL), and no treatment (CONT). Skin samples were collected for histopathological analysis. In LT, inflammatory response and angiogenesis were abundant; in LTSIL, inflammatory response with neutrophil infiltration was observed; in DEBSIL, scarce inflammatory response, small numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and bacterial colonization in depth; and in CONT, there was bacterial colonization in deeper tissues. The observed histological events show that the larvae had an important role in promoting the inflammatory response in the wound bed, drawing the essential immune cells for tissue reconstruction, and contributing to the inhibition of bacterial growth. However, more studies on the larval-host interactions are required for increasing the application of LT in the hospital routine. PMID:25903008

  10. Characterization and utilization of microsatellite loci in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, A M; Evans, L M; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    New World screwworm populations in North and Central America have been the targets of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT) since the 1950s. Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based control programmes in some locations are unknown, but it has been hypothesized that failure may be related to mating incompatibility between sterile and wild fly populations or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. This paper outlines the development of a suite of four new microsatellite loci which can be used to study intra-specific relationships between populations of Cochliomyia hominivorax from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT control. Cross-amplification with the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria, was also successful with three of the new loci. We present results which suggest that populations from Trinidad and Jamaica form distinct groupings of flies and that C. hominivorax from Trinidad appears particularly distinct. PMID:19335825

  11. CANDIDATE SEX PHEROMONES OF THE NEW WORLD SCREWWORM COCHLIOMYIA HOMINIVORAX.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multinational programs to eradicate the New World Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) using the sterile insect technique were successful in Libya, North and Central America, and other programs are contemplated in the Caribbean and South America. Operational difficulties may occur in large-scale effo...

  12. Development and utilization of transgenic New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was the first insect to be effectively controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Recent efforts to improve NWS SIT biological control have centered on the development of genetically transformed strains using the piggyBac transposon...

  13. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person

    PubMed Central

    Novo-Neto, José Pereira; dos Santos, Fabiano de Sant'Ana; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Scannavino, Fábio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Alex Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity. PMID:26266071

  14. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person.

    PubMed

    Novo-Neto, José Pereira; Dos Santos, Fabiano de Sant'Ana; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Scannavino, Fábio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Alex Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity. PMID:26266071

  15. Artificial diets used in mass production of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), has been eradicated from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique. This success has been based on mass production of high quality screwworms using artificial diets since 1958. Many diet formulat...

  16. 454 pyrosequencing project on expressed genes from the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, was a devastating pest of livestock and other animals, including humans, throughout the US, Mexico and Central America. Although eradicated from North America, the screwworm still is a pest in South America and the Caribbean. Reinfestation of North A...

  17. A database of expressed genes from the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an expressed sequence tag and 454 pyrosequencing approach to initiate a study of the genome of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel). Two normalized cDNA libraries were constructed from RNA isolated from embryos and 2nd instar larvae from the Panama 95 strain. Approxima...

  18. Fabricius, David (1564-1617) and Fabricius, Johannes (1587-1616)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Lutheran pastor and astronomer in Osteel, East Frisia (northwest Germany), discoverer (1596) of the first known variable star, mira stella (`wonderful star'), now simply Mira (Omicron Ceti). Fabricius observed the star at its brightest and thought it was a nova, after which Holwarda noticed that a star in Cetus cataloged by PTOLEMY and TYCHO was missing but then it reappeared. Eventually the long...

  19. Patient with Tracheostomy Parasitized in Hospital by Larvae of the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Borja, Gonzalo E. M.; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of living vertebrates by fly larvae that feed for at least part of their development on the host's dead or living tissues, body substances, or ingested food. The occurrences of traumatic myiasis in humans and animals in urban and rural environments represent serious economic and public health concerns. This study reports a 49-year-old tracheostomized man undergoing chemotherapy treatment who was parasitized in the hospital in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by larvae of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the thoracic cavity. PMID:22243525

  20. Mark-recapture estimates of recruitment, survivorship and population growth rates for the screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pradel model mark, release, recapture estimates of survivorship, recruitment, and the rate of density-independent population growth, are presented for eight mark-recapture studies of the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax from Costa Rica, totaling 19,714 released and 4,504 recaptured flies. Corrobor...

  1. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  2. piggyBac transformation of the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, produces multiple distinct mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Allen, M L; Handler, A M; Berkebile, D R; Skoda, S R

    2004-03-01

    Sterile insect technique (SIT) programs are designed to eradicate pest species by releasing mass-reared, sterile insects into an infested area. The first major implementation of SIT was the New World Screwworm Eradication Program, which successfully eliminated the New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), from the Continental US, Mexico and much of Central America. Ionizing radiation is currently used for sterilization, but transgenic insect techniques could replace this method, providing a safer, more cost-effective alternative. Genetic transformation methods have been demonstrated in NWS, and verified by Southern blot hybridization, PCR and sequencing of element insertion junctions. A lethal insertional mutation and enhancer detection-like phenotypic expression variations are presented and discussed. In addition to supporting the eradication efforts, transformation methods offer potential means to identify genes and examine gene function in NWS. PMID:15009439

  3. History of the screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) eradication in the Eastern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kouba, V

    2004-01-01

    The screwworm caused by Cochliomyia Hominivorax, attacking warm-blooded animals and man, was discovered for the first time in the history outside of American continent, in the Eastern Hemisphere. After confirming the occurrence of this horrible myiasis in North Africa in 1989, Tripoli sheep import quarantine was traced as primary outbreak locality. The myiasis spread rapidly invading vast territory during several months. The invaded territory of 25000 km2 with more than 2.7 million domestic animals was identified between Mediterranean Sea and Sahara desert threatening territories in Africa and Mediterranean basin. From July 1989 up to eradication in April 1991 were discovered 14,111 cases. Classical control methods were not able to block screwworm spreading and eradicate it. Decision was made to use as the main method the sterile insect technique. Irradiated sterile flies were airlifted from Mexico factory. There were dispersed aerially about 1260 million flies covering invaded territories and 15000 km2 of protective barrier zones. Successful program cost almost 100 million US$. After the eradication Africa as well as Eastern Hemisphere could be declared to be again free of this myiasis. It was the most effective and successful international animal health program in the history of the United Nations Organization. PMID:15376361

  4. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  5. Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, reared for mass release do not carry and spread foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transporting live screwworms Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and classical swine fever (CSF) are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in Mexico and Panama may introduce these exotic diseases. This study was conducted to...

  6. Johannes Kepler and David Fabricius: Their Discussion on the Nova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, Miguel A.

    David Fabricius (1564-1617) was one of the most important astronomers in the period between 1596, the year of publication of Kepler's Mysterium cosmographicum, and 1609, the year of publication of the Astronomia nova.1 Kepler praised Fabricius as the most accurate observational astronomer after Tycho Brahe's death in 1601.2 Fabricius was a Reformed pastor in Ostfriesland (East Frisia), his remote natal region, and a vocational astronomer. He published nothing in the field of astronomy except for the short treatises between 1604 and 1606 concerning the nova that appeared in October 1604 in Serpentarius.

  7. Immature Development of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Fronza, E; Barros, N M; Specht, A

    2016-02-01

    We provide detailed temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) larvae fed on artificial diet under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14 h photophase). The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.5%, 97.0%, 93.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 5.0, 23.4, 3.2, and 21.5 days, respectively. Females took longer at the larval stage than males, with 10.5% of them having seven instars. The growth rate of female larvae that developed through six and seven instars was 1.72 and 1.54, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. PMID:26429580

  8. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Functional Studies in the Calliphoridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann. The expression stability of six genes (Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, α-tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. PMID:25373149

  9. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk. PMID:19753834

  10. Oral myiasis caused by the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax treated with subcutaneous ivermectin and creolin: report of six cases after trauma.

    PubMed

    Duque, Francisco L; Ardila, Carlos M

    2011-10-01

    Human myiasis is a rare condition that is more common in regions with a warm and humid climate. The larvae involved in myiasis are voracious; they destroy healthy tissues and may cause serious haemorrhage. The condition can be life threatening. Six patients with craniofacial trauma and oral myiasis are reported. The diagnoses were made after larvae had been extracted. Treatment consisted of subcutaneous ivermectin therapy and the application of a phenol preparation (10% creolin) as a local measure for the control of larvae. After 12 (±1) days of hospitalization, no larvae remained in the patients' mouths and the patients were discharged. The laboratory identified the larvae as those of the fly Cochliomyia hominivorax. Healing was uneventful in the six cases presented, and no undesirable reactions were observed throughout the period of treatment. Although the usual treatment for myiasis involves surgical removal of the maggots, pharmacological therapies are emerging as effective alternatives. PMID:21535400

  11. Sex steroid sensitivity of developing bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ylikomi, T; Tuohimaa, P

    1989-03-01

    Sex steroid sensitivity of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) was studied from the early embryonic time until its regression. Expression of progesterone receptor (PR) served as a dual marker: first, as a marker for progesterone sensitivity and second, as a marker for estrogen action, since it is an estrogen-induced protein. The progesterone binding molecule in the bursa was characterized by different chromatography methods and by steroid binding studies. We showed that it fulfils the criteria of a progesterone receptor by binding, structural and immunological properties. With immunohistochemistry and with the combined techniques of immunohistochemistry and autoradiography we demonstrated two cell types which express the PR: smooth muscle cells surrounding the BF and stromal cells located under the bursal epithelium and between the lymphoid follicles. The epithelium and the cells inside the lymphoid follicles were negative. Using immunoelectron microscopy the PR-expressing stromal cells were shown to be fibroblasts. The cloacal mesenchyme, from which the BF develops, was shown to be sensitive to exogenous estrogen very early during the embryonic time. The mesenchyme around and inside the developing BF reached estrogen sensitivity a few days later. The estrogen-sensitive mesenchymal cells were first seen surrounding the bursal primordium and later in the center of the plicae. During a natural sexual maturation without exogenous estradiol an expression of the PR was detected much later, at the age of 10-12 weeks after hatching. This expression correlates with the onset of the bursal regression and with the increase of the sex steroid levels in the blood. In the oviduct stroma PR was undetectable before the onset of sexual maturation. In the oviduct stroma PR becomes detectable a few weeks earlier than in the bursa. PMID:2485693

  12. First report of myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a diabetic foot ulcer patient in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis; Juri, María Julia Dantur

    2014-02-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  13. First Report of Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  14. Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken B-cells develop in a specific organ, the bursa of Fabricius. To understand the bursal microenvironment guiding B-cell development, previous studies identified ephrin (Eph) receptor B2 (EphB2) gene transcripts in the embryonic bursa. We hypothesize that the EphB2 receptors and their ligands r...

  15. Sequence-characterized amplified regions that differentiate New World screwworms from other potential wound-inhabiting flies.

    PubMed

    Christen, Joan A; Skoda, Steven R; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Lee, Donald J; Foster, John E

    2015-01-01

    New World screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858), were once devastating pests of warm-blooded animals in the United States before they were successfully eradicated using the sterile insect technique. Guarding against the introduction of screwworms to North America or any other screwworm-free area relies on rapid, reliable identification of suspected cases. In the current study, the DNA from excised markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was used as the basis to generate 2 species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region molecular markers. Resulting primer pairs, named CR92A1 and J1A2 (each with forward and reverse components), produced amplicons of 852 and 848 base pairs, respectively. The 2 primer pairs successfully discriminated between C. hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), 8 other species of blowflies, 3 noncalliphorid dipterans, and 1 nondipteran outlier. These primers may become important tools for veterinary laboratories and the screwworm eradication and exclusion program for rapid identification or verification of suspicious larval samples in presumed outbreaks. PMID:25387845

  16. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    PubMed

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and that the variation of the tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species. PMID:27193403

  17. Factors of Susceptibility of Human Myiasis Caused by the New World Screw-Worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo E.; Queiroz, Margareth M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out between July 2007 and June 2008 and reports on the occurrence of human myiasis caused by the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in São Gonçalo in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Liquid or solid vaseline was used to suffocate the larvae, which were then preserved in 70% ethanol and sent to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz for identification. C. hominivorax were identified in all 22 cases of myiasis. There were 12 male and 10 female patients with ages ranging from 03 to 71. Ethnically the highest incidence was among black people, with 17 cases. Open wounds were the main cause of the parasitosis, whereas poor personal hygiene, the low educational level, alcoholism, bedridden patients, and physical or mental disability were possibly secondary factors; in addition to all these factors the income of the patients was very low. PMID:21526934

  18. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801): Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius), live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf shea...

  19. Progesterone receptor in chicken bursa of Fabricius and thymus: evidence for expression in B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, S; Ylikomi, T; Palojoki, E; Syvälä, H; Pelto-Huikko, M; Tuohimaa, P

    1998-06-25

    In the present work constitutive progesterone receptor (PR) expression in the chicken bursa of Fabricius was detected in the stromal, smooth muscle and follicular medullary cells and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. PR expression was increased during sexual maturation and after estrogen treatment. Bursal medullary PR-positive cells were further characterized to be B-lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, estrogen induced expression of PR in the bursal FAE-cells (follicle-associated epithelial cells). In the thymus PR was expressed constitutively in the connective tissue cells of the capsule and interfollicular septa, in a few medullary cells and in vascular smooth muscle. The PR-positive medullary cells consisted of epithelial cells, large polygonal cells resembling macrophages and plasma cells. T-lymphocytes were PR-negative. Estrogen up-regulated PR expression in the thymus. Immunoblotting studies revealed that both isoforms of PR, i.e. PR-A and PR-B, were expressed in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus with PR-B dominance. These results suggest that the chicken primary lymphoid organs bursa and thymus are under regulation of estrogen and progesterone. Expression of PR in B-lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells in the chicken is documented for the first time and suggests evidence for direct action of progesterone on immune responses. PMID:9723893

  20. mRNA expression in different developmental stages of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Fubo; Shan, Hu; Wang, Shu-Bai; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the central humoral immune organ unique to birds, plays an important role in B-lymphocyte differentiation. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of critical biological processes like B-cell immigration, differentiation, and final emigration, the transcriptional changes during embryonic and posthatch development of this organ were investigated. We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from 3 representative developmental stages (embryonic day [ED] 10, posthatch d 2 and d 21). We generated over 70 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library by using deep sequencing. The uniquely mapped sequences of ED 10, d 2 and d 21 were 71087280, 59167491 and 70263675 respectively. All of the differential expressed genes were involved in Vitamin A metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The RNA-seq analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes of different development stages of bursa of Fabricius. The assembled bursa transcriptome provides an essential resource for future investigations about chicken Bursa development. PMID:26994188

  1. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  2. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  3. Lectotype designations and new synonymies in the Neotropical bee genus Centris Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Claus; Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Ten name-bearing specimens of Centris Fabricius deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum are examined and nine lectotypes are designated for the following species: C. atripes Mocsáry, 1899; C. flavilabris boliviensis Mocsáry, 1899; C. facialis Mocsáry, 1899; C. fusciventris Mocsáry, 1899; C. mariae Mocsáry, 1896; C. minuta Mocsáry, 1899; C. obsoleta pleuralis Friese, 1901; C. proxima Friese, 1899, and C. vidua Mocsáry, 1899. Two names are newly established as synonyms: C. nitida geminata Cockerell, 1914 syn. nov. = C. facialis Mocsáry, 1899; C. pleuralis Friese, 1901 syn. nov. = C. obsoleta Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1841. Comments on the repository of the holotype of C. horvathi Friese are also provided.  PMID:25284676

  4. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for Australian waters. Cymothoa hermani Hadfield, Bruce & Smit, 2011, previously known from Tanzania on the host Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) is new to Australian waters. Cymothoa carangi Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa epimerica Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa parupenei Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa propria Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa rotunda Avdeev, 1979 and Cymothoa pulchrum Lanchester, 1902 are redescribed. Cymothoa curta Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from the host Anableps anableps (Linnaeus, 1758); and Cymothoa plebeia Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from Cape Verde; are redescribed and excluded from the Australian fauna. Cymothoa limbata Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 is placed into junior synonymy with Cymothoa eremita (Brünnich, 1783). A key to the Australian species of Cymothoa is presented. PMID:27395199

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed. PMID:19335826

  6. Bacterial volatiles attract gravid secondary screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood inoculated and incubated with bacteria was tested to determine if adults of secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), would respond to the volatiles produced and oviposit on the incubated substrates. Five species of gram-negative coliform (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria (Klebsiell...

  7. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  8. In vitro acaricidal activity of Bobgunnia madagascariensis Desv. against Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates. PMID:26894496

  9. Revision of Lithosia Fabricius, 1798 and Conilepia Hampson, 1900 (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Dubatolov, Vladimir V; Zolotuhin, Vadim V; Witt, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the revision of the Arctiidae genera Lithosia Fabricius, 1798 and Conilepia Hampson, 1900. Only two species currently are considered to be members of Lithosia, Lithosia quadra Linnaeus, 1758, and Lithosia yuennanensis Daniel, 1952. It is here proposed to consider the Far-Eastern populations of L. quadra as subspecies Lithosia quadra dives Butler, 1877, stat. rev. and the Transcaspian populations of the species are described here as Lithosia quadra ssp. soligena ssp. nov. The lectotype of Phalaena Noctua deplana Linnaeus, 1771, preserved in the Hunterian Museum of London, is designated. Two species, Lithosia subcosteola Druce, 1899 and Lithosia gynaegrapha de Joannis, 1930, are excluded from Lithosia. The rare and local Lithosia quadra sikkima Strand, 1922 is raised to species rank and transferred to Conilepia, comb. et stat. nov. The male of C. sikkima is described for the first time. Three species are considered to belong to the genus Conilepia, among them Conilepia cao sp. nov., which is described from Vietnam. All taxa are described and figured. A scenario for the faunogenesis of the Lithosia-Conilepia complex is proposed using molecular data. PMID:27394813

  10. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. PMID:27581209

  11. The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zai-Fu; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR703583) was sequenced in the study. It represents the first mitochondrial genome from the genus Vespula. There are totally 163 42 bp in the currently sequenced portion of the genome, containing 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 18 tRNA genes and a partial A + T-rich region. Four tRNA genes of trnI, trnQ, trnM and trnY located at the downstream of the A + T-rich region were failed to sequence. At least two rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the translocation or remote inversion of tnnY from trnW-trnC-trnY cluster to the region of trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster and translocation of trnL1 from the downstream to the upstream of nad1 gene. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Twelve and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister group and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae. PMID:26226592

  12. Experimental evidence for the ectodermal origin of the epithelial anlage of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Oláh, Imre

    2010-09-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central lymphoid organ of birds responsible for B-cell maturation within bursal follicles of epithelial origin. Despite the fundamental importance of the BF to the birth of B lymphocytes in the immune system, the embryological origin of the epithelial component of the BF remains unknown. The BF arises in the tail bud, caudal to the cloaca and in close association with the cloacal membrane, where the anal invagination (anal sinus) of ectoderm and the caudal endodermal wall of the cloaca are juxtaposed. Serial semi-thin sections of the tail bud show that the anal sinus gradually transforms into the bursal duct and proctodeum, which joins the distal part of the cloaca during late embryogenesis. These anatomical findings raise the possibility that the ectoderm may contribute to the epithelial anlage of the BF. The expression of sonic hedgehog and its receptor in the embryonic gut, but not in the BF, further supports an ectodermal origin for the bursal rudiment. Using chick-quail chimeras, quail tail bud ectoderm was homotopically transplanted into ectoderm-ablated chick, resulting in quail-derived bursal follicle formation. Chimeric bursal anlagen were generated in vitro by recombining chick bursal mesenchyme with quail ectoderm or endoderm and grafting the recombination into the chick coelomic cavity. After hematopoietic cell colonization, bursal follicles formed only in grafts containing BF mesenchyme and tail bud ectoderm. These results strongly support the central role of the ectoderm in the development of the bursal epithelium and hence in the maturation of B lymphocytes. PMID:20702559

  13. On newly and recently recorded species of the genus Lema Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Criocerinae) from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Feng; Matsumura, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New records of four species (Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845, Lema diversipes Pic, 1921, Lema cyanella (Linnaeus, 1758), Lema trivittata trivittata Say, 1824 and additional information on one recently recorded species (Lema solani Fabricius, 1798) are reported for Taiwan. Lema diversipes Pic, 1921 is removed from synonymy with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845; both species are redescribed. A lectotype is designated for Lema phungi Pic, 1924. The synonymies of Lema phungi Pic, 1924 and Lema jeanvoinei Pic, 1932 with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845 are supported. A revised key to the known species in Taiwan is provided. PMID:23653513

  14. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  15. Toxic effect of NiCl2 on development of the bursa of Fabricius in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuang; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with objective of evaluating the toxic effects of nickel chloride (NiCl2) on development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days by using the methods of experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that dietary NiCl2 in 300 mg/kg and over induced toxic suppression in the bursal development, which was characterized by decreasing lymphocytes histopathologically and relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index, and increasing percentages of apoptotic cells. Concurrently, the mRNA expression levels of bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 and caspase-9 were increased and the bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were decreased. The toxic suppression of bursal development finally impaired humoral immunity duo to the reduction of B lymphocyte population and B lymphocyte activity in the broiler chicken. This study provides new evidences for further studying the effect mechanism of Ni and Ni compoundson B-cell or bursa of Fabricius. PMID:26683707

  16. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF. PMID:27610735

  17. The effect of alterations in myc gene expression on B cell development in the bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C B; Humphries, E H; Carlson, L M; Chen, C L; Neiman, P E

    1987-11-01

    Infection of 18-day embryonic bursal lymphocytes with a v-myc-containing retrovirus leads directly to a polyclonal proliferation of surface immunoglobulin-positive (slg+) cells in the bursa of Fabricius detected four weeks after hatching. These v-myc-expressing bursal cells repopulate the follicles of chemically ablated bursae more efficiently than total normal 18-day embryonic bursal cells. In contrast, comparable normal bursal cells lose the ability to repopulate follicles by four weeks. Bursal lymphocytes expressing either a retroviral v-myc or a c-myc gene deregulated by adjacent retroviral integration retain the ability of embryonic bursal lymphocytes to diversify their immunoglobulin light chain genes. These results suggest that retroviral deregulation of myc expression during avian B cell development induces outgrowth of a population of cells with the cardinal phenotypic characteristics of bursal stem cells. PMID:3499231

  18. Isolation and immunomodulatory activity of bursal peptide, a novel bursal peptide from the chicken bursa of Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Yingjuan

    2015-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF), which is unique to birds, serves as the central humoral immune organ and plays a significant role in B lymphocyte differentiation. In this study, a new bursal peptide (BP-IV) was isolated from BF, which promoted colony-forming unit pre-B formation and regulated B cell differentiation. BP-IV also exerted immunomodulatory effects on antigen-specific immune responses via both humoral and cellular immunity in chicken and mice that had been immunized with inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV; H9N2 subtype), including enhancing AIV-specific antibody and cytokine production. The results of this study provided novel insights into the use of a potential candidate reagent for B cell development and future immuno-pharmacological use. PMID:26119163

  19. Effect of selenium supplementation on aflatoxin B₁-induced histopathological lesions and apoptosis in bursa of Fabricius in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejie; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fengyuan; Chen, Zhengli; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1), 200 male Avian broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet (control group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.2 mg/kg Se (+Se group I), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg Se (+Se group II) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.6 mg/kg Se (+Se group III), respectively. Compared with the control group, decreased relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, more vacuoles and debris in the bursal lymphoid follicle, and increased percentage of apoptotic bursal cells were observed in the AFB1 group. Sodium selenite, however, could increase the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, and ameliorate histopathological lesions. The percentages of apoptotic bursal cells, through flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method, in the three +Se groups were lower than those in the AFB 1 group. Compared with the AFB 1 group, moreover, the mRNA expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 by qRT-PCR in the three +Se groups were decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was increased. The results indicate that sodium selenite in diet can protect chicken from AFB 1-induced impairment of humoral immune function by reducing bursal histopathological lesions and percentages of apoptotic bursal cells. PMID:25261862

  20. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801): Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Terry L.; White, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius), the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval Leptotrachelus dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of Leptotrachelus dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates), provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini. PMID:22679382

  1. Effect of Diclazuril on the Bursa of Fabricius Morphology and SIgA Expression in Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Liu, Li-li; Liu, Jeffrey; Yuan, Fu-wei; Tian, Er-jie; Wang, Hong-wei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diclazuril on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) structure and secretory IgA (SIgA) expression in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella were examined. The morphology of the BF was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructural changes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. E. tenella infection caused the BF cell volumes to decrease, irregularly arranged, as well as, enlargement of the intercellular space. Diclazuril treatment alleviated the physical signs of damages associated with E. tenella infection. The SIgA expression in BF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique. The SIgA expression increased significantly by 350.4% (P<0.01) after E. tenella infection compared to the normal control group. With the treatment of diclazuril, the SIgA was relatively fewer in the cortex, and the expression level was significantly decreased by 46.7% (P<0.01) compared with the infected and untreated group. In conclusion, E. tenella infection in chickens induced obvious harmful changes in BF morphological structure and stimulated the expression of SIgA in the BF. Diclazuril treatment effectively alleviated the morphological changes. This result demonstrates a method to develop an immunological strategy in coccidiosis control. PMID:26797433

  2. Effect of Diclazuril on the Bursa of Fabricius Morphology and SIgA Expression in Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bian-Hua; Liu, Li-Li; Liu, Jeffrey; Yuan, Fu-Wei; Tian, Er-Jie; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diclazuril on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) structure and secretory IgA (SIgA) expression in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella were examined. The morphology of the BF was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructural changes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. E. tenella infection caused the BF cell volumes to decrease, irregularly arranged, as well as, enlargement of the intercellular space. Diclazuril treatment alleviated the physical signs of damages associated with E. tenella infection. The SIgA expression in BF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique. The SIgA expression increased significantly by 350.4% (P<0.01) after E. tenella infection compared to the normal control group. With the treatment of diclazuril, the SIgA was relatively fewer in the cortex, and the expression level was significantly decreased by 46.7% (P<0.01) compared with the infected and untreated group. In conclusion, E. tenella infection in chickens induced obvious harmful changes in BF morphological structure and stimulated the expression of SIgA in the BF. Diclazuril treatment effectively alleviated the morphological changes. This result demonstrates a method to develop an immunological strategy in coccidiosis control. PMID:26797433

  3. Infected and apoptotic cells in the IBDV-infected bursa of Fabricius, studied by double-labelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Teifke, J P; Jungmann, A; Lohr, C V; Muller, H

    1999-06-01

    Infections of young chickens with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) result in depletion of lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) due to necrosis and apoptotic processes. Interactions between IBDV and lymphoid cells were investigated by labelling paraffin-embedded tissue sections of infected BF with combinations of either immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) or in situ TUNEL reaction (IST). With regard to specificity and sensitivity, results of ISH were comparable to those of IHC. By double-labelling it was shown, for the first time, that viral antigen was present in most of the apoptotic cells. This suggests that IBDV may be directly involved in the induction of the apoptotic process. However, some cells also showed either viral antigen or DNA fragmentation, especially at the early stages of infection. It should be taken into account, therefore, that the apoptotic processes might also be induced by IBDV through indirect interaction between cells. Remarkably, in some of the infected lymphoid cells ISH signals were observed in the nucleolus. PMID:26915384

  4. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new microsporidian (Protozoa: Microsporidia) isolated from Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Johny, S; Kanginakudru, S; Muralirangan, M C; Nagaraju, J

    2006-06-01

    A microsporidium was isolated from larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) collected from Tamil Nadu, India. This microsporidian species is monomorphic, disporous and develops in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. The nuclear configuration of merogonic and sporogonic stages was diplokaryotic. The merogonic proliferative stage was unusual that normal development with 1, 2 and 4 binucleated forms were common, while large multinucleate meronts containing 8 and 12 small compact horseshoe-like diplokaryotic nuclei were also observed. The fresh spores were typically ovocylindrical in shape, with a mean size of 3.91 x 1.91 microm and the polar filament length was approximately 90 microm. Infection was systemic with mature spores produced in the midgut, nervous tissue, muscles, labial glands, gonads, tracheae, epidermis, Malpighian tubules and, most extensively, fat body tissues. The new isolate was highly pathogenic to S. litura larvae. Host specificity tests performed on 37 non-target hosts of 5 different insect orders revealed that the new isolate is pathogenic only to lepidopteran insects. We sequenced the 16S small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the isolate and compared it with 72 non-redundant microsporidian sequences from the GenBank. Based on the light microscopic studies and phylogenetic analyses, the new isolate is assigned to the genus Nosema. Significant differences in the SSU rRNA sequence were identified when compared with the type species Nosema bombycis and other closely related species viz., Nosema spodopterae. Structural differences were also observed in the 16S SSU rRNA between the new isolate and the two above-mentioned microsporidian pathogens. We conclude that the microsporidian isolate reported here is distinctly different from the other known species and is likely to be a new species. PMID:16469201

  6. Cytogenetics of Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Apidae) reveals differences in the characteristics of heterochromatin in bees

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Simões, Talitta Guimarães; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To date, more than 65 species of Brazilian bees (of the superfamily Apoidea) have been cytogenetically studied, but only a few solitary species have been analyzed. One example is the genus Melitoma Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, for which there is no report in the literature with regard to cytogenetic studies. The objective of the present study is to analyze the chromosome number and morphology of the species Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius, 1804), as well as to determine the pattern of heterochromatin distribution and identify the adenine–thymine (AT)- and guanine–cytosine (GC)-rich regions. Melitoma segmentaria presents chromosome numbers of 2n=30 (females) and n=15 (males). With C-banding, it is possible to classify the chromosomes into seven pseudo-acrocentric pairs (AM), seven pseudo-acrocentric pairs with interstitial heterochromatin (AMi), and one totally heterochromatic metacentric pair (Mh). Fluorochrome staining has revealed that heterochromatin present in the chromosomal arms is rich in GC base pairs (CMA3+) and the centromeric region is rich in AT base pairs (DAPI+). The composition found for Melitoma diverges from the pattern observed in other bees, in which the heterochromatin is usually rich in AT. In bees, few heterochromatic regions are rich in GC and these are usually associated with or localized close to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Silver nitrate impregnation marks the heterochromatin present in the chromosome arms, which makes identification of the NOR in the chromosomes impossible. As this technique reveals proteins in the NOR, the observation that is made in the present study suggests that the proteins found in the heterochromatin are qualitatively similar to those in the NOR. PMID:25349673

  7. A new species of hermit crab of the genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 (Crustacea: Anomura: Paguridae) from the southern Caribbean off Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniel José Marcondes; Lemaitre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    A male specimen of a new species of the heterogeneous genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775, collected in 1968 off the Caribbean coast of Venezuela, was discovered among the vast crustacean collections of the Smithsonian Institution. This new species herein described and illustrated is named P. scopaopsis, and is characterized primarily by the presence of: a brush-like setation pattern on the dactyl of the left third pereopod, dense small tubercles on the dorsal surfaces of the dactyl and fixed finger of the right chela, and a raised longitudinal ridge armed with spines on the palm and fixed finger of the left chela. PMID:27615944

  8. Reduvius frommeri, a new species of Reduviidae from the Western United States (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), with a synopsis of the Nearctic species of Reduvius Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Weirauch, Christiane; Russell, Kaleigh; Hwang, Wei Song

    2015-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new species of Reduviidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) from North America has slowed in the 21st century. This is not surprising, given the conspicuousness and large distribution ranges of many Nearctic assassin bug species that are often collected using general insect collecting techniques. Nevertheless, biodiversity discovery in Nearctic Reduviidae is ongoing. We here describe a new species, Reduvius frommeri, n. sp., from Southern California that is so far only known from a small endemic range in the Sonoran Desert. With about 197 species, the genus Reduvius Fabricius is one of the most speciose genera of Reduviidae. The majority of species occur in arid- and semi-arid areas in the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palearctic regions and only three species are New World endemics. A fourth species that occurs in the United States, Reduvius personatus Fabricius, is cosmopolitan and has been introduced to the Western Nearctic. The new species of Reduvius stands out amongst the four other Nearctic Reduvius species by the small size and pale body coloration with a contrasting dark head. Image plates documenting habitus and selected morphological details and maps are provided for the five species in the Nearctic. We conclude that efforts to document species diversity and distribution ranges even for conspicuous insects such as assassin bugs in fairly well studied biogeographic regions need to continue. PMID:26249492

  9. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Isopoda, Cymothoidae, Crustacea) from the southwestern Indian Ocean, including a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Bruce, Niel L; Smit, Nico J

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for southwestern Indian Ocean waters. Cymothoa borbonica Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 and C. eremita Brünnich, 1783 are redescribed. Cymothoa rotundifrons Haller, 1880, from Mauritius lacks type material and the host is unknown, therefore it is here relegated to nomen dubium. Cymothoa sodwana sp. nov., from Trachinotus botla (Carangidae), collected from the Kwazulu-Natal coast of South Africa, is described and is distinguished by the large, ovoid, hunched body with rugose dorsal surfaces; the anterolateral angles of pereonite 1 are narrow and rounded reaching half the length of the cephalon; the ischium of pereopod 7 has a large protrusion and pereonite 7 which laterally overlaps the pleon margins, extending posteriorly to the pleotelson. PMID:26000410

  10. Cerium chloride heptahydrate (CeCl3 · 7H2O) induces muscle paralysis in the generalist herbivore, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), fed contaminated plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Allison, Jane E; Boutin, Céline; Carpenter, David; Ellis, Deanna M; Parsons, Jessica L

    2015-02-01

    Of increasing economic importance are the rare earth elements (REEs). Pollution from mining and processing activity is expected to rise with industrial demand. Plants are known to accumulate REEs, although levels vary with species and soil content. However, the effect on wildlife of ingesting REE contaminated vegetation is not well understood. Here we examined the effect of consuming vegetation with elevated levels of cerium on the generalist grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius). Adults excreted a substantial portion of ingested contamination. However, after only four-days of feeding, accumulation in the body occurred at all doses and paralysis of appendages resulted at the highest doses. Short-term toxicity studies may underestimate the impact of ingesting REE contamination. Metals tend to be low in toxicity; however, their persistence in the environment may be better represented by exposure over longer portions of the life cycle. PMID:25462312

  11. Effects of cattle treatment with a fluazuron pour-on on survival and reproduction of the dung beetle species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Kryger, U; Deschodt, C; Davis, A L V; Scholtz, C H

    2007-02-28

    While resistance against many other classes of acaricides has been described, products containing benzoylphenyl urea are currently still successfully used against the pesticide-resistant blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus) in South Africa. In order to assess any adverse impact of these tickicides on the important dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) fauna, a bioassay was undertaken on the ecotoxicological effects of a fluazuron (benzoylphenyl urea) pour-on formulation (Acatak) on the survival and reproduction of the African dung beetles species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius). The experiment yielded no significant differences in adult or larval survival, egg production, fecundity and fertility between the control and treatment group following three beetle generations over. These results suggested that treatment of cattle with the fluazuron pour-on formulation Acatak was not detrimental to the selected dung beetle species in any notable way. PMID:16978786

  12. New host records for European Acroceridae (Diptera), with discussion of species limits of Acrocera orbiculus (Fabricius) based on DNA-barcoding.

    PubMed

    Kehlmaier, Christian; Almeida, Jorge Mota

    2014-01-01

    New European host records for the Acroceridae species Acrocera orbiculus (Fabricius) and Ogcodes reginae Trojan are reported. Acrocera orbiculus was reared from Amaurobius erberi (Keyserling), and O. reginae from Clubiona leucaspis (Simon) and Evarcha jucunda (Lucas). Where possible, DNA-barcodes are presented for reared endoparasitoids and their host specimens. Based on mitochondrial COI, the intraspecific genetic variability of 15 western Palaearctic A. orbiculus is discussed. Maximum likelihood analysis reveals two clades, though they have low statistical support and no distinct barcoding gap. Therefore, we consider all barcoded specimens of A. orbiculus to be a single biological species with a high degree of phenotypic plasticity regarding body size and coloration. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, Paracrocera kaszabi Majer, Paracrocera manevali Séguy and Paracrocera minuscula Séguy are placed in synonymy with A. orbiculus. The male of the Canary Islands endemic Acrocera cabrerae Frey is described for the first time.  PMID:24871830

  13. Bacterial Volatiles Attract Gravid Secondary Screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2016-04-01

    Bovine blood inoculated and incubated with bacteria was tested to determine if secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), would be attracted to the incubated substrate for oviposition. Five species of bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca (Flugge), Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Proteus vulgaris Hauser, Providencia rettgeri Hadley, Elkins and Caldwell, and Providencia stuartii Ewing, previously isolated from animal wounds infested by primary screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were used. Incubated substrates were tested in a two-choice cage bioassay to study landing response and oviposition by gravid C. macellaria. Significantly more flies landed on substrates containing P. mirabilis than on substrates with other species of bacteria. Klebsiella oxytoca-treated substrates attracted the least flies. Substrates containing bacteria incubated for 72 h attracted significantly more flies than those incubated for 24-, 48-, or 96-h period. In 3-h duration oviposition tests, substrates with P. rettgeri attracted significantly more flies to oviposit than the other four species. The most eggs were recorded when substrates treated with all five species of bacteria were offered for oviposition. It is likely that multiple active chemicals present in the volatiles from substrates treated with all five species result in greater response than those in a single species. At least 72-h incubation seems to be necessary to obtain the most active volatile chemicals. Results suggest that C. macellaria uses similar chemical cues as C. hominivorax from bacteria volatiles as oviposition attractant/stimulant. PMID:26748982

  14. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  15. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  16. Ultrastructural study on the plical epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius in chick embryos: influence of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, N; Baldassini, M R; Abelli, L; Aita, M; Mastrolia, L

    1996-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius of 18 day normal and partially decerebrated chick embryos, and partially decerebrated embryos bearing a hypophyseal allograft was analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, focusing on the ultrastructural characterisation of the plical epithelium. The plicae of the normal bursa consist of interfollicular (IFE) and follicle associated epithelium (FAE). The FAE is composed of typical polygonal cells and is supported by a layer of epithelial cells which appears as a continuation of the corticomedullary epithelium. Bordering cells lie between the FAE and IFE. The IFE is composed of 4 cell types: (1) undifferentiated, (2) goblet, at various stages of maturity, (3) prismatic, and (4) globular light cells. Partially decerebrated embryos showed a gross impairment of plical epithelium development and the complex of FAE and IFE cells was largely undifferentiated. Partially decerebrated embryos with a hypophyseal allograft displayed the same cellular types as observed in controls, thus indicating a restored differentiation of plical epithelium. These findings suggest that the hypophysis affects the differentiation of plical epithelium during ontogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8-11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:8655413

  17. [Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in Ca-ATPase activity isolated from Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo S; Coelho, Milton V

    2007-01-01

    ATPases, an important target of insecticides, are enzymes that hydrolyze ATP and use the energy released in that process to accomplish some type of cellular work. Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) larvae possess an ATPase, that presents high Ca-ATPase activity, but no Mg-ATPase activity. In the present study, the effect of zinc and copper ions in the activity Ca-ATPase of that enzyme was tested. More than 90% of the Ca-ATPase activity was inhibited in 0.5 mM of copper ions or 0.25 mM of zinc ions. In the presence of EDTA, but not in the absence, the inhibition by zinc was reverted with the increase of calcium concentration. The inhibition by copper ions was not reverted in the presence or absence of EDTA. The Ca-ATPase was not inhibited by treatment of the ATPase fraction with copper, suggesting that the copper ion does not bind directly to the enzyme. The results suggest that zinc and copper ions form a complex with ATP and bind to the enzyme inhibiting its Ca-ATPase activity. PMID:17420863

  18. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis. PMID:27307173

  19. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Bendera, M; Ekesi, S; Ndung'u, M; Srinivasan, R; Torto, B

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior. PMID:26280704

  20. Population structure, demographic history, and selective processes: contrasting evidences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787).

    PubMed

    Babbucci, Massimiliano; Buccoli, Simona; Cau, Angelo; Cannas, Rita; Goñi, Raquel; Díaz, David; Marcato, Stefania; Zane, Lorenzo; Patarnello, Tomaso

    2010-09-01

    The European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) is an ecologically and economically important species inhabiting a wide geographic range that extends from the North-east Atlantic and Azores to the Eastern Mediterranean. We investigated the population structure and evolutionary history of this species by both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. Ten population samples covering a large part of the species distribution range (three samples from the Atlantic Ocean and seven from the Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed for a portion of the mitochondrial control region and seven polymorphic microsatellite loci. Both markers rejected the hypothesis of panmixia identifying two differentiated gene pools. The control region clearly distinguished the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations in two genetically separated groups. Microsatellites, also revealed two groups roughly associated to the Atlantic-Mediterranean separation, however, the Azores sample did not conform to this geographic scheme. Discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear markers emerged also when reconstructing the history of the species. Neutrality tests of the mitochondrial sequences indicated a departure from mutation-drift equilibrium that, combined to the mismatch analysis, pointed toward a sudden population expansion in both Atlantic and Mediterranean gene pools. Unexpectedly, microsatellites did not identify any signal of population expansion neither in the Atlantic pool nor in the Mediterranean one. PMID:20510378

  1. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  2. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle’ adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  3. The Use of Olfactory and Visual Cues in Host Choice by the Capsid Bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Wynde, Fiona J. H.; Port, Gordon R.

    2012-01-01

    Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae) are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host) and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues. PMID:23226493

  4. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan).

    PubMed

    Suryavanshi, Uddhav; Sreepada, R A; Ansari, Z A; Nigam, Subhanchi; Badesab, Shahin

    2009-12-01

    Endosulfan, a broad-spectrum non-systemic organochlorine (OC) pesticide is extensively used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture and public health programmes. Biochemical changes occurring in the metabolically active tissues of gills (GL), hepatopancreas (HP) and muscle (MU) of the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) on exposure to two sublethal doses (40 and 60 ng L(-1)) of endosulfan were studied for 23 days of exposure (DoE). Sublethal doses of endosulfan significantly (P<0.05) altered the levels of the total protein (TP), the total carbohydrates (TC), the glycogen (GLY), the total free sugars (TFS) and the total lipids (TL) in test shrimps. Concentrations of biochemical components significantly varied with the DoE but were dose-independent (P<0.05). Percent decrease in all biochemical components increased with the progress of the DoE irrespective of the exposure concentrations. The order of percent decrease in the concentrations of the TP, TC, GLY, TL and TFS in different tissues at the end of 23 DoE was found to be MU>GL>HP, HP>GL>MU, MU>HP>GL, HP>MU>GL and MU>GL>HP, respectively. The results of the study revealed that sublethal doses of endosulfan significantly alters the proximate composition of major tissues, particularly the TP levels in the MU tissues thereby reducing the nutritive value of this economically important penaeid shrimp. Since M. monoceros exhibits significant biochemical changes on exposure to endosulfan, this species could possibly be used as biosensor of coastal marine and estuarine pollution by OCs. PMID:19846200

  5. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  6. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Na; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  7. Forsythiaside attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by downregulating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, GUANGDONG; ZHAO, YULIAN; LI, HE; WU, YUE; LI, XIANXIAN; HAN, QIANG; DAI, CHONGSHAN; LI, YANHUA

    2014-01-01

    Forsythiaside, a phenylethanoside product isolated from air-dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa, has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. However, its mechanism and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of forsythiaside on LPS-induced acute inflammation. In addition, the potential molecular mechanisms of forsythiaside were analyzed in the BF, a special immune organ in chickens. Forty 15-day-old chickens were randomly divided into control, LPS and LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups (n=10 for each group). In the LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups, the chickens were orally administered with forsythiaside at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg for seven days. At 21 days old, the chickens were intravenously injected with 200 μg/kg body weight LPS. Chickens in the control and LPS groups were only administered with vehicle or LPS, respectively, at day 21. At 3 h post-injection, the body temperature and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analyzed. In addition, the levels and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were examined in the BFs isolated from the chickens. The results revealed that forsythiaside was able to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the BFs of the chickens. The mechanisms by which forsythiaside exerted its anti-inflammatory effect were found to correlate with the inhibition of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 production, via the inactivation of NF-κB, indicating that the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway may be important in this process. PMID:24348786

  8. Composition of the surface hydrocarbons from the vitelline membranes of dipteran embryos.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dennis R; Leopold, Roger A

    2003-10-01

    Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class extracted by hexane from the vitelline membrane surface of dechorionated eggs of the house fly, Musca domestica, the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria, the green bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, the sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina and the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. The length of time the embryos must be exposed to hexane with or without a small amount of alcohol in order to attain permeability was species-dependant. Long-chain n-alkanes comprised the major lipid class removed from vitelline membranes of all species except A. ludens where 2-methylalkanes were the major class. The range in size by the total number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbons was: C23-C49 in C. hominivorax, C27-C33 in C. macellaria, C24-C35 in L. cuprina, C25-C36 in M. domestica, C25-C33 in P. sericata and C21-C51 in A. ludens. The major hydrocarbon component, expressed as percent of the total hydrocarbons, was n-nonacosane (C29) in C. hominivorax (40%), C. macellaria (43%), L. cuprina (38%), M. domestica (39%) and P. sericata (60%). However, in A. ludens, 2-methyloctacosane (32%) was the major hydrocarbon. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, monoenes (16%) and dienes (11%), were abundant only in A. ludens. Since prior studies indicated that the length of time the embryos must be exposed to hexane with or without a small amount of alcohol in order to attain permeability is species dependant, we suggest that the differences in hydrocarbon composition may contribute to this variation in lipid extractability. PMID:14529755

  9. Reinstatement and redescription of Lebbeus armatus (Owen, 1839), long synonymized with L. groenlandicus (Fabricius, 1775), and description of one new species from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Thoridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The caridean shrimp species Lebbeus armatus (Owen, 1839) (Thoridae), originally described from Kamchatka, is reinstated from the synonymy of L. groenlandicus (Fabricius, 1775) and redescribed. It is easily distinguished from L. groenlandicus by having dense covering of short setae on the carapace and lateral parts of the pleon (versus only sparse setae are present), the clearly delimited branchial ridge on the carapace (versus at most a trace of a branchial ridge being discernible), the postrostral dorsal teeth noticeably becoming stronger and higher anteriorly (versus the anteriormost postrostral tooth is not the strongest), the higher number of ventral teeth of the second pleuron (three to five versus one) and of the third and fourth pleura (three or four versus one or two), and the usual presence of one or two spines on the carpi of the third to fifth pereopods (versus unarmed). A new species, L. magnificus, is described and illustrated on the basis of five specimens from the Kitami-Yamato Bank, southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido, Japan. The new species appears closest to L. groenlandicus, but is easily distinguished from the latter by having five postrostral teeth in females (versus four), more numerous ventral teeth on the fifth pleuron (three or four versus two), the stouter inner flagellum of the antennule in males, and the more numerous meral spines on the third to fifth pereopods. Previous records of L. groenlandicus from East Asian waters are referred to L. armatus. Records of L. groenlandicus from the northeastern Pacific remain to be reassessed, because specimens reported from the area do not agree in some characters with any of the three species treated in this study.  PMID:25661224

  10. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments. PMID:26976407

  11. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT. PMID:27041484

  13. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  14. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations. PMID:26590193

  15. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) were the most abundant species, and the exotic species of Chrysomya together contributed more than 50% of total blow fly abundance. The abundance distribution of the calliphorid community conformed to a log series model, characterized by a steep curve that reflects an assemblage with a high degree of dominance. For the Sarcophagidae, a total of 14,810 specimens were collected and distributed in 15 genera, 11 subgenera, and 52 species. Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (F., 1794) and Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) were the most abundant species. The abundance distribution of the species followed a log normal model, with a gentler slope, consistent with a more uniform community. The cumulative species curve for the sarcophagids did not reach the asymptote. Forty-three sarcophagid species were new state records and 22 were new records for the Brazilian northeast, which emphasizes the need for a continued survey in this region. PMID:26078304

  16. Determination of HPLC fluorescence analysis of the natural enantiomers of sex pheromones in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays of 6 racemic synthesized candidate sex pheromone compounds against male New World Screwworm flies showed that the most potent bioactivity was found with 6-acetoxy-19-methylnonacosane and 7-acetoxy-15-methylnonacosane compared to 4 other isomeric acetoxy nonacosanes. Since all these methyl-...

  17. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  18. Egg maturation and parthenogenetic recovery of diploidy in the scorpion Liocheles australasiae (Fabricius) (Scorpions, ischnuridae).

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Yahata, H; Kobayashi, N; Makioka, T

    2001-01-01

    In the scorpion Liocheles australasiae, egg maturation and parthenogenetic recoveries of chromosome number and nuclear DNA content were examined by histological, karyological observations and quantitative measurements of DNA. The primary oocyte becomes mature through two successive maturation divisions. The first maturation division takes place in the primary oocyte to produce a secondary oocyte and a first polar body. The second maturation division soon occurs in the secondary oocyte, in which the nucleus is divided into a mature egg nucleus and a second polar body nucleus, not followed by cytoplasmic fission. The first polar body, in one case, was successively divided into two second polar bodies; in the other case it was not divided. In either case, these polar bodies remained attached to the early embryo. The fate of these polar bodies during further embryogenesis were studied. In the karyological analysis, the chromosome number was divided into two groups, one from 27-32, the other was 54-64. The former was presumably the metaphase chromosome number at the meiotic division; the latter was presumably the metaphase chromosome number at the mitotic division. DNA content in the diploid nucleus of the primary oocyte, doubled before the maturation divisions, was reduced through the maturation divisions by one-half in the nuclei of the secondary oocyte and the first polar body and by one-fourth in the nuclei of the egg and the second polar bodies. The first reduction of DNA content corresponded to halving the number of the chromosomes in the first maturation division and the second to the nuclear division in the secondary oocyte. These reductions represent a common process of egg maturation, except the final production of the mature egg with two haploid nuclei, an egg nucleus, and a second polar body nucleus. These two nuclei, which were formed apart in the mature egg, drew near to fuse into a zygote nucleus. The chromosome number and nuclear DNA content were doubled in the zygote and each blastomere in embryos, supporting the hypothesis that the egg nucleus fuses with the second polar body nucleus and this conjugation initiates subsequent embryonic development. PMID:11124685

  19. Thermal resistance of juvenile crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (fabricius): experiment and model

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.K.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Juvenile crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were subjected to acute thermal changes after being acclimated to temperatures of 15, 20 or 25 C for at least 1 week. Groups of 10 individuals each were exposed to various combinations of time and temperature, after which they were returned to their original acclimation temperature. Observations of latent mortality made 72 hr later indicated that some crayfish experience lethal temperature stress between 30 and 33 C; their ultimate upper incipient lethal temperature is estimated to be 32.5 C. A linear logistic model was used to construct contours of constant mortality (30, 50 and 90%) as a function of time and temperature.

  20. Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect

    Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

  1. Nickel uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect

    Alikhan, M.A.; Zia, S.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including nickel are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. As a consequence, a number of lakes in this region has become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of nickel by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Decapod, Crustacea), was monitored for 4 wk in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of the response of the crayfish to increased levels of this relatively less metabolically essential but toxic metal in the aquatic environment.

  2. Thermal resistance of juvenile crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius): experiment and model

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.K.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1982-07-01

    Juvenile crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were subjected to acute thermal changes after being acclimated to temperatures of 15, 20 or 25 C for at least 1 week. Groups of 10 individuals each were exposed to various combinations of time and temperature, after which they were returned to their original acclimation temperature. Observations of latent mortality made 72 hr later indicated that some crayfish experience lethal temperature stress between 30 and 33 C; their ultimate upper incipient lethal temperature is estimated to be 32.5 C. A linear logistic model was used to construct contours of constant mortality (30, 50 and 90%) as a function of time and temperature.

  3. Methyl farnesoate stimulates testicular growth in the freshwater crab Oziotelphusa senex senex fabricius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalavathy, Y.; Mamatha, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The influence of methyl farnesoate (MF) on testicular growth in the fresh water crab Oziotelplusa senex senex was studied. MF stimulated testicular growth as evidenced by increased testicular weight, testicular index and testicular follicle diameter in MF injected crabs and provides evidence that MF acts as a male reproductive hormone in crustacea.

  4. Effects of soil depths on nymphal eclosion of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work reports on the use of cultural practices to influence grasshoppers nymphal emergence. Grasshopper eggs were buried at depths of 2, 14, 18, 22, and 26 cm in laboratory arenas. Nymph eclosion ranges from 77 to 87%. However, nymph emergence, measured as the number of nymphs that reached the s...

  5. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. I. Defining current range].

    PubMed

    Bogdaszewska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    During the vegetation periods of five subsequent years, ie. 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, a field study aimed at defining, the current range of Dermacentor reticulatus in the so-called Mazuria focus was conducted on an area of about 24.000 km2 . The total of 68 sites covered by the study were located between the Great Mazurian Lakes District in the east and the lower Vistula valley in the west. The presence of adult forms of Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed in 23 sites. The westernmost sites were discovered in the vicinity of Brodnica and Elblag. Both sites are located at longitude 19 degrees 20' East. PMID:16862808

  6. Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Cayenne tick: phylogeography and evidence for allopatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amblyomma cajennense F. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the New World because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. Recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. In the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine its genetic structure based on the analyses of three mitochondrial (12SrDNA, d-loop, and COII) and one nuclear (ITS2) genes. Because A. cajennense is characterized by a typical trans-Amazonian distribution, lineage divergence dating is also performed to establish whether genetic diversity can be linked to dated vicariant events which shaped the topology of the Neotropics. Results Total evidence analyses of the concatenated mtDNA and nuclear + mtDNA datasets resulted in well-resolved and fully congruent reconstructions of the relationships within A. cajennense. The phylogenetic analyses consistently found A. cajennense to be monophyletic and to be separated into six genetic units defined by mutually exclusive haplotype compositions and habitat associations. Also, genetic divergence values showed that these lineages are as distinct from each other as recognized separate species of the same genus. The six clades are deeply split and node dating indicates that they started diverging in the middle-late Miocene. Conclusions Behavioral differences and the results of laboratory cross-breeding experiments had already indicated that A. cajennense might be a complex of distinct taxonomic units. The combined and congruent mitochondrial and nuclear genetic evidence from this study reveals that A. cajennense is an assembly of six distinct species which have evolved separately from each other since at least 13.2 million years ago (Mya) in the earliest and 3.3 Mya in the latest lineages. The temporal and spatial diversification modes of the six lineages overlap the phylogeographical history of other organisms with similar extant trans-Amazonian distributions and are consistent with the present prevailing hypothesis that Neotropical diversity often finds its origins in the Miocene, after the Andean uplift changed the topology and consequently the climate and ecology of the Neotropics. PMID:24320199

  7. Influence of the bursa of Fabricius on the pathogenesis of Marek's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schat, K A; Calnek, B W; Fabricant, J

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to study the influence of embryonal bursectomy (EBX) on the early and late pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). The early lytic infection in the lymphoid organs normally associated with oncogenic MD virus infection in intact chickens was not seen in EBX chickens. Therefore, the damage to the immune system was minimal. EBX chickens also had lower viremia levels, higher lymphocyte responses to mitogens, and a lower or delayed MD mortality when compared with intact chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that although vaccination with SB-1 by itself did not protect against a highly virulent MD transplantable tumor, the combination of EBX and vaccination gave significant protection. All these effects could be explained by an enhanced immune response in EBX birds. In contrast, the pathogenesis of nononcogenic MD virus was not influenced by EBX. The possible mechanism(s) involved in these observed effects of EBX on MD pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:6260660

  8. The genus Hylaeus Fabricius in Mongolia, an updated species inventory (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae).

    PubMed

    Dathe, Holger H; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2016-01-01

    Since the last inventory of Hylaeus species of Mongolia (Dathe 1986a) extensive new collections have been evaluated. An updated checklist of 38 species of Hylaeus so far known from Mongolia is provided, with comments on their biogeographical assignment. Two new species, Hylaeus (Hylaeus) kozlovi sp. n. and Hylaeus (Hylaeus) mellon sp. n., are described. Hylaeus albitarsis Morawitz, 1887 (= H. fuliginosus Warncke, 1972) has been ascertained as a synonym of Hylaeus (Hylaeus) pusillus (Warncke, 1972). The following nine known species are newly recorded from Mongolia: H. (Dentigera) pallidicornis Morawitz, 1876, H. (Hylaeus) aborigensis Dathe, 1994, H. (Hylaeus) angustatus (Schenck, 1861), H. (Hylaeus) fedtschenkoi (Cockerell, 1906), H. (Hylaeus) oblitus (Warncke, 1972), H. (Hylaeus) vulgaris Morawitz, 1876, H. (Lambdopsis) pfankuchi (Alfken, 1919), H. (Nesoprosopis) pectoralis Förster, 1871, H. (Patagiata) nigrocuneatus Cockerell, 1924. PMID:27395230

  9. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-01-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3–4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2–6 articles. PMID:26868713

  10. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters.

    PubMed

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3-4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2-6 articles. PMID:26868713

  11. New Geographic Records for Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of moths in the cutworm family, Noctuidae, are pests of vegetable crops throughout the U.S., including potato. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, Washington, monitor for the presence of numerous pest species of moths that may damage potato and other vegetable crops. They dete...

  12. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    PubMed

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  13. Toxicity assessment of wild bean seed protein--arcelin on Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Malaikozhundan, B; Suresh, P; Seshadri, S; Janarthanan, S

    2003-12-01

    Arcelin, an anti-metabolic protein was purified from the seeds of wild bean, Lablab purpureus. The feeding assay containing arcelin at 5, 10 and 15 microg concentrations revealed no antifeedant effect against fifth instar larvae of S. litura. However, the enhanced activity of alpha- and beta-naphthyl esterases in the mid-gut samples of S. litura treated with arcelin suggests countermeasure against the toxic effect of arcelin. PMID:15320504

  14. Biochemical indicators of muscle growth in the snow crab Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Mayrand; Guderley; Dutil

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between muscle growth rate, the activity of metabolic enzymes and the RNA:DNA ratio, in adult snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio. After moulting, crabs were assigned to three feeding rations to attain a range of tissue growth rates. Muscle growth rate, estimated by the variation in dry tissue content per ml of merus of the first walking leg, was positively correlated with changes in muscle cell number, as evaluated by the DNA content per ml of merus. However, no significant correlation was detected between growth rate and the variation in muscle cell size, the latter being estimated by the change in the protein:DNA ratio. This is due to the fact that, in starved crabs, a reduction in the number of cells is partly compensated by a size increment of the remaining ones. This phenomenon also weakened the overall relationship between muscle growth rate and the phosphofructokinase (PFK) capacity per ml of merus. The simple correlation between those two variables was significantly positive for animals which increased their mass of muscle but insignificant for those which were loosing muscle mass. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) capacity per ml of merus did not match growth rate. The significant simple correlations that were detected between growth rate and the various enzyme activity expressed per g of protein, per µg of DNA and per g of dry mass did not hold when partial correlations were computed. Variations in muscle cell size were related to adjustments in the quantity of RNA per cell, as depicted by the RNA:DNA ratio. Since muscle growth was not correlated with the variation in muscle cell size, it was not correlated with the RNA:DNA ratio either. PMID:11090851

  15. A new species of the genus Tetratoma Fabricius (Coleoptera, Tetratomidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Nikitsky, N B

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tetratomid beetle, Tetratoma (s. str.) yunnanensis Nikitsky sp. nov. is described from Southern China (Yunnan). Description, colour habitus photographs and an illustration of the aedeagus are provided, and the species is compared with other members of the genus. Biogeographical observations on the species and subgenera of Tetratoma are given. PMID:27615846

  16. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    PubMed Central

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones’ genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  17. Notes on the Neotropical Zethus Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) with the description of two new species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rogério B; Noll, Fernando B

    2014-01-01

    Two new species, Zethus (Zethus) aliceae Lopes, sp. nov. (Brazil) and Z. (Zethus) sinuostylus Lopes, sp. nov. (Brazil) are described and figured. New synonymy is proposed for Zethus (Zethoides) biglumis Spinola, 1841 (=Zethus ferrugineus de Saussure, 1852, syn. nov. PMID:24872046

  18. Gene variation and genetic differentiation among populations of the solitary mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) albitarse Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Antonio C.B.; Lama, Marco A. Del

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypoxylon is a genus of solitary crabronid wasps whose population genetics is poorly known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation and differentiation among five populations of Trypoxylon albitarse, a species widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, with records from Panama to northern Argentina. Eight species-specific microsatellite loci were used for genotyping 96 adult wasps (one female per nest) sampled at five sites in Brazil. The analysis of allelic richness and private alleles indicated high genetic diversity in the populations sampled. Pairwise comparisons using the F st and D est indices revealed significant differentiation for all, but one pair of populations. F st, D est, AMOVA and assignment test values pointed to inter-population differentiation. Additionally, the analysis of population structure using Bayesian and PCA methods characterized two alternative genetic groups. The Mantel test indicated no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Despite evidence of considerable dispersal capacity for T. albitarse, the data indicate low to moderate population structuring in this species. PMID:26692160

  19. Novel Pathways Revealed in Bursa of Fabricius Transcriptome in Response to Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyan; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) has major negative impacts on human and animal health. Recent research suggests food-borne links between human and animal ExPEC diseases with particular concern for poultry contaminated with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), the avian ExPEC. APEC is also a very important animal pathogen, causing colibacillosis, one of the world’s most widespread bacterial diseases of poultry. Previous studies showed marked atrophy and lymphocytes depletion in the bursa during APEC infection. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the avian bursa response to APEC infection will facilitate genetic selection for disease resistance. Four-week-old commercial male broiler chickens were infected with APEC O1 or given saline as a control. Bursas were collected at 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). Based on lesion scores of liver, pericardium and air sacs, infected birds were classified as having mild or severe pathology, representing resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Twenty-two individual bursa RNA libraries were sequenced, each yielding an average of 27 million single-end, 100-bp reads. There were 2469 novel genes in the total of 16,603 detected. Large numbers of significantly differentially expressed (DE) genes were detected when comparing susceptible and resistant birds at 5 dpi, susceptible and non-infected birds at 5 dpi, and susceptible birds at 5 dpi and 1 dpi. The DE genes were associated with signal transduction, the immune response, cell growth and cell death pathways. These data provide considerable insight into potential mechanisms of resistance to ExPEC infection, thus paving the way to develop strategies for ExPEC prevention and treatment, as well as enhancing innate resistance by genetic selection in animals. PMID:26556806

  20. Expression studies on NA+/K(+)-ATPase in gills of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) acclimated to different salinities.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh-Babu, P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sabnis, Supriya; Dhamotharan, K; Vardarajan, Remya; Kumari, Kavita; Dasgupta, Subrata; Rajendran, K V

    2015-05-01

    The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35 per thousand salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long-term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35 per thousand. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5 per thousand the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25 per thousand. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5 per thousand measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment. PMID:26040024

  1. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  2. A new invasive species in maryland: the biology and distribution of kudzu bug, megacopta cribraria (fabricius) (femiptera: plataspidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relaxation of trade restrictions in the 1960s and 70s led to an unintended exchange of invasive insect species as well as manufactured goods between the United States and its new trade partners. Consequently, the number of exotic insect pests accidently entering and taking up residence in the U...

  3. Insecticidal Activity of a Basement Membrane-Degrading Protease against Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease derived from the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina that functions in basement membrane (BM) remodeling during insect development. A recombinant baculovirus expressing ScathL (AcMLF9.ScathL) kills larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, signific...

  4. Novel Pathways Revealed in Bursa of Fabricius Transcriptome in Response to Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) Infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) has major negative impacts on human and animal health. Recent research suggests food-borne links between human and animal ExPEC diseases with particular concern for poultry contaminated with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), the avian ExPEC. APEC is also a very important animal pathogen, causing colibacillosis, one of the world's most widespread bacterial diseases of poultry. Previous studies showed marked atrophy and lymphocytes depletion in the bursa during APEC infection. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the avian bursa response to APEC infection will facilitate genetic selection for disease resistance. Four-week-old commercial male broiler chickens were infected with APEC O1 or given saline as a control. Bursas were collected at 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). Based on lesion scores of liver, pericardium and air sacs, infected birds were classified as having mild or severe pathology, representing resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Twenty-two individual bursa RNA libraries were sequenced, each yielding an average of 27 million single-end, 100-bp reads. There were 2469 novel genes in the total of 16,603 detected. Large numbers of significantly differentially expressed (DE) genes were detected when comparing susceptible and resistant birds at 5 dpi, susceptible and non-infected birds at 5 dpi, and susceptible birds at 5 dpi and 1 dpi. The DE genes were associated with signal transduction, the immune response, cell growth and cell death pathways. These data provide considerable insight into potential mechanisms of resistance to ExPEC infection, thus paving the way to develop strategies for ExPEC prevention and treatment, as well as enhancing innate resistance by genetic selection in animals. PMID:26556806

  5. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedokun, A.V.; Adeniyi, D.O.

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  6. In vivo therapeutic potentiality of red seaweed, Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) in the treatment of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Manilal, Aseer; Selvin, Joseph; George, Shiney

    2011-01-01

    The crude extract of the red seaweed, Asparagopsis sp. was evaluated for in vivo antibacterial activity against the shrimp vibrio pathogens. The algal extract was rationalized with commercial shrimp feed and orally administered for different duration of time followed by the artificial bacterial challenge experiment. In dose titration experiments, the oral administration of Asparagopsis sp. at a dosage of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass was highly efficacious in the treatment of natural infestations of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon. The results of the confirmatory dose experiment revealed that the prophylactic treatment with moderate dose of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass day–1 for four weeks followed by 14 days of post infection therapy was highly effective in controlling Vibrio infection in shrimps. Moreover, results of the percent survival index and microbiological analysis clearly show that Asparagopsis extract incorporated medicated feed had broad therapeutic potential for managing shrimp Vibriosis. In addition, in vivo trials and results obtained in this work are based on the crude organic extract sourced from an unidentified Asparagopsis cryptic lineage, therefore further molecular analysis to identify the species will be required. PMID:23961176

  7. Effect of Racemic, (+)- and (-)-Gossypol on the survival and development of the specialist Herbivore Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypol is a constituent of the lysigenous foliar glands of cotton and is also found in glands in the cottonseed. Gossypol protects the plant from insect herbivores. Gossypol exist as enantiomers due to restricted rotation around the binaphthyl bond. The biological activities of the enantiomers ...

  8. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  9. Comparison of five methods for delimitating species in Ophion Fabricius, a diverse genus of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Schwarzfeld, Marla D; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-12-01

    DNA taxonomy has been proposed as a method to quickly assess diversity and species limits in highly diverse, understudied taxa. Here we use five methods for species delimitation and two genetic markers (COI and ITS2) to assess species diversity within the parasitoid genus, Ophion. We searched for compensatory base changes (CBC's) in ITS2, and determined that they are too rare to be of practical use in delimiting species in this genus. The other four methods used both COI and ITS2, and included distance-based (threshold analysis and ABGD) and tree-based (GMYC and PTP) models. We compared the results of these analyses to each other under various parameters and tested their performance with respect to 11 Nearctic species/morphospecies and 15 described Palearctic species. We also computed barcode accumulation curves of COI sequences to assess the completeness of sampling. The species count was highly variable depending on the method and parameters used, ranging from 47 to 168 species, with more conservative estimates of 89-121 species. Despite this range, many of the Nearctic test species were fairly robust with respect to method. We concluded that while there was often good congruence between methods, GMYC and PTP were less reliant on arbitrary parameters than the other two methods and more easily applied to genetic markers other than COI. However, PTP was less successful at delimiting test species than was GMYC. All methods, as well as the barcode accumulation curves, indicate that several Palearctic species remain undescribed and that we have scarcely begun to appreciate the Nearctic diversity within this genus. PMID:26265257

  10. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  11. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p<0.05) when compared with that of controls. Such delay in oviposition was not observed in the CGS level #1 and #2 carcasses. No significant differences (p>0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  12. The B-cell development independent of the bursa of Fabricius but dependent upon the thymus in chickens treated with testosterone propionate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Y; Suzuki, T; Bito, Y

    1980-01-01

    Spleen cells taken from chickens treated with testosterone propionate, surgically bursectomized and immunized, were treated with anti-bursa-cell antiserum in the presence of complement, and transferred together with the mixed antigens into immunodeficient chickens. The recipient chickens showed restored capacity for antibody response to sheep red blood cells. In contrast, adoptive immune responses by spleen cells from normal chickens were abolished by treating with anti-bursa-cell antiserum in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that antibody-forming cells in TP-treated chickens do not bear cell-surface antigens specific for bursa cells; Testosterone-treated chickens were thymectomized at 7 days of age and immunized with the mixed antigens; the chickens thus treated were not able to produce antibodies. Thymocytes and thymus-derived cells taken from normal chickens were transferred into the testosterone-treated and surgically thymectomized chickens; but the antibody responses were not restored, indicating that absence of antibody formation in testosterone-treated, thymectomized birds is not due to lack of T cells as such. This result was confirmed by using adoptive transfer of B cells taken from testosterone-treated chickens together with T cells. PMID:6966603

  13. Absence of a prezygotic behavioural barrier to gene flow between the two sympatric morphs of the squat lobster Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793) (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Barros, Patricia; Calcagno, Javier A.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2011-12-01

    Munida gregaria and M. subrugosa have been considered two different species for more than a century; however, after a recent molecular phylogenetic study, they are considered a single polymorphic species. Yet, the use of markers to diagnose species may be misleading when divergence between species is recent, since a speciation event may be obscured by the retention and stochastic sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. The morphs gregaria and subrugosa of Munida gregaria constitute an interesting case for the study of behavioural isolation since they are sympatric, breed at the same time of the year, and might have experienced a recent speciation. Mating behaviour observations and mate choice mating trials were conducted in order to investigate the potential existence of a behavioural prezygotic barrier to gene flow between these two morphs. Since factors involved in mate choice in galatheids are unknown, the four possible combinations of the two different morphs in trios were used to test for the existence of mate choice. Video recordings of all the possible trio combinations revealed that there was cross-attraction between males and females of different morphs. Females bearing partial broods participated in encounters as well as non-ovigerous females. The frequency and duration of homo- and heterotypic encounters were registered, and a reproductive isolation index was calculated for each variable for each trio. The isolation indexes calculated were not different from zero indicating random mating, and were not affected by the composition of the trio or the partial ovigerous condition of females. These results provided evidence of the absence of behavioural prezygotic barriers to gene flow between the morphs gregaria and subrugosa of M. gregaria.

  14. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  15. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775) collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Rimantas; Havelka, Jekaterina; Zaremba, Audrius; Bernotienė, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp.) were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates) was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M. cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n = 118) and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n = 110). A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed. PMID:24715766

  16. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3–4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23–42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat “coiled” apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  17. Cephalocteinae Mulsant et Rey, 1866 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera), a subfamily of Cydnidae new for the Italian fauna: first record of Cephalocteus scarabaeoides (Fabricius, 1807) from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Fancello, Luca; Cillo, Davide; Bazzato, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Cephalocteus scarabaeoides is recorded from the south-western coast of Sardinia, in sandy habitat (marine dunes near the beach), for the first time. The species and the subfamily are new for the Italian fauna. PMID:27395887

  18. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jeyasankar, Alagarmalai; Premalatha, Selvaraj; Elumalai, Kuppusamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera. PMID:23593579

  19. A new strikingly-colored species of the genus Galathea Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    A new shallow-water squat lobster, Galathea ryuguu, is described on the basis of material obtained from a colony of unidentified sea fan of the genus Muricella Verrill, 1868. The new species is most closely allied to G. squamea Baba, 1979, but is distinguished by the ornamentation and armature of the carapace, third maxilliped, and ambulatory legs. PMID:26624645

  20. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  1. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The result can be deduced that the determination of the postmortem interval is not affected. PMID:27143233

  2. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  3. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  4. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimaesp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimaesp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  5. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiming; Yi, Xin; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  6. Taxonomy, bionomics and faunistics of the nominate subgenus of Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, with the description of five new species (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Mylabrini).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    The nominate subgenus of the mylabrine genus Mylabris is revised: five new species, M. (M.) alpicola sp.n., M. (M.) cernyi sp.n., M. (M.) mediorientalis sp.n., and M. (M.) pseudoemiliae sp.n., are described and figured; M. (M.) apiceguttata sp.n., is provisionally refered to the nominate subgenus. M. (M.) rishwani Makhan, 2012 is synonymized with M. (M.) quadripunctata (Linnaeus, 1767). The other 20 species are characterized by short descriptions and figures, and a key to the species is provided. Tentatively, M. barezensis  and M. batnensis are placed in the nominate subgenus. The bionomics of the species is summarized in tables including information on phenology, elevation, habitat preference, host plants, larval biology, and host insects. Zoogeographic analysis of the subgenus was carried out on the basis of all available faunistic records from literature and collections which are summarized in Appendix. PMID:24871153

  7. A progression of molecular genetic tools for identifying screwworm myiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a devastating pest of all warm blooded animals. Successful eradication of the screwworm has been achieved from continental North America. Maintaining a barrier against reinfestation by screwworms requires rapid, accurate ident...

  8. A 454 sequencing approach to dipteran mitochondrial genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of complete mitochondrial genome data for Diptera, one of the largest Metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. Herein, we generated the complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipa...

  9. Managing ammonia emissions from screwworm larval rearing media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass production, sterilization and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts...

  10. EST-based Gene Indices for the Cattle Fever Tick, the Horn Fly, and the Screwworm Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  11. EST-based gene indices for the cattle fever tick, the horn fly, and the screwworm fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are economically important parasites of cattle throughout the world. Understanding the biology and genomics of these pests is critical to developin...

  12. A new species of the hermit crab genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from shallow coastal waters in Japan, with a checklist of the East Asian species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Saito, Yuma; Myorin, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    A new species of hermit crab of the family Paguridae, Pagurus rectidactylus, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from inshore waters in the Seto Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. It appears closest to P. quinquelineatus Komai, 2003, also known from Japan, but is easily distinguished from the latter by the dactylus of the right cheliped almost unarmed or armed only with a few tiny spines or tubercles, instead of dorsal and dorsomesial rows of conspicuous spines, and the more elongate and slender ambulatory legs with more numerous ventral corneous spines on dactyli and propodi. Housing is also different between the two species: the new species exclusively inhabits carcinoecia formed by a hydrozoan Stylactaria misakiensis (Iwasa, 1934), whereas P. quinquelineatus uses gastropod shells without association with coelenterates. A checklist of East Asian (Japanese Archipelago to Taiwan Island, Far Eastern Russia to northern China) species of Pagurus along with general geographical distributions is presented. PMID:25781090

  13. Larval development of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata Aurivillius 1894 and Octolasmis cor Aurivillius 1892 (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Poecilasmatidae) from the gills of the mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica Fabricius, 1798.

    PubMed

    Yap, F C; Wong, W L; Maule, A G; Brennan, G P; Lim, L H S

    2015-05-01

    Detailed studies of larval development of Octolasmis angulata and Octolasmis cor are pivotal in understanding the larval morphological evolution as well as enhancing the functional ecology. Six planktotrophic naupliar stages and one non-feeding cyprid stage are documented in details for the first time for the two species of Octolasmis. Morphologically, the larvae of O. angulata and O. cor are similar in body size, setation patterns on the naupliar appendages, labrum, dorsal setae-pores, frontal horns, cyprid carapace, fronto-lateral gland pores, and lattice organs. Numbers of peculiarities were observed on the gnathobases of the antennae and mandible throughout the naupliar life-cycle. The setation pattern on the naupliar appendages are classified based on the segmentation on the naupliar appendages. The nauplius VI of both species undergoes a conspicuous change before metamorphosis into cyprid stage. The cyprid structures begin to form and modify beneath the naupliar body towards the end of stage VI. This study emphasises the importance of the pedunculate barnacle larval developmental studies not only to comprehend the larval morphological evolution but also to fill in the gaps in understanding the modification of the naupliar structures to adapt into the cyprid life-style. PMID:25770075

  14. Expression of RXR, EcR, E75 and VtG mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and ovary of the freshwater edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex (Fabricius, 1798) during different vitellogenic stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, B. P.; Swetha, CH.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression profile of retinoid X receptor ( RXR), ecdysone receptor ( EcR) and ecdysone inducible gene ( E75) in the hepatopancreas and ovary of Oziothelphusa senex senex during different vitellogenic stages. RXR, EcR and E75 complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were isolated from the ovaries, while vitellogenin ( VtG) cDNA was isolated from the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic female crab. Deduced amino acid sequence of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of RXR, EcR and E75 showed more than 80 % identity with their respective mRNAs of other brachyurans. VtG mRNA was not detected in the ovary throughout vitellogenic stages. RXR and EcR were significantly increased in the ovaries during vitellogenic stage I. The levels of EcR, E75 and VtG in the hepatopancreas elevated significantly during vitellogenic stages I and II, whereas the levels of RXR elevated only in vitellogenic stage I. During vitellogenic stage III, the levels of RXR, EcR and VtG in the hepatopancreas were significantly decreased. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed the presence of VtG in the haemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovary extracts from the females but absent in haemolymph and hepatopancreas extract of males. It can be inferred that RXR, EcR and E75 are involved in the regulation of synthesis of VtG in hepatopancreas, whereas in ovary, it is hypothesized that they play an important role in the uptake of VtG from the haemolymph, probably by regulating the levels of vitellogenin receptor. These are the first data showing an association between the expression levels of RXR, EcR and E75 and vitellogenesis and provide an alternative molecular intervention mechanism to the traditional eyestalk ablation to induce vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation in crustaceans.

  15. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  16. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan .

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given.  PMID:25661959

  17. GENETIC RESEARCH ON SCREWWORM AT LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following technical abstract refers to the 1st seminar given by Dr. Skoda at the IAEA-FAO 1st RCM Research Coordination Meeting for the CRP Coordinated Research Project, Jan-Feb 2002. Screwwoms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of animals. They have been eradicated fro...

  18. Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

  19. Molecular genetics for identification and population studies of screwworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the sterile insect technique. Here we discussed the development a...

  20. Screwworms eating living flesh – not just another Halloween tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. Here we ...

  1. Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR) that differentiate New World screwworms from other potential wound inhabiting flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guarding against the introduction of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), to North America or any other screwworm free area relies on rapid, reliable identification of suspected cases. Identification of first instars suspected to be C. hominivorax can be rapidly v...

  2. Inter- and Intraspecific Identification of the New World Screwworm Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New World screwworms (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are one of the most important arthropod pests of livestock in the Western Hemisphere. Early instars are very difficult to distinguish morphologically from several closely related blow fly species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polyme...

  3. The screwworm fly in Libya: a threat to the livestock industry of the Old World.

    PubMed

    Gabaj, M M; Wyatt, N P; Pont, A C; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A; Gusbi, A M; Benhaj, K M

    1989-09-23

    The screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is the most serious insect pest of cattle in the New World. It has recently been recorded in Libya, where it appears to have become established. This article documents these recent finds, and provides background information on the recognition of the fly, its biology, distribution and importance. PMID:2815502

  4. Transgenic screwworm applications and SIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, presented unique challenges to transformation efforts. First, the eggs of this insect are deposited by the female on a warm-blooded host with an adhesive substance that must be removed. Embryological developement is complete after only nine hours und...

  5. The screwworm eradication program: From an unlikely dream to an outstanding reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was a devastating pest to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of the screwworm was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. He...

  6. Evaluation of waste artificial larval rearing media as oviposition attractant for New World screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste artificial larval rearing media of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness as oviposition attractants. Various concentrations of waste larval media resulting from rearing screwworm larvae in gel and cellulose fiber-based ...

  7. What happened to screwworms anyway and what are you doing about them now?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myiasis caused by screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is devastating to warm-blooded animals. Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully eradicated screwworms from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and some Caribbean Islands. Annual benefits to livestock producers...

  8. Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

  9. Identification of volatiles from waste larval rearing media that attract gravid screwworm flies to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste product of the artificial larval rearing media of the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, attracts gravid female screwworm flies to oviposit. The volatile component of this waste product was collected using solid phase microextraction techniques and subjected to gas chromatography-...

  10. A Cellulose Fiber-Based Diet for Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper, CF100®, was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent Aquatain® normally used for bulking the larval rearing medium for the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The cellulose fiber, when mixed with water and ...

  11. Screwworm ecology from field observations to satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in its larval stage is a parasite of warm-blooded animals. Screwworm has been successfully eradicated from the United Sates and Central America using the sterile insect technique. Here we present how the field observations o...

  12. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  13. Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are attracted to the volatiles from waste larval rearing media to deposit eggs. Studies were conducted to identify chemicals from the waste media volatiles and determine their effectiveness to attract gravid flies to oviposit. Volatiles were collected...

  14. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  15. Diet pH, and viscosity affect development and survival of screwworm larvae (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary pH and viscosity on larval development of the new world screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were studied in the laboratory using standard rearing procedures for screwworms. The effects of pH were studied in two different screwworm diets – a gelled-based and a cellu...

  16. Expressed gene sequences from the New World Screwworm, Cochiliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, was a devastating pest of livestock and other animals, including humans, throughout the US, Mexico, Central and South America. Although eradicated from North America, the screwworm still is a pest in South America and the Caribbean. Reinfestation of...

  17. Synopsis of Acanthocerini (Hemiptera, Coreidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pall, José Luis; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eight genera and 13 species of the tribe Acanthocerini are recorded in Argentina, i.e., Athaumastus haematicus (Stål), Athaumastus macer Brailovsky, Athaumastus subcarinatus (Stål), Athaumastus subterlineatus Bergroth, Beutelspacoris sanchezi Brailovsky, Beutelspacoris dilatata Casini, Camptischium clavipes (Fabricius), Crinocerus sanctus (Fabricius), Dersagrena flaviventris (Berg), Dersagrena lacerdae (Signoret), Dersagrena subfoveolata (Berg), Thlastocoris hernandezi Brailovsky and Zoreva dentipes Fabricius. Redescriptions are given for Athaumastus haematicus, Athaumastus subcarinatus and Dersagrena flaviventris with photographs of male and female genitalia of Dersagrena subfoveolata. Zoreva recorded from Argentina the first time. New locality records are given for Buenos Aires, Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, and Tucumán. PMID:23794912

  18. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae. PMID:26150137

  19. Methyl 2-(methylthio)benzoate: A sex attractant for the June beetles, Phyllophaga tristis and P. apicata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male antennae of Phyllophaga tristis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were tested using a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD) system for electrophysiological responses to five sex pheromones identified from other Phyllophaga species including L-valine ...

  20. Diapause traits in Melanoplus sanguinipes and M. borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of diapause is needed for prediction of population responses to climate change, for realistic simulation models, and for the development of effective pest management. In Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) and M. borealis (Fieber) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), diapause typically o...

  1. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  2. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan. PMID:26624414

  3. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  4. New records of Pipunculidae attacking proconiine sharpshooter (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Proconiini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five records of Pipunculidae (Diptera) attacking proconiine sharpshooters (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are documented here for the first time. Eudorylas alternatus (Cresson) is documented as a parasitoid of Cuerna obtusa Oman and Beamer, and Oncometopia orbona (Fabricius) is recorded as being at...

  5. Stylet Penetration Estimates for a Suite of Phytophagous Hemipteran Pests of Row Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Miridae (Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois and Pseudatomoscelis seriatus Reuter) and Pentatomidae (Acrosternum hilare Say, Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), E. quadrator Rolston, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), and Thyanta custator accerra M...

  6. Two new species of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from South America.

    PubMed

    Nearns, Eugenio H; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Onciderini are described and illustrated: Oncideres tavakiliani, from Brazil (Pará), and Clavidesmus egeri, from Peru. Oncideres defectiofasciata Gilmour, 1950 is a junior synonym of O. chevrolatii Thomson, 1868. The following four new country records are reported: O. crassicornis Bates, 1865 (Paraguay); O. glebulenta Martins, 1981 (Paraguay); O. gutturator (Fabricius, 1775) (Venezuela); and O. repandator (Fabricius, 1793) (Peru). PMID:27470737

  7. The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Gianluca; Mifsud, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands are reviewed. Ten species are recorded with certainty from this Archipelago, of which 6 namely, Trogoxylon impressum (Comolli, 1837), Amphicerus bimaculatus (A.G. Olivier, 1790), Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse, 1884), Sinoxylon unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801), Xyloperthella picea (A.G. Olivier, 1790) and Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775 are recorded for the first time. Two of the mentioned species (Heterobostrychus aequalis and Sinoxylon unidentatum) are alien and recorded only on the basis of single captures and the possible establishment of these species is discussed. Earlier records of Scobicia pustulata (Fabricius, 1801) from Malta are incorrect and should be attributed to Scobicia chevrieri (A. Villa & J.B. Villa, 1835). A zoogeographical analysis and an updated checklist of the 12 species of Bostrichidae recorded from the Maltese Islands and neigbouring Sicilian islands (Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa) are also provided. Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 from Uttarakhand (northern India) was overlooked by almost all subsequent authors. Its history is summarized and the following new synonymy is established: Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 = Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792), syn. n. Finally, records of Amphicerus bimaculatus from Azerbaijan, of Bostrichus capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Jordan and Syria, of Scobicia chevrieri from Jordan and Italy, of Xyloperthella picea from Italy, and of Apate monachus from Corsica (France) and Italy, are also provided. PMID:25685033

  8. Pain and bloody ear discharge in a returning traveler.

    PubMed

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Martinez, Raquel M; Spach, David H; Fang, Ferric C

    2015-03-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax, the New World screwworm, was a serious livestock pest in the southern United States until the 1960s, when it was successfully eradicated by the release of sterile male flies. It remains endemic in parts of the Caribbean and South America, and there is concern that climate change may extend its geographic distribution. Cochliomyia hominivorax is voracious and can cause extensive damage to soft tissue and bone. We describe the case of a 26-year-old traveler who presented with otalgia and bloody otorrhea after returning from a vacation in the Dominican Republic, where exposure to screwworm flies most likely occurred during a nap on the beach. The causative agent was recognized by its characteristic larval anatomy, which includes pigmented dorsal tracheal trunks and posterior spiracles with an open peritreme. PMID:25510727

  9. Kepler's Copernican Campaign and the New Star of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    In a letter of 27 October 1604, David Fabricius (1564-1617) eagerly reported to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) his observations of a brilliant new luminary in the constellation of Sagittarius. Fabricius had first observed the new luminary "near the location of the great conjunction,"1 which had occurred just 10 months earlier. His eyes had been drawn to the area by the proximity of the three superior planets when "Mars and Jupiter were conjoined and Saturn had by then returned directly to the location of the great conjunction."2 There, Fabricius had identified "a new star, with no motion of its own," in the outer sphere encasing the cosmos.3 The star had surpassed Jupiter "in diameter and silvery splendor,"4 and its scintillation had proven incomparably swift.

  10. Revision of the Amazonian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Isis Sá; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    A revision of the Amazonian species of Syneches Walker resulted in the re-description of four species and the description of nine new species: Syneches amazonicus sp. nov., S. angulatus sp. nov., S. applanatus sp. nov., S. bilobatus sp. nov., S. equatoriensis sp. nov., S. exilis sp. nov., S. maculosum sp. nov., S. striatus sp. nov., S. tenebricus sp. nov., and two new synonymies: S. quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1805) = S. curvipes (Fabricius, 1805) and S. hispidus Ale-Rocha & Vieira, 2008 = S. repletus Bezzi, 1909. The male of S. fuscescens Bezzi and the female of S. annulipes Bezzi are described and their terminalia are illustrated. Geographic records for S. annulipes Bezzi, S. curvipes (Fabricius), S. fuscescens Bezzi, S. manaos Smith, S. moraballi Smith, S. rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira, S. repletus Bezzi and S. walkeri Smith and an identification key for the species recorded in the Amazon are provided. PMID:27394746

  11. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  12. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Megalopodidae and Chrysomelidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539900

  13. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

  14. A taxonomic review of the genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M

    2013-01-01

    The genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 is reviewed from the Indian subcontinent. Three species with one additional subspecies are present, namely Antodynerus flavescens flavescens (Fabricius, 1775), A. f. karachiensis Giordani Soika, 1970, A. limbatus (de Saussure, 1852), and A. punctatipennis (de Saussure, 1853). The parasitic association of strepsipteran insects and the symbiotic association of mites are reported for the first time in the genus Antodynerus. The distribution of A. f. flavescens (Fabricius) and A. limbatus (de Saussure) in the Indian states is augmented. The latter species is newly recorded from China (Tibet). A key to species of the Indian subcontinent is provided. PMID:25277569

  15. Myiasis: the battle continues against screwworm infestation.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R E; Vargas-Terán, M; Abu Sowa, M

    1992-01-01

    The New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) caused myiasis extensively among livestock in Mexico and the southern third of the USA until eradication was achieved by repeatedly releasing sterile males of the species on a massive scale. The pest appeared in Libya in 1988, the first time it had become established outside the western hemisphere. Because of the threat of myiasis in animals and people, not only in Libya but also elsewhere in Africa and beyond, a concerted campaign of sterile male releases was mounted with strong international support, and the outbreak has been eliminated. Action is continuing against the pest in Central America. PMID:1418323

  16. Public health applications of remote sensing of vector borne and parasitic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the potential application of remote sensing to various fields of public health are presented. Specific topics discussed include: detection of snail habitats in connection with the epidemiology of schistosomiasis; the detection of certain Anopheles breeding sites, and location of transient human populations, both in connection with malaria eradication programs; and detection of overwintering population sites for the primary screwworm (Cochliomyia americana). Emphasis was placed on the determination of ground truth data on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of ground waters which would or would not support the growth of significant populations of mosquitoes.

  17. An Overview of the Components of AW-IPM Campaigns against the New World Screwworm

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Welch, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, C. hominivorax has been eradicated from the USA, Mexico and Central America by an area-wide integrated pest management approach. Recently, Caribbean and South American countries have expressed an interest in this approach. Aiming to support forthcoming projects in these countries, this review describes the main technical components of past and ongoing AW-IPM campaigns against C. hominivorax. PMID:26466720

  18. Lycaenidae parasitoids from peninsular India with description of four new species of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) along with new insights on host relationships.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Churi, Paresh V; Sengupta, Ashok; Mhatre, Sarang

    2014-01-01

    In the comprehensive rearing of lepidopterans from peninsular India, eleven species of Lycaenidae were parasitized by ten species of wasps. Four new taxa of lycaenid associated microgastrine wasps Parapanteles eros Gupta n. sp., P. arka Gupta n. sp., P. esha Gupta n. sp., and P. regale Gupta n. sp. reared from Chilades pandava (Horsfield), Curetis thetis (Drury), Prosotas dubiosa (Semper), Tajuria cippus (Fabricius), respectively, are described with diagnostic details and illustrations along with documentation of six species of wasps viz., Apanteles folia, Apanteles sp., Protapanteles sp. 01 & 02 (Braconidae), Charops obtusus obtusus Morley (Ichneumonidae), and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) (Chalcididae). This is the first record of host-parasitoid association of lycaenid butterflies with Parapanteles. Wasps from three different families were recorded: Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Chalcididae. The parasitoid species were reared from the following Lycaenidae hosts: Anthene lycaenina (Felder), Arhopala amantes Hewitson, Chilades pandava (Horsfield), Curetis thetis (Drury), Jamides celeno (Cramer), Prosotas dubiosa (Semper), Rathinda amor (Fabricius), Spindasis vulcanus (Fabricius), Tajuria cippus (Fabricius), Tarucus balkanicus nigra Bethune-Baker, and Tarucus callinara Butler. All lycaenids were collected from peninsular India, except T. callinara (central India). A comparative account of all newly described species is provided along with the detailed illustrated description and differences vis-à-vis its closely allied Indian species. Also a comprehensive table comprising parasitoid species, associated host, stage of parasitism, and nature of cocoon is provided. PMID:25081172

  19. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  20. Infection of Melanoplus Sanguinipes Grasshoppers Following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical to understanding the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western U.S. Migratory grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes, Fabricius) have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VS...

  1. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  2. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM, B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV infection. In the bursa, two IgM B-cell subpopulations, desig...

  3. Nest marking behavior and chemical composition of olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examines the use of olfactory cues for nest recognition by Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), an economically important pollinator of seed alfalfa throughout western North America. In-nest observations revealed that nesting females drag their abdomen alon...

  4. Histopathological characterization and shedding dynamics of LPAI H6N2 in Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) infected experimentally

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guineafowl of different ages were inoculated intravenously with a H6N2 wild waterfowl-origin low-pathogenicity type A influenza virus. No evidence of clinical disease was observed. The examined infected birds had atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-infect...

  5. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilide) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is commonly used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the U.S. and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial populations of M. rotundata in the U.S. due to problems with disease, parasites and pre...

  6. Do weather conditions correlate with findings in failed, provision-filled nest cells of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera:Megachilidae) in western North America?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata Fabricius, are excellent pollinators of alfalfa for seed production. Alfalfa leafcutting bee nests consist of a series of cells in a cavity. The female bee lays a single egg in each cell on a pollen-nectar provision. In alfalfa seed production systems...

  7. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  8. Host plant resistance to megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in diverse soybean germplasm maturity groups V through VIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initially discovered in Georgia in 2009, the exotic invasive plataspid, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius has become a serious pest of soybean. Managing M. cribraria in soybean typically involves the application of broad-spectrum insecticides. Soybean host plant resistance is an attractive alternative...

  9. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bees are among the most important pollinators of flowering plants in most ecosystems. This paper describes a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western He...

  10. Campylobacter can remain in various organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and inoculated either orally or intracloacally with a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. After 1 hr, 1day and 1wk post inoculation, the thymus, spleen, liver/gallbladder, bursa of Fabricius and ceca were aseptically removed ...

  11. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  12. Effects of bisphenol A on the development of central immune organs of specific-pathogen-free chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jijing; Luo, Dongmei; She, Ruiping; Liu, Tianlong; Ding, Ye; Yue, Zhuo; Xia, Kangkang

    2014-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical estrogen widely used in the food packaging industry, especially in baby bottles. Its toxicity for the fetus has become a great concern in recent years. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the development of central immune organs in chick embryos were investigated. A total of 30 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chick embryos were divided into BPA, control, and vehicle group. Chick embryos were exposed to BPA (250 μg per egg), saline (control), or corn oil (vehicle) on embryonic day 9 (ED9) by injection into the allantoic cavity. Thymuses and bursae of Fabricius were collected on ED22. The microscopic examination of tissue structure and ultrastructure was carried out for histopathological changes of thymus and the bursa of Fabricius morphology under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In the BPA group, the weight index of the bursae of Fabricius was significantly reduced (p < 0.01); the number of lymphatic follicles in the bursae of Fabricius was remarkably decreased (p < 0.01); and the thickness of the thymus cortex and medulla was reduced (p < 0.01). Light microscope and SEM examinations further showed that the lymphatic follicles and epithelial cells of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were damaged by BPA. Our study confirms a direct toxicity of BPA at a very low-dose level on the development of the central immune organs of SPF chick embryos. However, more studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22782708

  13. Review of potter wasps with a petiolate metasoma excluding so-called "Zethinae" (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in the Lesser Sunda Islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Hari; Kojima, Jun-Ichi; Ubaidillah, Rosichon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty species and six subspecies of nine genera of eumenine wasps with a petiolate metasoma occurring in the Lesser Sunda Islands are listed. New synonymies are proposed for Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius 1775) (=D. campaniforme gracilior Giordani Soika 1986, syn. nov.) and D. nigriculum Giordani Soika 1986, stat. nov. (=D. campaniforme rendalloide Giordani Soika 1993, syn. nov.). Eumenes piriformis de Saussure and E. inconspicuus Smith are newly recorded from the Lesser Sunda Islands; E. pius Giordani Soika, D. nigriculum Giordani Soika, D. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. sciarum (van der Vecht), Pareumenes nigerrimus van der Vecht, and Labus vandervechti Giordani Soika, are newly recorded from some islands of the Lesser Sunda. Hitherto unknown male of P. nigerrimus is described. PMID:24614445

  14. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-01-01

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized. PMID:26249393

  15. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. PMID:22548537

  16. Review of the continental Oriental species of Lilioceris Reitter (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Criocerinae) closely related to Lilioceris impressa (F.)

    PubMed Central

    Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Konstantinov, Alexander S.; Bista, Sanjay; Pemberton, Robert W.; Center, Ted D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Criocerine leaf beetles found in Nepal feeding on Dioscorea bulbifera (L.), an invasive weed of Asian origin, were identified as Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto based on a synopsis of the Oriental Lilioceris species and review of the Lilioceris impressa species group. All the continental, Oriental species included in the group are diagnosed and illustrated, and a key for their identification is provided. Species status of Lilioceris thibetana Pic, 1916 is resurrected. The following new synonyms are proposed: Lilioceris coomani (Pic, 1928) = Lilioceris egena (Weise, 1922), and Lilioceris subcostata (Pic, 1921a), Lilioceris laticornis (Gressit, 1942), Lilioceris inflaticornis Gressit & Kimoto, 1961, and Lilioceris maai Gressit & Kimoto, 1961 = Lilioceris impressa (Fabricius, 1787). Lectotypes of the following species are designated: Lilioceris coomani Pic, 1928; Lilioceris impressa (Fabricius, 1787); Lilioceris laosensis (Pic, 1916); Lilioceris malabarica (Jacoby, 1904); Lilioceris ruficornis (Pic, 1921b); Lilioceris subcostata (Pic, 1921a); Lilioceris thibetana (Pic, 1916); and Lilioceris unicolor (Hope, 1831). PMID:21747681

  17. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mordellidae and Ripiphoridae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eleven species of Mordellidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Six of these, Falsomordellistena discolor (Melsheimer), Falsomordellistena pubescens (Fabricius), Mordellistena ornata (Melsheimer), Mordellaria undulata (Melsheimer), Tomoxia inclusa LeConte, and Yakuhananomia bidentata (Say)are new for the Maritime provinces. Falsomordellistena pubescens is new to Canada. Pelecotoma flavipes Melsheimer (family Ripiphoridae) is reported for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539896

  18. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-01-01

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants. PMID:27615925

  19. Notes on the genus Xenocerogria (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Lagriini) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Merkl, Ottó; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three species of the genus Xenocerogria Merkl, 2007 have been recorded in China, Xenocerogria feai (Borchmann, 1911), Xenocerogria ignota (Borchmann, 1941) and Xenocerogria ruficollis (Borchmann, 1912). Xenocera xanthisma Chen, 2002 is proposed as a junior synonym of Xenocerogria ruficollis. Lectotype of Xenocerogria ignota is designated, and the species is transferred to the genus Lagria Fabricius, 1775. New Chinese province records of Xenocerogria ruficollis are provided. PMID:25493049

  20. Pictorial key to species of the genus Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from China, with description of one new species

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiang-Li; Van Achterberg, Kees; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twenty two species of the paper wasp genus Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville, 1831, are listed from China. Among them, R. malaisei van der Vecht, 1962, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius, 1804), R. santoshae Das & Gupta, 1989, R. scitula (Bingham, 1897), R. obscura Gusenleitner, 1996 and R. ornaticeps (Cameron, 1900) are new records from China. A new species, R. parartifex Tan & van Achterberg, is described. Their diagnostic characteristics are summarized in an illustrated key and 36 colourplates. PMID:24715777

  1. A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sureshan, Pavittu M

    2016-01-01

    A review of 20 Indian species of the genus Antepipona de Saussure with a key to species and subspecies is provided. A new synonymy is proposed for Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787) =A. excelsa keralensis Lambert, 2004, syn. nov. The parasitic association of Strepsiptera is reported for the first time in the genus Antepipona. Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) is newly recorded from India and A. ovalis (de Saussure, 1853) from Bangladesh. The reported distributions of ten species within India are enlarged. PMID:27615812

  2. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted. PMID:27395708

  3. [Natural presence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in the sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Estrada, María Elena; Romero, Maritza; Rivero, María Julia; Barroso, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    The natural presence of Beauveria bassiana was determined (Balsamo) Vuillemin from insects with mycotic symptoms collected in leaves and in the stalks of sugar cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) in Pinar del Río, Ciudad de la Habana, Habana, Matanzas, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Camagüey. The results obtained demonstrate the natural presence of the entomopathogen fungus in larvae and chrysalises of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and they suggest the basis for the strategy of biological control against this borer. PMID:15458363

  4. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  5. A revision of the myrmecophilous genus Smilax Laporte (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae).

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The neotropical myrmecophilous genus Smilax is revised and a new species, Smilax deneinephyto Chatzimanolis is described from southern Brazil. Lectotypes are designated for Smilax cyanea Wasmann and Staphylinus pilosus Fabricius. Smilax cyanea is shown to be a junior synonym of Smilax pilosa. A key and illustration of morphological features are provided for the identification of taxa. The types of the two species of Smilax were not available for study even though they are deposited in public museums. PMID:27615974

  6. Changes of CD4+CD25+ Cells Ratio in Immune Organs from Chickens Challenged with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains with Varying Virulences

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoxue; Rui, Lei; Shao, Qiang; Liu, Haiwen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigate changes in CD4+CD25+ cells in chickens during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in lymph organs, e.g., the thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and peripheral blood, during the first 1–5 days post infection (dpi) was assessed by flow cytometry. The data revealed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus from 1 to 5 dpi and in the spleen during early infection. An increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells among peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed during the first two days of IBDV infection. Additionally, CD4+CD25+ cells infiltrated the bursa along with CD4+ cells after IBDV infection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA levels of immune-related cytokines in IBDV-infected thymus and bursa of Fabricius tissues. The data revealed that IBDV caused a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA levels, with the Harbin-1 strain (vvIBDV) inducing higher IL-10 expression than the Ts strain. Taken together, our data suggest that chicken CD4+CD25+ cells may participate in IBDV pathogenicity by migrating from their sites of origin and storage, the thymus and spleen, to the virally targeted bursa of Fabricius during IBDV infection. PMID:25803101

  7. A history of anatomy theaters in sixteenth-century Padua.

    PubMed

    Klestinec, Cynthia

    2004-07-01

    The history of anatomy includes not only professors and the support of their institutions but also medical students. Because medical students were quick to assess a teacher's pedagogy, their complaints tell us a great deal about the transition from Galenic to Aristotelian projects of anatomy. When Fabricius of Aquapendente instituted a new style of anatomical inquiry, one based on Aristotle and the search for universal principles, students repeatedly complained that his demonstrations did not provide technical education in structural anatomy (as demonstrations employing a hands-on, Galenic pedagogy did). Within the new anatomy theater (the second of its kind in Padua), however, students were persuaded to accept Fabricius's demonstrations. Fabricius's philosophical orientation combined with the formal atmosphere and aesthetic features of the new theater to create anatomy demonstrations that relied on orations and music for their structure (rather than on the progressive stages of human dissection). A place that emphasized a discourse of anatomy as the study of the "secrets of nature," the new theater so effectively publicized a new style of anatomy that a larger, more diverse group of spectators attended subsequent demonstrations and participated in the celebration of leading academic figures as well as the institution of the university. PMID:15270335

  8. Calf milk replacers as substitutes for milk in the larval diet of the screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Friese, D D

    1992-10-01

    The effect of calf milk replacers as substitutes for nonfat dry milk in the larval diet of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), was determined in the laboratory. Pupal weight and fecundity of females were significantly greater than the control with some of the formulations tested. Larval crawl-off patterns for all diets were similar. Pupal weights were significantly affected only on day 1 of the 4-d crawl-off period. Among the formulations of calf milk replacer, Gold Label brand products showed the most promise as substitutes for the nonfat dry milk presently used in the screwworm production facility. Use of calf milk replacers would lead to a yearly savings of 39.3% in the cost of the dietary milk component. At a production level of 250 million flies weekly, this substitution would save approximately $338,000 dollars yearly. PMID:1401483

  9. Facts and fiction surrounding the discovery of the venous valves.

    PubMed

    Scultetus, A H; Villavicencio, J L; Rich, N M

    2001-02-01

    Venous valves are delicate structures, the integrity of which is crucial for the normal function of the venous system. Their abnormalities lead to widespread disorders, ranging from chronic venous insufficiency to life-threatening thromboembolic phenomena. The discovery of the venous valves, however, has been the subject of hot controversy. Even though Fabricius ab Aquapendente is credited with the discovery by most historians, we demonstrate in this paper that other anatomists described them many years before Fabricius ab Aquapendente publicly demonstrated them in Padua in 1579. A thorough review of the historical literature surrounding the discovery of the venous valves was carried out from 1545 to the present under the supervision of the Medical History Department of our institution. Research was performed at the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine and through MEDLINE access to the medical literature. The Parisian Charles Estienne first mentioned the venous valves in his 1545 publication when he described "apophyses membranarum" in the veins of the liver. Lusitanus and Canano publicly demonstrated them in the azygos vein during cadaver dissections performed in Ferrera, Italy. The Parisian Jacques Sylvius described valves in the veins of the extremities in 1555. The work of these anatomists, however, could not achieve full recognition, because Andreas Vesalius, the leading anatomist at that time, was unable to confirm their findings and strongly denied the existence of venous valves. Vesalius's influence was so powerful that research on the subject was idle until 1579, when Fabricius ab Aquapendente "discovered" the venous valves. About the same time, the German Salomon Alberti published the first drawings of a venous valve (in 1585). William Harvey, a disciple of Fabricius ab Aquapendente, finally postulated the function of the venous valves, providing anatomical support for one of the greatest discoveries in medicine: the blood

  10. Isolation and characterization of a reovirus from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Kilpi, Mikael; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Hario, Martti

    2002-01-01

    Samples of brain, intestine, liver, lung, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were collected from five common eider (Somateria mollissima) duckling carcasses during a die-off in the western Gulf of Finland (59??50???N, 23??15???E) in June 1996. No viral activity was observed in specific-pathogen-free chicken embryos inoculated with tissue suspensions, but samples of bursa of Fabricius from three birds were positive when inoculated into Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) embryo fibroblasts. The isolates were characterized as nonenveloped RNA viruses and possessed several characteristics of the genus Orthoreovirus. Virus particles were icosahedral with a mean diameter of 72 nm and were stable at pH 3.0; their genome was separated into 10 segments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings experimentally infected with the eider reovirus showed elevated serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes and focal hemorrhages in the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. During 1997-99, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the isolated virus ranged from 0 to 86% in 302 serum samples collected from incubating eider hens at three nesting areas along coastal Finland. The highest seroprevalence was found in Hanko in 1999, just weeks before reports of an uninvestigated mortality event resulting in the death of an estimated 98% of ducklings at that location. These findings raise the question of potential involvement of the virus in poor duckling survival and eider population declines observed in several breeding areas along coastal Finland since the mid-1980s.

  11. Selenium Deficiency Mainly Influences Antioxidant Selenoproteins Expression in Broiler Immune Organs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Liu, Chunpeng; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Selenoprotein has many functions in chicken, and the expression of selenoproteins is closely associated with the selenium (Se) level. However, little is known about the expression patterns of selenoproteins in chicken immune organs. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 23 selenoproteins in broiler immune organs. In this study, 150 broilers were randomly divided into two groups (75 chickens per group). The chickens were maintained either on a diet supplemented with Se through the addition of 0.2 mg/kg of Se (C group) via sodium selenite or on a Se-deficient granulated diet (L group) until the broilers exhibited an onset of exudative diathesis (ED). Following euthanasia, the samples from the immune tissues (including the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were quickly collected, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 23 selenoproteins were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that Se deficiency decreased the mRNA levels of 23 selenoproteins in the thymus, spleen, and bursa of the Fabricius tissues of broiler chickens. Furthermore, we found that among 23 selenoproteins, the mRNA levels of Dio1 in the thymus, Txnrd2 in the spleen, and Txnrd3 in the bursa of Fabricius decreased significantly (90.9 %, 83.3 %, and 96.8 %, respectively). In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expression of antioxidative selenoproteins, especially glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs), thioredoxin reductases (Txnrds), and iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) in chicken immune organs. The results of this study are valuable for understanding the relevance of selenoprotein activity in vivo. PMID:26631053

  12. Comparative pathologic changes in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bunte, R M; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Richard, J L; Bennett, G A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    2005-06-01

    Feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) (61-546 ppm), fumonisin B2 (FB2) (14-98 ppm) and moniliformin (66-367 ppm) was given to 228 male chicks in three separate feeding trials. In a fourth feeding trial, purified FB1 (125 and 274 ppm) and moniliformin (27 and 154 ppm) were given separately and in combination (137 and 77 ppm, respectively). Chicks that died during the trial periods, survivors and controls were subjected to postmortem examination. Specimens (liver, kidney, pancreas, lung, brain, intestine, testis, bursa of Fabricius, heart and skeletal muscle) were examined grossly and preserved for subsequent histopathologic and ultrastructural examination. Prominent gross lesions in affected birds fed diets amended with CM or purified FB1 and moniliformin included ascites, hydropericardium, hepatopathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, pneumonitis, gizzard ulceration, and enlarged bursa of Fabricius filled with caseous material. The various concentrations of FB1 and moniliformin in the amended rations produced well-defined dose-response lesions in all groups in all four trials. Histopathologic changes included hemorrhage, leucocytic infiltration, fatty change or infiltration, individual cell necrosis and fibrosis in liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, intestines, gizzard, bursa of Fabricius and pancreas. Edema and hemorrhage were prominent in brains of treated birds. Ultrastructural changes included cytoplasmic and nuclear enlargement of cells in affected liver, lungs, kidneys, heart and pancreas. There were thickened membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum with loss of ribosomes and vacuolated or deformed mitochondria. PMID:15983742

  13. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, L.

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  14. [Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated vaccine viruses against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) in conventional broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, A; Alloui, N

    2008-12-01

    The pathological and immunological effects of two infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) vaccines containing attenuated virus were evaluated under experimental conditions. A total of 200 conventional broiler chicks were divided into three batches, two of which were administered an experimental dose of Gumboro disease vaccine via the ocular route, at 14 days of age, using an 'intermediate' strain for one group and an 'intermediate plus' strain for the other. At different post-inoculation intervals, the chicks from the three batches were weighed and slaughtered and their bursa of Fabricius were removed to be weighed and subjected to histological examination. This allowed a lesion score and a ratio between the weight of the bursa of Fabricius and body weight to be calculated for each group of chicks. The immunosuppressive potential of the two vaccines was also estimated by evaluating the chicks' serological response to a Newcastle disease vaccine administered by eye-drop two weeks following vaccination against Gumboro disease. The results showed that the two vaccine strains were not of equal pathogenicity and that one was potentially immunosuppressive. The 'intermediate plus' strain proved to be more virulent than the 'intermediate' strain, as it caused greater atrophy and more severe lesions of the bursa of Fabricius. By exerting a more suppressive effect on the serological response of the chicks, the 'intermediate plus' vaccine also proved to be immunosuppressive. The three weeks of observation were not sufficient to ascertain whether the lesions caused by the two vaccines were temporary or whether the immunosuppressive state induced by the 'intermediate plus' strain was reversible. PMID:19284047

  15. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deping; Wang, Shuxiang; Hu, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xianggui; Yang, Zu; Wang, Jiankui; Li, Junying; Deng, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte. PMID:26047316

  16. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  17. A faunistic study on the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Tandis; Jalalizand, Ali Reza; Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leafhopper fauna of northwestern Iran: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces is listed from previously published records and from our current work. Sixty-nine species are included with four species (Mogangella straminea Dlabola, 1957, Doratura stylata (Boheman, 1847), Macrosteles sordidipennis (Stål, 1858) and Psammotettix seriphidii Emeljanov, 1962) listed as new for Iran and Balclutha punctata (Fabricius, 1775), as a new record for the region. A distribution map of the species in northwestern Iran is given. PMID:25931954

  18. Spitting out information: Trigona bees deposit saliva to signal resource locations

    PubMed Central

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Jarau, Stefan; Francke, Wittko; Twele, Robert; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Hrncir, Michael; Schmidt, Veronika M; Ayasse, Manfred; Barth, Friedrich G

    2007-01-01

    Stingless bees of the species Trigona spinipes (Fabricius 1793) use their saliva to lay scent trails communicating the location of profitable food sources. Extracts of the cephalic labial glands of the salivary system (not the mandibular glands, however) contain a large amount (approx. 74%) of octyl octanoate. This ester is also found on the scent-marked substrates at the feeding site. We demonstrate octyl octanoate to be a single compound pheromone which induces full trail following behaviour. The identification of the trail pheromone in this widely distributed bee makes it an ideal organism for studying the mechanism of trail following in a day flying insect. PMID:17251108

  19. Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) types of The Natural History Museum (BMNH).

    PubMed

    Nearns, Eugenio H; Barclay, Maxwell V L; Tavakilian, Gérard L

    2014-01-01

    The primary types of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 deposited at The Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, are catalogued and illustrated. Data on the original combination, current name, and type locality are verified and presented. There are 39 primary types of Onciderini including 11 in Oncideres Lacordaire, 1830; and three each in Hesycha Fairmaire & Germain, 1859; Hypselomus Perty, 1832; Lamia Fabricius, 1775; and Tybalmia Thomson, 1868. Of the 39 primary types, 17 were described by H. W. Bates and seven by F. P. Pascoe. Five lectotypes are designated. Notes on additional Onciderini types once believed to be deposited at the BMNH are presented.  PMID:25283108

  20. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.; Zhou, Dakang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of Pseudaspidapion botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and Aspidapion aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided. PMID:23653504

  1. Aristathlus imperatorius Bergroth, a newly recognized synonym of Reduvius iopterus Perty, with the new combination Aristathlus iopterus (Perty, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) ​

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduvius iopterus Perty 1834 was first described from the Rio Negro, Brazil. It was then included in Zelus Fabricius 1803 as Z. iopterus (Perty 1834) without critical examination of this action (Stål 1872).The Neotropical genus Aristathlus Bergroth 1913 was described to include two species from the Amazon basin: A. imperatorius Bergroth 1913 and A. regalis Bergroth 1913. New information Based on the original description and illustration of Reduvius iopterus, Aristathlus imperatorius is considered to be its junior synonym, with the resulting new combination: Aristathlus iopterus (Perty 1834). PMID:26175611

  2. New records of the rare calcareous sponge Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa, 1940.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Hoeksema, Bert W; Reimer, James D; De Voogd, Nicole J

    2015-01-01

    Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa is reported from coastal reefs of the island of Okinawa. This rare species was previously known only from Central Japan, Mie Prefecture. It has peculiar apopylar tetractine spicules, so far unique among Calcarea. We present in situ images of the species and a full description including SEM images of skeletal structure and spicule complement. The status of Paragrantia as a separate genus of the family Grantiidae distinct from Grantia Fleming is confirmed on the basis of a morphological and molecular comparison with the European type species of Grantia, Grantia compressa (Fabricius). PMID:26798302

  3. Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Bhogal, B.S.; Chi, D.S.; Galton, J.E.; Bell, M.K.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-08-01

    The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age.

  4. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided. PMID:26624715

  5. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., Thyreus batelkai sp. n., Thyreus schwarzi sp. n., and Thyreus aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications. PMID:22977347

  6. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Geotrupidae and Scarabaeidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Geotrupidae, Geotrupes splendidus splendidus (Fabricius) and Odonteus liebecki (Wallis), are newly reported for New Brunswick, Canada. Twelve species of Scarabaeidae are added to the faunal list of the province, including Aegialia criddlei Brown, Caelius humeralis (Brown), Dialytellus dialytoides (Fall), Diapterna omissa (LeConte), Diapterna pinguis (Haldeman), Planolinoides aenictus (Cooper and Gordon), Stenotothorax badipes (Melsheimer), and Ataenius strigatus (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for each species. PMID:22539883

  7. New records of the rare calcareous sponge Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa, 1940

    PubMed Central

    Van Soest, Rob W.M.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Reimer, James D.; De Voogd, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa is reported from coastal reefs of the island of Okinawa. This rare species was previously known only from Central Japan, Mie Prefecture. It has peculiar apopylar tetractine spicules, so far unique among Calcarea. We present in situ images of the species and a full description including SEM images of skeletal structure and spicule complement. The status of Paragrantia as a separate genus of the family Grantiidae distinct from Grantia Fleming is confirmed on the basis of a morphological and molecular comparison with the European type species of Grantia, Grantia compressa (Fabricius). PMID:26798302

  8. A taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez, 1977 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Valois, Marcely; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Silva, Fernando A B

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez is reviewed. The genus consists of six species, including three new species: H. peugeoti sp. nov., H. grossii sp. nov., H. krinskii sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Hansreia affinis (Fabricius 1801), H. oxygona (Perty 1830) [here considered a valid species] and H. coriacea (Schmidt 1922). The species status of H. coriacea is recognized. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters as well as data of the studied material and geographic distribution is provided for each species. PMID:26624175

  9. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.001); serum GSH, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (P ≤ 0.01); and GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activities (P < 0.001) compared with chickens that were fed diets without resveratrol during heat stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P < 0.001) in the chickens fed a resveratrol-supplemented diet. Heat stress also reduced (P < 0.05) the growth index of the bursa of Fabricus and spleen; however, it had no effect on the growth index of the thymus. The growth index of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen increased (P < 0.05) upon heat stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P < 0.01), but those of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus were decreased (P < 0.01) under heat stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance

  10. The early history of the integrable chiral Potts model and the odd-even problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    In the first part of this paper I shall discuss the round-about way of how the integrable chiral Potts model was discovered about 30 years ago. As there should be more higher-genus models to be discovered, this might be of interest. In the second part I shall discuss some quantum group aspects, especially issues of odd versus even N related to the Serre relations conjecture in our quantum loop subalgebra paper of 5 years ago and how we can make good use of coproducts, also borrowing ideas of Drinfeld, Jimbo, Deguchi, Fabricius, McCoy and Nishino.

  11. Achiasmate male meiosis in two Cymatia species (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Corixidae)

    PubMed Central

    Stoianova, Desislava; Grozeva, Snejana; Simov, Nikolay; Kuznetsova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The karyotype and male meiosis, with a particular focus on the presence or absence of chiasmata between the homologs, were studied in the water boatman species Cymatia rogenhoferi (Fieber) and Cymatia coleoptrata (Fabricius) (Corixidae, Cymatiainae). It is shown that the species have 2n = 33 (28A+2m+X1X2Y) and 2n = 24 (20A+2m+XY) respectively, post-reduction of sex chromosomes, and achiasmate meiosis of an alignment type in males. Cytogenetic and some morphological diagnostic characters separating Cymatia Flor from the rest of Corixidae are discussed. PMID:26807038

  12. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  13. Reassessment of multiple species of Gymnelus (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) in Pacific Arctic and boreal regions.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Anderson, M Eric

    2015-01-01

    Recently described new nominal species and resurrected species in the eelpout genus Gymnelus Reinhardt 1834 were reassessed for validity using fresh material collected in Pacific Arctic regions and a large body of data from a previous systematic review of the genus. The analysis reported here included both DNA barcodes and morphology. Only two species were validated: G. viridis (Fabricius 1780) and G. hemifasciatus Andriashev 1937. The latter species occurred as two morphotypes for which there is some evidence of difference in ecological preference, but the available environ-mental data are not robust enough to firmly identify or verify ecophenotypes. PMID:26249440

  14. Reassessment of multiple species of Gymnelus (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) in Pacific Arctic and boreal regions.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Anderson, M Eric

    2015-01-01

    Recently described new nominal species and resurrected species in the eelpout genus Gymnelus Reinhardt 1834 were reassessed for validity using fresh material collected in Pacific Arctic regions and a large body of data from a previous systematic review of the genus. The analysis reported here included both DNA barcodes and morphology. Only two species were validated: G. viridis (Fabricius 1780) and G. hemifasciatus Andriashev 1937. The latter species occurred as two morphotypes for which there is some evidence of difference in ecological preference, but the available environ-mental data are not robust enough to firmly identify or verify ecophenotypes. PMID:25947776

  15. A revision of Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille (Coleoptera, Silvanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Japanese species of the genus Psammoecus Latreille, 1829 are taxonomically revised. Four new species, P. scitus sp. n. (misidentified with P. quadrimaculatus), P. labyrinthicus sp. n., P. boreas sp. n. and P. omotoensis sp. n. are described. Psammoecus bipunctatus (Fabricius, 1792), P. trimaculatus Motschulsky, 1858 (misidentified with P. triguttatus), P. simoni Grouvelle, 1892, P. fasciatus Reitter, 1874 and P. triguttatus are redescribed. Another described species whose distribution in Japan is questionable. P. quadrimaculatus is also redescribed. Lectotype and paralectotype of P. fasciatus and P. triguttatus are designated. PMID:24843265

  16. Review of the Eustrophinae (Coleoptera, Tetratomidae) of America north of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Nearctic fauna (north of Mexico) of Eustrophinae is reviewed, and consists of the following five genera and 12 species: Pseudoholostrophus (Pseudoholostrophus) impressicollis (LeConte), Pseudoholostrophus (Holostrophinus) discolor (Horn), Holostrophus bifasciatus (Say), Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Eustrophopsis confinis (LeConte), Eustrophopsis bicolor (Fabricius), Eustrophopsis brunneimarginatus (Dury), Eustrophopsis indistinctus (LeConte), Eustrophopsis arizonensis (Horn), Eustrophopsis ornatus (Van Dyke), Eustrophopsis crowdyi sp. n., and Synstrophus repandus (Horn). A lectotype is designated for Eustrophus brunneimarginatus Dury. A key is given to separate genera and species, supplemented with illustrations of relevant features, including aedeagi of all Nearctic species of Eustrophopsis. Detailed distribution (including Mexican records) and natural history data are provided. PMID:22611332

  17. Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

    2007-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

  18. Differential expression of immune-related cytokine genes in response to J group avian leukosis virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-03-01

    Infection with J group avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) can result in immunosuppression and subsequently increased susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line defense system in prevention of further bacterial and viral infections. Cytokines play key roles in the innate immune system. In this study, we used RT-qPCR technology to test the cytokine mRNA expression levels in various immune tissues, including the spleen, bursa of fabricius and cecal tonsil, in the days following ALV-J infection. The results indicated that in the infected group, the expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-γ significantly increased in the spleen and reached peak levels that were thousandfolds higher than baselines at 9-12 days post-infection (d.p.i.). The levels in the bursa of fabricius slightly increased, and the levels in the cecal tonsil were not significantly altered. Moreover, the pattern of the expression of these three cytokines in the spleens of the infected group was similar to the pattern of viremia of this group. These results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in the interaction between ALV-J infection and the innate immune system. This study contributes to the understanding of innate immune responses to ALV-J infection and also elucidates the mechanisms of the pathogenicity of ALV-J in chickens. PMID:25438822

  19. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  20. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, O L; Jørgensen, P H; Hedemand, J; Jensenius, J C; Koch, C; Laursen, S B

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius, but MBL was present in non-identified cells in the interstitium, and in the cytoplasm of macrophage-like cells, located peripheral to the ellipsoid of the spleen. These findings indicate the liver as the primary site of MBL synthesis, and points to up-regulation as a result of the viral infections. The location outside the liver could indicate a role of MBL in the immune defence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9708196

  1. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  2. Insect spontaneous ultraweak photon emission as an indicator of insecticidal compounds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqing; Yang, Chuping; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-11-01

    The influence of beta-cypermethrin, a commercial insecticide, and Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak (Umbelliferae:Cicutal), an insecticidal plant, on the spontaneous ultraweak photon emissions from larvae of Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Zophobas morio Fabricius were studied. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from S. litura treated with 0.1 and 1 μg/ml beta-cypermethrin were both lower than those of the control in the 24 post-treatment hours, remarkable difference could also be observed during the same period from Z. morio treated with beta-cypermethrin at 0.156, 0.313 and 0.625 μg/ml. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from the two mentioned insects treated with 10,100 and 1000 μg/ml petroleum ether fraction of C. virosa L. var. latisecta, which displayed little activity against whole insects, could also be changed noticeably. The present study indicated that change in the intensity of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from insect could be used as a novel method for screening insecticidal compounds with very low content in plant. PMID:25108203

  3. Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits.

    PubMed

    Gosik, Rafał; Sprick, Peter; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Deruś, Magdalena; Hommes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species. PMID:27394846

  4. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  5. Immunohistochemical study of S100-like protein in Eimeria brunetti and Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    López-Bernad, F; del Cacho, E; Gallego, M; Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C

    2000-02-29

    We have investigated the expression of a calcium-binding protein, the S100 protein, in Eimeria brunetti and Eimeria acervulina stages. For this purpose, paraffin sections of distal ileum and bursa of Fabricius or duodenum from experimentally infected chickens were treated with anti-alpha-S100 (anti-alpha subunit of S100 protein) and anti-beta-S100 (anti-beta subunit of S100 protein) monoclonal antibodies and anti-S100 whole molecule polyclonal antibody. The avidin-biotin peroxidase method was used to demonstrate immunoreactivity. In the ileum, our results reveal a positive immunoreaction for the beta subunit and S100 whole molecule within the macrogametes of E. brunetti, whereas they were devoid of immunostaining after treatment of the paraffin sections with the anti-alpha-S100 antiserum. Schizonts and oocysts of E. brunetti and all the E. acervulina stages gave a negative reaction after treatment with any of the three antiserum used in the study. This result indicated that the S100 protein molecules within these stages were not recognized by the antibodies, suggesting that these molecules are different from those identified in macrogametes of E. brunetti. By contrast, in the epithelial cells, lining the lumen of the bursa of Fabricius, macrogametes of E. brunetti were stained by the three antibodies used. These results may indicate the existence of metabolic adaptations that enable the parasite to invade tissue sites different from those where the parasite usually develops. PMID:10681017

  6. Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) using geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005

  7. Genetic approaches for studying myiasis-causing flies: molecular markers and mitochondrial genomics.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia

    2006-01-01

    "Myiasis-causing flies" is a generic term that includes species from numerous dipteran families, mainly Calliphoridae and Oestridae, of which blowflies, screwworm flies and botflies are among the most important. This group of flies is characterized by the ability of their larvae to develop in animal flesh. When the host is a live vertebrate, such parasitism by dipterous larvae is known as primary myiasis. Myiasis-causing flies can be classified as saprophagous (free-living species), facultative or obligate parasites. Many of these flies are of great medical and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their role as key livestock insect-pests and vectors of pathogens, in addition to being considered important legal evidence in forensic entomology. The characterization of myiasis-causing flies using molecular markers to study mtDNA (by RFLP) and nuclear DNA (by RAPD and microsatellite) has been used to identify the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for specific patterns of genetic variability. These approaches have been successfully used to analyze the population structures of the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax and the botfly Dermatobia hominis. In this review, various aspects of the organization, evolution and potential applications of the mitochondrial genome of myiasis-causing flies in Brazil, and the analysis of nuclear markers in genetic studies of populations, are discussed. PMID:16502089

  8. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal. PMID:17370834

  9. The Phylogeographic History of the New World Screwworm Fly, Inferred by Approximate Bayesian Computation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Insect pest phylogeography might be shaped both by biogeographic events and by human influence. Here, we conducted an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to investigate the phylogeography of the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, with the aim of understanding its population history and its order and time of divergence. Our ABC analysis supports that populations spread from North to South in the Americas, in at least two different moments. The first split occurred between the North/Central American and South American populations in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (15,300-19,000 YBP). The second split occurred between the North and South Amazonian populations in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene eras (9,100-11,000 YBP). The species also experienced population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis likewise suggests this north to south colonization and Maxent models suggest an increase in the number of suitable areas in South America from the past to present. We found that the phylogeographic patterns observed in C. hominivorax cannot be explained only by climatic oscillations and can be connected to host population histories. Interestingly we found these patterns are very coincident with general patterns of ancient human movements in the Americas, suggesting that humans might have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution and population structure of this insect pest. This work presents the first hypothesis test regarding the processes that shaped the current phylogeographic structure of C. hominivorax and represents an alternate perspective on investigating the problem of insect pests. PMID:24098436

  10. Traumatic Myiasis: A Neglected Disease in a Changing World.

    PubMed

    Hall, Martin J R; Wall, Richard L; Stevens, Jamie R

    2016-03-11

    Traumatic myiasis, the parasitic infestation by fly larvae in traumatic lesions of the tissues of living vertebrates, is a serious medical condition in humans and a welfare and economic issue in domestic animals. New molecular studies are providing insights into its evolution and epidemiology. Nevertheless, its incidence in humans is generally underreported, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Myiasis in domestic animals has been studied more extensively, but continuous management is difficult and expensive. A key concern is the inadvertent introduction and global spread of agents of myiasis into nonendemic areas, facilitated by climate change and global transport. The incursion of the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) into Libya is the most notable of many such range shifts and demonstrates the potential risks of these parasites and the costs of removing them once established in a geographic area. Nevertheless, the insect agents of myiasis can be of societal benefit to forensic science and in medicine as an aid to wound treatment (larval therapy). PMID:26667275

  11. Screwworm eradication in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Wyss, J H

    2000-01-01

    The screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a parasite that attacks all warm-blooded animals including humans. This parasite has caused significant losses to the livestock industries of the Americas. Since the screwworm eradication program was initiated in the Southeastern United States in 1957, the eradication program has successfully progressed to its current location in Panama. A variety of technologies and tools have been used in the eradication programs. The cooperative agreement has been a significant tool in the success of the program. In the United States, the State-Federal Cooperative programs provided the mechanism for carrying out screwworm eradication. Once screwworms were eradicated from the United States, the need to expand the program internationally, in order to protect the United States, became evident. A cooperative agreement created the Mexico-United States Commission for the Eradication of Screwworms (Commission). Commission-Guatemala and Commission-Belize Cooperative Agreements were used to eradicate screwworms from these countries. Followup programs in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama were implemented by cooperative agreements between the United States Department of Agriculture and the individual countries. The positive and negative aspects, as well as the necessary elements of successful cooperative agreements, are discussed. PMID:11193620

  12. A reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap Sterile Insect Release Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, John G.

    2015-05-01

    The Sterile Insect Release Method (SIRM) is used as a biological control for invasive insect species. SIRM involves introducing large quantities of sterilized male insects into a wild population of invading insects. A fertile/sterile mating produces offspring that are not viable and the wild insect population will eventually be eradicated. A U.S. government program maintains a permanent sterile fly barrier zone in the Darien Gap between Panama and Columbia to control the screwworm fly (Cochliomyia Hominivorax), an insect that feeds off of living tissue in mammals and has devastating effects on livestock. This barrier zone is maintained by regular releases of massive quantities of sterilized male screwworm flies from aircraft. We analyze a reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap barrier zone. Simulations of the model equations yield two types of spatially inhomogeneous steady-state solutions representing a sterile fly barrier that does not prevent invasion and a barrier that does prevent invasion. We investigate steady-state solutions using both phase plane methods and monotone iteration methods and describe how barrier width and the sterile fly release rate affects steady-state behavior.

  13. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva

    2014-01-01

    The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers. PMID:25054492

  14. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. PMID:26335458

  15. Historical perspective on agroterrorism: lessons learned from 1945 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Keremidis, Haralampos; Appel, Bernd; Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Normark, Magnus; Roffey, Roger; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a historical perspective on agroterrorism cases from 1945 until 2012. The threat groups and perpetrators associated with bio- and agroterrorism are clustered into several groups: apocalyptic sects, lone wolves, political groups, and religious groups. We used open-source information, and 4 biological agroterrorism cases are described: (1) in 1952, Mau Mau poisoned cattle in Kenya by using a plant toxin from the African milk bush plant; (2) in 1985, the USDA claimed that Mexican contract workers were involved in deliberately spreading screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) among livestock; (3) in 2000, Palestinian media reported that Israeli settlers released sewer water into Palestinian agricultural fields; and (4) in 2011, a person was sentenced to prison after threatening US and UK livestock with the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus. All 4 cases can be assigned to political groups. These cases have not attracted much attention in literature nor in the public media, and the credibility of the sources of information varies. We concluded that agroterrorism has not been a problem during the period studied. Lessons learned from the few cases have generated awareness about the fact that nontypical biological weapons and non-high-risk agents, such as African milk bush, screwworm, and sewer water, have been used by attackers to influence local decision makers. This review will be useful in improving future preparedness planning and developing countermeasures. PMID:23971803

  16. Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Badria B; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; Malik, Elfatih M; El Tayeb, Mohammed AH; Saeed, Nageeb S; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed. PMID:19917073

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. PMID:24731964

  18. Functional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryos.

    PubMed

    Edman, R M; Linger, R J; Belikoff, E J; Li, F; Sze, S-H; Tarone, A M; Scott, M J

    2015-02-01

    The New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, and the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, are major pests of livestock. The sterile insect technique was used to eradicate C. hominivorax from North and Central America. This involved area-wide releases of male and female flies that had been sterilized by radiation. Genetic systems have been developed for making 'male-only' strains that would improve the efficiency of genetic control of insect pests. One system involves induction of female lethality in embryos through activation of a pro-apoptotic gene by the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. Sex-specific expression is achieved using an intron from the transformer gene, which we previously isolated from several calliphorids. In the present study, we report the isolation of the promoters from the C. hominivorax slam and Lucilia sericata bnk cellularization genes and show that these promoters can drive expression of a GFP reporter gene in early embryos of transgenic L. cuprina. Additionally, we report the isolation of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic hid and rpr genes, identify conserved motifs in the encoded proteins and determine the relative expression of these genes at different stages of development. We show that widespread expression of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic genes was lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. The isolated gene promoters and pro-apoptotic genes could potentially be used to build transgenic embryonic sexing strains of calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:25225046

  19. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  20. Area-wide biological control of disease vectors and agents affecting wildlife.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R E

    2002-04-01

    Two examples of area-wide programmes, employing the sterile insect technique (SIT), which have eradicated a parasite and a disease vector common to domestic and wild animals are described. New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, caused significant morbidity and mortality of livestock and wild mammals in tropical and subtropical areas of America before eradication was achieved in North America using the SIT and other components of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Movement of wild as well as domestic animals from an area which is infested with screwworm to a free area requires prophylactic treatment. Tsetse fly-borne trypanosomosis has an immense influence on the distribution of people and livestock in Africa. The immunotolerance of wildlife to the parasites is an important factor in maintaining some areas livestock free as wildlife refuges. Slaughter has ceased of wild hoofstock species considered to be disease reservoirs for control purposes. The SIT, combined with other IPM measures, has resulted in the eradication of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis from Zanzibar. Other programmes in Africa are underway. Microbial 'biopesticides' have also been employed successfully against plant insect pests and some vectors of human disease. It seems likely that for the immediate future, wildlife may benefit from area-wide biological control programmes, intended mainly to protect humans and/or domestic animals. PMID:11974628

  1. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species - not hermes - inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)-type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro-and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H

  2. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia

  3. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

  4. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana. PMID:22543619

  5. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity. PMID:19488520

  6. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  7. [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de M Santos, Gilberto M; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M; Gobbi, Nivar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the social wasps species diversity in a cerrado vegetation at the west region of the State of Bahia. Nineteen species of social wasps were found, with Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, Chartergellus communis Richards and Metapolybia cingulata (Fabricius) being recorded for the first time for the State of Bahia. The arboreous cerrado showed a higher species richness (S=19) and diversity (H'=2.33) than the agroecossistems (farms) (S=8; H'=1,84). However, nest abundance was higher at the agroecossystems (N=107 nests) than at the arboreous cerrado (N=87 nests). The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate values of species richness (S=13) and diversity (H'=2.20). PMID:19618045

  8. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  9. Impacts of Synergy-505 on the Functional Response and Behavior of the Reduviid Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, D. P.; Rajan, S. J.; Raja, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide, Synergy-505 (chlorpyrifos 50% and cypermethrin 5% E.C), on the functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior of a non-target reduviid, Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a potential biological control agent, were studied. Though both normal and Synergy-505-exposed R. marginatus exhibited Holling's type II curvilinear functional response, Synergy-505 caused a less pronounced type II functional response with reduced numbers of prey killed, attack rate, searching time, and prolonged handling time in 4th and 5th nymphal instars and adult males and females reflecting reduced predatory potential. Synergy-505 also delayed the predatory and mating events. The impacts of Synergy-505 on functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior were more evident at higher concentrations of Synergy-505. PMID:21265616

  10. Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

  11. Effect of larval food amount on ovariole development in queens of Trigona spinipes (Hymenoptera, Apinae).

    PubMed

    Lisboa, L C O; Serrão, J E; Cruz-Landim, C; Campos, L A O

    2005-06-01

    Caste determination in Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) is trophogenic. Larvae that eat about 360 microl of food become queens, while those who consume 36 microl develop into workers. We studied the effect of larval nutrition on the number and length of ovarioles and on ovarian development in fifth instar larvae, white eyed, pink eyed and black-eyed pupae as well as newly emerged adults. All larvae have four ovarioles per ovary, while in queen pupae this number ranged from 8 to 15. Cyst formation, the cell death and other characteristics of ovary morphogenesis were the same regardless of the quantity of food consumed. These results are discussed in relation to caste differentiation in other bees. PMID:15929734

  12. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Sphindidae, Erotylidae, Monotomidae, and Cryptophagidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Sphindidae, Odontosphindus denticollis LeConteand Sphindus trinifer Casey, are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Another species, Sphindus near americanus LeConte is reported from the province but may be an undescribed species, pending further study. Five species of Erotylidae are newly recorded for the province, including Tritoma humeralis Fabricius and Tritoma sanguinipennis (Say), which are new to the Maritime provinces. Three species of Monotomidae are added to the New Brunswick faunal list, including Pycnotomina cavicollis (Horn), which is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Six additional species of Cryptophagidae are reported for the province and the presence of Antherophagus convexulus LeContein New Brunswick is confirmed. Cryptophagus pilosus Gyllenhal and Myrmedophila americana (LeConte) are newly reported to the Maritime provinces. PMID:22539893

  13. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Tenebrionidae and Zopheridae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen species of Tenebrionidae are newly reported for New Brunswick, Canada. Paratenetus punctatus Spinola, Pseudocistela brevis (Say), Mycetochara foveata (LeConte), and Xylopinus aenescens LeConte are recorded for the first time from the Maritime provinces. Platydema excavatum (Say) is removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and the presence of Platydema americanum Laporte and Brullé for the province is confirmed. This brings the total number of species of Tenebrionidae known from New Brunswick to 42. Two species of Zopheridae, Bitoma crenata Fabricius and Synchita fuliginosa Melsheimer, are newly recorded for New Brunswick, bringing the number of species known from the province to four. Bitoma crenata is new to the Maritime provinces. Collection and habitat data are presented for these species. PMID:22539897

  14. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  15. Johannes Scultetus (1595-1645). Urologic aspects in the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum'.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Jonas, U

    1998-12-01

    Johannes Schultheiss (Latinized to 'Scultetus') was one of the first academically trained physicians and surgeons in Germany in the 17th century. After his studies at the University of Padua under Adrian van Spieghel and Fabricius ab Aquapendente he became official physician of his home town of Ulm. His remarkable textbook on surgery, the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum' was first published 10 years after his death and passed through many editions and translations all over Europe. This work contains a complete catalogue of surgical instruments, illustrated demonstrations of a variety of operative procedures and 100 case reports. The success of Scultetus' publication was responsible for an improved standard of the education of the nonacademic barber surgeons, who were treating the majority of the population, and was a significant milestone for the development of surgery as an academic speciality. The life and work of Johannes Scultetus, with reference to urologic aspects, is outlined in this article. PMID:9831796

  16. Revision of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae) from China, with new records of species to adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Rédei, Dávid; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    The assassin bugs of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Reduviinae) from China are revised. Fourteen species are recognized, described or redescribed and illustrated. Three species, A. fulviconnexa, A. melanota, and A. octoguttata, are described as new to science. Acanthaspis subinermis Hsiao 1976 is synonymized with A. laoensis Distant 1919. A key for the identification of Chinese species of Acanthaspis is provided. The biology of A. cincticrus Stål is briefly noted. The following species are newly recorded from adjacent countries: A. collaris Hsiao from Laos and Thailand, A. geniculata Hsiao from Vietnam, A. picta Hsiao from Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, A. quinquespinosa (Fabricius) from Nepal, A. ruficeps Hsiao from Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and A. laoensis Distant  from Thailand.  PMID:25544374

  17. Intrageneric phylogenetics based on mitochondrial DNA variation among fifteen harpactorine assassin bugs with four ecotypes and three morphs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae).

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Dunston P; Lenin, E Arockia; Kiruba, D Angeline

    2014-01-01

    Available mitochondrial DNA sequences viz., 16S, Cyt b, Cyt c oxidase subunit - I, and Cyt c subunit-like - I gene of Rhynocoris (Kolenati) species were subjected to phylogenetic analysis to understand the intrageneric and intraspecific variations and the role of geographical isolation on speciation; using CLUSTAL W in MEGA version 5.1. This analysis includes fifteen species and four ecotypes of R. kumarii Ambrose and Livingstone and three morphs of R. marginatus (Fabricius) from four countries viz., Canada, China, Korea, and South Africa. The pairwise genetic distances were calculated and phylograms were constructed using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Neighbor-Joining methods. These preliminary analyses not only demarcated the fifteen species of Rhynocoris, the four ecotypes of R. kumarii, and the three morphs of R. marginatus, but also revealed phylogenetic relationships and the role of geographical isolation and polymorphism on speciation. PMID:24871749

  18. Review of the fish parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from South Africa, including the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 is revised for South African waters and re-diagnosed. Ceratothoa retusa (Schioedte & Meinert, 1883) is recorded from the eastern coast, and Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. and C. famosa sp. n. are described; C. imbricata (Fabricius, 1775) and C. trigonocephala (Leach, 1818), are redescribed, revised and excluded from the South African fauna. Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. can be distinguished by the stout body shape of the female; triangular cephalon with a pointed rostrum; short uropods which do not extend past the pleotelson; large carinae on the pereopod basis; a broad pleon; and large medial lobes on female pleopods. Ceratothoa famosa sp. n. is characterised by the long rectangular body shape; pereonite 1 with a raised medial protrusion; narrow antenna with antennule article 1 expanded; uropods which reach the posterior margin of the pleotelson; narrow rami on uropods; and no appendix masculina on pleopod 2 of the male specimens. PMID:24843254

  19. Urban ants and transportation of nosocomial bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodovalho, Cynara M; Santos, Ana L; Marcolino, Marcus T; Bonetti, Ana M; Brandeburgo, Malcon A M

    2007-01-01

    Many ant species displaying synanthropic behavior that have successfully dispersed in urban areas can cause problems in hospitals by acting as bacterial vectors. In this study, we encountered bacteria on ants collected at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia hospital, in the campus and at households nearby. The ants were identified as Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) and Camponotus vittatus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the bacterial strains found here belong to the group of the coagulase-positive staphylococcus, coagulase-negative staphylococcus and gram negative bacilli, including antimicrobial drug-resistant strains. An investigation of the bacteria found in the ants and in the environment revealed that some ants carried non-isolated bacteria from the same environment and with high levels of resistance, evidencing the transmission potential of these insects. PMID:17710329

  20. Compared morphology of the immatures of males of two urban ant species of Camponotus.

    PubMed

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-01-01

    The immatures of males of two species of Camponotus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described and compared by light and electron microscopy. The numbers of larval instars were determined: Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have four instars; and Camponotus vittatus Forel have three. Male larvae of the two species are similar to previously described Camponotus larvae, sharing the following traits: basic shape of body and mandible, presence of 'chiloscleres', 'praesaepium' (some specimens), labial pseudopalps, and ten pairs of spiracles. However, larvae of the two species can be separated by bodily dimensions and based on their hair number and types. Worker larvae of C. vittatus previously described are extensively similar to male larvae, with only a few inconspicuous differences that may result from intraspecific variation or sexual differences. PMID:22934715

  1. A new genus and two new species of hymenosomatid crabs (Crustacea:Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae) from the southwestern Atlantic and eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Marcos; Santana, William

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Teramnonotus n. gen., is erected for Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956. The new genus includes two new species, T. johnlucasi n. gen., n. sp. and T. monodi n. gen., n. sp., described herein from eastern Australia (Queensland) and the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil), respectively. Teramnonotus n. gen. superficially resembles Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and Trigonoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1853, of which it can be easily distinguished by a combination of characters: eyes and ocular peduncle, rostrum, carapace, thoracic sternite 8 and thoracic pleurite 8, and the inhalant water openings. The validity of the obscure species Elamena mexicana H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is not supported and it is synonymised with Halicarcinus planatus (Fabricius, 1775). PMID:25661023

  2. An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Nattier, Romain; Jourdan, Hervé; Mille, Christian; Chazeau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated checklist of the ladybird beetle fauna of New Caledonia. Fifty species have been tracked from literature and collections, but six should be removed from the list as they represent false records, invalid or unestablished species: Coccinella boletifera Fauvel, Harmonia conformis (Boisduval), Menochilus duodecimpunctatus (Fauvel), Micraspis lineola (Fabricius), Orcus australasiae Boisduval, and Curinus coeruleus (Mulsant). After our investigations, the current described ladybird beetle fauna totals 44 named species, belonging to 18 valid genera. The endemism rate is 47.7% (21 species), with one endemic subgenus, Scymnus (Caledonus). Based on comparisons of the coccinellid faunas of surrounding regions, the New Caledonian fauna has affinities with Australia and Papua New Guinea more than with the rest of the Pacific area. At least 19 species (43.2%) seem to have been introduced by human activities (either deliberately or accidentally). PMID:26701529

  3. The genera in the second catalogue (1833–1836) of Dejean’s Coleoptera collection

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All genus-group names listed in the second edition of the catalogue (1833-1836) of Dejean’s beetle collection are recorded. For each new genus-group name the originally included available species are listed and for generic names with at least one available species, the type species and the current status are given. Names available prior to the publication of Dejean’s second catalogue (1833-1836) are listed in an appendix. The following new synonymies are proposed: Cyclonotum Dejean, 1833 (= Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854) [Hydrophilidae], Hyporhiza Dejean, 1833 (= Rhinaspis Perty, 1830) [Scarabaeidae], Aethales Dejean, 1834 (= Epitragus Latreille, 1802) [Tenebrionidae], Arctylus Dejean, 1834 (= Praocis Eschscholtz, 1829) [Tenebrionidae], Euphron Dejean, 1834 (= Derosphaerus Thomson, 1858) [Tenebrionidae], Hipomelus Dejean, 1834 (= Trachynotus Latreille, 1828) [Tenebrionidae], Pezodontus Dejean, 1834 (= Odontopezus Alluaud, 1889) [Tenebrionidae], Zygocera Dejean, 1835 (= Disternopsis Breuning, 1939) [Cerambycidae], and Physonota Chevrolat, 1836 (= Anacassis Spaeth, 1913) [Chrysomelidae]. Heterogaster pilicornis Dejean, 1835 [Cerambycidae] and Labidomera trimaculata Chevrolat, 1836 [Chrysomelidae] are placed for the first time in synonymy with Anisogaster flavicans Deyrolle, 1862 and Chrysomela clivicollis Kirby, 1837 respectively. Type species of the following genus-group taxa are proposed: Sphaeromorphus Dejean, 1833 (Sphaeromorphus humeralis Erichson, 1843) [Scarabaeidae], Adelphus Dejean, 1834 (Helops marginatus Fabricius, 1792) [Tenebrionidae], Cyrtoderes Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778) [Tenebrionidae], Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834 (Opatrum acutum Wiedemann, 1823) [Tenebrionidae], Charactus Dejean, 1833 (Lycus limbatus Fabricius, 1801) [Lycidae], Corynomalus Chevrolat, 1836 (Eumorphus limbatus Olivier, 1808) [Endomychidae], Hebecerus Dejean, 1835 (Acanthocinus marginicollis Boisduval, 1835) [Cerambycidae], Pterostenus Dejean, 1835

  4. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

    PubMed Central

    Koetz, Anna H.

    2013-01-01

    Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia), which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge. PMID:26462524

  5. An overview of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Bailey, Michael; Kaiser, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral immunosuppressive disease of chickens attacking mainly an important lymphoid organ in birds [the bursa of Fabricius (BF)]. The emergence of new variant strains of the causative agent [infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)] has made it more urgent to develop new vaccination strategies against IBD. One of these strategies is the use of recombinant vaccines (DNA and viral-vectored vaccines). Several studies have investigated the host immune response towards IBDV. This review will present a detailed background on the disease and its causative agent, accompanied by a summary of the most recent findings regarding the host immune response to IBDV infection and the use of recombinant vaccines against IBD. PMID:22707044

  6. Infectious bursal disease DNA vaccination conferring protection by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of invading viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses. PMID:21984266

  7. A new recombinant hybrid polypeptide and its immunologic adjuvant activity for inactivated infectious bursal disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-hong; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Hao-chen; Shen, Ping-ping

    2014-07-01

    Both bursin (Lys-His-Gly-NH2) and Gagnon's peptides (Lys-Asn-Pro-Tyr) can induce B-cell differentiation. However, it is unclear whether a recombinant hybrid polypeptide consisting of a tandem array of 14 copies of bursin and two copies of Gagnon's peptide can induce the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. Here, this recombinant hybrid polypeptide was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by SDS-PAGE. Various assays showed that it not only promoted B-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro but also increased the titers of antibodies directed against infectious bursal disease virus fourfold in the sera of chickens vaccinated with the inactivated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine. The recombinant hybrid polypeptide also reduced the pathological lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by infectious bursal disease virus BC6/85. Our results show that this recombinant hybrid polypeptide may be a promising immune adjuvant. PMID:24652544

  8. The Sequential Tissue Distribution of Duck Tembusu Virus in Adult Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes. PMID:25215289

  9. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  10. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  11. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control. PMID:24521569

  12. Review of the Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific region, with notes on selected species

    PubMed Central

    García-Garza, María Elena; León-González, Jesús Angel De

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of this work is to contribute to the taxonomic knowledge of the species of Capitellidae reported for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. This catalogue includes the original name of each species, new names, synonymies, type localities, the museum or institution where the type material is deposited, revision of the material reported for the region by different authors, new examined material, previous reports from other regions of the world, and comments on systematics and distributions. The catalogue lists 43 species in 19 genera. Of these, 6 species were erroneously recorded for the region (Decamastus gracilis Hartman, 1963; Decamastus nudus Thomassin, 1970; Mastobranchus variabilis Edwing, 1984; Notomastus aberans Day, 1957; Notomastus americanus Day, 1973; Notomastus latericeus Sars, 1851) and 5 species are found here to be questionable records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780); Dasybranchus glabrus Moore, 1909; Decamastus lumbricoides Grube, 1878; Notomastus lineatus Claparède, 1870 and Notomastus tenuis Moore, 1909). PMID:22368451

  13. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    PubMed

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-01-01

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.). PMID:26624432

  14. [Wenckebach and his rhythm].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Karel Frederik Wenckebach (1864-1940) showed an aptitude for research even as a medical student in Utrecht. After graduation and a thesis on the bursa of Fabricius he worked as an assistant in the physiological laboratory. Following a stint as general practitioner in a mining community (1891-1896) he returned to Utrecht, where he could combine his practice with physiological studies, especially disturbances of the heart rhythm. In 1899, with no other recording instruments than a sphygmomanometer for tracing the radial pulse and a tuning fork for chronometry, he described the 'rhythmic arrhythmia' phenomenon: a missed beat after a given number of regular beats (mostly between three and six), followed by an intermission shorter than the interval between two regular beats. The Wenckebach rhythm is now also known as type I second-degree atrioventricular block. Wenckebach subsequently became a professor of medicine in Groningen (1901), Strasbourg (1911) and Vienna (1914-1929). PMID:22085509

  15. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  16. Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Camiguin of Mindanao Province and Dinagat Island in the Philippines, with a new genus and three new species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young June; Marshall, David C; Mohagan, Alma; Hill, Kathy B R

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the first faunal checklist for the family Cicadidae (Hemiptera) from Camiguin of Mindanao Province and Dinagat Island in the Philippines, comprising ten species belonging to nine genera. Cryptotympana shillana Lee & Mohagan sp. nov., Orientopsaltria inermis (Stål, 1870), Purana crassinotata Lee, 2015, and Huechys parvula Haupt, 1924 are recorded for the first time from Camiguin. Platypleura dinagatensis Lee sp. nov., Chremistica kyoungheeae Lee, 2010, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius, 1787), Oncotympana pallidiventris Stål, 1870, and Philipsalta nigrina Lee, Marshall & Hill sp. nov. are newly recorded from Dinagat Island. A new genus Philipsalta Lee, Marshall & Hill gen. nov. is erected. Huechysini Distant, 1905 syn. nov. is synonymized with Cicadettini Buckton, 1889. Information on geographic distributions of the Camiguin and Dinagat species is also provided. PMID:27394537

  17. The fine structure of the lymphocyte nucleus under conditions of phytohaemagglutinin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Valkov, I

    1975-01-01

    The nucleus of PHA (phytohaemagglutinin) cultured lymphocytes is studied by EDTA, Thalium-Schiff and uranyl-lead techniques. Scattering of the dense chromatin, increase in the number of NB (nuclear bodies) and nucleolar modifications are established. Transportation is seen of granules similar to perichromatin ones from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Morphometric investigation reveals a decrease between 7,7 and 26,3% of the dense chromatin and also that the number of PCG (perichromatin granules) to be the greatest in the untransformed PHA lymphocytes, e.g. B lymphocytes. It is established in new born chickens that the lymphocytes of the bourse of Fabricius are richer in PCG than these of the thymus. PMID:1080322

  18. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

  19. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  20. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    In this issue Fabricius, Logan, Weeks, Lewis, and Brodie report a sophisticated synthesis of remotely sensed data that reveals important features of turbidity affecting the Great Barrier Reef region. This study details sources, geographic distributions, and transport, as well as highlights some processes leading to changing turbidity regimes. It is an excellent example of incisive processing and analysis of large, existing data sets, aiming at novel discovery of important aspects of coastal conditions. The results of course beg for efforts at obtaining and examining further information, on associated nutrient deliveries, particularly of nitrogen, detailing biological effects on food webs and corals, and more on the changing baselines that appear imminent. The results of this study therefore are an impressive basis for further work on important aspects of the largest coral region in the world, and could be an example to emulate elsewhere.

  1. Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

  2. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  3. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  4. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  5. Identification of three morphologically indistinguishable Epicauta species (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Epicautini) through DNA barcodes and morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Pan; Pan, Zhao; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three species that belong to the genus Epicauta (Coleopera: Meloidae), E. chinensis, E. dubia, and E. sibirica, appear morphologically indistinguishable. The present study aims to resolve the taxonomic status and the relationships among these three species. Identifying adult morphological characters among the three species were compared and illustrated and partial fragments of the mitochondrial gene (COI) for 77 samples, representing seven meloid species, were obtained and analyzed. Analyses of nucleotide composition, genetic distances and phylogenetics were performed. The results of the morphological studies and molecular analyses showed concordance, indicating that the three species are closely related and indistinguishable from one another. Consequently, two new synonyms are proposed: E. chinensis (Laporte, 1840) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773) and E. dubia (Fabricius, 1781) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773). PMID:27394741

  6. A comparison of updating algorithms for large N reduced models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Margarita Ga´ıa; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori; Ramos, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We investigate Monte Carlo updating algorithms for simulating SU( N ) YangMills fields on a single-site lattice, such as for the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai model (TEK). We show that performing only over-relaxation (OR) updates of the gauge links is a valid simulation algorithm for the Fabricius and Haan formulation of this model, and that this decorrelates observables faster than using heat-bath updates. We consider two different methods of implementing the OR update: either updating the whole SU( N ) matrix at once, or iterating through SU(2) subgroups of the SU( N ) matrix, we find the same critical exponent in both cases, and only a slight difference between the two.

  7. A checklist of beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) on pig carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China: A preliminary study and its forensic relevance.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi

    2016-07-01

    Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species. PMID:27126839

  8. Toxicity of ingested crude petroleum oil to marine birds: pathology and pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to identify toxic effects of ingested Prudhoe Bay crude oil in nestling herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica). Wild-caught birds were brought to the laboratory, maintained on a marine diet and given oral doses of oil. Initial results identified anemia as a toxic effect of oil ingestion and subsequent experiments focussed on the erythron as a target tissue. Hemolytic anemia with Heinz bodies in red blood cells ocurred in gulls and puffins that ingested greater than or equal to 10 ml oil per kg per day for 4-5 days. Anemia developed precipitously as a hemolytic crisis. Structural lesions in red cells included Heinz body formation, anisocytosis, severe distortions of cell shape, plasma membrane crenulation, mineralization of mitochondria, formation of abnormal cytoplasmic vesicles, and both abnormally high and abnormally low cytoplasmic density. These data permitted correlative evaluation of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in red cells experiencing oxidant stress due to oil ingestion. Several other lesions occurred on both oil-dosed and control birds but were significantly more prevalent in the former. These lesions were focal adrenal necrosis, depletion of adrenal lipid, depletion of lymphocytes in thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and virus infection of the bursa of Fabricius. These latter lesions suggested immunosuppression in oil-dosed birds. In a pilot study, oral doses of disulfiram prevented the usual induction of hepatic mixed-function oxidases caused by ingestion of oil by gulls, and also prevented development of Heinz bodies and of increased GSH in red cells of gulls given large oral doses of oil.

  9. Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    A stable live avirulent, genetically modified delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain, chi 3985, was used in several vaccination strategies to evaluate its use in the control of Salmonella infection in chickens. Oral vaccination of chickens at 1 and at 14 days of age with 10(8) CFU of chi 3985 protected against invasion of spleen, ovary, and bursa of Fabricius and colonization of the ileum and cecum in chickens challenged with 10(6) CFU of virulent homologous Salmonella strains from group B. Chickens challenged with heterologous Salmonella strains from groups C, D, and E were protected against visceral invasion of spleen and ovary, while invasion of the bursa of Fabricius and colonization of ileum and cecum was reduced in vaccinated chickens. Oral vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age induced an excellent protection against challenge with virulent group B Salmonella serotypes and very good protection against challenge with group D or E Salmonella serotypes, while protection against challenge with group C Salmonella serotypes was marginal but significant. Vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age also protected vaccinated chickens against challenge with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains. The protection of chickens vaccinated with chi 3985 against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes is outstanding, and the complete protection against ovarian invasion in chickens challenged with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains suggests that vaccination of chickens with chi 3985 can complement the present hygiene- and sanitation-based Salmonella control measures. This paper reports a breakthrough in the use of live avirulent vaccine to control Salmonella carriers in chickens. PMID:7960134

  10. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (p<0.0001) with lower relative hepatic mass (p=0.0001), a smaller T cell response to the phytohemagglutinin skin test (p=0.007), and smaller bursae of Fabricius (p<0.02); a low sample size for one site indicating lower body condition scores (p=0.01) at day 14 warrants cautious interpretation. There were no differences among nestlings for feather corticosterone (p>0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. PMID:25240100

  11. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. )

    1991-12-15

    Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

  12. Experimental pathology of T-2 toxicosis and mycoplasma infection on performance and hepatic functions of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Pirany, N; Noor Ali, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S; Yari, M

    2015-07-01

    This experiment was conducted using 192 day-old Ross 308 chicks, divided into 4 groups of 4 replicate consisting 48 birds. Group I was fed a control diet, Group II was fed control diet supplemented with 0.5 ppm T-2 toxin for 5 weeks, Group III was fed control diet supplemented with 8 × 10(8) cfu/mL of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and group IV was fed control diet supplemented by T-2 toxin and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Body weight and feed conversation ratio (FCR), relative organ weights, clinical signs, biochemical characteristics, and gross and histopathological lesions were recorded in the experimental groups at the end of the second and fifth weeks of age. Body weight and relative weights of bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen decreased and FCR increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05), but the relative weights of liver and kidney showed no significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the serum total proteins, albumin, and increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase were observed in T-2 toxin and T-2 accompanied with Mycoplasma fed birds when compared to the control group. Liver was enlarged, friable, and yellowish discoloration with distended gall bladder was noticed. Lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen were atrophied in group II and group IV throughout the study. Microscopically, liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, with increased Kupffer cell activity, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Kidney showed vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium along with pyknotic nuclei. Lymphoid organs showed lymphocytolysis and depletion with prominent reticuloepithelial cells. Proventriculus revealed desquamation of villous epithelial cells and lymphoid infiltration in submucosa. Heart showed mild hemorrhage with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Lung showed edema and inflammatory cells in the bronchioles. Trachea showed desquamation and erosions of mucosa. Proliferation of mucosal

  13. Expression patterns of prdm1 during chicken embryonic and germline development.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhiyi; Rui, Lei; Li, Zandong

    2014-05-01

    PRDM1 (PR domain containing 1) is a transcriptional repressor that has been identified in various species and is crucial for cell growth, differentiation and development. However, the expression pattern and role of PRDM1 in development has not been sufficiently established in birds. We therefore investigate the spatio-temporal expression of PRDM1 in various tissues, especially in the germline, during chicken development, providing the basis for functional study. Our results show that prdm1 mRNA was expressed in blastodermal cells (BCs) at stage X and in various tissues including the liver, skin, lung, kidney, eye, bursa of fabricius, spleen, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, testis, ovary, tongue, feathers and thymus but was not or was only sparcely present in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle. The level of prdm1 mRNA was highest in the BCs among all tissues tested and significantly changed during development in many tissues, such as the blastoderm, bursa of fabricius, spleen, feathers and germline. Furthermore, the expression of the PRDM1 protein generally paralleled the mRNA results, except for in the gizzard. Immunohistochemistry also revealed that PRDM1 was localized in the smooth muscle. In addition, during germline development, PRDM1 was found to be continuously expressed in the presumptive primordial germ cells (PGCs) at stage X, the circulating PGCs in blood and the germ cells in the gonads from embryonic day 6 to adult in both males and females. The expression pattern of PRDM1 in chicken thus suggests that this protein plays an important role during chicken development, such as in BC differentiation, feather formation and germ cell specification. PMID:24691770

  14. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on lymphoid-organs' morphology in chickens.

    PubMed

    Madej, J P; Stefaniak, T; Bednarczyk, M

    2015-06-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics, either alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. We aimed to investigate the effects of prebiotic and synbiotic administration during the early stage of development on the histological structures of central (bursa of Fabricius and thymus) and peripheral (spleen) lymphatic organs in broilers. We used 800 hatching eggs from meat-type hens (Ross 308). Prebiotics and synbiotics were administered in ovo into the air chamber of chicken eggs at d 12 incubation, as follows: prebiotic inulin (Pre1), Bi2tos (Pre2), a synbiotic composed of inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1), a synbiotic composed of Bi2tos and L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2), or physiological saline (control group, C). In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics had no adverse effect on the development of the immune system in exposed chickens. Administration of Bi2tos with L. lactis subsp. cremoris (Syn2) decreased the cortex/medulla ratio in the thymus and slowed the development of the cortex in bursal follicles on d 21 posthatching, with consequent impacts on the primary lymphatic organs. The above treatment also stimulated germinal centers' formation in the spleens of 21- and 35-day-old chickens, indicating enhanced B-cell proliferation in secondary lymphatic organs. Syn2 also caused an age-dependent increase in the spleen/bursa of Fabricius ratio. In conclusion, the in ovo administration of pre- and synbiotics at d 12 incubation can modulate the central and peripheral lymphatic organ development in broilers. This effect is more pronounced after synbiotic treatment than in prebiotic-treated groups. PMID:25877410

  15. Role of naturally occurring genome segment reassortment in the pathogenicity of IBDV field isolates in Three-Yellow chickens.

    PubMed

    He, Xiumiao; Chen, Guo; Yang, Lin; Xuan, Jincai; Long, Han; Wei, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Reassortment among genome segments of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates was reported frequently worldwide, however the pathogenicity of the reassortant field IBDV is poorly understood. In this paper, a pathogenicity study on four representative IBDV field strains isolated from Southern China between 2005 and 2011 was conducted. Twenty-eight-day-old Three-Yellow chickens were divided into four groups and were inoculated intraocularly with one of the four field IBDV strains, namely NN1172, NN1005, GD10111 and JS7, respectively. The mortality and relative weight of bursa and thymus were subsequently determined in the acute phase of infection. In addition, B cells, T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and virus were quantified in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus, respectively, by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that isolate NN1172, of which parts of segment A and B encoding the hypervariable (v) region of viral protein (VP2) and VP1, respectively, derived from vvIBDV strains, showed the most severe pathogenicity, and caused the most severe bursal B cell depletion as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration in the bursa of Fabricius. However, the virus induced the strongest decrease in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus and exhibited the most efficient viral replication in the target organs. Isolate NN1005, whose vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and VP1 from unidentified origin, exhibited relatively lower pathogenicity compared to NN1172. The other two isolates, JS7 and GD10111, of which the vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and intermediate IBDV, and VP1 from 002-73 and attenuated IBDV, respectively, showed the lowest level of virulence. Our results suggest that various IBDV field isolates with different natural segment reassortments exhibit differential pathogenicity after infection of commercial Three-Yellow chickens. PMID:27100151

  16. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  17. Iulius Casserius: revolutionary anatomist, teacher and pioneer of the sixteenth and seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Michał; Saganiak, Karolina; Zwinczewska, Helena; Roy, Joyeeta; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-06-01

    The demand for anatomical illustrations in the early modern period coincided with a scientific revolution. Starting out as a servant, Iulius Casserius became a great anatomist, who challenged the Galenic doctrine. The aim of this paper is to honor his memory and recreate the stylism of his anatomical illustrations. Online databases were searched for articles and original works. A medical graphic designer then recreated the figures presented in the article. Casserius was born around 1552. After moving to Padua, he served Fabricius in performing dissections. Obtaining his medical degree, he began working as an anatomical dissector and surgeon, later giving private anatomy lectures to students. He published De Vocis Auditusque and Pentaestheseion, and then became the lecturer of Surgery. In 1616, Casserius started his first Anatomy course and then died suddenly, at the height of his career. From the sixteenth century, illustrative techniques began focusing less upon artistry in favor of precise depictions of anatomical structures. Fabricius is considered to have used a strict scientific approach to illustrations for the first time. Anatomists of subsequent generations would still frequently use artistry in illustrations. Despite Casserius' mixed accuracy and artistry, his plates mark a new epoch in anatomic representation. Casserius left numerous eponyms and depicted, for the first time, many anatomical structures. Reprints in textbooks in the centuries following show convincing evidence of his success. Casserius contributed to medical education by taking the theatricality out of anatomy. Our article is a tribute to Casserius's achievements and depicts the revolution brought forth by a pioneer of his times. PMID:26783080

  18. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  19. Volatiles emitted from eight wound-isolated bacteria differentially attract gravid screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A; Welch, J B

    2010-05-01

    Bovine blood inoculated with bacteria isolated from screwworm [Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)]-infested animal wounds was tested as an attractant for oviposition for gravid screwworms. Eight species of gram-negative coliform (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria mixed with bovine blood singly or all species combined and incubated for various times produced volatiles that attracted gravid flies in a cage bioassay in varying numbers. In 15-min duration tests, volatiles from five species of bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii) attracted more females than volatiles of the three species (Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Serratia liquefaciens). In 1-h duration oviposition tests, volatiles from the substrate using the same five species of bacteria attracted more females to oviposit than the other three species. Volatiles from 24-h incubation period elicited least attraction and oviposition whereas volatiles from the 48- and 72-h incubation period resulted in significantly more attraction and oviposition. Attraction and oviposition decreased significantly when the substrates were incubated for 96 h. Volatiles from substrate with all species of bacteria combined attracted a significantly higher percentage of flies to land and oviposit than those from substrates prepared with single species. It is possible that multiple active chemicals present in volatiles of the all-species substrate may act as synergists resulting in greater response than those observed with volatiles from single-species substrate. Before oviposition flies took a bloodmeal from the oviposition substrate. It is possible that the oviposition is moderated by two different factors in screwworm-first, by using a chemical cue to land on a potential oviposition site and second, by using a bloodmeal to stimulate oviposition. PMID:20496582

  20. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, S; Morgan, J A T; Wlodek, B M; Brown, G W; Urech, R; Green, P E; Lew-Tabor, A E

    2010-09-01

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low. PMID:20497318

  1. Deep sequencing of New World screw-worm transcripts to discover genes involved in insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, is one of the most important myiasis-causing flies, causing severe losses to the livestock industry. In its current geographical distribution, this species has been controlled by the application of insecticides, mainly organophosphate (OP) compounds, but a number of lineages have been identified that are resistant to such chemicals. Despite its economic importance, only limited genetic information is available for the NWS. Here, as a part of an effort to characterize the C. hominivorax genome and identify putative genes involved in insecticide resistance, we sampled its transcriptome by deep sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts using the 454 sequencing technology. Results Deep sequencing on the 454 platform of three normalized libraries (larval, adult male and adult female) generated a total of 548,940 reads. Eighteen candidate genes coding for three metabolic detoxification enzyme families, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases were selected and gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the investigated candidates, only one gene was expressed differently between control and resistant larvae with, at least, a 10-fold down-regulation in the resistant larvae. The presence of mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (target site) and carboxylesterase E3 genes was investigated and all of the resistant flies presented E3 mutations previously associated with insecticide resistance. Conclusions Here, we provided the largest database of NWS expressed sequence tags that is an important resource, not only for further studies on the molecular basis of the OP resistance in NWS fly, but also for functional and comparative studies among Calliphoridae flies. Among our candidates, only one gene was found differentially expressed in resistant individuals, and its role on insecticide resistance should

  2. Incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure of new world screwworm fly populations due to positive selection of mutations associated with dimethyl- and diethyl-organophosphates resistance.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Luana Walravens; Fresia, Pablo; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is an important economic activity in Brazil, which has been suffering significant losses due to the impact of parasites. The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is an ectoparasite and one of the most important myiasis-causing flies endemic to the Americas. The geographic distribution of NWS has been reduced after the implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), being eradicated in North America and part of Central America. In South America, C. hominivorax is controlled by chemical insecticides, although indiscriminate use can cause selection of resistant individuals. Previous studies have associated the Gly137Asp and Trp251Leu mutations in the active site of carboxylesterase E3 to resistance of diethyl and dimethyl-organophosphates insecticides, respectively. Here, we have sequenced a fragment of the carboxylesterase E3 gene (ChαE7), comprising part of intron iII, exon eIII, intron iIII and part of exon eIV, and three mitochondrial gene sequences (CR, COI and COII), of NWS flies from 21 locations in South America. These markers were used for population structure analyses and the ChαE7 gene was also investigated to gain insight into the selective pressures that have shaped its evolution. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST analysis indicated an increased genetic structure between locations in the ChαE7 compared to the concatenated mitochondrial genes. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated different degrees of genetic structure for all markers, in agreement with the AMOVA results, but with low correlation to geographic data. The NWS fly is considered a panmitic species based on mitochondrial data, while it is structured into three groups considering the ChαE7 gene. A negative association between the two mutations related to organophosphate resistance and Fay & Wu's H significant negative values for the exons, suggest

  3. Case studies of emergency management of screwworm.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R

    1999-04-01

    Screwworm myiasis, caused by infestation of even minor wounds by the obligative parasitic larval stages of the New World screwworm (NWS) (Cochliomyia hominivorax) or Old World screwworm (OWS) (Chrysomya bezziana) flies, is a major cause of livestock morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The two parasites occur in different hemispheres but are remarkably homologous. Animal health emergencies result from the invasion of new territories by the parasites or, in the case of NWS, reinfestation of areas from which the parasite had been eradicated after great effort and expense. The author reviews the biology of the parasites and the effects of screwworm, in addition to prevention of infestation upon the introduction of animals. Examples of three programmes or events are described. The first is the eradication of previously exotic NWS from an epizootic in Libya before the parasite spread to become enzootic in the Mediterranean Basin and eventually other areas of the Eastern Hemisphere. The second example reviews the serious consequences of the extension of the range of OWS into Iraq where conditions at the time were favourable for propagation and unfavourable for control. The third example describes the NWS programme strategy in North and Central America which, for forty years, has been to progressively achieve eradication and then protection of areas from north to south on that continent, employing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Outbreaks in areas where screwworm has already been eradicated divert costly programme resources and slow progress southwards, and are considered emergencies. Some problems encountered and the solutions found during the height of the eradication programme in Mexico are described. Although to date eradication of screwworms has only been accomplished with the application of SIT, this technique alone will not eradicate the pest. The author describes other elements which are required to control or eradicate

  4. Seasonal and spatial distributions of adult screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Panama Canal area, Republic of Panama.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) was studied in a seasonally moist lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama using a combination of field collections and satellite imagery. We found that different forest types could be distinguished and mapped using remotely sensed data. To determine the temporal and spatial distribution of flies, we collected flies coming to rotted liver at 82 sites in ten vegetation types (open areas, edge forest, dry scrub forest, forest successional stage 1, forest successional stage 2, forest successional stage 3, forest successional stage 4, forest successional stage 5, mature forests, palm swamp forest, and forest along streams) over three seasons (dry, transitional, wet). Nine of the vegetation types (excluding dry scrub forest) were identified and mapped using SPOT XS and Landsat 5 TM satellite data. Screwworm flies were most abundant during the transition from wet to dry season. Fly numbers were consistently higher in forest habitats, particularly those with trees 20-30 m in height and a fairly open canopy composed of many deciduous species that shed their leaves during the dry season. Screwworm numbers were also high in palm swamp forest, edge forest, and mature growth forest. Traps sampled in open areas had fewer flies and were unrelated to proximity to cattle. Females accounted for 88% of the total fly counts. This study further substantiates the importance of forests in the ecology and behavior of screwworm flies and demonstrates that remotely sensed data can be used to construct the spatial distribution of these flies in a tropical landscape. We discuss implications of this information to the screwworm eradication program. PMID:14989355

  5. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  6. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Wang, S J; Jiang, S Z; Wu, Y B

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the toxicity of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens and to evaluate the efficacy of yeast cell wall adsorbent in preventing mycotoxin-induced adverse effects. In total, 300 one-day-old vaccinated (Marek's disease and infectious bronchitis) Arbor Acres broiler chickens (mixed sex) were randomly divided into 3 treatments (5 repetitions per treatment) and fed basal diet and naturally contaminated diets with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent. Treatments were control, naturally contaminated diet (NCD; aflatoxin, 102.08 mg/kg; zearalenone, 281.92 mg/kg; fumonisin, 5,874.38 mg/kg; deoxynivalenol, 2,038.96 mg/kg), and NCD + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall adsorbent (NCDD). The test included 2 phases: d 0-21 and d 22-42. At 42 d, broilers fed contaminated diets without yeast cell wall adsorbent had higher (P < 0.05) serum albumin and higher relative weight of liver, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus, and greater splenic mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 at 42 d compared with the control, but lower (P < 0.05) serum globulin at 42 d, IgA at 21 d, relative weight of spleen at 21 d, antibody titers of Newcastle disease at both 28 d and 42 d, and splenic mRNA expression of IFN-γ at 42 d were observed in the NCD treatment compared with control. Dietary addition of yeast cell wall adsorbent in the NCD treatment showed a positive protection effect on the relative weight of the liver and spleen at 21 d, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 42 d, antibody titers of Newcastle disease at both 28 d and 42 d, and splenic mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ at 42 d. It is suggested that feeding a naturally contaminated diet for 42 d might result in a deleterious effect in broiler chickens, and addition of 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall enterosorbent can partly neutralize the detrimental effects of the naturally contaminated feed. PMID

  7. Expression of the peptide transporters PepT1, PepT2, and PHT1 in the embryonic and posthatch chick.

    PubMed

    Zwarycz, B; Wong, E A

    2013-05-01

    Peptide transporters 1 and 2 (PepT1 and PepT2) and peptide/histidine transporter 1 (PHT1) are all members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family, which are important for the transport of amino acids in peptide form. The PepT1 acts as a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and PepT2 as a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter for di- and tri-peptides. The PHT1 transports di- and tri-peptides as well as histidine. The objective of this study was to profile PepT1, PepT2, and PHT1 mRNA expression in the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, large intestine, brain, heart, bursa of Fabricius, lung, kidney, and liver in layer chicks on embryonic d 18 and 20 and d 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 posthatch. Absolute quantification real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. Expression of PepT1 was greatest in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Expression of PepT1 increased in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum from late embryonic stages to posthatch and in the large intestine from late embryonic stages to d 10 posthatch. In the ceca, PepT1 expression increased from embryonic d 20 to d 1 posthatch and then decreased. Expression of PepT2 was greatest in the brain and kidney. Expression of PepT2 increased from d 10 to 14 in the bursa of Fabricius and decreased in the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, and liver from late embryonic stages to posthatch. In the small intestine and liver, PepT2 may function to transport di- and tri-peptides during embryogenesis. The PHT1 was expressed in all tissues analyzed. Expression of PHT1 increased in the jejunum, large intestine, brain, and liver posthatch and decreased in the proventriculus from embryonic stages to posthatch. A tissue × age interaction was observed for all genes. The uptake of peptides in the developing chick is regulated by peptide transporters that are expressed in a tissue- and development-specific manner. PMID:23571341

  8. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais - Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado - Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex disciger and

  9. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais – Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado – Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex

  10. Meiotic behavior of 18 species from eight families of terrestrial heteroptera.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Hederson Vinicius; Castanhole, Márcia Maria Urbanin; Gomes, Mariana Oliveira; Murakami, Aline Sumitani; De Souza Firmino, Tatiani Seni; Saran, Priscila Samara; Banho, Cecilia Artico; Monteiro, Letícia Da Silva; Da Silva, Jocielly Cristina Pereira; Itoyama, Mary Massumi

    2014-01-01

    Insects of the suborder Heteroptera are known for their odor, for being pests, or for being disease carriers. To gain better insight into the cytogenetic characteristics of heteropterans, 18 species of terrestrial Heteroptera belonging to eight families were studied. The presence of heteropycnotic corpuscles during prophase I, terminal or interstitial chiasmas, telomeric associations between chromosomes, ring disposals of autosomes during metaphase, and late migrations of the sex chromosomes during anaphase were analyzed. These features showed identical patterns to other species of Heteroptera previously described in the literature. Another studied characteristic was chromosome complements. The male chromosome complements observed were 2n = 12 chromosomes [10A + XY, Galgupha sidae (Amyot & Serville) (Corimelaenidae) and Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli) (Scutelleridae)]; 2n = 13 [10A + 2m + X0, Harmostes serratus (Fabricius), Harmostes apicatus (Stål), Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schaeffer), Jadera sanguinolenta (Fabricius), Jadera sp. (Rhopalidae)], and Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Alydidae); 2n = 13 [12A + X0, Stenocoris furcifera (Westwood) (Alydidae); 2n = 14 [12A + XY, Dictyla monotropidia (Stål) (Tingidae)]; 2n = 19 [18A + X0, Acanonicus hahni (Stål) (Coreidae)]; 2n = 21 [18A + 2m + X0, Acanthocephala sp. (Dallas) (Coreidae)]; 2n = 27 [24A + 2m + X0, Anisoscelis foliacea marginella (Dallas) (Coreidae)]; 2n = 18 [16A + XY, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeidae)]; 2n = 17 [14A + X1X2Y, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa) (Lygaeidae)]; 2n = 16 [12A + 2m + XY, Pachybrachius bilobatus (Say) (Lygaeidae)]; 2n = 26 [24A + XY, Atopozelus opsinus (Elkins) (Reduviidae)]; and 2n = 27 [24A + X1X2Y, Doldina carinulata (Stål) (Reduviidae)]. The diversity of the cytogenetic characteristics of Heteroptera was reflected in the 18 studied species. Thus, this

  11. Performance, histomorphology, and toll-like receptor, chemokine, and cytokine profile locally and systemically in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yitbarek, A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Echeverry, H M; Munyaka, P; Barjesteh, N; Sharif, S; Camelo-Jaimes, G

    2013-09-01

    The turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is a dynamic process that includes adequate cell proliferation and maturation in the presence of microbiota and migration and seeding of immune cells in early gut development in chickens. We studied the effect of yeast-derived macromolecules (YDM) on performance, gut health, and immune system gene expression in the intestine of broiler chickens. One thousand eighty 1-d-old birds, with 60 birds per pen and 6 pens per treatment, were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets; a diet containing monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalycylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with YDM. Feed intake, BW, mortality, ileum histomorphology, and gene expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21), cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-β, IL-12p35, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, IL-2, IL-4, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4], and cluster of differentiation (CD)40 in the ileum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen were assessed. No significant overall difference in performance in terms of feed intake, BW gain, and G:F was observed among treatments (P > 0.05). The YDM diet resulted in significantly higher villi height and villi height:crypt depth ratio compared with BMD and control diets (P < 0.05). A significantly lower mortality was observed in the YDM treatment compared with both control and BMD treatments. Compared with the control, gene expression analysis in YDM treatment showed no major change in response in the ileum, whereas higher CD40, IFN-β, IL-β, IL-6, TGF-β4, IL-2, and IL-4 in the cecal tonsil; TLR2b, TLR4, TLR21, and TGF-β4 in the bursa of Fabricius; and TLR4, IL-12p35, IFN-γ, TGF-β4, and IL-4 in the spleen was observed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of YDM supports pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via T helper type 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) cell-associated pathways both locally and systemically with a stronger additive effect in the

  12. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the morphology and specific immune cell composition in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Madej, J P; Bednarczyk, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how pre- and synbiotic administration in ovo into the air chamber at d 12 of egg incubation influenced the specific immune cell composition and distribution in the ileum, cecal tonsils (CT) and bursa of Fabricius of broilers. The experiment was performed on 800 hatching eggs of the meat-type chickens (Ross 308). Hatching eggs were treated with: prebiotic, consisting of inulin (Pre1) or Bi(2)tos(®) (Pre2); symbiotic, composed of inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1) or Bi(2)tos and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2); or physiological saline as a control group. Seven chickens from each treatment group were randomly selected on , 1, 7, and 21 after hatch for tissue collection. Ileum, cecal tonsil and bursa of Fabricius samples were immunohistochemically stained and the proportions of Bu-1(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8α(+) and TCRγδ(+) cells were estimated. It was indicated that the pre- and synbiotics do not adversely affect the development of the GALT of the chicken. The temporary decrease in B-cell number in bursa on d 7 after hatch suggested an increased colonization rate of the peripheral lymphoid organs by these cells after Pre1, Pre2, and Syn2 treatment. In CT at d 7 after hatch more potent colonization of the GALT by T cells was observed in all pre- and synbiotic treated groups and by B cells in both synbiotic-treated groups than those in respective controls. Then, on d 21 in both synbiotic-treated groups, an increase in T-cell number in ileum was also noticed with faster colonization of the CT by B cells. In 21-day-old chickens, both synbiotics exerted stronger stimulatory effect on the GALT colonization by T cells then prebiotics respectively. Similarly, the colonization by B cells was more pronounced in the Syn2 than in the Pre2 group. The data obtained in this study indicated that prebiotics and particularly synbiotics administrated in ovo stimulated GALT development after hatch

  13. The effect of furnished cages on the immune response of laying hens under social stress.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Huseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of cage furnishing and social stress on some lymphoid organ weight and innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses in laying hens. Sixty-four chickens were used. The chickens were divided into 2 groups; one of the groups was reared in furnished cages (RFC) and the other was reared in conventional cages (RCC). In wk 17, social stress was applied. Heterophil and lymphocyte percentages; liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius weights; phagocytic activity; oxidative burst and chemotaxic activity of heterophil; CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions; and antibody production were measured. The effect of rearing methods was significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentage, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and antibody production. Heterophil percentage and H/L ratio were lower (P=0.001, P=0.001, respectively), and antibody production was higher (P=0.003) in RFC hens compared to RCC hens. The main effect of social stress was also significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentages, and H/L ratio. Heterophil percentage was higher (P=0.049); H/L ratio tended to be higher (P=0.068); and lymphocyte percentage tended to be lower (P=0.072) due to stress. In addition, thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights tended to be lower (P=0.073 and P=0.074, respectively) in stressed hens. There were significant interactions between rearing methods and social stress on oxidative burst, chemotaxic activity, and CD4+ and CD8+ proportion (P=0.001, P=0.004, P=0.054, and P=0.001, respectively). These parameters were significantly higher in RFC hens, when they were exposed to stress. On the other hand, they did not differ in RCC or unstressed RFC hens. These results indicated that cage furnishing positively affected heterophil functions, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions, and antibody production. Therefore, we suggest that cage furnishing, which is recommended for improving the welfare of animals, is also beneficial for improving the immune response

  14. The protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the development of immune function in chickens under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Chen, Z

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of immune function in chicks under heat stress (HS). One-day-old male Wenchang chicks were randomly divided into control (CK), HS and GABA+HS groups. The GABA+HS group was fed with 0.2 ml GABA solution (50 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage. The HS and GABA+HS groups were placed in 40 ± 0.5 °C environment for 2 h heat treatment from 13:00 each day. Blood samples were routinely taken at 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, and the contents of T and B lymphocyte subsets in the blood and tissue were analysed by flow cytometry after FITC/PE double staining; the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG and IgM were determined using ELISA. The thymus and the bursa of fabricius were also collected to analyse for organ index and observe for the changes in tissue microstructure. In addition, the chicks received primary and secondary immunizations with attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (LaSota strain) at 7 and 28 days respectively; conventional hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed to monitor the titre changes in plasma antibody against ND virus in the birds. Our results indicated that the indices of both thymus and bursa of fabricius, the intactness of tissue structure and development, the plasma levels of IL-2, IgA, IgG and IgM, the titres of ND antibody, and the levels of B and T lymphocyte subsets in HS group were all significantly lower than those in CK group (p < 0.05). However, all above indices were significantly improved in GABA+HS group compared with those in HS group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated that while HS seriously affected the development of immune function in Wenchang chicks, GABA effectively alleviated the damages of HS to the development of immune function in chicks. PMID:26334199

  15. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the

  16. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893

  17. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893

  18. Incongruent Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genetic Structure of New World Screwworm Fly Populations Due to Positive Selection of Mutations Associated with Dimethyl- and Diethyl-Organophosphates Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bergamo, Luana Walravens; Fresia, Pablo; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is an important economic activity in Brazil, which has been suffering significant losses due to the impact of parasites. The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is an ectoparasite and one of the most important myiasis-causing flies endemic to the Americas. The geographic distribution of NWS has been reduced after the implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), being eradicated in North America and part of Central America. In South America, C. hominivorax is controlled by chemical insecticides, although indiscriminate use can cause selection of resistant individuals. Previous studies have associated the Gly137Asp and Trp251Leu mutations in the active site of carboxylesterase E3 to resistance of diethyl and dimethyl-organophosphates insecticides, respectively. Here, we have sequenced a fragment of the carboxylesterase E3 gene (ChαE7), comprising part of intron iII, exon eIII, intron iIII and part of exon eIV, and three mitochondrial gene sequences (CR, COI and COII), of NWS flies from 21 locations in South America. These markers were used for population structure analyses and the ChαE7 gene was also investigated to gain insight into the selective pressures that have shaped its evolution. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST analysis indicated an increased genetic structure between locations in the ChαE7 compared to the concatenated mitochondrial genes. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated different degrees of genetic structure for all markers, in agreement with the AMOVA results, but with low correlation to geographic data. The NWS fly is considered a panmitic species based on mitochondrial data, while it is structured into three groups considering the ChαE7 gene. A negative association between the two mutations related to organophosphate resistance and Fay & Wu’s H significant negative values for the exons, suggest

  19. Antiviral effect of the egg wax of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Lima-Netto, Solange; Pinheiro, Alessandro; Nakano, Eliana; Zucatelli Mendonça, Rita Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Mendonça, Ronaldo Zucatelli

    2012-10-01

    The control of viral infections, especially those caused by influenza viruses, is of great interest in Public Health. Bio prospection has shown the presence of active principles in the hemolymph of arthropods, and in the salivary gland of ticks, and some of these are of interest for the development of new pharmacological drugs. Ticks lay their eggs in the environment, and to protect them from desiccation and microbial attack they involve the eggs in a waxy layer produced by an organ known as Gené's Organ. In this study, the eggs wax from tick Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) was extracted using ice cold phosphate buffer. The antiviral activity was evaluated with picornavirus and influenza virus. In both cases egg wax was able to inhibit virus replication. For influenza virus, an amount as small as 12 μg/mL of crude egg wax suspension neutralized 128 UHA (hemaglutinant unit) of H(1)N(1) influenza virus. With picornavirus, egg wax led to a 256-fold reduction in virus production by L929 cells. Egg wax was not cytotoxic to VERO, MDCK and L929 cell, being observed that the cell morphology was preserved with concentration as high as 2 mg/mL. In addition no genotoxic effect was observed for Vero cells, suggesting a very interesting potential antiviral activity. PMID:22441939

  20. A contribution to the knowledge of New World Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): taxonomic revision of Ctenocolum Kingsolver & Whitehead, with description of five new species.

    PubMed

    De Albuquerque, Felícia Pereira; Manfio, Daiara; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution was to review the species of Ctenocolum which are mainly distributed in the Neotropical region. The larvae of this genus have a high degree of specificity with the tribe Millettieae feeding mainly on seeds of Lonchocarpus Kunth (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) and until now we do not know other bruchine consuming seeds of this genus. Here 13 valid species were studied, five new, divided in two groups, as previosly proposed in literature, group podagricus with Ctenocolum aquilus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. biolleyi Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. colburni Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. martiale Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. milelo Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. podagricus (Fabricius), C. punctinotatus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov., C. pygospilotos Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. and C. triangulatus Albuquerque & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov.; group tuberculatum with C. acapulcensis Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. janzeni Kingsolver & Whitehead, C. salvini (Sharp) and C. tuberculatum (Motschulsky). A lectotype is designated for Bruchus salvini and Bruchus pictifemur. Moreover, descriptions, redescriptions, diagnoses, key, geographic distribution and host plant records are also included. PMID:25081757

  1. Annotated list of Ensifera (Orthoptera) and further records on Caelifera (Orthoptera) of Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A list of the Tettigoniidae and Gryllacrididae (Orthoptera: Ensifera) of Mt Kilimanjaro is presented. A total number of 63 Ensifera was recorded for this mountain, of which 25 species belonged to Phaneropterinae, 18 to Conocephalinae, 6 to Hetrodinae and three to Pseudophyllinae. The subfamily Meconematinae contributed two species while only one species of the subfamilies Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Saginae was found. Gryllacrididae contributed six species. Three species recorded in literature were not found again during the research period. 15 species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro in this study and one species of Agraeciini newly described. Two new genera, Afroanthracites Hemp & Ingrisch n. gen. (type species: Anthracites montium Sjöstedt, 1910) and Afroagraecia Ingrisch & Hemp n. gen. (type species: Agraecia sansibara Redtenbacher, 1891), are erected on African Agraeciini (Conocephalinae). Anthracites kilimandjaricus Sjöstedt, 1910 is snonymized with A. montium Sjöstedt, 1910. Agraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891), Anthracites bloyeti Brongniart, 1897 and Anelytra panteli Karny are transferred to Afroagraecia. Aethiomerus stenorhinus Saussure, 1899 is synonymised with Afroagraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891). In Caelifera two Catantopinae (Acrididae) species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro and one pyrgomorphid species, Maura lurida (Fabricius, 1781), recovered again for the area. PMID:24698921

  2. Taxonomic changes in the genus Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae): results of a synopsis of North and Central America Diabrotica species.

    PubMed

    Derunkov, A; Konstantinov, A

    2013-01-01

    The following new synonyms in Diabrotica Chevrolat 1836 are proposed: D.flaviventris Jacoby 1887 and D. tibialis Jacoby 1887 are synonyms of D. adelpha Harold 1875; D. peckii Bowditch 1911 is a synonym of D. bioculata Bowditch 1911; D. nummularis Harold 1877 is a synonym of D. circulata Harold 1875; D. linensis Bechyné 1956 is a synonym of D. trifurcata Jacoby 1887; D. brunneosignata Jacoby 1887 is a synonym of D. sinuata Olivier 1790; D. duplicata Jacoby 1887 is a synonym of D. viridifasciata Jacoby 1887. Diabrotica cyaneomaculata Jacoby 1887 does not share the synapomorphies of Diabrotica and is treated as incertae sedis. Diabrotica tripunctata (Fabricius) is removed from synonymy with D. sinuata Olivier and is considered to be a valid species. The original combination is restored for Diabroticafasciata Kirsch, the species being transferred from Paranapiacaba Bechyné back to Diabrotica. It was found that the type series of D. godmani Jacoby contains seven different taxa: one is D. godmani itself; one is D. championi Jacoby; one is D. quadricollis Jacoby; three are unidentified Diabrotica species, each different from the others; and one is not a Diabrotica. The type series of D. viridicollis Jacoby contains four different taxa, D. viridicollis Jacoby itself and three different unidentified Diabrotica species. PMID:26473221

  3. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jeong, M S; Del Cacho, E; Kim, J B; Kim, H R; Min, W; Jeoung, H Y; An, D J

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin-1β proteins from chicken, duck, goose, turkey, and pigeon share 77 to 99% amino acid sequence similarity among themselves, and only 31 to 35% sequence similarity is shared between avian and mammalian IL-1β. There have been no antibodies that specifically detect avian IL-1β, and the current study was conducted to develop mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against chicken IL-1β (chIL-1β) to further define its biochemical and immunological properties. In this study, 2 mouse mAb that are specific for chIL-1β were produced and characterized. Both mAb identified a 66.0 kDa recombinant chIL-1β protein expressed in Escherichia coli by Western blot analysis that corresponded to the expected molecular weight of a recombinant fusion protein containing the full-length 23.0 kDa chIL-1β protein and a 43.0 kDa maltose binding protein tag. Immunohistochemical analysis identified cells producing endogenous chIL-1β in the cecal tonsils, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen. Purified recombinant chIL-1β dose-dependently stimulated the proliferation and nitric oxide production by thymocytes, and both activities were inhibited by co-incubation with the 2 chIL-1β mAb described in this paper. These mAb will be important immune reagents for basic and applied poultry research of IL-1β in poultry. PMID:25037821

  4. Contribution to the faunistics of shore bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha) in the Palaearctic Region and the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Nikolay N; Kment, Petr

    2015-01-01

    New distributional data on 33 species of the infraorder Leptopodomorpha (3 species of the family Leptopodidae and 30 species and subspecies of Saldidae) from the Palaearctic Region and Himalayas are provided. The following new or confirmed records are listed: Chartoscirta cocksii (Curtis, 1835) from Kosovo; Halosalda halophila (Jakovlev, 1876), Saldula amplicollis (Reuter, 1891) and Saldula xanthochila (Fieber, 1859) from Iran; Macrosaldula jakowleffi (Reuter, 1891) from Nepal and Pakistan; Macrosaldula scotica (Curtis, 1835) from Uzbekistan; Macrosaldula variabilis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), Saldula lindskogi Vinokurov, 2004, Saldula opacula (Zetterstedt, 1838) from Afghanistan; Micracanthia ornatula (Reuter, 1881) from Oman; Saldula fucicola (J. Sahlberg, 1870) from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria; Saldula lindbergi Lindskog, 1975 from Lebanon; Saldula melanoscela (Fieber, 1859) from Iran and Montenegro; Saldula palustris (Douglas, 1874) and Saldula pilosella hirsuta (Reuter, 1888) from Montenegro; Saldula orthochila (Fieber, 1859) from Afghanistan and Pakistan; Saldula pallipes (Fabricius, 1794) from Montenegro and Nepal; Saldula pilosella pilosella (Thomson, 1871) from Libya; and Saldula saltatoria (Linnaeus, 1758) from Iran and Nepal. A tabular checklist of Leptopodomorpha of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan is also provided. PMID:26624315

  5. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented. PMID:26249402

  6. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, David

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov. PMID:24870868

  7. Gross Morphology and Histology of Head and Salivary Apparatus of the Predatory Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Muthu; Sahayaraj, K.

    2012-01-01

    Rhynocoris marginatus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important biological control agent against more than 25 insect pests in India. For a better understanding of the feeding adaptation of this bug, the gross morphology and histology of its head and salivary apparatus were studied using both a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The head is more or less elongate, mobile, and immersed into the eyes. R. marginatus has a three-segmented curved rostrum; the middle segment is longer than the other two segments. The terminal rostral segment bears spines and trichobothria externally. Stylet bundles bear two pairs of maxillary and mandible stylets in the curved rostrum with serrations. The stylets help to penetrate into the tissue and directly pump the toxic venomous saliva deep into the prey. The principal gland is bi-lobed (anterior lobe and posterior lobe), whereas the accessory gland is uni-lobed, exhibiting distinct functional and histological differences. These glands receive tracheal and nerve supply. Mononucleated, binucleated, trinucleated and polynucleated cells are distributed both in anterior and posterior lobes of the principal gland. The cytoplasm has collecting vacuoles with secretions. Therefore, this predator is highly equipped with well-developed mouthparts that are attached to the salivary apparatus. PMID:22943262

  8. Molecular identification and expressive characterization of an olfactory co-receptor gene in the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA open reading frame encoded 478 amino acid residues, including 7 putative transmembrane domains. Alignment analysis revealed that AcerOr2 shares high homology (> 74%) with similar olfactory receptors found in other Hymenoptera species. The amino acid identity with the closely related species Apis mellifera reached 99.8%. The developmental expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that the AcerOr2 transcript was expressed at a relatively low level in the larval stage, whereas it was expressed broadly in the pupal and adult stages, with a significantly high level on the days just before and after eclosion. In situ hybridization showed that AcerOr2 mRNA was expressed in sensilla placodea and on the basal region of the worker antennal cuticle, in accordance with the previous conclusions that the conserved genes are expressed in most olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24224665

  9. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food. PMID:25082014

  10. Taxonomic note on the oil-collecting bee Centris dimidiata (Olivier, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Centris dimidiata (Olivier) is currently considered an easily recognizable species widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin, mainly in Brazil. For much of its taxonomic history, C. atriventris Mocsáry and C. furcata (Fabricius) have been considered its junior subjective synonymies. Such interpretation was apparently due to the lack of a detailed study of the type specimens, misinterpretation of the original descriptions, and inability to study the apparently lost type specimen of C. dimidiata. In this paper, a neotype for C. dimidiata is designated, the species is placed in Centris (Ptilotopus), and C. denudans rubida Gribodo is proposed as its new junior synonymy. Simultaneously, as a result of a detailed study of the type material of C. atriventris and C. furcata, both species are revalidated and their placement in Centris (Melacentris) is confirmed. For all species, the female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. A lectotype for C. atriventris is designated and new distribution records and a distribution map are provided. PMID:27615988

  11. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26701521

  12. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  13. Fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrency of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, against three stored–product insects.

    PubMed

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT₅₀ tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10-20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  14. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  15. A Predictive Distribution Map for the Giant Tropical Ant, Paraponera clavata

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christina M.; Breed, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Paraponera clavata (Fabricius 1775) (Formicidae: Paraponerinae) is a widely distributed Neotropical ant whose large size has attracted the attention of numerous collectors. Working from museum specimens, a georeferenced database of collection localities was developed. This database then served as the source for computer generated predictive distribution maps. Annual rainfall was the most important variable chosen by the computer model to predict the distribution of P. clavata, both on the scale of the neotropics and at a finer scale at the northern end its distribution in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. When the model was forced to use vegetation as the first predictive variable, the Neotropical model used temperature and rainfall variance as additional variables, while the Mesoamerican model used both climatic and soils variables. Overall, the modeling suggests that P. clavata is more sensitive to abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature, soils) than to biotic factors (vegetation type) in its distribution, although this conclusion comes with the caveat that the vegetation types used in the model are quite generalized. Predictive distribution mapping holds great promise for generating more precise representations of insect distributions, thereby allowing better tests of the extent of distribution overlaps and other community relationships. PMID:20334591

  16. Selection of prey to improve biological parameters of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, S A De; Vacari, A M; Laurentis, V L; Bortoli, C P De; Santos, R F; Otuka, A K

    2016-06-01

    Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus. PMID:26934159

  17. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of the duck Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Hengan; Shi, Shuduan; Yan, Yaxian; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In the present study, the first TLR5 gene in duck was cloned. The open reading frame (ORF) of duck TLR5 (dTLR5) cDNA is 2580 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 859 amino acids. We also cloned partial sequences of myeloid differentiation factor 88, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes from duck. dTLR5 mRNA was highly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, trachea, lung, jejunum, rectum, and skin; moderately expressed in the muscular and glandular tissues, duodenum, ileum, caecum, and pancreas; and minimally expressed in the heart, liver, kidney, and muscle. DF-1 or HeLa cells transfected with DNA constructs encoding dTLR5 can activate NF-κB leading to the activation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter. When we challenged ducks with a Herts33 Newcastle disease virus (NDV), mRNA transcription of the antiviral molecules Mx, Double stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR), and OAS was up-regulated in the liver, lung, and spleen 1 and 2 days post-inoculation. PMID:25269719

  18. [The nasal speculum. Its historical development and remarks on the history of rhinoscopy].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, A

    1985-11-01

    The examination of the nose has been known to the ancient Egyptian medical doctors (Papyrus Ebers), and is exactly described by Hippocrates (460-377 B. C.). It has been performed in direct sunlight until the 13th century when candle light was recommended by Arnold de Villanova. However, G. C. Arranzi, in the 15th century, used a glass flask, filled with water, directing candle light through it into the patient's nose. The first endoscopic lamps appeared during the 18th century. The nasal speculum was first mentioned by Guy de Chauliac (13th century) and was illustrated for the first time by Arcolano (14th century). Fabricius Hildanus (1560-1634) constructed an aural speculum which was nearly identical to the nasal specula of today. It was developed further by Peret (18th century) and Wilhelm Kramer (1801-1875) to the type of nasal speculum which is still. Predecessors of the nasal speculum are specula which were in use for the examination of the vagina and the anus. The eldest specimens were found in Pompeji, the city that was destroyed in 76 A. D. These specula consisted of two or three blades which opened by pressure or by means of a crank. The prototype of these specula is a tubular speculum as described by the so-called Ayurvedic doctors of ancient Indian medicine (Ayurveda of Suşruta ca. 500 B. C.). PMID:3908856

  19. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mycetophagidae, Tetratomidae, and Melandryidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895

  20. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  1. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel. PMID:27031500

  2. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  3. Further contributions to the longhorn beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Webster, Vincent L.; CoryC. Hughes; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sixteen species of Cerambycidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada; Arhopalus obsoletus (Randall), Atimia confusa confusa (Say), Callidium frigidum Casey, Phymatodes amoenus (Say), Phymatodes testaceus (Linnaeus), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius), Xylotrechus aceris Fisher, Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus (Germar), Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman, Lepturges angulatus (LeConte), Lepturges symmetricus (Haldeman), Urgleptes querci (Fitch), Oplosia nubila (LeConte), Eupogonius subarmatus (LeConte), Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), and Pogonocherus parvulus LeConte. Urgleptes signatus (LeConte) and Urgleptes querci are newly recorded from Nova Scotia. All but two specimens were collected in 12-funnel Lindgren traps. Xylotrechus aceris, Tylonotus bimaculatus, Lepturges angulatus, Lepturges symmetricus, Urgleptes signatus (NS), and Pogonocherus parvulus were detected exclusively in traps deployed in the forest canopy, and most individuals of Oplosia nubila and Monochamus carolinensis were captured in canopy traps. Arhopalus obsoletus, Atimia confusa confusa, Callidium frigidum, Phymatodes testaceus, and Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus were captured almost exclusively in traps near (1 m above) the forest floor. These results highlight the importance of sampling both the understory and upper canopy when using traps for surveying diversity of Cerambycidae. PMID:26865818

  4. Toxicity of fluoranthene to Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Stylaria lacustris in water-only and whole sediment exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    Fluoranthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with a hydrophobic nature (water solubility = 265 {mu}g/L; U.S. EPA 1980) and a propensity to sorb to sediments. Fluoranthene has a K{sub oc} of 4.65, an intermediate value for PAHs. Fluoranthene can be toxic to some aquatic organisms at concentrations lower than its aqueous solubility. Therefore, desorption from sediments could produce aqueous concentrations that are harmful to aquatic organisms. Very few studies have examined the toxicity of fluoranthene to freshwater organisms. Data for other PAHs show that crustaceans are the most sensitive species, followed by polychaete worms and fish. Effects of fluoranthene-amended sediments on selected marine benthic organisms were examined. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine the relative sensitivities of Daphnia magna Straus, Hyalella azteca Saussure, Chironomus tentans Fabricius, and Stylaria lacustris Linnaeus in 48-hr and 10-d aqueous phase exposures to fluoranthene; and (2) determine the relative responses of these organisms in 10-d fluoranthene-amended sediment exposures. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. [Composition, abundance and infestation rate of ant species in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bragança, Marcos A L; Lima, Jefferson D

    2010-01-01

    This first survey of the ant fauna in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, state of Tocantins, compares species composition, abundance and infestation rate of ants between rainy and dry seasons, day and night periods, and among 15 hospital sectors. Forty-eight collections, being 12 diurnal and 12 nocturnal in each season using five attractive baits distributed per sector, maintained for 3h per sampling. A total of 34,309 ants were collected, distributed in 12 species: Acromyrmex sp., Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus spp. (four morphospecies), Dorymyrmex sp., Tetramorium sp., Solenopsis globularia (Creighton), Solenopsis saevissima Smith, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) and Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille). The hospital presented an average building infestation rate (40.3%), when compared with hospitals from other Brazilian regions. In general, there was no difference in the species composition between seasons and the period of the day, although abundance of ants was higher at night. The dry season and the nocturnal period showed the highest infestation rate, mainly by T.melanocephalum and S.globularia. Gynecologic ward, lactation unit, preconception and pediatric ward access ramp showed higher infestation rate, although these varied between seasons. The significant infestation levels by the three species above, especially in sectors with restricted access such as lactation unit, laboratory, Intensive Care Unit e surgery center, indicate potential risks for contamination of patients by multi resistant pathogens possibly present in ants' bodies, as verified in others studies. PMID:20305908

  6. Aphidophagous Parasitoids can Forage Wheat Crops Before Aphid Infestation, Parana State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin Bortolotto, Orcial; de Oliveira Menezes Júnior, Ayres; Thibes Hoshino, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids are common in Brazilian wheat fields, and parasitize aphids at the wheat tillering stage. However, there is little information available about when this natural enemy occurs in wheat crops. This study investigated the initial occurrence of aphid parasitoids in four commercial wheat crops in northern Paraná during the 2009 crop season. We installed two Malaise traps at each wheat farm, and 400 tillers were assessed weekly in each field for aphid abundance. During this study, we captured 4,355 aphid parasitoids and 197 aphids. Three species of braconid parasitoids were identified, including Aphidius colemani (Viereck 1912), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson 1880), and Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh 1855). The aphids species identified were Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus 1758) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius 1775). This study showed that aphid parasitoids are present in wheat crops even when aphid densities are low, and in one farm, occurred before the aphids colonization. These reports can justified the high efficiency of these natural enemies against aphids in wheat fields. PMID:25843593

  7. The diversity of flower flies (Diptera: syrphidae) in Colombia and their neotropical distribution.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A L; Pérez, S P; Wolff, M

    2012-02-01

    In Colombia, like most Neotropical countries, faunistic studies on flower flies have been occasional and most of them have been primarily focused on taxonomy. Colombia is the second-most species-rich country in flower fly diversity in the Neotropics after Brazil, and has one of the highest numbers of species per unit area (2.49 per 10,000 km²), based on a review of literature and national collections. Including new data presented here, a total of 47 genera and 300 species are recorded in Colombia. The genera Scaeva Fabricius and Lycastrirhyncha Bigot, as well as 101 species are recorded here for the first time. The altitudinal range and the distribution of the flower fly genera in Colombia are presented. A preliminary comparison of the fauna of Colombia with that of other Neotropical countries is given. A historical perspective is also provided in order to illustrate how Colombian Syrphidae knowledge has progressed over the last 168 years. Information presented here will be useful for ongoing and future biodiversity research as well as conservation projects on Syrphidae in the Neotropical region. PMID:23950009

  8. Slow and fast development in two aphidophagous ladybirds on scarce and abundant prey supply.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2016-06-01

    Developmental rates are highly variable, both within and between genotypes and populations. But the rationale for two differential (slow and fast) developmental rates within same cohort under varying prey supply has yet not been explored. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of scarce and abundant prey supply on slow and fast development at 27°C in two aphidophagous ladybirds, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) and its effect on their body mass and reproductive attributes. The ladybirds were provided with scarce and abundant supply of Aphis craccivora Koch under standardized abiotic conditions in the laboratory. A clear bimodal (two peaks, where the first peak represented the fast developing individuals and the second peak slow developing individuals) pattern of distribution for both prey supplies was obtained, which got skewed with change in prey supply. On abundant prey supply, more fast developing individuals (139 M. sexmaculatus and 123 P. dissecta) were found and less (46 M. sexmaculatus and 36 P. dissecta) on scarce prey supply. Slow developing individuals had female biased sex ratio, higher longevity and lower body mass. Fast developing females laid higher number of eggs with higher egg viability. Results of the study are indicative of occurrence and constancy of the slow and fast developing individuals in the egg batch. PMID:26898500

  9. Assessment of gamma ray-induced DNA damage in Lasioderma serricorne using the comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2012-03-01

    We attempted a DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions to verify the irradiation treatment of pests. Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) were chosen as test insects and irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source at 1 kGy. We conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over time for 7 day. Severe DNA fragmentation in L. serricorne cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. The parameters of the comet image analysis were calculated, and the degree of DNA damage and repair were evaluated. Values for the Ratio (a percentage determined by fluorescence in the damaged area to overall luminance, including intact DNA and the damaged area of a comet image) of individual cells showed that no cells in the irradiated group were included in the Ratio<0.1 category, the lowest grade. This finding was observed consistently throughout the 7-day post-irradiation period. We suggest that the Ratio values of individual cells can be used as an index of irradiation history and conclude that the DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions, combined with comet image analysis, can be used to identify irradiation history.

  10. The toxicity of purified fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Henry, M H; Wyatt, R D; Fletchert, O J

    2000-10-01

    An investigation of the toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme, in broiler chicks was conducted. Purified FB1 (98.1% pure) was incorporated into the diets of broiler chicks at 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, and fed to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Dietary FB1, at concentrations of 80 mg/kg or less, did not adversely affect body weight, feed efficiency, or water consumption of broiler chicks. The relative weights of the liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius were also unaffected (P < 0.05) by any dietary concentration of FB1 compared with the control (0 mg/kg) group. Total liver lipids of chicks fed 40 or 80 mg FB1/kg were significantly lower than those of the chicks fed either 0 or 20 mg FB1/kg of feed. Liver sphinganine concentration and the sphinganine:sphingosine ratio were increased significantly in all treated groups. Chicks fed dietary FB1 at 80 mg/kg had significantly higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransaminase:aspartate aminotransferase ratios and levels of free sphinganine in the serum. The results of this investigation agree with the results previously described, in which FB1 was supplied to diets from the use of F. moniliforme-contaminated grain; therefore, the use of such material as the source of the mycotoxin in animal feeding studies is appropriate. PMID:11055840

  11. Presumptive diagnosis of subclinical infections utilizing computer-assisted analysis of sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays against multiple antigens.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, E T; Snyder, D B; Marquardt, W W; Russek-Cohen, E; Savage, P K; Allen, D C; Yancey, F S

    1985-09-01

    One-hundred-seventy-two serum samples, collected sequentially from four flocks of egg- and meat-type chickens, were evaluated for antibodies to multiple infectious agents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA). The MELISA system used provided simultaneous measurement of antibody titers against avian infectious bronchitis (IB), infectious bursal disease (BD), Newcastle disease, avian encephalomyelitis and reovirus infections, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The use of computer-generated graphic print outs of relative MELISA titers provided immediate visulization of over 740 data points and convenient detection of any temporal changes in median titer class (MTC). The temporally changing MTC, or flock profiles obtained, indicated that negligible or waning IB immunity may be a common occurrence in previously vaccinated commercial chickens. These profiles further suggested that, despite no IB revaccination, these same flocks experienced episodes of reexposure to IB which otherwise may have been difficult to detect by conventional clinical or diagnostic laboratory protocols. MELISA profiles and sequential histologic examinations of bursas of Fabricius also provided evidence of a possible BD vaccination problem in young chickens that also experienced excessive losses from coccidiosis, ulcerative enteritis, and Marek's disease. Short sampling intervals were found to foster the detection and definition of fluctuations in MTC which otherwise may have been missed. PMID:4048057

  12. Biology of Plesionika narval(Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) Around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Tuset, V. M.; Lozano, I. J.; Santana, J. I.

    1997-03-01

    The biology of Plesionika narval(Fabricius, 1787) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic) was studied, based on a total of 41 679 shrimps of size range 2-30 mm carapace length (CL) collected over a 20-year period. This species carries out seasonal migrations; shrimps concentrate in deep waters in the autumn, move to shallower waters during winter and spring, and return to deep waters in summer. The growth parameters of males were L 0nfin;=29·47 mm CL and k=0·54 year -1, and of females were L 0nfin;=31·90 mm CL and k=0·66 year -1, with size generally increasing gradually with depth. Carapace length/wet weight relationships showed negative allometry. Ovigerous females occur year round but a spawning peak was determined from April to June when the population is found in shallower waters (26-175 m). Ovigerous females decrease in number as the depth increases. The size at maturity in females was 11·96 mm CL. The study of the sex ratio by depth and the seasonal migrations, as well as the sex differences in growth, confirm that this species conforms to the reproductive pattern of tropical pandalids, in which dioecy occurs.

  13. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  14. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows. PMID:26701509

  15. Forest cockchafer larvae as methane production hotspots in soils and their importance for net soil methane fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Murphy, Paul; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Certain groups of soil invertebrates, namely scarab beetles and millipedes, are capable of emitting considerable amounts of methane due to methanogens inhabiting their gut system. It was already pointed out in the early 1990's, that these groups of invertebrates may represent a globally important source of methane. However, apart from termites, the importance of invertebrates for the soil methane budget is still unknown. Here, we present preliminary results of a laboratory soil incubation experiment elucidating the influence of forest cockchafer larvae (Melolontha hippocastani FABRICIUS) on soil methane cycling. In January/February 2016, two soils from two different management systems - one from a pine forest (extensive use) and one from a vegetable field (intensive use) - were incubated for 56 days either with or without beetle larvae. Net soil methane fluxes and larvae methane emissions together with their stable carbon isotope signatures were quantified at regular intervals to estimate gross methane production and gross methane oxidation in the soils. The results of this experiment will contribute to testing the hypothesis of whether methane production hotspots can significantly enhance the methane oxidation capacity of soils. Forest cockchafer larvae are only found in well-aerated sandy soils where one would usually not suspect relevant gross methane production. Thus, besides quantifying their contribution to net soil methane fluxes, they are also ideal organisms to study the effect of methane production hotspots on overall soil methane cycling. Funding support: Reintegration grant of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (#57185798).

  16. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  17. Development of formulated reference sediments for freshwater and estuarine sediment testing

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Biology)

    1994-07-01

    Sediments collected at various field locations may have chemical and physical constituents that influence test results and may contain organisms that cannot be readily removed. Thus, reference sediments are needed that can be formulated to match diverse freshwater and estuarine sediments encountered in comprehensive testing programs. This research evaluated formulated reference sediments in terms of (a) their ability to match field-collected sediments both chemically and physically; (b) their suitability as habitant (survival and reproduction) for typical invertebrate toxicity testing species (Hyalella azteca Saussure, Chironomus tentans Fabricius, and Daphnia magna Straus) during chronic exposures; and (c) their suitability as a substrate for Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard, and Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in 14-d whole-sediment exposures. Formulated reference sediments were prepared to match naturally occurring sediments with respect to particle-size distribution, organic matter, organic carbon, pH, solids, CEC, but not redox potential. After preparation, a conditioning period of at least 7 d was required for pH stabilization of formulated reference sediments. In culture experiments, formulated reference sediments was suitable for Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Daphnia magna survival and reproduction for 56,40, and 28 d, respectively. Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas survival was [>=] 88% in 14-d exposures to formulated reference sediment. Formulated reference sediments may reduce some unexplained physical, chemical, or biological toxicity'' of field-collected sediments (e.g., organic matter) that may influence toxicity testing results.

  18. Chicken Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Protein 3 Restricts Influenza Viruses and Lyssaviruses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S. E.; Gibson, M. S.; Wash, R. S.; Ferrara, F.; Wright, E.; Temperton, N.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an effector protein of the innate immune system. It confers potent, cell-intrinsic resistance to infection by diverse enveloped viruses both in vitro and in vivo, including influenza viruses, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. IFITM3 prevents cytosolic entry of these viruses by blocking complete virus envelope fusion with cell endosome membranes. Although the IFITM locus, which includes IFITM1, -2, -3, and -5, is present in mammalian species, this locus has not been unambiguously identified or functionally characterized in avian species. Here, we show that the IFITM locus exists in chickens and is syntenic with the IFITM locus in mammals. The chicken IFITM3 protein restricts cell infection by influenza A viruses and lyssaviruses to a similar level as its human orthologue. Furthermore, we show that chicken IFITM3 is functional in chicken cells and that knockdown of constitutive expression in chicken fibroblasts results in enhanced infection by influenza A virus. Chicken IFITM2 and -3 are constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, whereas IFITM1 is only expressed in the bursa of Fabricius, gastrointestinal tract, cecal tonsil, and trachea. Despite being highly divergent at the amino acid level, IFITM3 proteins of birds and mammals can restrict replication of viruses that are able to infect different host species, suggesting IFITM proteins may provide a crucial barrier for zoonotic infections. PMID:24067955

  19. Revision of the New World genus Glyphidops Enderlein (Diptera: Neriidae) .

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Tatiana A; Wolff, Marta I; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Glyphidops Enderlein, 1922, the most widespread and speciose of the New World genera of Neriidae (Diptera), is revised herein. Glyphidops (Glyphidops) ruselatus, new species, G. (G.) steyskali, new species and G. (G.) coracinus, new species are described. Of the 16 previously described species, which were last treated by Aczél (1961), the following synonyms are proposed: Chaetomeristes peruanus Enderlein is treated as a junior synonym of G. (G.) bullatus (Enderlein); Nerius dispar Cresson, Oncopsia neutra Hennig and Oncopsia dubia Hennig are treated as junior synonyms of G.(O.) durus (Cresson) and Oncopsia seductrix Hennig, is treated as a junior synonym of G. (O.) flavifrons (Bigot). The species Telostylus vittatus Cresson, is removed from synonymy with G. (G.) filosus (Fabricius) and revalidated as senior synonym of G. ochreus Hennig. A new diagnosis for the genus and all species are provided, as is an identification key to species. New locality records are provided for Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and Brazil. PMID:24872176

  20. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  1. Identification of Myotropic Neuropeptides from the Brain and Corpus Cardiacum-Corpus Allatum Complex of the Beetle, Zophobas atratus

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

  2. Parasites, immunology of hosts, and host sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Saino, N

    1994-12-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection is reviewed with special emphasis on the bird literature. Choosy females may benefit from choosing parasite-free mates if such males provide better parental care, do not transmit contagious parasites, or provide resistance genes to offspring. There is evidence in support of each of these mechanisms. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that secondary sexual characters reliably reveal the ability of males to resist parasites due to the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone and other biochemicals. Several aspects of these negative feedback mechanisms are supported by laboratory studies, but evidence from free-living animals is almost completely absent. Corticosterone rather than testosterone may potentially mediate the immunocompetence handicap mechanism. A simple version of the immunocompetence handicap is developed suggesting that body condition of male hosts is a sufficient mediator of the handicap mechanism of reliable sexual signaling. Sexual selection appears to be more intense in sexually dichromatic bird species, and comparative studies using pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa reveal that sexually dichromatic bird species have larger spleens, larger bursa of Fabricius, and higher concentrations of leukocytes than monochromatic species. Parasite-mediated sexual selection is proposed to affect parasite biology by increasing (1) the variance-to-mean ratio in parasite abundance, (2) variance in the intensity of natural selection affecting hosts, and (3) speciation rates among parasites exploiting hosts subject to intense sexual selection as compared to those subject to less intense selection. PMID:7799157

  3. Resource partitioning in a ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus: function of body size and prey density.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, D D; Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, resource partitioning by natural conspecific size variants (small and large) of ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) females, in response to varying prey densities was assessed using functional and numerical responses as measures of prey density. The prey provided was small (second) and large (fourth) instars of Aphis craccivora Koch. Results revealed that under choice condition, small and large females of M. sexmaculatus consumed higher number of small and large instars, respectively. Small females exhibited a modified Type II functional response on small aphid instars and a Type II functional response on fourth aphid instars. Large females exhibited a Type II functional response when provided either second or fourth aphid instars. Numerical response in terms of numbers of eggs laid by both the females increased with increase in the density of either of the aphid instars. However, in small females, oviposition had a positive correlation with the numbers of small and large aphid instars consumed; being strong for the small aphid instars. While in large females, oviposition was positively correlated with the numbers of large aphid instars consumed and not small aphid instars. It therefore seems that intraspecific resource partitioning in M. sexmaculatus occurs prominently in large females than the small females. PMID:25467186

  4. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M.; Jerry, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock. PMID:25951344

  5. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  6. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  7. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Marina; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Schulze, Katja; Breunig, Karin D; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine. PMID:23024743

  8. Activation of the immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus after intramuscular inoculation of an intermediate strain.

    PubMed

    Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Zoth, Silvina Chimeno; Gómez, Evangelina; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2011-09-01

    Infectious bursal disesase is a highly contagious, wide spread immunosuppressive chicken disease caused by the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV). IBDV is a two segmented double-strand RNA virus, member of the Birnaviridae family. In order to study the interaction between IBDV and the immune system, chickens were exposed to an intermediate IBDV strain by intramuscular route, and using Real Time PCR the expression of a panel of avian cytokines and chemokines in duodenum, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was analyzed. Also, splenic nitrite (NO₂) production and the frequencies of different mononuclear cell populations were evaluated by Griess reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Intramuscular (i.m.) IBDV inoculation promoted an over expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-15 and gIFN in spleen, which correlated with an increase of gIFN plasma concentration measured by ELISA, together with an increment of NO₂ concentration in splenocyte supernatants at 1dpi. Results obtained in the present work showed that IBDV of intermediate virulence, given i.m., induced similar effects to those previously described for highly virulent IBDV in early innate immune responses. Considering that the i.m. route is the route of choice for the delivery of new generation vaccines, and that the use of recombinant antigens also requires the addition of adjuvants for proper immune stimulation, results presented here could contribute to identify suitable cytokines to be used or to be stimulated when utilizing subunit vaccines, for the improvement of prevention tools for avian health. PMID:21514000

  9. Takereana, a new genus of Idoteidae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Valvifera) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Hurley, Desmond E

    2015-01-01

    Takereana n. gen. is erected for the New Zealand species, Idotea festiva Chilton, 1885, which is redescribed. Takereana, Austridotea Poore, 2001 and Idotea Fabricius, 1798 are the only idoteid genera in which both pleonites 1 and 2 are truly articulating. In all other genera of Idoteidae pleonite 2 is variously fused to pleonite 1 and visible only laterally. The new genus differs from Austridotea in that maxillipedal palp articles 2-3 and 4-5 are fused and operculate whereas in Austridotea the palp is of five free articles or has only articles 4-5 fused. All species of Austridotea are smooth with laterally expanded coxae, a quite different habitus from ornamented Takereana festiva. Takereana differs from Idotea in having two uropodal rami rather than one, greater fusion of maxillipedal palp articles, lacking spiniform setae on the pereopods, and unusual narrow pleopods 1. Takereana has an obsolete setose mandibular molar while it is columnar and toothed in both these genera. PMID:26701503

  10. Geographical distribution of Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Franz; Brugger, Katharina; Pfeffer, Martin; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Didyk, Yuliya M; Leverenz, Sandra; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to present up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution of Dermacentor species in Europe based on georeferenced sampling sites. Therefore, a dataset was compiled, resulting in 1286 D. marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) and 1209 D. reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) locations. Special emphasis is given to the region of the European Alps depicting a presumable climate barrier of the mountains and to overlaps in the distribution of both species as well as on the situation in eastern European countries. For the latter newly described Dermacentor findings comprise 59 locations in Romania and 62 locations in Ukraine. The geographical distributions of both species in Europe range from Portugal to Ukraine (and continue to the east of Kazakhstan). Although it is well known that D. marginatus is adapted to a warmer and drier climate at more southern latitudes and D. reticulatus to a moderately moist climate at more northern latitudes, the distribution limits of both species were not well known. Here, the northern and southern distribution limits for both species in Europe, as determined from the georeferenced database, were specified for D. marginatus by the belt of 33-51° N latitude and for D. reticulatus by the belt of 41-57° N latitude. Thus, overlapping species distributions were found between 41° N and 51° N. PMID:26552893

  11. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  12. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed. PMID:18559172

  13. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  14. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants. PMID:27082115

  15. Circovirus-infected geese studied by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joan; Soike, D; Moffett, Deborah; Weston, J H; Todd, D

    2005-06-01

    It has now been established that circovirus infection is common in farmed geese, but little is known about the clinicopathological significance of such infections. Ten clinically diseased geese suspected of being infected by circovirus were studied by in situ hybridization using a goose circovirus DNA probe. Circovirus DNA was demonstrated in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), spleen, thymus, bone marrow, liver, kidney, lung and heart, indicating that infection can be multisystemic. In some birds, virus DNA was present in very large quantities, most notably in the BF, liver and small intestine. With the exception of BF and thymus, there were no histological findings that would have suggested the presence of such quantities of circovirus DNA. In view of the very large quantities of virus DNA labelling present in some tissues, and by analogy to porcine circovirus type 2 infection and psittacine beak and feather virus infections, which are known to cause severe disease, and which have similar virus distribution to that found in our geese, it seems probable that the circovirus was important in the disease manifestations shown by the infected geese. PMID:16191706

  16. Detection of circovirus infection in pigeons by in situ hybridization using cloned DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Smyth, J A; Weston, J; Moffett, D A; Todd, D

    2001-11-01

    Degenerate primers were designed based on known sequence information for the circoviruses psittacine beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus and applied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to known virus-infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) from a pigeon. A 548-bp DNA fragment was amplified and shown to be specific to a novel circovirus, named pigeon circovirus (PiCV), and was used to produce sensitive and specific probes for detection of circovirus DNA by in situ hybridization (ISH). Using ISH on BF from 107 pigeons submitted for necropsy, infection was detected in 89%, compared with a histologic detection rate of 66%. Using the ISH technique, infected cells were also found in liver, kidney, trachea, lung, brain, crop, intestine, spleen, bone marrow, and heart of some birds. Large quantities of DNA were present in some of these tissues, and in the absence of BF, liver in particular is identified as a potentially useful organ to examine for presence of PiCV. This high prevalence of infection in diseased birds is noteworthy, emphasizing the need for studies to determine the precise role of this virus as a disease-producing agent. PMID:11724137

  17. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems. PMID:26558625

  18. Ultrastructural investigation of antennae in three cutaneous myiasis flies: Melophagus ovinus, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Cao, J; Chu, H J; Li, K

    2015-05-01

    Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus 1758), Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758, and Hippobosca longipennis Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are economically and medically important ectoparasites that can act as mechanic vectors of pathogens and cause myiasis in both human and domestic animals. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of these adult hippoboscids were examined using stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopes. General morphology of the antenna is provided in detail, combined with distribution, types, size, and ultrastructures of antennal sensilla. On the antennal funiculus, two types of sensilla are observed, including basiconic sensilla and coeloconic sensilla. Four common characters are shared among the three species: (1) the scape is either obsolete or fused with the fronto-clypeus; (2) branched antennal structures (branched pedicellar microtrichiae and branched arista with only one segment) are detected; (3) the enlarged antennal pedicel completely envelops the antennal funiculus; and (4) less types of sensilla on funiculus. Disparity and diversity of the antennal and sensory structures are analyzed from the phylogenetic and functional perspective. We suggest that hippoboscids are potential model for the study of the function of coeloconic sensilla in Calyptratae. PMID:25707367

  19. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide Exposure on Heat Shock Protein Response in the Immune Organs of Chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Xianguang; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a kind of pentavalent arsenic, has recently been linked to disrupted immune function. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), a group of highly conserved proteins, are rapidly synthesised when living organisms are exposed to various stress conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of As2O3 on the expression level of Hsps (Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp60, Hsp40 and Hsp27) in the immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF)) of chickens. A total of 72 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were randomly divided into four groups, including the low-As group (L group), middle-As group (M group), high-As group (H group) and control group (C group). Immune organs were collected, and levels of Hsp messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined on days 30, 60 and 90. The results showed that the levels of Hsp mRNA (Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp60, Hsp40 and Hsp27) and protein (Hsp70 and Hsp60) expression were significantly increased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the As2O3 treatment groups compared with the corresponding control groups. Taken together, these results suggest that As2O3 influences the level of Hsps in immune organs. PMID:26050236

  20. Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  1. Ability of Lactococcus lactis To Export Viral Capsid Antigens: a Crucial Step for Development of Live Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Dieye, Yakhya; Hoekman, Arjan J. W.; Clier, Florence; Juillard, Vincent; Boot, Hein J.; Piard, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Thefood grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is a potential vehicle for protein delivery in the gastrointestinal tract. As a model, we constructed lactococcal strains producing antigens of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). IBDV infects chickens and causes depletion of B-lymphoid cells in the bursa of Fabricius and subsequent immunosuppression, morbidity, or acute mortality. The two major IBDV antigens, i.e., VP2 and VP3, that form the viral capsid were expressed and targeted to the cytoplasm, the cell wall, or the extracellular compartment of L. lactis. Whereas VP3 was successfully targeted to the three compartments by the use of relevant expression and export vectors, VP2 was recalcitrant to export, thus confirming the difficulty of translocating naturally nonsecreted proteins across the bacterial membrane. This defect could be partly overcome by fusing VP2 to a naturally secreted protein (the staphylococcal nuclease Nuc) that carried VP2 through the membrane. Lactococcal strains producing Nuc-VP2 and VP3 in various bacterial compartments were administered orally to chickens. The chickens did not develop any detectable immune response against VP2 and VP3 but did exhibit an immune response against Nuc when Nuc-VP2 was anchored to the cell wall of lactococci. PMID:14660377

  2. Protective Vaccination against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Whole Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis Yeast Expressing the Viral VP2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Marina; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Schulze, Katja; Breunig, Karin D.; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine. PMID:23024743

  3. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  4. Distribution and Feeding Behavior of Omorgus suberosus (Coleoptera: Trogidae) in Lepidochelys olivacea Turtle Nests

    PubMed Central

    Baena, Martha L.; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; García–Chávez, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, 1775) has been identified as a potential predator of the eggs of the turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) on one of the main turtle nesting beaches in the world, La Escobilla in Oaxaca, Mexico. This study presents an analysis of the spatio–temporal distribution of the beetle on this beach (in areas of high and low density of L. olivacea nests over two arrival seasons) and an evaluation, under laboratory conditions, of the probability of damage to the turtle eggs by this beetle. O. suberosus adults and larvae exhibited an aggregated pattern at both turtle nest densities; however, aggregation was greater in areas of low nest density, where we found the highest proportion of damaged eggs. Also, there were fluctuations in the temporal distribution of the adult beetles following the arrival of the turtles on the beach. Under laboratory conditions, the beetles quickly damaged both dead eggs and a mixture of live and dead eggs, but were found to consume live eggs more slowly. This suggests that O. suberosus may be recycling organic material; however, its consumption of live eggs may be sufficient in some cases to interrupt the incubation period of the turtle. We intend to apply these results when making decisions regarding the L. olivacea nests on La Escobilla Beach, one of the most important sites for the conservation of this species. PMID:26422148

  5. Crabs tell the difference--Relating trace metal content with land use and landscape attributes.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Nuno V; Neto, Ana I; Couto, Ruben P; Azevedo, José M N; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal concentration in a given locality depends upon its natural characteristics and level of anthropogenic pressure. Volcanic sites have a different heavy metal footprint from agriculture soils and both differ from urban centres. Different animal species absorb heavy metals differently according to their feeding behaviour and physiology. Depending on the capability to accumulate heavy metals, some species can be used in biomonitoring programs for the identification of disturbed areas. Crabs are included in these species and known to accumulate heavy metals. The present study investigates the potential of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787), a small crab abundant in the Azores intertidal, as an indicator of the presence of heavy metals in Azorean coastal environments, comparing hydrothermal vent locations, urban centres and locations adjacent to agricultural activity. Specimens were collected in the same period and had their hepatopancreas removed, dried and analysed for heavy metals. Results revealed differences in concentration of the studied elements between all sampling sites, each one revealing a distinct heavy metal content. Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd are the metals responsible for separating the various sites. The concentration levels of the heavy metals recorded in the present study reflect the environmental available metals where the organisms live. This, associated to the large availability of P. marmoratus specimens in the Azores, and to the fact that these animals are easy to capture and handle, suggests this species as a potential bioindicator for heavy metal concentration in Azorean coastal areas, both humanized and naturally disturbed. PMID:26492424

  6. [The "doctrine of signatures" and graphical technologies at the dawn of modernity].

    PubMed

    Panese, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The "Doctrine of signatures" occupies an important position in the scientific and medical thinking from the 16th century onwards. In a universe conceived as a vast system of correspondences, in particular between our world and God's will, the signatures are the visible marks of the purpose of divine creation. In therapeutic practices they indicate the virtues of plants by their resemblance to specific organs they are supposed to be able to cure. This Doctrine, like the medical practices it served, is often relegated to a pre-modern knowledge. Shifting the perspective from its doctrinal content to its practical applications in medical treatises, this article suggests that the graphical and scriptural treatment of signatures by Oswald Crollius (ca 1560-1609), Giovanni Battista Della Porta (1534-1615) and Wolfgang Ambrosius Fabricius (1653) allowed the invention of an instrument which, by formalising and systematising the correspondences between plants and organs, made possible a practical use in which metaphysical and religious justifications were not explicitly involved any more, precisely these justifications which resulted in confining this doctrine outside of modernity. PMID:12918296

  7. The genus Anisoscelis Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini): new species, taxonomical arrangements, distributional records and key.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Anisoscelis currently comprises nine species and has been recorded from Texas (here recorded for the first time) on the south of the United States of North America across Mexico, Central and South America, but absent in Chile and the Great and Lesser Antilles; Anisoscelis (Bitta) flavolineatus Blanchard, 1849 is placed in synonym under Anisoscelis (Bitta) alipes Guérin-Méneville, 1831, and Anisoscelis (Bitta) flavolineatus osunai Brailovsky and Mayorga, 1995 is placed in synonymy under Anisoscelis (Bitta) hymenipherus Westwood, 1840; Anisoscelis (Anisoscelis) marginellus (Dallas) previously considered a subspecies under Anisoscelis (Anisoscelis) foliaceus (Fabricius) is removed to specific rank; a new species A. (Bitta) luridus from México is described. Photographs of dorsal habitus and parameres and key to the known species are included. New distributional records for most of the species are given; food plants records are included with an apparent trophic preferences for member of the genus Passiflora. A complete checklist, with subgeneric position of each species is given. PMID:27470848

  8. Susceptibility of chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus does not correlate with the presence of specific binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1996-06-01

    Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211

  9. Apoptosis is induced by infectious bursal disease virus replication in productively infected cells as well as in antigen-negative cells in their vicinity.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, A; Nieper, H; Müller, H

    2001-05-01

    The kinetics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication and induction of apoptosis were investigated in vitro and in vivo. After infection of chicken embryo (CE) cells with IBDV strain Cu-1, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased from 5.8% at 4 h post-infection (p.i.) to 64.5% at 48 h p.i. The proportion of apoptotic cells correlated with IBDV replication. UV-inactivated IBDV particles did not induce apoptosis. Double labelling revealed that, early after infection, the majority of antigen-expressing cells were not apoptotic; double-labelled cells appeared more frequently at later times. Remarkably, apoptotic cells were frequently located in the vicinity of antigen-expressing cells. This indicated that an apoptosis-inducing factor(s) might be released by cells that replicate IBDV. Since interferon (IFN) production has been demonstrated after IBDV infection, IFN was considered to be one of several factors. However, supernatants of infected CE cells in which virus infectivity had been neutralized were not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Similar results were observed in the infected bursae of Fabricius: early after infection, most of the cells either showed virus antigens or were apoptotic. Again, double-labelled cells appeared more frequently late after infection. This suggests that indirect mechanisms might also be involved in the induction of apoptosis in vivo, contributing to the rapid depletion of cells in the IBDV-infected bursa. PMID:11297685

  10. Pollination of Adenocalymma bracteatum (Bignoniaceae): floral biology and visitors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Soares, Stela; Polatto, Leandro P; Dutra, João C S; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena M

    2010-01-01

    Adenocalymma bracteatum is a shrub of dense foliage and yellow flowers, easily found on grasslands areas in Central Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive biology and the flower visitors of A. bracteatum in a pasture area nearby Ivinhema city, MS (Brazil). The flowering peak occurs in winter. The flower reflects ultraviolet light. Anthesis begins at 6:30h, and pollen and nectar are the resources to visitors. We captured 1,038 floral visitors. The bees Apis mellifera (L.), Trigona sp., Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and the ant Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the main visitors. The reproductive tests indicate that A. bracteatum is self compatible, justifying its expansion in altered environments; however, the largest reproductive success was dependant on cross-pollination and self-pollination, evidencing the pollinators importance. Adenocalymma bracteatum presents melittophilous syndrome and bumblebees were the main pollinators in the area. The correlations observed between the climatic variables and the main pollinator species were low or medium. PMID:21271062

  11. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M; Jerry, Dean R

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock. PMID:25951344

  12. Efficacy of Nigella sativa in alleviating benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Latif, I K; Karim, A J; Zuki, A B Z; Zamri-Saad, M; Niu, J P; Noordin, M M

    2011-06-01

    The immune response of broiler chickens exposed to intra-tracheal (i.t.) administration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with and without Nigella sativa (Ns) supplementation was investigated. A total of 120 day-old chicks were divided into four groups comprising 30 birds each, into a control, Ns, BaP, and BaP+Ns group. Immune responses to Newcastle disease (ND) were evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin test and carbon clearance assay (CCA). In most instances, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the ND-HI antibody titers, PHA skin-swelling response and phagocytic activity in the BaP + Ns group compared to that of the BaP group. Likewise, organ weight and indices of the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus of birds from the BaP + Ns group were also higher (p<0.05) than that of the BaP group from day 1 until day 21. It is concluded that exposure to BaP may exert adverse effects on the immune system of broilers which may increase their susceptibility to disease, and Ns supplementation significantly reduces these alterations. PMID:21472685

  13. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined. PMID:23185307

  14. Immunoglobulin knockout chickens via efficient homologous recombination in primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J; Yi, Henry; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Fesler, Jeffrey; Pedersen, Darlene; Klasing, Kirk C; Kaspers, Bernd; Harriman, William D; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Etches, Robert J; Leighton, Philip A

    2013-12-10

    Gene targeting by homologous recombination or by sequence-specific nucleases allows the precise modification of genomes and genes to elucidate their functions. Although gene targeting has been used extensively to modify the genomes of mammals, fish, and amphibians, a targeting technology has not been available for the avian genome. Many of the principles of humoral immunity were discovered in chickens, yet the lack of gene targeting technologies in birds has limited biomedical research using this species. Here we describe targeting the joining (J) gene segment of the chicken Ig heavy chain gene by homologous recombination in primordial germ cells to establish fully transgenic chickens carrying the knockout. In homozygous knockouts, Ig heavy chain production is eliminated, and no antibody response is elicited on immunization. Migration of B-lineage precursors into the bursa of Fabricius is unaffected, whereas development into mature B cells and migration from the bursa are blocked in the mutants. Other cell types in the immune system appear normal. Chickens lacking the peripheral B-cell population will provide a unique experimental model to study avian immune responses to infectious disease. More generally, gene targeting in avian primordial germ cells will foster advances in diverse fields of biomedical research such as virology, stem cells, and developmental biology, and provide unique approaches in biotechnology, particularly in the field of antibody discovery. PMID:24282302

  15. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently

    PubMed Central

    Roe, R. Michael; Bacheler, Jack S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011–2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  17. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  18. Natural History of the Neotropical Arboreal Ant, Odontomachus hastatus: Nest Sites, Foraging Schedule, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Rafael X.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of most arboreal ants remains poorly documented because of the difficulty in accessing ant nests and foragers in the forest canopy. This study documents the nesting and foraging ecology of a large (∼13 mm total length) arboreal trap—jaw ant, Odontomachus hastatus (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a sandy plain forest on Cardoso Island, off the coast of Southeast Brazil. The results showed that O. hastatus nested in root clusters of epiphytic bromeliads, most commonly Vriesea procera (70% of nest plants). Mature O. hastatus colonies include one to several queens and about 500 workers. Foraging by O. hastatus is primarily nocturnal year—round, with increased foraging activity during the wet/warm season. The foragers hunt singly in the trees, preying on a variety of canopy—dwelling arthropods, with flies, moths, ants, and spiders accounting for > 60% of the prey captured. Although predators often have impacts on prey populations, the ecological importance of O. hastatus remains to be studied. PMID:22957686

  19. Development of anatomophysiologic knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system: from Egyptians to Harvey.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  20. Laboratory and field tests of spray-dried and granular formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer.

    PubMed

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M

    2006-09-01

    Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The formulations were prepared using biodegradable polymers such as modified corn starch as an encapsulating agent, gelatin as an adherent, powdered sugarcane as a feeding stimulant and a Bt var. kurstaki GM-34 strain from a non-sugarcane region as the active ingredient. The spore-crystal complex of this strain was mixed at three different concentrations (30, 70 and 100 g kg(-1)) with the other ingredients. The blends were prepared as spray-dried and granular formulations, and then submitted to laboratory tests with two day old larvae of D. saccharalis and field tests in sugarcane crops with natural sugarcane borer infestation. Spray-dried formulations in laboratory bioassays caused mortality near 100% with all three concentrations, and granular formulations caused mortality around 84%. The field tests showed that spray-dried formulations at 70 and 100 g kg(-1) concentrations were as effective as a commercial bioinsectide (Lepinox), while granular formulations were ineffective. PMID:16786544

  1. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  2. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  3. Use of chromatin remodeling ATPases as RNAi targets for parental control of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and Neotropical brown stink bug (Euschistus heros).

    PubMed

    Fishilevich, Elane; Vélez, Ana M; Khajuria, Chitvan; Frey, Meghan L F; Hamm, Ronda L; Wang, Haichuan; Schulenberg, Greg A; Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that is present in animals and plants and is triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA), depending on the organism. In the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), RNAi can be achieved by feeding rootworms dsRNA added to artificial diet or plant tissues transformed to express dsRNA. The effect of RNAi depends on the targeted gene function and can range from an absence of phenotypic response to readily apparent responses, including lethality. Furthermore, RNAi can directly affect individuals that consume dsRNA or the effect may be transferred to the next generation. Our previous work described the potential use of genes involved in embryonic development as a parental RNAi technology for the control of WCR. In this study, we describe the use of chromatin-remodeling ATPases as target genes to achieve parental gene silencing in two insect pests, a coleopteran, WCR, and a hemipteran, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Our results show that dsRNA targeting chromatin-remodeling ATPase transcripts, brahma, mi-2, and iswi strongly reduced the fecundity of the exposed females in both insect species. Additionally, knockdown of chd1 reduced the fecundity of E. heros. PMID:26873291

  4. Comparison of fitness traits and their plasticity on multiple plants for Sitobion avenae infected and cured of a secondary endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Da Wang; Shi, Xiaoqin; Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Dai, Xinjia; Shang, Zheming; Ge, Zhaohong; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Regiella insecticola has been found to enhance the performance of host aphids on certain plants, but its functional role in adaptation of host aphids to plants is still controversial. Here we evaluate the impacts of R. insecticola infections on vital life-history traits of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and their underlying genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity on three plants. It was shown that effects of R. insecticola on S. avenae's fitness (i.e., developmental time and fecundity) were neutral on oat or wheat, but negative on rye. Infections of R. insecticola modified genetic variation that underlies S. avenae's life-history traits. This was demonstrated by comparing life-history trait heritabilities between aphid lines with and without R. insecticola. Moreover, there were enhanced negative genetic correlations between developmental time and fecundity for R. insecticola infected lines, and structural differences in G-matrices of life-history traits for the two types of aphid lines. In R. insecticola-infected aphid lines, there were increases in plasticities for developmental times of first and second instar nymphs and for fecundity, showing novel functional roles of bacterial symbionts in plant-insect interactions. The identified effects of R. insecticola infections could have significant implications for the ecology and evolution of its host populations in natural conditions. PMID:26979151

  5. Carrion Beetles Visiting Pig Carcasses during Early Spring in Urban, Forest and Agricultural Biotopes of Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric; Brostaux, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Carrion beetles are important in terrestrial ecosystems, consuming dead mammals and promoting the recycling of organic matter into ecosystems. Most forensic studies are focused on succession of Diptera while neglecting Coleoptera. So far, little information is available on carrion beetles postmortem colonization and decomposition process in temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles are however part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need databases concerning the distribution, ecology and phenology of necrophagous insects, including silphids. Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate entomofaunal succession. However, few studies have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. The work reported here monitored the presence of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) on decaying pig carcasses in three selected biotopes (forest, crop field, urban site) at the beginning of spring. Seven species of Silphidae were recorded: Nicrophorus humator (Gleditsch), Nicrophorus vespillo (L.), Nicrophorus vespilloides (Herbst), Necrodes littoralis L., Oiceoptoma thoracica L., Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius), Thanatophilus rugosus (L.). All of these species were caught in the forest biotope, and all but O. thoracica were caught in the agricultural biotope. No silphids were caught in the urban site. PMID:21867439

  6. Generalist predators (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) associated with millipede populations in sweet potato and carrot fields and implications for millipede management.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Bahlai, Christine A; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-08-01

    The predatory beetle assemblage of Ontario carrot and sweet potato fields was described and assessed to identify species of interest to the control of the emerging pest millipede Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus (Wood) (Diplopoda: Julidae). Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was identified as a dominant species, and seven other carabid species [Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer), Ophonus puncticeps (Stephens), H. erraticus Say, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum Say, Poecilus chalcites (Say), Scarites subterraneus Fabricius, and Pterostichus permundus (Say)] were identified as common species on the basis of activity density. Common species became more abundant as the growing season progressed. In laboratory bioassays, P. melanarius preyed on millipedes regardless of prey size, whereas H. erraticus never selected millipedes as prey. A significant positive spatiotemporal relationship was found between P. melanarius and C. caeruleocinctus in sweet potato fields. P. melanarius was found to be a natural enemy of C. caeruleocinctus, and other common carabid species warrant future study. The role of Staphylinidae in millipede control could not be elucidated, likely because of low trapping efficiency. Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, an introduced staphylinid from Europe, was newly recorded in Ontario, extending its North American range considerably westward from the province of Quebec. The results of this study are an important foundational step toward developing a successful integrated pest management strategy for controlling millipede damage in crops. PMID:19689889

  7. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. PMID:27185259

  8. Histomonosis - an existing problem in chicken flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Histomonosis (histomoniasis, blackhead), beside coccidiosis, belongs to the most important parasitic protozoan diseases in poultry. So far Histomonas meleagridis infections with varied mortality rates have been mainly diagnosed in young turkeys. Recently an increasing number of cases have been reported in chicken flocks in Europe resulting in economic losses. It is thought that this situation is predominantly caused by a complete withdrawal of the effective antihistomonals in the EU. Authors listed the selected outbreaks of histomonosis in 10 chicken flocks originated from different farms of 4 regions in Poland: 8 broiler breeder flocks (at mean age of 33 weeks) and 2 commercial layers flocks (at mean age of 38 weeks). This study reported here naturally occurring case of H.meleagridis infection in commercial broiler breeder (BB) flock line ROSS 308 at the age of 16 weeks. We showed acute form of infection with characteristic necrotic foci in the liver, and ulcerative typhilitis. Beside the liver and caeca, the multiple histomonads, lymphoid tissue depletion and heavy destruction in the bursa of Fabricius were observed. Additionally, the absence of systemic diffuse histomonads and lack of Heterakis gallinarum, caecal worm eggs in faecal samples were noted. PCR technique enabled to detect the presence of H.meleagridis genetic material in the investigated tissue samples. Authors indicate that histomonosis can be considered as re-emerging infectious diseases in chicken flocks of intensive production system. PMID:25976057

  9. Goose Parvovirus and Circovirus Coinfections in Ornamental Ducks.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Gerry, Dorrestein M; Heenemann, Kristin; Halami, Mohammed Y; Tokarzewski, Stanisław; Wencel, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Clinical observations and diagnostic procedures carried out to elucidate the cause of high mortality in 2-8-wk-old ornamental ducks (mandarin, wood, falcated, and silver teal ducks) are described. At necropsy, ducklings showed general pallor of skeletal and heart muscles, subcutaneous gelatinous transudates, pericarditis, ascites, and severe edema and hyperemia of lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the most important changes were located in the crop, bursa of Fabricius, and lungs with presence of amorphic basic intracytoplasmic inclusions. No bacteria or fungi could be detected from affected organs and ascitic fluid. Viral diagnosis included molecular detection for the presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), circovirus, avian influenza, herpesviruses, paramyxovirus, reovirus, and polyomavirus. Both GPV and circovirus could be detected by real-time PCR and nested broad-spectrum PCR, respectively. Phylogenetically, full-length nucleotide sequence of GPV showed a close similarity ranging from 95.6% to 97.9% with European and Asian pathogenic GPV. On the other hand, the detected circovirus showed nucleotide identity of 90% to 98% with goose circoviruses (GoCVs). This is the first report of GoCVs and GPV in ornamental ducks. The concurrence of GPV and GoCV infections is thought to contribute to the high mortality. PMID:27309298

  10. Classification of forensically-relevant larvae according to instar in a closely related species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Carrion beetle larvae of Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius, 1775), and Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Silphidae: Silphinae) were studied to test the concept that a classifier of the subfamily level may be successfully used to classify larvae according to instar. Classifiers were created and validated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA generates classification functions which are used to calculate classification values for tested specimens. The largest value indicates the larval instar to which the specimen should be assigned. Distance between dorsal stemmata and width of the pronotum were used as classification features. The classifier correctly classified larvae of N. littoralis and O. thoracicum, whereas in the case of T. sinuatus and T. rugosus a few misclassifications were recorded. For this reason, a separate genus level classifier was created for larvae of Thanatophilus. We conclude that larval instar classifiers of the subfamily or genus level have very high classification accuracy and therefore they may be safely used to classify carrion beetle larvae according to instar in forensic practice. PMID:27071758

  11. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  12. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  13. Comparison of fitness traits and their plasticity on multiple plants for Sitobion avenae infected and cured of a secondary endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Da Wang; Shi, Xiaoqin; Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Dai, Xinjia; Shang, Zheming; Ge, Zhaohong; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Regiella insecticola has been found to enhance the performance of host aphids on certain plants, but its functional role in adaptation of host aphids to plants is still controversial. Here we evaluate the impacts of R. insecticola infections on vital life-history traits of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and their underlying genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity on three plants. It was shown that effects of R. insecticola on S. avenae’s fitness (i.e., developmental time and fecundity) were neutral on oat or wheat, but negative on rye. Infections of R. insecticola modified genetic variation that underlies S. avenae’s life-history traits. This was demonstrated by comparing life-history trait heritabilities between aphid lines with and without R. insecticola. Moreover, there were enhanced negative genetic correlations between developmental time and fecundity for R. insecticola infected lines, and structural differences in G-matrices of life-history traits for the two types of aphid lines. In R. insecticola-infected aphid lines, there were increases in plasticities for developmental times of first and second instar nymphs and for fecundity, showing novel functional roles of bacterial symbionts in plant-insect interactions. The identified effects of R. insecticola infections could have significant implications for the ecology and evolution of its host populations in natural conditions. PMID:26979151

  14. Description of Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditida) from Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bauchan, G.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yuceer, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Parasitorhabditis species with males and females was discovered from the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and its galleries in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, growing in Mississippi. Females of the new species have a cupola-shaped tail with a small spike; males possess a 2 + (3+2) + 3 ray pattern on the tail fan with ray 10 reaching the margin, and a distinctive stomatal tooth. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. has some similarities to P. hylurgi Massey, 1974 from Hylurgops pinifex in New York, USA, P. terebranus Massey, 1974 from D. terebrans (Olivier, 1795) in Texas USA, P. ligniperdae Fuchs, 1915 from Hylergops ligniperda (Fabricius, 1787) and P. dendroctoni Rühm, 1956 from D. micans (Kugelann, 1794) in Europe, P. ateri Fuchs, 1915 isolated from the beetle Hylastes ater (Paykull, 1800) in Germany, and P. malii Devdariani and Kakulia,1970 from Scolytus mali (Bechstein, 1805) within the republic of Georgia. Morphometrics for 44 species of Parasitorhabditis are provided to update older keys. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. was initially grown on Malt Extract (ME) agar with its own microbial contaminants that included a bacterium and fungus. The nematode also grew and reproduced after slices of ME agar with nematodes and microbial contaminants were transferred to water agar. It was killed by E. coli on NGM agar plates commonly used to raise other Rhabditida. Drawings of diagnostic anatomy and low-temperature SEM images of bodies, heads, and tails are provided for cultured specimens from pine beetle frass. PMID:22736836

  15. Linking pollination effectiveness and interspecific displacement success in bees.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A; Akbar, A

    2015-04-01

    Pollen deposition, a surrogate for bee efficiency, becomes increasingly important during their interspecific interactions. We conducted field experiments on highly cross-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in order to understand how bee species with different pollination efficiencies displace each other from floral resources. We observed significant displacement of less abundant but more efficient bees by the more abundant but less efficient bees in both crops, which may lead to deficient pollination. We did not find significant relationship of the bee displacement success and body size or abundance. Apis florea (Fabricius) and Nomia sp.2 (Latreille) had significantly more winner events in melon, while the former also had significantly more winner events in watermelon. A. florea was the only bee species that foraged mostly within the 1-m(2) virtual area after their displacement, which may indicate its behavior of geitinogamous pollination. The two bee species, Ceratina sexmaculata (Smith) and Lasioglossum sp. (Curtis), were more sensitive to displacement as their proportion of leaving the 1-m(2) virtual area was higher. PMID:26013126

  16. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  17. Spatial distribution of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Anomura et Brachyura) in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of the data obtained during the plankton surveys in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001 is presented. The larvae of eight crab species were registered in the plankton: the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), the snow (opilio) crab Chionoecetes opilio (Fabricius, 1780), the Arctic lyre crab Hyas coarctatus ursinus (Leach, 1815), the kelp crab Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus (Tilesius, 1815), the Japanese swimming crab Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861), the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934), and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858). These species belonged to six families: Lithodidae, Atelecyclidae, Majidae, Portunidae, Porcellanidae, and Pinnotheridae. The role of the variability of some of the hydrological factors in the meroplankton larvae development was studied. In May, the crab larvae were found mostly in the open part of the bay. In June, they were transported by the current to the northern part of the bay. In July, they spread uniformly in all the bay areas; however, patchiness was observed. The maximal population density of the crab larvae was registered for July and varied from 6.8 to 23.3 ind. m-3. The crab larvae appeared in the plankton in 2000 and 2001 earlier than for the average season.

  18. Ants in the Hospital Environment: Ecological Parameters as Support for Future Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M M; Almeida, M; Fernandes, E F; Prezoto, F

    2016-06-01

    Urban ants cause many losses to human society, and they represent a potential threat to public health in hospital environments due to their ability to transport pathogenic organisms. We evaluated several ecological parameters (richness, abundance, constancy, and evenness), their fluctuation during the seasons, and identified species that occur outside the natural range of the ant fauna of a hospital environment, as support for future management strategies. Ant sampling was held every 2 months by using attractive bait traps in the morning and evening, leading to the sampling of 10,342 individuals belonging to six subfamilies and 26 species. Myrmicinae showed higher richness (n = 12) and abundance (n = 7336), with Pheidole susannae Forel being the most abundant species. The most constant species (100%) were P. susannae and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith). Among the most abundant species, Monomorium floricola (Jerdon) and Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) are considered as species that occur outside the natural range. No difference was observed between species richness and abundance. The Shannon (2.247), dominance (0.1395) and evenness indices (0.6897) indicated a stability of the community throughout the year with high diversity and low dominance of species. The sampled data constitute a new series of information on a long-term ecological approach to support future management strategies in hospital environments and allow for more efficient pest control. PMID:26883447

  19. Dipterans Associated with a Decomposing Animal Carcass in a Rainforest Fragment in Brazil: Notes on the Early Arrival and Colonization by Necrophagous Species

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Simao D.; Cruz, Tadeu M.; Salgado, Roberta L.; Thyssen, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first checklist of forensically-important dipteran species in a rainforest environment in Northeastern Brazil, a region exposed to high rates of homicides. Using a decomposing pig, Sus scrofa L. (Artiodactyla: Suidae), carcass as a model, adult flies were collected immediately after death and in the early stages of carcass decomposition. To confirm actual colonization of the carcass, insects that completed their larval development on the resource were also collected and reared until adult stage. A diverse assemblage of dipterans composed of at least 28 species from seven families with necrophagous habits was observed within minutes after death. Besides Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, species from forensically-important families such as Phoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Fanniidae were also registered. Eleven species were shown to complete their development on the carcass. The majority of individuals emerged from larvae collected at the dry stage of decomposition. Hemilucilia segmentaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae), H. semidiaphana (Rondani), and Ophyra chalcogaster (Wiedemann) (Muscidae) were the dominant species among the colonizers, which supports their importance as forensic evidence in Brazil. PMID:24787899

  20. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  1. A chromosomal analysis of eleven species of Gyrinidae (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347

  2. A new multicriteria risk mapping approach based on a multiattribute frontier concept.

    PubMed

    Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Downing, Marla; Sapio, Frank; Siltanen, Marty

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species risk maps provide broad guidance on where to allocate resources for pest monitoring and regulation, but they often present individual risk components (such as climatic suitability, host abundance, or introduction potential) as independent entities. These independent risk components are integrated using various multicriteria analysis techniques that typically require prior knowledge of the risk components' importance. Such information is often nonexistent for many invasive pests. This study proposes a new approach for building integrated risk maps using the principle of a multiattribute efficient frontier and analyzing the partial order of elements of a risk map as distributed in multidimensional criteria space. The integrated risks are estimated as subsequent multiattribute frontiers in dimensions of individual risk criteria. We demonstrate the approach with the example of Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, a high-risk pest that may threaten North American oak forests in the near future. Drawing on U.S. and Canadian data, we compare the performance of the multiattribute ranking against a multicriteria linear weighted averaging technique in the presence of uncertainties, using the concept of robustness from info-gap decision theory. The results show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of tradeoffs between multiple risk components changes integrated risk rankings. Both methods delineate similar geographical regions of high and low risks. Overall, aggregation based on a delineation of multiattribute efficient frontiers can be a useful tool to prioritize risks for anticipated invasive pests, which usually have an extremely poor prior knowledge base. PMID:23339716

  3. New data on the genus Hybos Meigen (Diptera: Hybotidae) from the Palaearctic Region.

    PubMed

    Shamshev, Igor; Grootaert, Patrick; Kustov, Semen

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy and distribution of the genus Hybos Meigen in the Palaearctic Region is reviewed with a special reference to the European fauna. Twenty-three species have been recorded from the Palaearctic, of which only four species are known from Europe. We describe two new species, H. andradei sp. nov. (Portugal) and H. mediasiaticus sp. nov. (Middle Asia). The status of two previously considered doubtful species of Hybos are validated: H. striatellus Villeneuve, 1913 (Algeria) and H. vagans Loew, 1874 (the Caucasus). Both species are re-described, and the lectotype of H. striatellus is designated. A key to species of Hybos from the western Palaearctic is compiled. Numerous new data on distributions of H. culiciformis (Fabricius, 1775), H. femoratus (Müller, 1776), H. grossipes (Linné, 1767) and H. vagans are given. Hybos culiciformis is recorded for the first time from Algeria, Byelorussia, Croatia, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Portugal; H. femoratus-from Estonia, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Ukraine; H. grossipes-from Byelorussia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Mongolia, Ukraine; H. vagans-from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Russia, Turkey. The variation of some characters in H. culiciformis is discussed and is confirmed for Portugese specimens by COI barcoding. Female postabdominal structures are examined and described for H. andradei sp. nov., H. culiciformis, H. femoratus, H. grossipes, H. mediasiaticus sp. nov., and H. striatellus. Possible relationships of the West-Palaearctic species are discussed. A check-list of Hybos from the Palaearctic Realm is provided. PMID:25947449

  4. Three Echinostome Species from Wild Birds in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Three echinostome species, i.e., Patagifer bilobus, Petasiger neocomense, and Saakotrema metatestis, are newly recorded in the trematode fauna of the Republic of Korea. They were recovered from 3 species of migratory birds (Platalea minor, Podiceps cristatus, and Egretta garzetta), which were donated by the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk (WCC) and the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife (CGRB). Only 1 P. bilobus specimen was recovered from the intestine of a black-faced spoonbill (P. minor), and characterized by the bilobed head crown with a deep dorsal incision and 54 collar spines. Twenty P. neocomense were recovered from the intestine of a great crested grebe (P. cristatus), and they had a well-developed head crown with 19 spines and 2 testes obliquely located at the posterior middle of the body. Total 70 S. metatestis were collected from the bursa of Fabricius of 1 little egret (E. garzetta). It is characterized by stout tegumental spines covered in the entire leaf-shaped body, posterior extension of the uterus, presence of the uroproct and a well-developed head crown with 12 pairs of collar spines on each side. By the present study, these 3 echinostome species are newly added to the trematode fauna in Korea. PMID:25352700

  5. Description of Alpheus buckupi spec. nov., a new amphi-Atlantic snapping shrimp (Caridea: Alpheidae), based on morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alexandre O; Terossi, Mariana; Araújo-Silva, Catarina L; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2013-01-01

    A new amphi-Atlantic snapping shrimp of the genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus buckupi spec. nov., is described and illustrated based on material collected from the western (Orinoco Delta, Venezuela to São Paulo, Brazil) and eastern Atlantic (São Tomé and Príncipe). The new species is morphologically similar to members of the A. lobidens De Haan, 1850 species complex, from the Indo-Pacific, including A. inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 from the eastern Mediterranean, and the Red Sea to Pakistan, especially based on major and minor chelae configuration. We also characterized this new species in terms of DNA sequences of a ribosomal 16S subunit and compared it in a phylogenetic context. These analyses showed a clear separation of the specimens of A. buckupi spec. nov. from similar species of the A. edwardsii (Audouin, 1826) species group, including some morphologically close species such as A. cf. lobidens, A. heterochaelis Say, 1818, A. pontederiae de Rochebrune, 1883, A. sp. aff. euphrosyne De Man, 1897, and A. microrhynchus De Man, 1897. PMID:26269845

  6. On the fate of seasonally plastic traits in a rainforest butterfly under relaxed selection.

    PubMed

    Oostra, Vicencio; Brakefield, Paul M; Hiltemann, Yvonne; Zwaan, Bas J; Brattström, Oskar

    2014-07-01

    Many organisms display phenotypic plasticity as adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations. Often, such seasonal responses entails plasticity of a whole suite of morphological and life-history traits that together contribute to the adaptive phenotypes in the alternative environments. While phenotypic plasticity in general is a well-studied phenomenon, little is known about the evolutionary fate of plastic responses if natural selection on plasticity is relaxed. Here, we study whether the presumed ancestral seasonal plasticity of the rainforest butterfly Bicyclus sanaos (Fabricius, 1793) is still retained despite the fact that this species inhabits an environmentally stable habitat. Being exposed to an atypical range of temperatures in the laboratory revealed hidden reaction norms for several traits, including wing pattern. In contrast, reproductive body allocation has lost the plastic response. In the savannah butterfly, B. anynana (Butler, 1879), these traits show strong developmental plasticity as an adaptation to the contrasting environments of its seasonal habitat and they are coordinated via a common developmental hormonal system. Our results for B. sanaos indicate that such integration of plastic traits - as a result of past selection on expressing a coordinated environmental response - can be broken when the optimal reaction norms for those traits diverge in a new environment. PMID:25077017

  7. Isolation and propagation of coronaviruses in embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Guy, James S

    2015-01-01

    The embryonated egg is a complex structure comprised of an embryo and its supporting membranes (chorioallantoic, amniotic, yolk). The developing embryo and its membranes provide the diversity of cell types that are needed for successful replication of a wide variety of different viruses. Within the family Coronaviridae the embryonated egg has been used as a host system primarily for two avian coronaviruses within the genus Gammacoronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV). The embryonated egg also has been shown to be suitable for isolation and propagation of pheasant coronavirus, a proposed member of the Gammacoronavirus genus. IBV and pheasant coronavirus replicate well in the embryonated chicken egg, regardless of inoculation route; however, the allantoic route is favored as these viruses replicate well in epithelium lining the chorioallantoic membrane, with high virus titers found in these membranes and associated allantoic fluids. TCoV replicates only in epithelium lining the embryo intestines and bursa of Fabricius, thus amniotic inoculation is required for isolation and propagation of this virus. Embryonated eggs also provide a potential host system for detection and characterization of other, novel coronaviruses. PMID:25720472

  8. Effect of a potential probiotics Lactococcus garvieae B301 on the growth performance, immune parameters and caecum microflora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Xie, J; Zhang, M; Fu, N; Zhang, Y

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a novel Lactococcus garvieae B301 was isolated from the intestinal tract of a healthy piglet. L. garvieae B301 was tolerant to acid pH, simulated gastric and small intestinal transit juices, indicating that it was capable of surviving in the gastrointestinal tract. L. garvieae B301 was safe and beneficial to broilers, as broiler chickens supplemented with L. garvieae B301 had lower diarrhoea incidence and mortality than the Control. Moreover, supplementation of broiler diets with L. garvieae B301 resulted in an increase in body weight and the number of caecum lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp., and decrease in feed-to-gain ratio and the number of caecum coliforms. It also had a positive effect on the thymus index and bursa of Fabricius index and enhanced serum levels of immune globulins. All these results showed that L. garvieae B301 could enhance the growth performance of broiler chickens and improve their health. Thus, L. garvieae B301 could be a promising feed additive for broiler chickens. PMID:26331590

  9. Identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

  10. Dietary requirements of seaweed flies ( Coelopa frigida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Sally J.; Young, Alison M.; Day, Thomas H.

    1987-05-01

    The seaweed fly, Coelopa frigida (Fabricius), is mostly found in piles of decomposing seaweed deposited on the seashore which form its only breeding sites. It is shown that C. frigida can complete its life cycle in a wide variety of marine algae, and that the larvae are unable to survive without some, as yet unidentified, consituent of seaweed. The larvae also have a requirement for a microbial gut flora which probably derives from the bacterial flora naturally associated with algae growing in the sea. After deposition of the seaweed on the shore, the bacterial population increases enormously, and is ingested by the feeding Coelopa larvae. The dietary requirement for bacteria can be satisfied by a variety of pure bacterial cultures of marine origin, and also by pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is suggested that the microbial cells are being used by the larvae as their principal source of energy. The bacterial populations naturally found on stranded seaweed are grazed by the feeding larvae. It is the combined activities of microbial and insect populations that result in rapid decomposition of the seaweed. The ecological relationships between marine algae, the microbial flora, and dipteran larvae are discussed.

  11. Phylogenetic systematics of Schacontia Dyar with descriptions of eight new species (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Paul Z.; Metz, Mark A.; Solis, M. Alma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Schacontia Dyar (1914) is reviewed and revised to include eleven species. Schacontia replica Dyar, 1914, syn. n. and Schacontia pfeifferi Amsel, 1956, syn. n. are synonymized with Schacontia chanesalis (Druce, 1899) and eight new species are described: Schacontia umbra,sp. n., Schacontia speciosa,sp. n., Schacontia themis, sp. n., Schacontia rasa, sp. n., Schacontia nyx,sp. n., Schacontia clotho, sp. n., Schacontia lachesis, sp. n., and Schacontia atropos, sp. n. Three species, Schacontia medalba, Schacontia chanesalis, and Schacontia ysticalis, are re-described. An analysis of 64 characters (56 binary, 8 multistate; 5 head, 13 thoracic, 13 abdominal, 25 male genitalic, and 8 female genitalic) scored for all Schacontia and three outgroup species (Eustixia pupula Hübner, 1823, Glaphyria sesquistrialis Hübner, 1823, and Hellula undalis (Fabricius, 1781)) retrieved 8 equally most parsimonious trees (L=102, CI=71, RI=84) of which the strict consensus is: [[[[medalba + umbra] + chanesalis] + speciosa] + [ysticalis + [rasa + themis + [atropos + lachesis + nyx + clotho

  12. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

  13. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2014-10-10

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25317863

  14. Multigene Molecular Systematics Confirm Species Status of Morphologically Convergent Pagurus Hermit Crabs

    PubMed Central

    Matzen da Silva, Joana; dos Santos, Antonina; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Creer, Simon; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In spite of contemporary morphological taxonomy appraisals, apparent high morphological similarity raises uncertainty about the species status of certain Pagurus hermit crabs. This is exemplified between two European species, Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791) and Pagurus alatus (Fabricius 1775), whose species status is still difficult to resolve using morphological criteria alone. Methodology/Principal Findings To address such ambiguities, we used combinations of Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods to delineate species boundaries of P. alatus and P. excavatus and formulate an intermediate Pagurus phylogenetic hypothesis, based upon single and concatenated mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I [COI]) and nuclear (16S and 28s ribosomal RNA) gene partitions. The molecular data supported the species status of P. excavatus and P. alatus and also clearly resolved two divergent clades within hermit crabs from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Conclusions/Significance Despite the abundance and prominent ecological role of hermit crabs, Pagurus, in North East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ecosystems, many important aspects of their taxonomy, biology, systematics and evolution remain poorly explored. The topologies presented here should be regarded as hypotheses that can be incorporated into the robust and integrated understanding of the systematic relationships within and between species of the genus Pagurus inhabiting the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:22174780

  15. Impact of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation on percentage of T and B cells in chicken.

    PubMed

    Chrzastek, K; Piasecki, T; Wieliczko, A

    2013-01-01

    TLR stimulation in chickens has been shown to play a role in the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of this study was to use flow cytometry to establish the percentage of T and B subset in blood and lymphoid organs in chicks after CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) stimulation. It was demonstrated that the percentages of CD3+, CD4+, TCRgamma delta+ cells and Bu-1+MHC class II+ cells in blood 24 h post-injection were significantly higher than in the control groups. It was also shown that the percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ cells in the spleen at 48 h post-injection were significantly higher than in control groups. The percentage of Bu-1+ cells in the bursa of Fabricius after CpG ODN stimulation (98.38 +/- 0.84) was significantly higher than that found in the non-CpG ODN control group (94.54 +/- 2.51) (p < or = 0.05). The results indicate that class B CpG ODN increases the percentage of both T (especially CD4+ cells) and B cells. PMID:24195291

  16. An annotated catalogue of the types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, with brief historical notes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Vårdal, Hege

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 72 types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) belonging to 53 species and subspecies housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History is given. The lectotypes of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845 and Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845 are designated. The previous lectotype of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845 is set aside. Five new synonymies are proposed: Chrysis elegans var. smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 (currently Chrysis elegans ssp. interrogata Linsenmaier, 1959 repl. name for smaragdula Trautmann, nec Fabricius, 1775), syn. n. of Chrysis confluens (Dahlbom, 1845); Chrysis eximia Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis poecila Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis separata Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845; Chrysis sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877, syn. n. of Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845. Chrysis serena Radoszkowski, 1891 is the first available name for Chrysis pyrrhina sensu auctorum. Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845 is revaluated as valid species. The neotype of Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845 is designated in the Linsenmaier collection (NMLS). Illustrations of 34 types are given. PMID:25901123

  17. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  18. Host finding of the pigeon tick Argas reflexus.

    PubMed

    Boxler, B; Odermatt, P; Haag-Wackernagel, D

    2016-06-01

    The medically and veterinary important feral pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Ixodida: Argasidae) Fabricius usually feeds on pigeons, but if its natural hosts are not available, it also enters dwellings to bite humans that can possibly react with severe allergic reactions. Argas reflexus is ecologically extremely successful as a result of some outstanding morphological, physiological, and ethological features. Yet, it is still unknown how the pigeon tick finds its hosts. Here, different host stimuli such as living nestlings as well as begging calls, body heat, smell, host breath and tick faeces, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Of all stimuli tested, only heat played a role in host-finding. The heat stimulus was then tested under natural conditions within a pigeon loft. The results showed that A. reflexus is able to find a host over short distances of only a few centimetres. Furthermore, it finds its host by random movements and recognizes a host only right before direct contact is made. The findings are useful for the control of A. reflexus in infested apartments, both to diagnose an infestation and to perform a success monitoring after disinfestation. PMID:26959079

  19. Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutinda, W. U.; Njagi, L. W.; Nyaga, P. N.; Bebora, L. C.; Mbuthia, P. G.; Kemboi, D.; Githinji, J. W. K.; Muriuki, A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates were recovered from outbreaks to initiate activities towards developing a local vaccine strain. Use of indigenous chicken embryos was exploited to determine their potential, promote utilization of local resources for research, and enhance household economic activities. Bursa of Fabricius (BFs) samples from outbreaks shown to be IBDV positive was homogenized and inoculated in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) IBDV seronegative white leghorn chicks. The harvested virus was inoculated into 11-day-old indigenous chicken embryos that were IBDV seronegative and passaged serially three times after which they were inoculated into 4-week-old indigenous chicks to test for presence and virulence of propagated virus. Out of 153 BFs collected from outbreaks, 43.8% (67/153) were positive for IBDV antigen and 65.7% (44/67) caused disease in SPF chicks. The embryo mean mortalities were 88% on primary inoculation, 94% in 1st passage, 91% in 2nd passage, and 67% in 3rd passage. After the third passage in embryos all the 44 isolates were virulent in 4-week-old indigenous chicks. The results show that indigenous chicken embryos support growth of IBDV and can be used to propagate the virus as an alternative viral propagating tool for respective vaccine preparation. PMID:27347520

  20. Delving Deeper into the Solar Dynamo Mechanism: Alpha Effect, Parity Selection and Large Scale Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D.

    2003-05-01

    Visible manifestations of the 22 year solar magnetic cycle have been the subject of study spanning centuries starting with the telescopic observations of sunspots by Johann Fabricius, Christoph Scheiner and Galileo Galilei in the early 1600s. Coupled with these observations of magnetic features on the solar surface, the advent of the field of helioseismology in recent years has made it possible to map large scale flows in the solar interior - believed to play a crucial role in sustaining the solar cycle. However, a complete understanding of the hydromagnetic dynamo mechanism that powers this solar cycle remains elusive. Here we report studies of the solar dynamo addressing some of the important unresolved questions regarding the nature and location of the alpha effect, solar magnetic parity selection and the role of large scale flows and their variation, with a goal to understand the exact means by which the Sun generates its magnetic cycle. This study was supported by NASA through SR&T grant NAG5-6110.

  1. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel. PMID:27031500

  2. Sonic hedgehog controls enteric nervous system development by patterning the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nandor; Barad, Csilla; Graham, Hannah K; Hotta, Ryo; Cheng, Lily S; Fejszak, Nora; Goldstein, Allan M

    2016-01-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) develops from neural crest cells that migrate along the intestine, differentiate into neurons and glia, and pattern into two plexuses within the gut wall. Inductive interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme regulate gut development, but the influence of these interactions on ENS development is unknown. Epithelial-mesenchymal recombinations were constructed using avian hindgut mesenchyme and non-intestinal epithelium from the bursa of Fabricius. These recombinations led to abnormally large and ectopically positioned ganglia. We hypothesized that sonic hedgehog (Shh), a secreted intestinal epithelial protein not expressed in the bursa, mediates this effect. Inhibition of Shh signaling, by addition of cyclopamine or a function-blocking antibody, resulted in large, ectopic ganglia adjacent to the epithelium. Shh overexpression, achieved in ovo using Shh-encoding retrovirus and in organ culture using recombinant protein, led to intestinal aganglionosis. Shh strongly induced the expression of versican and collagen type IX, whereas cyclopamine reduced expression of these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are known to be inhibitory to neural crest cell migration. Shh also inhibited enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) proliferation, promoted neuronal differentiation, and reduced expression of Gdnf, a key regulator of ENS formation. Ptc1 and Ptc2 were not expressed by ENCCs, and migration of isolated ENCCs was not inhibited by Shh protein. These results suggest that epithelial-derived Shh acts indirectly on the developing ENS by regulating the composition of the intestinal microenvironment. PMID:26674309

  3. Development of 10 microsatellite markers from Pantala flavescens and their applicability in studying genetics diversity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lingzhen; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Kongming

    2015-08-01

    Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) is one of the most common species among migration dragonflies. It is often encountered in large swarms during migration or directed dispersal flights. For a better understanding of its gene flow, genetic structure and migration patterns throughout the world, 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated in this study. We respectively collected 32 P. flavescens from three places (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang) and 20 P. flavescens from Beijing. Partial genomic libraries containing microsatellite sequences were constructed with magnetic-bead enrichment method. By screening, sequence analysis, PCR amplification and so on, ten 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. In order to assess their applicability, genetic diversity of these novel markers was tested in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang). These markers were highly polymorphic, with 3-12 alleles per markers. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged 0.321-0.667 and from 0.531 to 0.948 respectively. The genetic difference between Hunan and Liaoning is 0.429, while the genetic difference between Liaoning and Heilongjiang is 0.0508. These microsatellite markers for P. flavescens were developed for the first time, and will be a powerful tool for studying population genetic diversity and dispersal behavior of P. flavescens in China and worldwide. PMID:25788247

  4. Circulation and in vivo distribution of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 in infected ducklings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao-Li; Cong, Ri-Chao; Zhang, Rui-Hua; Chen, Jun-Hao; Xia, Lin-Lin; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin

    2016-02-01

    The circulation of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) in Southeast Asia has resulted in a continuously changing epidemiological scenario. In this study, a duplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous quantitative detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 was established, and 200 liver samples from dead ducklings collected from 31 different flocks in Shandong province, China, were tested. Fifty-eight (29.0 %) samples from 13 flocks were positive for DHAV-1 single infection, 113 (56.5 %) samples from 13 other flocks were positive for DHAV-3 single infection, and 24 samples (12.0 %) from four flocks were positive for both viruses. DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected with high viral loads in all of the organs tested (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and brain). No significant difference in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viral loads was found between singly infected and coinfected samples, and there was no correlation between the viral loads of the two viruses and the age of dead ducklings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the in vivo distribution of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in clinically infected ducklings. PMID:26597185

  5. Natural history of the Neotropical arboreal ant, Odontomachus hastatus: nest sites, foraging schedule, and diet.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rafael X; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of most arboreal ants remains poorly documented because of the difficulty in accessing ant nests and foragers in the forest canopy. This study documents the nesting and foraging ecology of a large (∼13 mm total length) arboreal trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus hastatus (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a sandy plain forest on Cardoso Island, off the coast of Southeast Brazil. The results showed that O. hastatus nested in root clusters of epiphytic bromeliads, most commonly Vriesea procera (70% of nest plants). Mature O. hastatus colonies include one to several queens and about 500 workers. Foraging by O. hastatus is primarily nocturnal year-round, with increased foraging activity during the wet/warm season. The foragers hunt singly in the trees, preying on a variety of canopy-dwelling arthropods, with flies, moths, ants, and spiders accounting for > 60% of the prey captured. Although predators often have impacts on prey populations, the ecological importance of O. hastatus remains to be studied. PMID:22957686

  6. Description of the third instar of Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) Coleoptera: Paelobiidae), with a key for the identification of mature larvae of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Michat, Mariano C; Alarie, Yves; Hendrich, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The mature larva of the squeak beetle Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) (Paelobiidae) is studied for the first time based on detailed descriptions and illustrations of selected structures, with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key for the identification of mature larvae of four of the six species of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 known worldwide is presented. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are analyzed based on a cladistic analysis of a combined data set including larval and adult characters. Hygrobia nigra shares with the other known species of the genus several larval apomorphies including the presence of paramedian lip-like lobes on the epipharynx, a well-developed gula, gills on thoracic and first three abdominal sterna, and the maxillary stipites inserted into submental pouches, and is unique in the presence of a larger number of secondary setae on the metacoxa. The presence of a compact group of minute sensilla in the place where the galea is commonly located suggests that members of Hygrobia lost the galea, a condition independently evolved in some dytiscid lineages. The Australian species form a well-supported clade characterized by the presence of a short nasale, fewer natatory setae on the metatibia, and a marked shortening of the antennal sensorial appendage and the last abdominal segment. However, no larval characters were discovered to resolve relationships within that clade. The Palearctic H. hermanni (Fabricius, 1775) lacks a distinct nasale and is resolved as sister to the clade formed by the Australian species. PMID:25081162

  7. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function. PMID:26123162

  8. A review of the Anomaloninae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Anomaloninae) from the Ukrainian Carpathians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Ukrainian Anomaloninae fauna is relatively poorly known. The presence of large under-collected areas, such as the Carpathians, makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning these parasitoids from Ukraine urgently relevant. New information Based on our ongoing surveys on the Anomaloninae of the Ukrainian Carpathians, we report here the new distribution records for some species. In total 24 Anomaloninae species, belonging to 8 genera (Anomalon Panzer, 1804, Agrypon Förster, 1868, Aphanistes Förster, 1868, Barylypa Förster, 1868, Heteropelma Wesmael, 1849, Perisphincter Townes, 1961, Therion Curtis, 1829, and Trichomma Wesmael, 1849), were recorded from the studied region for the first time. Nine species, Agrypon batis Ratzeburg, 1955, A. scutellatum Hellén, 1926, Aphanistes gliscens Hartig, 1838, A. klugii Hartig, 1838, Heteropelma amictum Fabricius, 1775, Perisphincter gracilicornis Schnee, 1978, Therion giganteum Gravenhorst, 1829, Trichomma fulvidens Wesmael, 1849 and T. occisor Habermehl, 1909 were recorded for the first time in Ukraine. Seasonal dynamics and high-altitude zone of Anomaloninae species' distribution are discussed. PMID:26752968

  9. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sally V; Burrack, Hannah J; Roe, R Michael; Bacheler, Jack S; Sorenson, Clyde E

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  10. Ultramorphological characteristics of mature larvae of Nitidula carnaria (Schaller 1783) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), a beetle species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Ortloff, Alexander; Zanetti, Noelia; Centeno, Néstor; Silva, Ricardo; Bustamante, Felipe; Olave, Alvaro

    2014-06-01

    Beetles of the genus Nitidula Fabricius are forensically important, and their adults and larvae have been found associated with human corpses and animal carcasses in many places of the world. The external morphology of the larvae of Nitidula carnaria (Schaller 1783) was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to provide a description enabling identification of this forensically important species. The ultrastructure of the head was examined, antennae, mandibles, epipharynx, maxillary and labial palpi, spiracles, thorax, legs, and abdominal segments (especially segments 9 and 10); the tegument was also emphasised in this examination. Several types of sensilla were observed on the maxillary and labial palpi, including sensilla basiconica, sensilla styloconica, and perhaps a different type of sensilla digitiformia. In abdominal segment 10, a sensilla campaniformia was observed. Two types of plates were noticed in the abdominal tegument. The characteristics described here can be used to identify this species. No other study of the ultrastructure of Nitidulidae larvae is available for comparison. This is the first report of N. carnaria in carcasses in Chile. PMID:24731703

  11. [Nazi Terror against the Danish Medical Profession. The February 20, 1945 Murders in Odense].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Hess, Søren; Skytthe, Axel; Stræde, Therkel

    2015-01-01

    On February 20, 1945, during the German occupation of Denmark, members of a notorious Nazi terror organization named the Petergroup murdered four young medical doctors at the city and regional hospital of Odense. On the 70th anniversary of the crime, a symposium was organized at the Odense University Hospital, and a monument revealed close to the site of the murders in commemoration of the four victims of the crime. The young physicians were not known to be connected with the Danish resistance, and they were shot without their murderers even knowing their identities in an attempt to revenge the growing resistance in Denmark's central, third largest city, and as a reprisal for several cases where the hospital had treated wounded resistance fighters, and prevented their being handed over to the German police. The article describes the terror action of February 20, 1945 and its perpetrators, as well as other Nazi attacks on members of the Danish medical profession. It lines out the strong protest voiced by the Danish central administration against the Odense hospital killings which were on the very same day seconded by further killings and a German campaign of blowing up important Odense buildings including two newspaper printing houses. Conclusively, the authors - by way of obituaries and material from relatives of the murdered - portray the four victims of the atrocity Christian Fabricius Møller, Jørgen Hvalkof, Henning Magnus Adelsteen Dalsgaard, and Henning Ørsberg. PMID:27086451

  12. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  13. Parasitism by the endoparasitoid, Cotesia flavipes induces cellular immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A M A; De Luna-Santillana, E J; Rodríguez-Perez, M A

    2011-01-01

    Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The aim of this research was to analyze cellular immunosuppression of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes in terms of encapsulation, melanization, and hemocyte nodule formation. The encapsulation assay was done 1 and 6 days after parasitoid oviposition. In addition, the susceptibility of parasitized and nonparasitzed larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 strain was assessed. 3, 12, and 24 h after bead injection; the percentages of encapsulation were significantly higher in unparasitized larvae compared to larvae parasitized 1 and 6 days after oviposition. Interestingly, there was a significant reduction in numbers of beads encapsulated at 1 day after oviposition compared to 6 days, and unparasitized larvae. The percentage of melanized beads decreased significantly in parasitized larvae compared to control. There was a reduction in the number of nodules in parasitized larvae compared to unparasitized controls. Larvae that were injected with polyndavirus 24 h before beads were injected showed significantly reduced encapsulation responses relative to control larvae. The D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes exhibited higher susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that parasitization induced host immunosuppression, and the immunosuppression factors could impair the defense capacity against microbial pathogens--causing an increase in pathogen susceptibility. PMID:22225507

  14. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27570812

  15. Embryotoxicity assay of aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999.

    PubMed

    Celik, I; Oğuz, H; Demet, O; Boydak, M; Dönmez, H H; Sur, E; Nizamlioğlu, F

    2000-09-01

    1. The embryotoxicity of mixed aflatoxins (AF) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were evaluated by a modified chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). Adverse effects on the early embryonic development of thymus and bursa of Fabricius were also investigated by light microscopy. AF consisted of 83.06% AFB1, 12.98% AFB2, 2.84% AFG1 and 1.12% AFG2. 2. A total of 448 fertilised laying hens' eggs were used. AF and AFB1 were injected into the eggs at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 ng/egg. Embryonic developmental stages were evaluated according to the Hamburger-Hamilton scale (HH-scale). 3. The results showed that AFB1 given at 10 ng/egg had a significantly (P<0.05) greater embryotoxic effect than AF given at a similar dose. The higher doses of both AF and AFB1 caused higher embryonic mortality and also an increase in early deaths. 4. In the groups receiving 100 ng/egg AF and AFB1 an abnormal development was seen, with a protruded central region, corresponding to the area pellucida of the blastoderm. No other developmental abnormality attributable to AF or AFB1 was found. PMID:11128380

  16. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  17. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  18. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Negatively Affect a Generalist Herbivore Feeding on the Chemically Protected Legume Crotalaria pallida.

    PubMed

    Cogni, R; Trigo, J R

    2016-06-01

    Plant secondary metabolites can have opposing effects on adapted specialist and non-adapted, generalist herbivores. In this study, we used Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a generalist, non-adapted model herbivore to test the possible effects of Crotalaria pallida (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) defenses on herbivore performance. Neonate H. virescens larvae were able to consume C. pallida leaves and fruits and grow for a few instars, but none of them survived to pupation. We added isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations, and PA concentration significantly affected the number of larvae that achieved pupation. Larval survival was not reduced at a PA concentration similar to the concentration on green seeds of C. pallida, but it was significantly reduced at PA concentration 5 and 100 times higher. These results suggest that PAs in isolation are not the defense responsible for the mortality in fresh C. pallida plants, indicating the importance of other possible defenses. The negative effect of PAs on fitness of the non-adapted, generalist herbivore is in agreement with few previous studies, but it is in clear contrast to a previous study on the effects of PAs on the adapted specialist herbivore Utetheisa ornatrix (L.) that were able to sequester PAs with no fitness costs. PMID:26830432

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carlsberg Meridian Catalog, Vol. 7 (CMC7, 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen University Observatory; Royal Greenwich Observatory

    1995-11-01

    The Carlsberg Meridian Catalogues give accurate positions, proper motions and magnitudes of stars north of declination -45deg and down to 15th magnitude. They also contain observations of the solar system objects: Mars, Callisto, Saturn, Titan, Iapetus, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and many minor planets. Typical mean errors for an entry are 0.1arcsec in position, 3mas/yr in proper motion, and 0.05mag in magnitude. The stars observed belong to a large number of observing programmes typically dealing with the reference frame or with galactic kinematics. The Carlsberg Automatic Meridian Circle on La Palma is operated by Copenhagen University Observatory, Royal Greenwich Observatory, and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada at the Observatory del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. For a detailed introduction, please refer to the printed catalogue. A description of the programme may also be found in the 1993 paper by Fabricius (=1993BICDS..42....5F), from which the present description is derived. Originally the CMC7 was planned to contain only observations from 1991. The actual CMC7 comprises nearly 20 month (January 1991 to August 1992) and is thus more extensive than foreseen when a description was published in Bull. CDS (=1993BICDS..42....5F) Published by Copenhagen University Observatory, Royal Greenwich Observatory and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada en San Fernando. 1993. (5 data files).

  20. A new species of Lepidocyrtus (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from the Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The genus Lepidocyrtus was previously represented by 17 species in Hungary, including four species with locus typicus in this country. Opportunistic sampling in mid-mountain grassland and forest habitats resulted in records of several species from the L. lignorum group and allowed to describe the new species L. traseri sp. nov. The L. lignorum group, established and named after the eponymic species, is composed by a total of 11 species. The main characteristics shared by every species in this group are the dorsal body macrochaetotaxy R0R1R2/00/0101+3 and the presence of scales on the antennae and legs. The new species is close to L. lignorum (Fabricius, 1793) and L. violaceus (Geoffroy, 1762) but differs from them by the color pattern, number of interocular scales, type of labral papillae and the number of inner setae on the manubrial plate. An identification key is given for differentiating all species of this group. PMID:27615681