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1

Preservation of Cocoa Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, Flavan3-ols, and Procyanidin Content in Foods Prepared with Cocoa Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activ- ity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxi- dant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in

L. Stahl; K. B. Miller; J. Apgar; D. S. Sweigart; D. A. Stuart; N. McHale; B. Ou; M. Kondo; W. J. Hurst

2009-01-01

2

Sensory analysis of polystyrene packaging material taint in cocoa powder for drinks and chocolate flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polystyrene packaging material taint was sensorily evaluated in cocoa powder for drinks and chocolate flakes using short?cut signal detection measures on differences between control and test samples and on recognition of styrene. No differences were observed in cocoa powder for drinks and plain chocolate flakes treated with 0.5 dm polystyrene of 1 mm thickness. However, differences were detected in milk

J. P. H. Linssen; J. L. G. M. Janssens; J. C. E. Reitsma; J. P. Roozen

1991-01-01

3

Evaluation of purine alkaloids and diketopiperazines contents in processed cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaluation of purine alkaloids and diketopiperazines (DKPs) contents in 24 samples of processed\\u000a non-alkalinized cocoa powder. The chemical data obtained were related to sensory evaluation and subjected to analysis of variance.\\u000a During cocoa roasting, the content of DKPs can be increased, resulting in a negative influence on the sensorial quality of\\u000a cocoa. A pronounced bitter metallic

J. Serra Bonvehí; F. Ventura Coll

2000-01-01

4

Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.  

PubMed

Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample. PMID:16848541

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2006-07-26

5

Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. PMID:19723182

Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

2009-08-01

6

Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell.  

PubMed

Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (100-150 degrees C; 30-120 min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their contents of free L-and D-amino acids. Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid 2-propyl esters which were analyzed by enantioselective gas chromatography mass spectrometry on a Chirasil-L-Val capillary column. Besides common protein L-amino acids low amounts of D-amino acids were detected in fermented cocoa beans. Quantities of D-amino acids increased on heating. On roasting cocoa beans of the Forastero type from the Ivory Coast at 150 degrees C for 2 h, relative quantities of D-amino acids approached 17.0% D-Ala, 11.7% D-Ile, 11.1% D-Asx (Asp + Asn), 7.9% D-Tyr, 5.8% D-Ser, 4.8% D-Leu, 4.3% D-Phe, 37.0% D-Pro, and 1.2% D-Val. In cocoa powder and chocolate relative quantities amounted to 14.5% D-Ala, 10.6% D-Tyr, 9.8% D-Phe, 8.1% L-Asx, and 7.2% D-Ile. Lower quantities of other D-amino acids were also detected. In order to corroborate our hypothesis that D-amino acids are generated from Amadori compounds (fructose amino acids) formed in the course of the Maillard reaction, fructose-L-phenylalanine and fructose-D-phenylalanine were synthesized and heated at 200 degrees C for 5-60 min. Already after 5 min release of 11.7% D-Phe and 11.8% L-Phe in the free form could be analyzed. Based on the data a racemization mechanism is presented founded on the intermediate and reversible formation of an amino acid carbanion in the Amadori compounds. PMID:16733618

Pätzold, R; Brückner, H

2006-07-01

7

Potential complementarity of high-flavanol cocoa powder and spirulina for health protection.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa powder provokes increased endothelial production of nitric oxide - an effect likely mediated by epicatchin - and thus may have considerable potential for promoting vascular health. The Kuna Indians of Panama, who regularly consume large amounts of flavanol-rich cocoa, are virtually free of hypertension and stroke, even though they salt their food. Of potentially complementary merit is the cyanobacterium spirulina, which has been used as a food in certain cultures. Spirulina is exceptionally rich in phycocyanobilin (PCB), which recently has been shown to act as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase; this effect likely rationalizes the broad range of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anti-atherosclerotic effects which orally administered spirulina has achieved in rodent studies. In light of the central pathogenic role which NADPH oxidase-derived oxidant stress plays in a vast range of disorders, spirulina or PCB-enriched spirulina extracts may have remarkable potential for preserving and restoring health. Joint administration of flavanol-rich cocoa powder and spirulina may have particular merit, inasmuch as cocoa can mask the somewhat disagreeable flavor and odor of spirulina, whereas the antioxidant impact of spirulina could be expected to amplify the bioactivity of the nitric oxide evoked by cocoa flavanols in inflamed endothelium. Moreover, there is reason to suspect that, by optimizing cerebrovascular perfusion while quelling cerebral oxidant stress, cocoa powder and spirulina could collaborate in prevention of senile dementia. Thus, food products featuring ample amounts of both high-flavanol cocoa powder and spirulina may have considerable potential for health promotion, and merit evaluation in rodent studies and clinical trials. PMID:19577379

McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

2010-02-01

8

Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg\\/kg per d between

Jean-François Bisson; Amine Nejdi; Pascale Rozan; Sophie Hidalgo; Robert Lalonde; Michaël Messaoudi

2008-01-01

9

Extraction and characterization of antioxidant from cocoa by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative properties of extracts from six types of cocoa by-products have been studied. Seven different solvents differing in polarity were used to extract the antioxidants from cocoa by-products. Out of 42 different extracts tested, twelve extracts from cocoa powder, natural cocoa powder, cocoa nib and cocoa shell exhibited strong antioxidant activities using a diene conjugation formation method. The characterization studies

A. H Azizah; N. M Nik Ruslawati; T Swee Tee

1999-01-01

10

Phase behavior and extended phase scheme of static cocoa butter investigated with real-time X-ray powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete isothermal phase-transition scheme of cocoa butter under static conditions is presented, based on time-resolved\\u000a X-ray powder diffraction experiments. In contrast to what is known from literature, not only ? V, but also ? VI can be obtained\\u000a directly through transformation from ??. Another remarkable result is that ?? exists as a phase range rather than as two separate

Kees van Malssen; Arjen van Langevelde; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

1999-01-01

11

Application and validation of a clean-up tandem assay column for screening ochratoxin A in cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid antibody-based assay for the detection of ochratoxin A in cocoa powder is described, involving sequential clean-up and visual detection of the toxin (“clean-up tandem assay column”). The screening test was developed to have a cut-off level of 2?µg?kg and was shown to have false positive and false negative rates of 10 and 2%, respectively. Analysis of six samples

Marieke Lobeau; Sarah De Saeger; Liberty Sibanda; Ildiko Barna-Vetró; Carlos Van Peteghem

2007-01-01

12

Flavan-3-ol fraction from cocoa powder promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous clinical studies have reported that ingestion of chocolate has reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we evaluated the influence of flavan-3-ols derived from cocoa powder on energy metabolism in mice using an indirect calorimetric method. Method The mice were divided into two groups, and administered either distilled water or 50 mg/kg of flavan-3-ol fraction for 2 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed after blood pressure and the mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) over 24 hours were measured. Results The mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) over 24 hours was reduced significantly in the flavan-3-ols group. The mean blood pressure was significantly decreased in flavan-3-ols treatment group compared with control group. The protein level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) was increased significantly by flavan-3-ols in skeletal muscle, but not in liver. Uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 was increased significantly in brown adipose tissue by flavan-3-ols. The mitochondria copy number in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and brown adipose tissue were increased significantly by administration of flavan-3-ol fraction. Conclusion These results suggest that flavan-3-ols enhances lipolysis and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. We conclude that improvement of metabolic syndrome risk factors following ingestion of chocolate may be induced, in part, by the mitochondrial biogenesis-promoting effect of flavan-3-ols.

2014-01-01

13

Polyphenols in cocoa and cocoa products: is there a link between antioxidant properties and health?  

PubMed

Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary) could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components. PMID:18830150

Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

2008-01-01

14

Cocoa and human health.  

PubMed

Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies. PMID:23642199

Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

2013-01-01

15

Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.  

PubMed

Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH. PMID:18158832

Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

2007-12-01

16

Structural characteristics of cocoa particles and their effect on the viscosity of reduced fat chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at the manufacture of reduced fat chocolates, a novel method of trapped fat reduction was assessed: Manipulation of the cocoa ingredient. Cocoa mass was replaced with cocoa powder (11 g\\/100 g or

T.-A. L. Do; J. Vieira; J. M. Hargreaves; J. R. Mitchell; B. Wolf

2011-01-01

17

Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day. PMID:18158833

Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

2007-12-01

18

Protective effect of Acticoa powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on prostate carcinogenesis in Wistar-Unilever rats.  

PubMed

The effects of Acticoa powder on prostate carcinogenesis were investigated using the N-methylnitrosourea and testosterone propionate prostate tumor model. Sixty male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 15 rats: one control group not induced but treated with vehicle (not induced+vehicle) and three chemo-induced groups. Two weeks before prostate tumor induction and then throughout the experiment, chemo-induced rats were orally treated with Acticoa powder at 24 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24) or 48 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48) mg/kg or with vehicle (chemo-induced+vehicle), daily from Monday to Friday. Survival, body weight, food and water consumption were recorded throughout the experiment. Six rats per group were randomly killed 9 months after the prostate tumor induction for histopathological analysis of prostates. A reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated group in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group and no tumors were observed in the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group as in the not induced+vehicle-treated group after 9 months. The nine remaining rats per group were maintained in a long-term survival study. The life span of the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group was significantly increased in comparison with the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48 and the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated groups, close to the one of the not induced+vehicle-treated group. A significant reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was also observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24 and chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated groups in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, Acticoa powder at 24 mg/kg protected rats from prostate carcinogenesis when chronically given before the initiation and promotion phases of induction. PMID:18090911

Bisson, Jean-François; Guardia-Llorens, Maria-Alba; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

2008-02-01

19

6.NS Making Hot Cocoa, Variation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One mug of hot chocolate uses $\\frac23$ cup of cocoa powder. How many mugs can Nelli make with 3 cups of cocoa powder? Solve the problem by drawing a p...

20

Stability of cocoa antioxidants and flavan-3-ols over time.  

PubMed

Several recent reports have been published indicating that the antioxidant activity of olive oil and tea leaves is not stable over product shelf lives of about one year. We have measured the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols monomers, and procyanidin levels in milk and dark chocolate, in cocoa powder, and in cocoa beans. Results show that for the cocoa products studied, antioxidant activity, and flavan-3-ol levels are stable over typical shelf lives of one year under controlled storage and over 2 years in ambient storage in the laboratory. We also show that 80 year old cocoa powder and 116 year old cocoa beans still show very high levels of antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content. PMID:20560624

Hurst, W Jeffrey; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

2009-10-28

21

Cocoa and cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to cocoa, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption. PMID:19289648

Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

2009-03-17

22

Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. PMID:21925035

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

2011-12-01

23

(-)-Catechin in cocoa and chocolate: occurrence and analysis of an atypical flavan-3-ol enantiomer.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE) was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol x L(-1) borate buffer (pH 8.5) with 12 mmol x L(-1) (2-hydroxypropyl)-gamma-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 microm I.D.), +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20 degrees C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin in unfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (-)-catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (-)-epicatechin to its epimer (-)-catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products. PMID:17909484

Kofink, Michael; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Galensa, Rudolf

2007-01-01

24

Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential.  

PubMed

Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is enriched with nutraceutical abundance of anti-asthmatic compounds theobromine and theophylline. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Anecdotal reports indicate that regular consumption of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), a common practice in Ghana, West Africa, has the potential to reduce the tendency of asthmatic episodes. In the present paper we studied the effect of regular ingestion of aqueous extract of UNCP on hematological and histopathological changes that occur in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized OVA 1 hour after ingestion of 300 mg/kg (low dose) or 600 mg/kg (high dose) of UNCP for 35 consecutive days. Histopathological and haematological changes in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. Both negative and positive controls with distilled water and prednisolone, respectively, were used. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated concentration-independent reduction in immune response to aerosolized OVA. There were no histo-architectural changes in the bronchiolar smooth muscles of the treated groups. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has potential anti-asthmatic properties when administered orally at the doses tested. PMID:25004832

Awortwe, C; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Nkansah, E; Adjei, S

2014-01-01

25

Semiquantitative determination of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in cocoa products using the Soleris NF-TVC method.  

PubMed

The Soleris Non-fermenting Total Viable Count method was previously validated for a wide variety of food products, including cocoa powder. A matrix extension study was conducted to validate the method for use with cocoa butter and cocoa liquor. Test samples included naturally contaminated cocoa liquor and cocoa butter inoculated with natural microbial flora derived from cocoa liquor. A probability of detection statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using the AOAC Official Method 966.23 dilution plating method. Results of the two methods were not statistically different at any dilution level in any of the three trials conducted. The Soleris method offers the advantage of results within 24 h, compared to the 48 h required by standard dilution plating methods. PMID:24672871

Montei, Carolyn; McDougal, Susan; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

2014-01-01

26

77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach...in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2012-08-20

27

Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.  

PubMed

Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa. PMID:23564311

Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

2013-08-01

28

Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.  

PubMed

Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, no ?-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. PMID:23107706

Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

2012-09-15

29

Polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely by x-ray diffraction six crystalline states, I–VI, in order of increasing melting point, have been identified for\\u000a cocoa butter. Of these states II, IV, V and VI are pure and identifiable with previously (or presently) identified polymorphs\\u000a of 2-oleoylpalmitoyl stearin (POS), namely?-2,??-2,?-3 (“V”) and?-3 (“VI”); V and VI representing distinct but very closely related crystalline structures. State I is

R. L. Wille; E. S. Lutton

1966-01-01

30

Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.  

PubMed

In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)). PMID:21623500

Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

2011-06-01

31

World Cocoa Situation, October 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for the October-September 1992/93 marketing year is forecast at 2.35 million tons, 4 percent greater than a year earlier, but 7 percent below the record 1990/91 harvest of 2.53 million. Low world cocoa prices have discouraged g...

1992-01-01

32

Cocoa at the Visual Programming Challenge 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a visual programming language for children. Cocoa attended the Visual Programming Challenge '97 for two reasons: to show that a fairly complex task could be implemented in Cocoa, and to test Cocoa's third-party extensions mechanism. The challenge was to navigate a Lego robot over an arbitrary track of Lego street tiles, and to create a map of the

Nikolaus Heger; Allen Cypher; David Canfield Smith

1998-01-01

33

Daily cocoa intake reduces the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation as demonstrated in healthy human volunteers.  

PubMed

Nine male volunteers were given 36 g of cocoa powder (containing 2610 mg of polyphenols) per day with sugar and 6 volunteers received an equivalent amount of sugar for 2 weeks. Conjugated diene production in LDL induced by 2-2' azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (V-70) and copper ion were evaluated. The lag time was significantly prolonged at 1 and 2 weeks in V-70 and at 2 weeks in copper ion after cocoa powder consumption. The level of excretion of epicatechin in urine was significantly higher in the cocoa group than that in the control group. In conclusion, the antioxidants in cocoa powder might be absorbed and increase the resistance of human LDL to oxidation. PMID:11235000

Osakabe, N; Baba, S; Yasuda, A; Iwamoto, T; Kamiyama, M; Takizawa, T; Itakura, H; Kondo, K

2001-01-01

34

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng\\/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of

Charley W. Rankin; Jerome O. Nriagu; Jugdeep K. Aggarwal; Toyin A. Arowolo; Kola Adebayo; A. Russell Flegal

2005-01-01

35

Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. PMID:24667314

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

2014-05-16

36

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs...Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition...

2013-04-01

37

21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and Drugs...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the...

2013-04-01

38

Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT.

Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

2013-01-01

39

Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.  

PubMed

This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of chocolate products. Hot cocoa provides 62 mg/serving of theobromine and 4 mg/serving of caffeine when prepared from commercial instant mixes. Instant cold chocolate milk mixes supply an average of 58 mg/serving of theobromine and 5 mg/serving of caffeine. The methylxanthine content of chocolate foods has received only slight attention in the literature. The methylxanthine content of sweet chocolate ranges from 0.359 to 0.628% for theobromine and 0.017 to 0.125% for caffeine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6396642

Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

1984-01-01

40

World Cocoa Situation, March 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean stocks for 1992/93 are expected to fall 115,000 tons, following a reduction of 63,000 tons a year earlier. Global carryover stocks still remain at near-record levels, following 7 consecutive years of stock increases during 1984/85 through...

R. E. T. Dull

1993-01-01

41

Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion.  

PubMed

Foods and beverages rich in flavonoids are being heralded as potential preventive agents for a range of pathologic conditions, ranging from hypertension to coronary heart disease to stroke and dementia. We and others have demonstrated that short-term ingestion of cocoa, particularly rich in the subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, induced a consistent and striking peripheral vasodilation in healthy people, improving endothelial function in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. The vasodilator response was reversed by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an arginine analog that blocks nitric oxide synthesis. Flavanol-poor cocoa induced much smaller responses. Because impairment of endothelial function is a nearly universal accompaniment of the aging process, we examined the peripheral vasodilator response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy older subjects. Observations point to a favorable response among the older. Together with peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease is responsible for significant mortality with advancing age. An association of decreased cerebral perfusion with dementia has been recently highlighted. The prospect of increasing cerebral perfusion with cocoa flavanols is extremely promising. Our still preliminary data hold out the promise that the cerebral blood supply in the elderly participates in the vasodilator response. With the modalities of transcranial Doppler and MRI, we have the capabilities of analyzing the potential benefits of flavanols on brain perfusion and, subsequently, on cognition. PMID:16794460

Fisher, Naomi D L; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Hollenberg, Norman K

2006-01-01

42

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds.

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

43

Beneficial effects of cocoa on lipid peroxidation and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients and investigation of probable interactions of cocoa active ingredients with prostaglandin synthase-2 (PTGS-2/COX-2) using virtual analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Altered glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, lipid levels and inflammatory markers are important risk factors in diabetes, cardiovascular, and many other diseases. Cocoa has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study is twofold: to assess the effect of Cocoa on the lipid profile and peroxidation in addition to the inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients, and to represent a virtual model of probable action mechanism of observed clinical effects of Cocoa consumption using in silico analysis and bioinformatics data. Methods One hundred subjects with type 2 diabetes were included in a randomized clinical control trial. Fifty treatment subjects received 10 grams cocoa powder and 10 grams milk powder dissolved in 250?ml of boiling water, and the other fifty control subjects received only 10 grams milk powder dissolved in 250?ml boiling water. Both groups were on the mentioned regimen twice daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained prior to Cocoa consumption and 6 weeks after intervention. Serum lipids and lipoproteins profile, malondialdehyde and inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. For statistical analysis two independent and paired samples t-test and linear regression were used. Bioinformatics and virtual analysis were performed using string data base and Molegro virtual software. Results Cocoa consumption lowered blood cholesterol,triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and TNF-?, hs-CRP, IL-6 significantly (P?Cocoa inhibited lipid peroxidation in treatment group than control group (P?Cocoa ingredients, (+)-Catechin and (?)-Epicatechin, can dock to the enzyme COX-2. Conclusion These data support the beneficial effect of Cocoa on the lipid peroxidation prevention and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients. Cocoa ingredients block the Cox-2 activation and reduce inflammatory prostanoids synthesis according to virtual analysis.

2014-01-01

44

Drying with Chemical Reaction in Cocoa Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable flavor qualities of cocoa are dependent on how the cocoa beans are fermented, dried, and roasted. During fermentation and drying, polyphenols such as leucocyanidin and apecatechin are oxidized by polyphenols oxidase to form o-quinone, which later react nonenzymatically with a hydroquinone in a condensation reaction to form browning products and moisture. The objective of this article is to model

Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Meor Zainal Meor Talib; Tin Mar Kyi

2007-01-01

45

Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.  

PubMed

The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function. PMID:22684995

Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

2012-08-01

46

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

PubMed Central

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

2005-01-01

47

Cocoa and health: a decade of research.  

PubMed

It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants? PMID:17666148

Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

2008-01-01

48

Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions.

Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

2013-01-01

49

Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.  

PubMed

A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin. PMID:19007497

Risner, Charles H

2008-01-01

50

On the configuration of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  It is concluded from x-ray diffraction, thermal curve, and enzymatic hydrolysis that the predominant glyceride of cocoa butter\\u000a is 2-oleoyl palmitoyl stearin (POS) instead of 2-palmitoyl oleoyl stearin (OPS), the configuration which has been rather generally\\u000a accepted. Accordingly it is suggested that a fully satisfactory cocoa butter extender should be largely of symmetrical, disaturated\\u000a configuration since only thus is the

E. S. Lutton

1957-01-01

51

The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were

D. S. Nielsen; O. D. Teniola; L. Ban-Koffi; M. Owusu; T. S. Andersson; W. H. Holzapfel

2007-01-01

52

Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

2014-03-17

53

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Sarah E. Guthrie; Eric B. Sirota; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2004-01-01

54

The effects of cocoa on the immune system  

PubMed Central

Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

Perez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

2013-01-01

55

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frederic; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

56

The determination of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate and cocoa butter is described. The method relies on a new approach\\u000a for interpreting data obtained by triglyceride gas liquid chromatography (GLC). This technique provides information on the\\u000a composition of a fat according to the carbon number of the triglycerides (Cn). Examination of the data for a wide range of cocoa

F. B. Padley; R. E. Timms

1980-01-01

57

Rapid MS method for analysis of cocoa butter TAG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia negative ion CI-MS was applied to analyze the M.W. distribution and regioisomeric structure of TAG in cocoa butter\\u000a and in cocoa butter equivalents. The M.W. distribution results obtained for a reference cocoa butter were consistent with\\u000a corresponding results obtained in an intercomparison study by chromatographic methods. Minor but statistically significant\\u000a differences were observed when proportions of the three major

J.-P. Kurvinen; O. Sjövall; R. Tahvonen; E. Anklam; H. Kallio

2002-01-01

58

Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.  

PubMed

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23637048

Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

2013-06-01

59

Cocoa products decrease low density lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but do not affect biomarkers of inflammation in humans.  

PubMed

Flavonoids and related polyphenolics with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. We wished to determine the effects of cocoa extract supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Healthy subjects (n = 25) were studied at baseline, after cocoa supplementation (36.9 g of dark chocolate bar and 30.95 g of cocoa powder drink) for 6 wk and after a 6-wk washout period. Fasting blood and early morning urine were collected at the three time points. Two indices of flavonoid intake, total phenols and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of plasma, were measured after an overnight fast. Neither was affected by supplementation. Measures of oxidative stress included copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation kinetics and urinary F(2) isoprostanes. LDL oxidizability was lower after chocolate supplementation as evidenced by a longer lag time (P < 0.05) of conjugated diene formation (101.0 +/- 20.7 min) compared with baseline (91.3 +/- 18.0 min) and washout (96.4 +/- 7.5 min) phases. There was no effect of chocolate on urinary F(2) isoprostane levels or on markers of inflammation including the whole-blood cytokines, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and P-selectin. In conclusion, cocoa products supplementation in humans affects LDL oxidizability, but not urinary F(2) isoprostanes or markers of inflammation. PMID:12468604

Mathur, Surekha; Devaraj, Sridevi; Grundy, Scott M; Jialal, Ishwarlal

2002-12-01

60

The effects of milk as a food matrix for polyphenols on the excretion profile of cocoa (-)-epicatechin metabolites in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

The effect of different food matrices on the metabolism and excretion of polyphenols is uncertain. The objective of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of milk on the excretion of (2)-epicatechin metabolites from cocoa powder after its ingestion with and without milk. Twenty-one volunteers received the following three test meals each in a randomised cross-over design with a 1-week interval between meals: (1) 250 ml whole milk as a control; (2) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml whole milk (CC-M); (3) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml water (CC-W). Urine was collected before consumption and during the 0-6, 6-12 and 12-24 h periods after consumption. (2)-Epicatechin metabolite excretion was measured using liquid chromatography-MS. One (2)-epicatechin glucuronide and three (2)-epicatechin sulfates were detected in urine excreted after the intake of the two cocoa beverages (CC-M and CC-W). The results show that milk does not significantly affect the total amount of metabolites excreted in urine. However, differences in metabolite excretion profiles were observed; there were changes in the glucuronide and sulfate excretion rates, and the sulfation position between the period of excretion and the matrix. The matrix in which polyphenols are consumed can affect their metabolism and excretion, and this may affect their biological activity. Thus, more studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these different metabolite profiles on the body. PMID:18257943

Roura, Elena; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Lourdes Mata Bilbao, M; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

2008-10-01

61

Method for the determination of catechin and epicatechin enantiomers in cocoa-based ingredients and products by high-performance liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A single-laboratory validation study was performed for an HPLC method to identify and quantify the flavanol enantiomers (+)- and (-)-epicatechin and (+)- and (-)-catechin in cocoa-based ingredients and products. These compounds were eluted isocratically with an ammonium acetate-methanol mobile phase applied to a modified beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase and detected using fluorescence. Spike recovery experiments using appropriate matrix blanks, along with cocoa extract, cocoa powder, and dark chocolate, were used to evaluate accuracy, repeatability, specificity, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method as performed by a single analyst on multiple days. In all samples analyzed, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant flavanol and represented 68-91% of the total monomeric flavanols detected. For the cocoa-based products, within-day (intraday) precision for (-)-epicatechin was between 1.46-3.22%, for (+)-catechin between 3.66-6.90%, and for (-)-catechin between 1.69-6.89%; (+)-epicatechin was not detected in these samples. Recoveries for the three sample types investigated ranged from 82.2 to 102.1% at the 50% spiking level, 83.7 to 102.0% at the 100% spiking level, and 80.4 to 101.1% at the 200% spiking level. Based on performance results, this method may be suitable for routine laboratory use in analysis of cocoa-based ingredients and products. PMID:22649938

Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Schaneberg, Brian T; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L

2012-01-01

62

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sulawesi. The antioxidant capacity of water and ethanolic extracts prepared from cocoa beans was measured by three different assays. To estimate the total phenolic content, the assay using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used. The water extract showed the higher

Azizah Othman; Amin Ismail; Nawalyah Abdul Ghani; Ilham Adenan

2007-01-01

63

Genetic diversity in cocoa revealed by cDNA probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) nuclear genome was investigated. A total of 203 cocoa clones was surveyed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) using four restriction endonuclease and 31 seed cDNA probes. A high level of polymorphism has been found. This study points to a structuring of the species that fits with the distinction between the Criollo and

V. Laurent; A. M. Risterucci; C. Lanaud

1994-01-01

64

Biocontrol of Cocoa Pod Diseases with Mycoparasite Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five native mycoparasitic strains of Clonostachys rosea and three of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from healthy cocoa tissue or basidiocarps of Crinipellis perniciosa using a baiting technique. They were compared singly or in combination with the commercial biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens (SoilGuard) for their potential to control three cocoa pod diseases: moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri; witches' broom, caused by

Ulrike Krauss; Whilly Soberanis

2001-01-01

65

Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health--A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.

Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E.

2009-01-01

66

Inhibition of key digestive enzymes by cocoa extracts and procyanidins.  

PubMed

This study determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL), and secreted phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular, and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2-10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL, and PLA(2). Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 8.5-47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between log IC(50) and DP (R(2) > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer, and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer noncompetitively inhibited PLA(2) activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA(2) competitively. This study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro and may, in conjunction with a low-calorie diet, play a role in body weight management. PMID:21495725

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J; Stuart, David A; Lambert, Joshua D

2011-05-25

67

Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-?B. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. PMID:21470061

Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

2011-11-15

68

Epicatechin, procyanidins, and phenolic microbial metabolites after cocoa intake in humans and rats.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids exhibiting cardiovascular protection, constitute a major fraction of the flavonoid ingested in the human diet. Although they are poorly absorbed, they are metabolized by the intestinal microbiota into various phenolic acids. An analytical method, based on an optimized 96-well plate solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of 19 phenolic microbial metabolites and monomeric and dimeric flavanols in urine samples, was developed and validated. Human urine samples were obtained before and after ingestion of an acute consumption of 40 g of soluble cocoa powder and rat urines before and after the prolonged administration (2 weeks) of different diets composed of natural cocoa powder. The mean recovery of analytes using the new SPE-LC-MS/MS method ranged from 87% to 109%. Accuracy ranged from 87.5% to 113.8%, and precision met acceptance criteria (<15% relative standard deviation). Procyanidin B2 has been detected and quantified for the first time in human and rat urine after cocoa consumption. Changes in human and rat urinary levels of microbial phenolic acids and flavanols were in the range of 0.001-59.43 nmol/mg creatinine and of 0.004-181.56 nmol/mg creatinine, respectively. Major advantages of the method developed include reduction of laboratory work in the sample preparation step by the use of 96-well SPE plates and the sensitive measurement of a large number of metabolites in a very short run time, which makes it ideal for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:19333587

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Monagas, Maria; Khan, Nasiruddin; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Sacanella, Emilio; Castell, Margarida; Permanyer, Joan; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2009-07-01

69

Descriptive analysis and external preference mapping of powdered chocolate milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appearance, texture and flavor descriptors were developed for powdered chocolate milk. The influence of cocoa and gum concentrations on these descriptors was studied using stepwise multiple regression. Out of a total of 23 descriptors, four were non-significant. For the significant descriptors, the percentage variance explained ranged from 65 to 93%, with an average of 82%. Visual viscosity and oral thickness

Guillermo Hough; Ricardo Sánchez

1998-01-01

70

The influence of dietary tea, coffee and cocoa on protein and energy utilization of soya-bean meal and barley in rats.  

PubMed

Two series of balance experiments were performed with growing rats to test the effect of black tea, green tea, coffee and cocoa on protein and energy utilization. In Expt 1 soya-bean meal was fed as a basal diet and supplemented with freeze-dried materials from 11 black tea, green tea or coffee/500 g dry matter. Cocoa powder, corresponding to 11 of the beverage, was also added to the basal diet. In Expt 2 the procedure was repeated with a barley-based diet. In both experiments both tea varieties and coffee had significantly negative effects on true protein digestibility and biological value, while digestible energy was only slightly affected in the barley-based diet. Cocoa had no effect on protein or energy utilization in either soya-bean meal or barley diets, although the protein in cocoa powder was completely indigestible. As the tannin concentration in both tea varieties and coffee was very high it is assumed that the observed deleterious effects might, in part, be explained by anti-nutritional effects of tannin. The strongest deleterious effect was recorded for black tea. PMID:6684477

Eggum, B O; Pedersen, B; Jacobsen, I

1983-09-01

71

Analyses of polyphenols in cacao liquor, cocoa, and chocolate by normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC.  

PubMed

The antioxidant polyphenols in cacao liquor, a major ingredient of chocolate and cocoa, have been characterized as flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidin oligomers. In this study, various cacao products were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC, and the profiles and quantities of the polyphenols present, grouped by molecular size (monomers to approximately oligomers), were compared. Individual cacao polyphenols, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin), and dimeric (procyanidin B2), trimeric (procyanidin C1), and tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) proanthocyanidins, and galactopyranosyl-ent-(-)-epicatechin (2alpha-->7, 4alpha-->8)-(-)-epicatechin (Gal-EC-EC), were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC and/or HPLC/MS. The profile of monomers (catechins) and proanthocyanidin in dark chocolate was similar to that of cacao liquor, while the ratio of flavan-3-ols to the total amount of monomeric and oligomeric polyphenols in the case of pure cocoa powder was higher than that in the case of cacao liquor or chocolate. PMID:11210120

Natsume, M; Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Takizawa, T; Nakamura, T; Miyatake, H; Hatano, T; Yoshida, T

2000-12-01

72

Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism and phase transitions of cocoa butter (CB) have been reexamined separately by differential scanning calorimetry\\u000a (DSC) and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT) at scanning rates between 0.1 to 5C\\/min and 0.1 to 2C\\/min,\\u000a respectively. A new instrument, which allowed simultaneous DSC and XRDT recordings from the same sample by taking advantage\\u000a of the high-energy flux

C. Loisel; G. Keller; G. Lecq; C. Bourgaux; M. Ollivon

1998-01-01

73

Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.  

PubMed

A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark chocolate and semisweet chips, (4) milk chocolates, and (5) syrup. PCA also shows that most factors group closely together including the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and the flavan-3-ol measures with the exception of catechin and % fat in the product, which group separately. Because catechin distribution appears to be different from the other flavan-3-ol measures, an analysis of the epicatechin to catechin ratio was done, indicating there is a >5-fold variation in this measure across the products studied. The cocoa-containing products tested range from cocoa powder with 227.34 +/- 17.23 mg of procyanidins per serving to 25.75 +/- 9.91 mg of procyanidins per serving for chocolate syrup. These results are discussed with respect to other studies on commercial products, the bioavailability of the flavanols, and the possible role of processing on the amount of catechin in products. PMID:19754118

Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

2009-10-14

74

Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health  

PubMed Central

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

Andujar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Rios, J. L.

2012-01-01

75

Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as

John W Erdman Jr; LeaAnn Carson; Catherine Kwik-Uribe; Ellen M

76

Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory mediators1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa products are sources of flavan-3-ols, which have attracted interestregardingcardiovascularhealth.Thisreviewprovidesasur- vey of our research on the effects of cocoa polyphenols on leukotri- ene and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and on myeloperoxidase- induced modification of LDL. Because intake of flavonoid-rich chocolate by human subjects was reported to decrease the plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes, we as- sessedwhethercocoapolyphenolsinhibitedhuman5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme

Helmut Sies; Tankred Schewe; Christian Heiss; Malte Kelm

77

COCOA: A COMMUNICATIVE CORRECTION ASSISTING SYSTEM FOR COMPOSITION STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computer mediated language learning environment called CoCoA (Commutative Collection Assisting System) that supports students and teachers to exchange marked-up documents via Internet. Its environment is very similar to a real one in which people use paper and pen. CoCoA allows teachers not only to correct the compositions sent from learners by E-mail, but also learners to

Hiroaki Ogata; Yoneo Yano; Riko Wakita

78

Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the cloning of a cDNA from TcAG, an AG (Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box C-type transcription factor gene AGAMOUS) homologue from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). TcAG was in the cocoa flower expressed primarily in stamens and ovaries, comparable to AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, we found that TcAG is also expressed in the fruit (pod) wall and during its entire development,

Tetty Chaidamsari; Samanhudi; Herti Sugiarti; Djoko Santoso; Gerco C. Angenent; Ruud A. de Maagd

2006-01-01

79

Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as blood pressure. These studies provide direct evidence for the potential cardiovascular benefits of flavanol-containing foods and help to substantiate the epidemiological data. In this review, results from selective published trials with cocoa and chocolate focused on risk for CVD will be discussed along with a study we recently completed evaluating the effects of the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate (CocoaVia?) with and without plant sterol esters on CVD markers in a normotensive population with mild hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate was associated with a significant mean reduction of 5.8 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Together the results of these human dietary intervention trials provide scientific evidence of the vascular effects of cocoa flavanols and suggest that the regular consumption of cocoa products containing flavanols may reduce risk of CVD. PMID:18296357

Erdman, John W; Carson, LeaAnn; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Evans, Ellen M; Allen, Robin R

2008-01-01

80

The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Cocoa powder and chocolate contain numerous substances among which there is a quite large percentage of antioxidant molecules, mainly flavonoids, most abundantly found in the form of epicatechin. These substances display several beneficial actions on the brain. They enter the brain and induce widespread stimulation of brain perfusion. They also provoke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and changes in neuron morphology, mainly in regions involved in learning and memory. Epicatechin improves various aspects of cognition in animals and humans. Chocolate also induces positive effects on mood and is often consumed under emotional stress. In addition, flavonoids preserve cognitive abilities during ageing in rats, lower the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and decrease the risk of stroke in humans. In addition to their beneficial effects on the vascular system and on cerebral blood flow, flavonoids interact with signalization cascades involving protein and lipid kinases that lead to the inhibition of neuronal death by apoptosis induced by neurotoxicants such as oxygen radicals, and promote neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. The present review intends to review the data available on the effects of cocoa and chocolate on brain health and cognitive abilities. PMID:22775434

Nehlig, Astrid

2013-03-01

81

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating is the...

2013-04-01

82

Review of cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate—Part A. Compositional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the literature on the compositional data of vegetable fats used or proposed as alternatives to cocoa butter in chocolate and confectionery products. Cocoa butter is the only continuous phase in chocolate, thus responsible for the dispersion of all other constituents and for the physical behaviour of chocolate. Unique to cocoa butter is its brittleness at room temperature

M. Lipp; E. Anklam

1998-01-01

83

The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses. PMID:16794453

Selmi, Carlo; Mao, Tin K; Keen, Carl L; Schmitz, Harold H; Eric Gershwin, M

2006-01-01

84

Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts. PMID:12589329

Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

2003-02-01

85

Flavanol-rich cocoa ameliorates lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Consumption of flavanols improves chronic endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether it can also improve acute lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 healthy subjects received a fatty meal with cocoa either rich in flavanols (918 mg) or flavanol-poor. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were then determined over 6 h. After the flavanol-poor fat loading, the FMD deteriorated over 4 h. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa, in contrast, improved this deterioration in hours 2, 3, and 4 without abolishing it completely. Flavanols did not have any influence on triglycerides or on free fatty acids. Flavanol-rich cocoa can alleviate the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably through an improvement in endothelial NO synthase. PMID:21140269

Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus

2011-09-01

86

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans. PMID:20843086

Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

2010-10-13

87

Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function.  

PubMed

There is speculation that dietary polyphenols can provide cardioprotective effects due to direct antioxidant or antithrombotic mechanisms. We report in vitro and postingestion ex vivo effects of cocoa procyanidins, a procyanidin-rich cocoa beverage and dealcoholized red wine (DRW) on human platelet activation. In a series of in vitro studies, cocoa procyanidin trimers, pentamers or DRW (3 and 10 micromol/L) were incubated with citrated peripheral whole blood in the presence and absence of platelet agonists. Platelet activation was detected using fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies recognizing the fibrinogen binding conformation of GPIIb-IIIa (referred to herein as PAC-1 binding) and the activation-dependent platelet epitope CD62P (P-selectin). The percentage of CD42a-positive platelets coexpressing PAC-1 binding and/or CD62P was determined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Procyanidin trimers, pentamers and DRW added to whole blood in vitro increased PAC-1 binding and P-selectin expression. In contrast, procyanidin trimers, pentamers and DRW inhibited the platelet activation in response to epinephrine. The effects on platelet activation of cocoa beverage and DRW consumption were also studied in healthy subjects. Citrated blood was obtained before and 2 and 6 h after the ingestion of a cocoa beverage, a caffeine-containing beverage, DRW or water. Platelet activation was measured by flow cytometry. The consumption of DRW did not affect the expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens, either unstimulated or after ex vivo activation with epinephrine. However, the consumption of DRW increased PAC-1 binding in response to 100 micromol/L ADP ex vivo. Cocoa consumption reduced platelet response to agonists ex vivo. The ingestion of water had no effect on platelet activation, whereas a caffeine-containing beverage augmented the response of platelets to epinephrine. In summary, select cocoa procyanidins and DRW added to whole blood in vitro increased expression of platelet activation markers in unstimulated platelets but suppressed the platelet activation response to epinephrine. In contrast, cocoa consumption suppressed unstimulated and stimulated platelet activation in whole blood. This suppressive effect observed on platelet reactivity may explain in part the reported cardioprotective effects of dietary polyphenols. PMID:10917933

Rein, D; Paglieroni, T G; Pearson, D A; Wun, T; Schmitz, H H; Gosselin, R; Keen, C L

2000-08-01

88

Flavanols, the Kuna, Cocoa Consumption, and Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The Kuna Indians who reside in an archipelago on the Caribbean Coast of Panama have very low blood pressure levels, live longer than other Panamanians, and have a reduced frequency of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer -- at least on their death certificates. One outstanding feature of their diet includes a very high intake of flavanol-rich cocoa. Flavonoids in cocoa activate nitric oxide synthesis in healthy humans. The possibility that the high flavanol intake protects the Kuna against high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer is sufficiently intriguing and sufficiently important that large, randomized controlled clinical trials should be pursued.

Hollenberg, Norman K.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

89

Innovation and imitation: Adoption of cocoa by Indonesian smallholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on the role of copying in the diffusion of a new crop. The evidence is based on rural surveys carried out by the first author in regions in Indonesia where in the 1980s a new crop (cocoa) had been introduced. Quantitative estimates of the role of copying are obtained, which are then used to simulate the

Marc Pomp; Kees Burger

1995-01-01

90

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy

N. Meunier; J. Laroulandie; J. F. Blais; R. D. Tyagi

2003-01-01

91

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first

Made M. Ardhana; Graham H. Fleet

2003-01-01

92

Cocoa Fermentations Conducted with a Defined Microbial Cocktail Inoculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var.

ROSANE FREITAS SCHWAN

1998-01-01

93

Cocoa polyphenols and their potential benefits for human health.  

PubMed

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

Andújar, I; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Ríos, J L

2012-01-01

94

Dietary fibre in cocoa shell: characterisation of component polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharides were isolated from cocoa shells and characterised by compositional and linkage analysis. The polysaccharide types were diverse and included pectic polysaccharides (?45%) which were made up of a heterogeneous mixture of rhamnogalacturonans with variable degrees of branching. Hemicelluloses (?20%) consisted of a mixture of a fucosylated xyloglucan, galactoglucomannans, and glucuronoarabinoxylan. Cellulose accounted for ?35% of the cell wall polysaccharides.

R Redgwell; V Trovato; S Merinat; D Curti; S Hediger; A Manez

2003-01-01

95

Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.  

PubMed

Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:? This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix. PMID:22384959

Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

2012-03-01

96

Price Transmission in the Cocoa-Chocolate Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a common perception among consumers that the retail prices respond faster to an increase in the price of raw material than to a decrease. This paper aims at testing the existence of such asymmetric price transmission in the cocoa-chocolate chain on the French market. Two types of asymmetry are suspected: asymmetry in the transmission of positive and negative

Catherine ARAUJO BONJEAN; Jean-François BRUN

2010-01-01

97

Price Transmission in the Cocoa-Chocolate Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a common perception among consumers that the retail prices respond faster to an increase in the price of raw material than to a decrease. This paper aims at testing the existence of such asymmetric price transmission in the cocoa-chocolate chain on the French market. Two types of asymmetry are suspected: asymmetry in the transmission of positive and negative

Catherine Araujo Bonjean; Jean-François Brun

2011-01-01

98

Prospects of botanical pesticides from neem, Azadirachta indica for routine protection of cocoa farms against the brown cocoa mirid - Sahlbergella singularis in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown cocoa mirids, Sahlbergella singularis (Haglund) is the most damaging insect pest of cocoa in Nigeria. The principal means of mirid control has been, for many years, the application of synthetic insecticides on the basis of calendar spray schedule. The use of synthetic pesticides on small-scale farms in the tropics is generally not advocated because the approach lacks sustainability

E. U. Asogwa; T. C. N. Ndubuaku; J. A. Ugwu; O. O. Awe

99

Lipid and hardness characteristics of cocoa butters from different geographic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four commercially pressed cocoa butters and 39 laboratory solvent extracted cocoa butters were evaluated. A rapid method\\u000a using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the hardness of small quantities of cocoa butter. In the\\u000a DSC thermogram of a quenched sample, the percentage area under the polymorph II endotherm had a positive correlation (r=0.74)\\u000a with the mechanical hardness. Soft

Siree Chaiseri; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

100

STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to spectators from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

101

STS-95 Payload Specialist Mukai participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is perched on the back of a red 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

102

STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to a dense crowd of well-wishers from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

103

The STS-95 crew participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (in front), along with the other crew members behind him, waves to the crowd as he leads a parade of 1999 C-5 Corvette convertibles down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

104

Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults  

PubMed Central

An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (??0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (?0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa ?0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa ?1.6 ± 0.3%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) and 2-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.5 ± 0.3%, 5 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.4 ± 0.2%, and 26 g cocoa ?2.5 ± 0.4%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) on the other study days. A serum marker of cocoa ingestion (total epicatechin) correlated with increased FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44–0.48; both P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases brachial artery FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans.

Feehan, Robert P.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra L.; Lott, Mary E. J.

2011-01-01

105

Metal Powders (Metall Pulver).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book discusses metal powders for powder metallurgy, specific topics include Electrolytic copper powder, Copper alloy powders, Lead powders, tin powders, Partially prealloyed powders, Premixes, Mixed powders to customers' specifications, Quality contr...

1986-01-01

106

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

107

Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption. PMID:23462053

Latif, R

2013-03-01

108

Thermal and compositional properties of cocoa butter during static crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to\\u000a determine the thermal properties and glyceride composition of cocoa butter crystals formed under static conditions. In addition\\u000a to these studies, visual characterization of the crystallites was obtained with polarized light microscopy (PLM). Crystals\\u000a were formed under controlled static or motionless conditions at formation temperatures of

Paul S. Dimick; Douglas M. Manning

1987-01-01

109

The physical properties of Category B cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of Category B cocoa beans from the 2000\\/2001 harvesting season were determined as a function of bean moisture content in the moisture range between 5% and 24% (wb). In the above moisture range, the mean bean length, width and thickness increased from 22.41 to 22.5 mm, 12.2 to 12.86 mm and 7.36 to 7.70 mm respectively. At the

Ato Bart-Plange; Edward A. Baryeh

2003-01-01

110

Histology of somatic embryogenesis from floral tissues cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis fromTheobroma cacao L. flower buds, as previously reported on five Forastero hybrid genotypes, was tested on several other genotypes, belonging to the three cocoa-tree groups: Forastero, Trinitario and Criollo. The results gave evidence of genotypic efficiencies. Explants were cultivated under two successive conditions: callogenesis and expression media. The morphological and histological responses were different for embryogenic or non-embryogenic

L. Alemanno; M. Berthouly; N. Michaux-Ferrière

1996-01-01

111

PHOSPHONIC ACID: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF COCOA CAUSED BY PHYTOPHTHORA MEGAKARYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cocoa is the main commodity crop of Ghana and is financially important for the livelihood of many rural communities. The relatively recent arrival of the more aggressive black pod pathogen Phytophthora megakarya and its continued progress westwards threatens the cocoa farming communities. In a wider context its recent arrival in Ivory Coast, currently the worlds largest producer of cocoa,

Isaac Y. Opoku; Andrews Y. Akrofi; Mark Holderness; Keith A. Holmes

112

78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2013-05-02

113

76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2011-05-10

114

Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.  

PubMed

Abstract Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

2014-04-01

115

Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and cashew in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great percentage of people in the developing countries are engaged in agriculture, but the yields of their produce are low due to diseases that plague their crops. In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust

T. O. Adejumo

116

Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes by Cocoa Extracts 1 and Procyanidins  

PubMed Central

We determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2 to 10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL and PLA2. Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 8.5 – 47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between Log IC50 and DP (R2 > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer non-competitively inhibited PLA2 activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA2 competitively. Our study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro, and may, in conjunction with a low calorie diet, play a role in body weight management.

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J.; Stuart, David A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

117

Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 °C

Teresa Oliviero; Edoardo Capuano; Bettina Ca?mmerer; Vincenzo Fogliano

2009-01-01

118

Human bioavailability of flavanols and phenolic acids from cocoa-nut creams enriched with free or microencapsulated cocoa polyphenols.  

PubMed

Human bioavailability of cocoa flavanols and phenolic acids from a cocoa-nut cream (CC) and from CC enriched with a 1·5 % (w/w) cocoa polyphenol extract in free form (FPC) or encapsulated with a gastric-resistant high-amylose maize starch (EPC), was studied. In a randomised cross-over protocol, with 1-week wash-out in between, twelve healthy volunteers had three portions/d of each cream, providing approximately 190 ?mol/d of total flavanols and 12 ?mol/d of total phenolic acids with CC and 385 and 28 ?mol/d with both FPC and EPC, respectively. Blood, urine and faecal samples were analysed by HPLC/MS/MS. Serum (epi)catechin was absent at baseline and after CC consumption, while 22·1 (SEM 2·62) and 1·59 (SEM 0·22) nmol (P <0·05) were found after FPC and EPC, respectively. The EPC increased faecal excretion of total flavanols compared to FPC (151·0 (SEM 54·6) v. 28·0 (SEM 14·0) nmol; P <0·05). Within 6 h after consumption, serum phenolic acid content was 50-fold higher than (epi)catechin; no difference between CC and FPC was observed, but a significant reduction after EPC (1954 (SEM 236·3) and 1459 (SEM 137·6) v. 726·8 (SEM 73·4) nmol, P <0·05) was recorded. Short-term phenolic acid urinary excretions were significantly higher after FPC than CC and EPC, the values being 11·4 (SEM 5·1) v. 3·1 (SEM 1·7) and 0·9 (SEM 0·5) ?mol, respectively. Faecal phenolic acids were approximately 60-fold reduced after FPC (8·1 (SEM 0·13) nmol) and EPC (14·7 (SEM 2·7) nmol) consumption compared to CC (641·4 (SEM 99·1) nmol) consumption. The data demonstrated that: (i) (epi)catechin was absorbed from CC; (ii) cocoa polyphenols' consumption increased circulating phenolic acids; and (iii) encapsulated ingredient increased flavanol delivering into the gut. Further studies should evaluate whether encapsulated cocoa polyphenols may be a functional prebiotic ingredient. PMID:23046948

Vitaglione, Paola; Barone Lumaga, Roberta; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sellitto, Sereno; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant Miranda, Jordi; Shimoni, Eyal; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2013-05-28

119

Subunit structure of the vicilin-like globular storage protein of cocoa seeds and the origin of cocoa- and chocolate-specific aroma precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential cocoa-specific aroma precursors are generated during fermentation of cocoa seeds by proteolysis of the vicilin-like globulin. This particular storage protein consists of three subunits with apparent molecular masses of 47kDa, 31kDa, and 15kDa, respectively, which are derived from a common 66-kDa precursor. Since all these subunits resist N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation, we have analysed the localisation of these

Ulrich Kratzer; Ronald Frank; Hubert Kalbacher; Böle Biehl; Johannes Wöstemeyer; Jürgen Voigt

2009-01-01

120

Interplanetary scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (interplanetary scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.

Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.

1976-01-01

121

STS-95 Commander Brown participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. examines the heads up display in the 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible in which he will be riding during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach as Dan Adovasio, a parade coordinator, looks on. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

122

Collaborative Care for Older Adults (COCOA), Palmer College of Chiropractic.  

PubMed

Integrative medicine (IM) is a subset of interprofessional health care that seeks to join the knowledge and practices of various allopathic and complementary and alternative medicine disciplines in an attempt to offer cost-effective and clinically significant healthcare options for persons with acute or chronic illnesses. Although touted as a means for improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction while possibly lowering costs, further scientific evidence regarding the utility of IM approaches to health services delivery is needed. Collaborative Care for Older Adults (COCOA) is a chiropractic demonstration project that brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers and clinicians from the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Genesis Quad Cities Family Practice Residency, The University of Iowa, and Thomas Jefferson University to study the impact of a model of interprofessional education on geriatric health care. The Health Resources and Services Administration funded COCOA in 2009 to further develop and assess a patient-centered care model for the treatment of low back pain in older adults that uses a team-based approach between medical doctors and doctors of chiropractic. PMID:21174032

Goertz, Christine; Lyons, Stacie Salsbury; Andresen, Andrew; Hondras, Maria; Jones, Mark; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Long, Cynthia; Lyons, Kevin; Mulhausen, Paul; Vining, Robert

2010-01-01

123

Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

Martin, Maria Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-01-01

124

Automatic optosensing device based on photo-induced fluorescence for determination of piceid in cocoa-containing products.  

PubMed

Piceid (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-3-?-D: -glucoside) is a stilbene which occurs naturally in various families of plants and has been shown to protect lipoproteins from oxidative damage and to have cancer chemopreventive activity. This paper deals with the determination of piceid in cocoa-containing products by using photo-induced fluorescence and the aid of a multicommutated continuous-flow assembly which was provided with an on-line photoreactor. A strongly fluorescent photoproduct is generated from piceid when it is irradiated under UV light for 30 s, which is retained on Sephadex QAE A-25 and directly monitored on this active solid support at 257/382 nm (? (exc)/? (em), respectively). The pre-concentration of the photoproduct of piceid on the solid support greatly improves both sensitivity and selectivity. The influence of different experimental parameters, both chemical (pH, ionic strength) and hydrodynamic (irradiation time, flow rate, photoreactor length, sampling time), was tested. The sample pre-treatment included delipidation with toluene and cyclohexane, stilbene extraction with ethanol/water (80:20, v/v) and clean-up by solid-phase extraction on C(18) cartridges and methanol/water (40:20, v/v) as eluting solution. This procedure allowed the elimination of the aglycon of piceid, resveratrol and other potential interfering species and a recovery of about a 90% piceid. The method was applied to the analysis of piceid in cocoa powder, dark chocolate and milk chocolate. The quantification limits were 1.4, 1.1 and 0.09 mg kg(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations ranged from 1.8% to 3.1%. This is the first reported non-chromatographic method for determination of piceid in these foods. PMID:20953776

Molina-García, Lucía; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio; Fernández-de Córdova, Maria Luisa

2011-01-01

125

Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (?-0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (?0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa ?0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa ?1.6 ± 0.3%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) and 2-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.5 ± 0.3%, 5 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.4 ± 0.2%, and 26 g cocoa ?2.5 ± 0.4%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) on the other study days. A serum marker of cocoa ingestion (total epicatechin) correlated with increased FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44-0.48; both P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases brachial artery FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans. PMID:21903881

Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Kunselman, Allen R; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Lott, Mary E J

2011-12-01

126

Yield development and nutrient dynamics in cocoa-gliricidia agroforests of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Napu and Palolo Valleys of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, a chronosequence sought to identify the relationship between\\u000a tree age, nutrient dynamics and cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) yield in association with gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.). The chronosequence surveyed cocoa-gliricidia plantations with a maximum age of 8 and 15 years, respectively,\\u000a in Napu and Palolo. The characteristics of the valleys were

G. L. Smiley; J. Kroschel

2010-01-01

127

Temporal change in carbon stocks of cocoa–gliricidia agroforests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a false-time series, the temporal development of cocoa–gliricidia carbon (C) stocks and soil organic carbon (SOC) were\\u000a investigated in Napu and Palolo Valleys of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. As a first step, the Functional Branch Analysis (FBA)\\u000a method was used to develop allometric equations for the above- and below-ground growth of cocoa and gliricidia. FBA resulted\\u000a in shoot–root ratios of

G. L. Smiley; J. Kroschel

2008-01-01

128

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. IV. Cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cocoa butter has been fractionated by countercurrent distribution between pentane-hexane and furfural-uitroethane solvent\\u000a phases with the application of 1,100 transfer stages. Except for a small percentage of trisaturates and linoleic acid-containing\\u000a triglycerides, oleic acid occurs at least once in each glyceride molecule. Cocoa butter is composed principally of mono-oleins:\\u000a oleodistearin, 22%; oleopalmitostearin, 41%; and oleodipalmitin, 12%. Whereas the latter glyceride

C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

1959-01-01

129

The breeding biology of biotypes of the witches' broom pathogen of cocoa, Crinipellis perniciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the breeding biology of the agaric Crinipellis perniciosa (causal agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa in South America) found that two distinct breeding strategies exist among the four known biotypes of the fungus, which are specific to cocoa (C-biotype), solanaceous hosts (S-biotype), Bixa orellana (B-biotype) and liana vines (L-biotype). The homomictic (primary homothallic) behaviour of the C-biotype

G W Griffith; J N Hedger

1994-01-01

130

The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease.  

PubMed

Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection. PMID:16572598

Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M

2006-03-01

131

A diet enriched with cocoa prevents IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model.  

PubMed

Previous studies in young rats reported the impact of cocoa intake on healthy immune status and allow suggesting it may have a role in the prevention of some immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of a cocoa diet in a model of allergy in young rats. Three-week-old Brown Norway rats were immunized by i.p. injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum as adjuvant and Bordetella pertussis toxin. During the next 4 weeks rats received either a cocoa diet (containing 0.2% polyphenols, w/w) or a standard diet. Animals fed a standard diet showed high concentrations of anti-OVA IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and high anti-OVA IgE titres, which is the antibody involved in allergic response. In contrast, animals fed a cocoa diet showed significantly lower concentrations of anti-OVA IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Interestingly, the cocoa diet prevented anti-OVA IgE synthesis and decreased total serum IgE concentration. Analysis of cytokine production in lymph node cells at the end of the study revealed that, in this compartment, the cocoa diet decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and the interleukin (IL)-10 secretion but not IL-4 production. In conclusion, a cocoa-enriched diet in young rats produces an immunomodulatory effect that prevents anti-allergen IgE synthesis, suggesting a potential role for cocoa flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:22342543

Abril-Gil, Mar; Massot-Cladera, Malén; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

2012-06-01

132

Effect of zinc plating of low carbon steel on corrosion resistance in cocoa fluid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the corrosion resistance of zinc-plated low carbon steel in cocoa fluid. Low carbon steel samples were zinc electroplated at voltages between 0.5V and 0.9V for 5–20min. The plated samples were then subjected to a cocoa fluid environment for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE) were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5

O. O. Oluwole; D. T. Oloruntoba; O. Awheme

2008-01-01

133

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s¹ and under static conditions. From

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Sarah E. Guthrie; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2007-01-01

134

Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: Cocoa instead of ambrosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is\\u000a of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich\\u000a cocoa have beneficial acute and shortterm effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults\\u000a with cardiovascular

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Nikolaos Alexopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

135

Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect.

Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Perez-Cano, Francisco J.

2013-01-01

136

Ocular health assessment of cocoa farmers in a rural community in ghana.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cocoa farming provides employment for over 800,000 households in rural Ghana, with the country currently touted as the second largest producer of cocoa worldwide. Agriculture is one of the riskiest occupations for the eyes due to the numerous ocular hazards on farms. The authors conducted an ocular health assessment among cocoa farmers at Mfuom, a rural community in the Central Region of Ghana, to examine the ocular health status and the ocular safety measures used by cocoa farmers. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, ocular injuries, and utilization of eye care services and ocular protection, and a clinical examination was used to evaluate their ocular status. Cocoa farmers were at high risk for ocular injuries and farm-related vision disorders and utilized eye care services and ocular protection poorly. Ocular condition identified were mainly refractive error (28.6%), cataract (20.0%), glaucoma (11.7%), conjunctivitis (13%), pterygium (2.7%), and cornea opacity (2.2%). There is a need for the introduction of an interventional eye care program to help address the ocular health challenges identified among the farmers. This can be done through collaborative efforts by educational institutions, government, and other role players in the agricultural industry to improve the quality of life of the vulnerable cocoa farmers in rural Ghana. PMID:24911692

Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Hansraj, Rekha; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Ocansey, Stephen; Kyei, Samuel

2014-01-01

137

Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.  

PubMed

Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 < 0.40), but these relationships were independent of the nature of the chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities. PMID:18052039

Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

2008-01-01

138

Cocoa butter and confectionery fats. Studies using programmed temperature X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior and thermal properties of cocoa butter have been investigated by means of programmed temperature\\u000a x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship of this polymorphism to the technical problems of\\u000a “tempering” and “bloom” development is discussed. Cocoa butter containing, respectively, milk fat and a bloom inhibitor, and\\u000a some alternatives to cocoa butter have been studied. These results

G. M. Chapman; E. E. Akehurst; W. B. Wright

1971-01-01

139

CD Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greet well-wishers following a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Center Director Roy Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. greet well-wishers at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

140

Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with benefits for human health. Those effects have been partially ascribed to their content in flavonoids, compounds that are present in many edible plants and its derived foods. In humans, a significant number of studies has been developed analyzing the effect of foods and beverages rich in flavonoids on the presence and progression of risk factors associated to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Cocoa derived products, rich in flavanols, have been thoroughly studied and demonstrated to be efficient improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure in humans and animals. However, the final chemical species and the mechanism/s responsible for these effects have not been completely defined. In this paper we present data supporting the hypothesis that flavanols could define superoxide anion production and then, establish optimal nitric oxide levels and blood pressure.

Fraga, Cesar G.; Litterio, Maria C.; Prince, Paula D.; Calabro, Valeria; Piotrkowski, Barbara; Galleano, Monica

2011-01-01

141

Application of a molecular sensory science approach to alkalized cocoa (Theobroma cacao): structure determination and sensory activity of nonenzymatically C-glycosylated flavan-3-ols.  

PubMed

Application of comparative taste dilution analyses on nonalkalized and alkalized cocoa powder revealed the detection of a velvety, smoothly astringent tasting fraction, which was predominantly present in the alkalized sample. LC-MS/MS analysis, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD spectroscopy as well as model alkalization reactions led to the unequivocal identification of the velvety, smoothly astringent molecules as a series of catechin- and epicatechin-C-glycopyranosides. Besides the previously reported (-)-epicatechin-8-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, additional flavan-3-ol-C-glycosides, namely, (-)-epicatechin-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-catechin-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-catechin-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-epicatechin-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-catechin-8-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, (-)-catechin-6-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, (-)-catechin-6-C,8-C-beta-D-diglucopyranoside, (-)-epicatechin-6-C,8-C-beta-D-digalactopyranoside, (-)-catechin-6-C,8-C-beta-D-digalactopyranoside, and epicatechin-6-C,8-C-beta-D-diglucopyranoside, were identified for the first time in cocoa. Most surprisingly, these phenol glycoconjugates were demonstrated by model experiments to be formed via a novel nonenzymatic C-glycosylation of flavan-3-ols. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying oral sensation were determined to be between 1.1 and 99.5 micro mol/L (water) depending on the sugar and the intramolecular binding position as well as the aglycone. PMID:17147440

Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

2006-12-13

142

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

2011-01-01

143

Effects of a cocoa diet on an intestinal inflammation model in rats.  

PubMed

Cocoa is a rich source of fiber and flavonoids with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were fed with either a 5% cocoa diet or standard diet. Colon inflammation was induced by DSS in the drinking water: 5% for six days and 2% over the following nine days. Colitis was assessed by body weight loss, stool consistency and blood presence in stools. A group of animals fed standard diet was treated with quercitrin (1 mg/kg) after colitis establishment. After two weeks of DSS treatment, the colon oxidative and inflammatory status and lymphocyte composition from blood and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were assessed. The cocoa-fed group did not exhibit amelioration of clinical colitis but displayed higher antioxidant activity than the colitic reference group by the restoration of colon glutathione content and prevention of lipid peroxidation. The cocoa diet showed anti-inflammatory potential because it down-regulated serum tumor necrosis factor-?, colon inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and decreased colon cell infiltration. The lymphocyte composition in MLNs was not modified by drinking DSS, but there was an increase in the proportion of natural killer and regulatory T-cells in the blood. These changes were not modified by cocoa. In conclusion, cocoa intake may help to inhibit the negative oxidative effects consequent to colitis, although this action is not enough to abrogate the intestinal inflammation significantly. PMID:23104506

Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Franch, Angels; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

2012-10-01

144

Influence of a cocoa-enriched diet on specific immune response in ovalbumin-sensitized rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies in young rats have reported the impact of 3 weeks of high cocoa intake on healthy immune status. The present article describes the effects of a longer-term cocoa-enriched diet (9 weeks) on the specific immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in adult Wistar rats. At 4 weeks after immunization, control rats produced anti-OVA antibodies, which, according their amount and isotype, were arranged as follows: IgG1 > IgG2a > IgM > IgG2b > IgG2c. Both cocoa diets studied (4% and 10%) down-modulated OVA-specific antibody levels of IgG1 (main subclass associated with the Th2 immune response in rats), IgG2a, IgG2c and IgM isotypes. Conversely, cocoa-fed rats presented equal or higher levels of anti-OVA IgG2b antibodies (subclass linked to the Th1 response). Spleen and lymph node cells from OVA-immunized control and cocoa-fed animals proliferated similarly under OVA stimulation. However, spleen cells from cocoa-fed animals showed decreased interleukin-4 secretion (main Th2 cytokine), and lymph node cells from the same rats displayed higher interferon-gamma secretion (main Th1 cytokine). These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the number of anti-OVA IgG-secreting cells in spleen. In conclusion, cocoa diets induced attenuation of antibody synthesis that may be attributable to specific down-regulation of the Th2 immune response. PMID:18925611

Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

2009-03-01

145

Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification.  

PubMed

World chocolate demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on tropical rainforests and wild species in cocoa-producing countries. Cocoa, "the chocolate tree," is traditionally produced under a diverse and dense canopy of shade trees that provide habitat for a high diversity of organisms. The current trend to reduce or eliminate shade cover raises concerns about the potential loss of biodiversity. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the ecological consequences and economic trade-offs under different management options in cocoa plantations. Here we describe the relationships between ant ecology (species richness, community composition, and abundance) and vegetation structure, ecosystem functions, and economic profitability under different land-use management systems in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon. We calculated an index of profitability, based on the net annual income per hectare. We found significant differences associated with the different land-use management systems for species richness and abundance of ants and species richness and density of trees. Ant species richness was significantly higher in floristically and structurally diverse, low-intensity, old cocoa systems than in intensive young systems. Ant species richness was significantly related to tree species richness and density. We found no clear relationship between profitability and biodiversity. Nevertheless, we suggest that improving the income and livelihood of smallholder cocoa farmers will require economic incentives to discourage further intensification and ecologically detrimental loss of shade cover. Certification programs for shade-grown cocoa may provide socioeconomic incentives to slow intensification. PMID:19765036

Bisseleua, D H B; Missoup, A D; Vidal, S

2009-10-01

146

Powder diffraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquito...

M. Hart

1995-01-01

147

Powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powder diffraction method, by using conventional X-ray sources, was devised independently in 1916 by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and in 1917 by Hull in the United States. The technique developed steadily and, half a century later, the `traditional' applications, such as phase identification, the determination of accurate unit-cell dimensions and the analysis of structural imperfections, were well established.

J. Ian Langford; Daniel Louër

1996-01-01

148

Powder diffraction  

SciTech Connect

the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

Hart, M.

1995-12-31

149

Theobroma cacao L., “The Food of the Gods”: Quality Determinants of Commercial Cocoa Beans, with Particular Reference to the Impact of Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The

Lídia J. R. Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

150

Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phytophthora black pod disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a leaf inoculation method was used to standardize a bioassay for testing the genetic susceptibility (or resistance) of cocoa cultivars to black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya. Both whole leaves and leaf discs from non-lignified twigs, were suitable for inoculation with suspensions of 3 × 105 zoospores\\/ml. Cocoa clones tested for resistance to

S. Nyassé; C. Cilas; C. Herail; G. Blaha

1995-01-01

151

Relation of habitual cocoa consumption to aortic stiffness and wave reflections, and to central hemodynamics in healthy individuals.  

PubMed

The effect of habitual cocoa consumption on arterial stiffness and wave reflection indexes, as well as on peripheral and central blood pressure, was assessed in 198 healthy subjects. In conclusion, higher cocoa intake was an independent determinant of low arterial stiffness and wave reflection indexes and was also independently associated with significantly lower central (aortic) pulse pressure. PMID:17493484

Vlachopoulos, Charalambos V; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos A; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos A; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos C; Dima, Ioanna A; Dagre, Anna; Vasiliadou, Carmen; Stefanadi, Elli C; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I

2007-05-15

152

Soil nutrient management research in the humid forest zone of Nigeria for cocoa production between 1940 and 2000: missing gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil nutrient balances in the forest znoe of Nigeria to sustain cocoa production has been an object of research for some sixty years. After its introduction into the zone of West Africa in 1890, the area planted to cocoa increased rapidly to its present 1.5 million hectares and yield increased to peak of 310,000 tons in 1965. However, as early

2002-01-01

153

An Assessment of Agricultural Extension Activities to Cocoa Farmers in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important cash crop that contributes si gnificantly to agriculture's earning in Nigerian economy. Agricultural extension programmes have been targeted at the cocoa farmers to develop the ente rprise since the importance of the cash crop. This study a ssessed the agricultural extension activities to th e targeted farmers to identify the institutions that render th e services,

O. T. Yekinni

2008-01-01

154

Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guest, D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653. Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes signifi- cant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The

David Guest

155

Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: cocoa instead of ambrosia?  

PubMed

Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa have beneficial acute and short-term effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults with cardiovascular risk factors, and in patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa may have a blood pressure-lowering effect. These effects can be attributed to flavonoids and are mainly mediated through increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether these effects of chocolate on arterial function are translated into clinical benefit. PMID:17147918

Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2006-06-01

156

Ceramic Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In developing its product line of specialty ceramic powders and related products for government and industrial customers, including companies in the oil, automotive, electronics and nuclear industries, Advanced Refractory Technologies sought technical assistance from NERAC, Inc. in specific areas of ceramic materials and silicon technology, and for assistance in identifying possible applications of these materials in government programs and in the automotive and electronics industry. NERAC conducted a computerized search of several data bases and provided extensive information in the subject areas requested. NERAC's assistance resulted in transfer of technologies that helped ART staff develop a unique method for manufacture of ceramic materials to precise customer specifications.

1984-01-01

157

Relation of fat bloom in chocolate to polymorphic transition of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special chocolate with spray-dried sugar (50:50 w\\/w sucrose\\/20 Dextrose Equivalent corn syrup solids) was made to study\\u000a the polymorphic changes in cocoa butter crystals using X-ray diffraction. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and high-, middle-, and\\u000a low-melting milk fat fractions were used to replace 2% (w\\/w) of cocoa butter. Chocolates were tempered, and the consistency\\u000a of temper among chocolate samples

J. Bricknell; R. W. Hartel

1998-01-01

158

Cocoa flavanols and platelet and leukocyte function: recent in vitro and ex vivo studies in healthy adults.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in possible beneficial effects of specific dietary components on cardiovascular health. Platelets and leukocytes contribute to arterial thrombosis and to inflammatory processes. Previous studies performed in vitro have demonstrated inhibition of platelet function by (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, flavan-3-ols (flavanols) that are present in several foods including some cocoas. Also, some modest inhibition of platelet function has been observed ex vivo after the consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products by healthy adults. So far there are no reports of effects of cocoa flavanols on leukocytes. This paper summarizes 2 recent investigations. The first was a study of the effects of cocoa flavanols on platelet and leukocyte function in vitro. The second was a study of the effects of consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage by healthy adults on platelet and leukocyte function ex vivo. Measurements were made of platelet aggregation, platelet-monocyte conjugate formation (P/M), platelet-neutrophil conjugate formation (P/N), platelet activation (CD62P on monocytes and neutrophils), and leukocyte activation (CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils) in response to collagen and/or arachidonic acid. In the in vitro study several cocoa flavanols and their metabolites were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, P/M, P/N, and platelet activation. Their effects were similar to those of aspirin and the effects of a cocoa flavanol and aspirin did not seem to be additive. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation by flavanols, but this was not replicated by aspirin. 4'-O-methyl-epicatechin, 1 of the known metabolites of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin, was consistently effective as an inhibitor of platelet and leukocyte activation. The consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage also resulted in significant inhibition of platelet aggregation, P/M and P/N, and platelet activation induced by collagen. The inhibitory effects were related to their flavanol content. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation, but here it was concluded that cocoa constituents other than flavanols may contribute to the inhibition that was observed. It can be concluded that cocoa flavanols, their metabolites and possibly other cocoa constituents can modulate the activity of platelets and leukocytes in vitro and ex vivo. The research suggests that the consumption of certain cocoa products may provide a dietary approach to maintaining or improving cardiovascular health. PMID:16794458

Heptinstall, Stan; May, Jane; Fox, Sue; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Zhao, Lian

2006-01-01

159

A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.  

PubMed

Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms. PMID:23014569

Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

2012-10-15

160

Cocoa Fermentations Conducted with a Defined Microbial Cocktail Inoculum  

PubMed Central

Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri, two lactic acid bacterial species, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two acetic acid bacterial species, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. suboxydans. The parameters measured were cell counts (for yeasts, filamentous fungi, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and spore formers, including reisolation and identification of all residual cell types), sugar, ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid contents (and contents of other organic acids), pH, and temperature. A cut test for bean quality and a sensorial analysis of chocolate made from the beans were also performed. The natural fermentation mimicked exactly the conditions in 800-kg boxes on farms. The aseptic box remained largely free of microflora throughout the study, and no significant biochemical changes occurred. With the zero-time inoculum the fermentation was almost identical to the natural fermentation. The fermentation with the phased-addition inoculum was similar, but many changes in parameters were slower and less pronounced, which led to a slightly poorer end product. The data show that the nearly 50 common species of microorganisms found in natural fermentations can be replaced by a judicious selection and concentration of members of each physiological group. This is the first report of successful use of a defined, mixed starter culture in such a complex fermentation, and it should lead to chocolate of more reliable and better quality.

Schwan, Rosane Freitas

1998-01-01

161

Interactions among chemical components of Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), a naturally low caffeine-containing tea species.  

PubMed

In the 1980s, a novel tea species, Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), was discovered in Southern China with surprisingly low caffeine content (0.2% by dry weight). Although its health promoting characteristics have been known for a while, a very limited amount of scientific research has been focused on Cocoa tea. Herein, a systematic study on Cocoa tea and its chemical components, interactions and bioactivities was performed. YD tea (Yunnan Daye tea, Camellia sinensis), a tea species with a high caffeine content (5.8% by dry weight), was used as a control. By UV-Vis spectrometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) for chemical composition analysis, C-2 epimeric isomers of tea catechins and theobromine were found to be the major catechins and methylxanthine in Cocoa tea, respectively. More gallated catechins, methylxanthines, and proteins were detected in Cocoa tea compared with YD tea. Moreover, the tendency of major components in Cocoa tea for precipitation was significantly higher than that in YD tea. Catechins, methylxanthines, proteins, iron, calcium, and copper were presumed to be the origins of molecular interactions in Cocoa tea and YD tea. The interactions between catechins and methylxanthines were highly related to the galloyl moiety in catechins and methyl groups in methylxanthines. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity assays revealed that Cocoa tea was a more potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) than YD tea. This study constructs a solid phytochemical foundation for further research on the mechanisms of molecular interactions and the integrated functions of Cocoa tea. PMID:24699984

Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiong; Luo, Wei; Li, Bin

2014-06-28

162

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

163

Ant distribution patterns in a cameroonian cocoa plantation: investigation of the ant mosaic hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the spatial distribution of tropical ant species has shown that in tree crop plantations, abundant species have mutually exclusive distributions generated by competition thus forming a ‘mosaic’ of territories in the tree canopies. This study compares the spatial distribution of ants which live in the trees with that of ants which live on the ground in a cocoa

D. A. Jackson

1984-01-01

164

Effect of fertilization and biocontrol application frequency on cocoa pod diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three native and two commercial biocontrol agents (Clonostachys rosea and Trichoderma spp.) were evaluated against the cocoa diseases moniliasis, witches' broom, and black pod. Antagonists were applied either separately or as mixed inoculum in comparison with a copper fungicide and a nontreated control. Cultural control (weekly removal of diseased pods) was practiced in all treatments. Field trials were conducted on

Ulrike Krauss; Whilly Soberanis

2002-01-01

165

The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavanols modulate platelet function in vitro, but less is known of their in vivo effects and how they compare to pharmacological platelet inhibitors. We investigated the effect of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage (897 mg\\/ml) in combination with and in comparison to aspirin on platelet function and activation in healthy subjects. Methods and results: On separate test days in a

Debra A Pearson; Teresa G Paglieroni; Dietrich Rein; Ted Wun; Derek D Schramm; Janice F Wang; Roberta R Holt; Robert Gosselin; Harold H Schmitz; Carl L Keen

2002-01-01

166

Cocoa intake and arterial stiffness in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background To analyze the relationship of cocoa intake to central and peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with some cardiovascular risk factor. Findings Design: A cross-sectional study of 351 subjects (mean age 54.76 years, 62.4% males). Measurements: Intake of cocoa and other foods using a food frequency questionnaire, central and peripheral (ambulatory and office) blood pressure, central and peripheral augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index. Results: Higher pulse wave velocity and greater cardiovascular risk were found in non-cocoa consumers as compared to high consumers (p < 0.05). In a multivariate analysis, these differences disappeared after adjusting for age, gender, the presence of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug use. All other arterial stiffness measures (central and peripheral augmentation index, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, ankle-brachial index, and carotid intima-media thickness) showed no differences between the different consumption groups. Conclusions In subjects with some cardiovascular risk factors, cocoa consumption does not imply improvement in the arterial stiffness values. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064.

2012-01-01

167

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. METHODS: We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor\\/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL\\/PR) in comparison

Thozhukat Sathyapalan; Stephen Beckett; Alan S Rigby; Duane D Mellor; Stephen L Atkin

2010-01-01

168

A Method to Qualify and Quantify the Crystalline State of Cocoa Butter in Industrial Chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of methods, mainly X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), have been used to characterise the polymorphism of fats in food products. As sugars present in chocolate have a significant XRD pattern, partially overlapping with the signal of cocoa butter, XRD cannot be applied directly to chocolate. In this paper, the XRD signal of a molten sample,

Benjamin J. D. Le; ReverendPeter J. Fryer

169

Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa

Fabrizio Giannandrea

2009-01-01

170

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

171

Sustained Benefits in Vascular Function Through Flavanol-Containing Cocoa in Medicated Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Our goal was to test feasibility and efficacy of a dietary intervention based on daily intake of flavanol-containing cocoa for improving vascular function of medicated diabetic patients. Background Even in fully medicated diabetic patients, overall prognosis is unfavorable due to deteriorated cardiovascular function. Based on epidemiological data, diets rich in flavanols are associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Methods

Jan Balzer; Tienush Rassaf; Christian Heiss; Petra Kleinbongard; Thomas Lauer; Marc Merx; Nicole Heussen; Heidrun B. Gross; Carl L. Keen; Hagen Schroeter; Malte Kelm

2008-01-01

172

The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre- and post-natal psychological stress, and the child’s neurodevelopment, nutritional status, and development of allergic and respiratory illnesses. The child’s microbiome, genes, epigenetics, plasma cytokine levels, and neuropsychological status, the microbiome of the residence, and the levels of indoor and outdoor pollutants are measured by standard procedures. Discussion The COCOA study will improve our understanding of how individual genetic or environmental risk factors influence susceptibility to allergic disease and how these variables interact to shape the phenotype of allergic diseases.

2014-01-01

173

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children  

PubMed Central

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragon-Flores, Mariana; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-01-01

174

Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51?mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials. PMID:21559039

Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

2011-08-01

175

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA) [Greensburg, PA

1988-01-01

176

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

Weyand, J.D.

1988-02-09

177

Mechanics of Powder Plastic Powder Compacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colloidal Isopressing is a new method for the shaping of ceramic components from powder suspensions in a rapid and effective manner. Colloidal Isopressing starts with a slurry containing a relatively low volume fraction of powder, where the particles weak...

F. F. Lange

2001-01-01

178

Production of cocoa butter-like fats by the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and hydrogenated soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fats were prepared from refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) and fully hydrogenated soybean\\u000a oil (HSO) by enzymatic interesterification at various weight ratios of substrates. The cocoa butter-like fats were isolated\\u000a from the crude interesterification mixture by fractional crystallization from acetone. Analysis of these fat products by RP-HPLC\\u000a in combination with ELSD or MS detection showed that

Roland D. Abigor; William N. Marmer; Thomas A. Foglia; Kerby C. Jones; Robert J. DiCiccio; Richard Ashby; Patrick O. Uadia

2003-01-01

179

HPLC Method for the Quantification of Procyanidins in Cocoa and Chocolate Samples and Correlation to Total Antioxidant Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatog- raphy (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chroma- tography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The purity of each

Gary E. Adamson; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Ronald L. Prior; Guohua Cao; Pieter H. Jacobs; Bart G. Kremers; John F. Hammerstone; Robert B. Rucker; Karl A. Ritter; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

180

Cocoa Butter and Safflower Oil Elicit Different Effects on Hepatic Gene Expression and Lipid Metabolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism\\u000a and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride\\u000a (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced\\u000a that might

Carolina Gustavsson; Paolo Parini; Jovanca Ostojic; Louisa Cheung; Jin Hu; Fahad Zadjali; Faheem Tahir; Kerstin Brismar; Gunnar Norstedt; Petra Tollet-Egnell

2009-01-01

181

Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. Objective: This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults (mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg\\/m2): 30). In phase 1, subjects were

Zubaida Faridi; Valentine Yanchou Njike; Suparna Dutta; Ather Ali; David L Katz

182

Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.  

PubMed

This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level. PMID:24679756

Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

2014-08-15

183

Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.  

PubMed

Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. PMID:25053037

Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

2015-01-01

184

POWDERS FOR EXTINGUISHING FIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a powder suitable for extinguishing fires of burning ; U, Pu, or Th is described. The powder consists of a mixture of powdered ; inorganic chlorides and\\/or fluorides inert towards the bunning metal. The ; mixture has a melting point below the melting point of the burning metal such ; that fusion of the powder takes place

Cope

1963-01-01

185

Resin-Powder Dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

Standfield, Clarence E.

1994-01-01

186

Characterization of Fine Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine powders are used in many applications and across many industries such as powdered paints and pigments, ceramics, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and bulk and fine chemicals, to name a few. In addition, fine powders must often be handled as a waste by-product, such as ash generated in combustion and gasification processes. In order to correctly design a process and process equipment for application and handling of powders, especially fine powders, it is essential to understand how the powder would behave. Many characterization techniques are available for determining the flow properties of powders; however, care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate technique(s).

Krantz, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

187

Preparation of titanium diboride powder  

SciTech Connect

Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

1985-03-05

188

Analysis of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) in cocoa-containing ingredients and products by rapid resolution liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

Recently, a multilaboratory validation (MLV) of AOAC Official Method 2012.24 for the determination of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins (CF-CP) in cocoa-based ingredients and products determined that the method was robust, reliable, and transferrable. Due to the complexity of the CF-CP molecules, this method required a run time exceeding 1 h to achieve acceptable separations. To address this issue, a rapid resolution normal phase LC method was developed, and a single-laboratory validation (SLV) study conducted. Flavanols and procyanidins with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to 10 were eluted in 15 min using a binary gradient applied to a diol stationary phase, detected using fluorescence detection, and reported as a total sum of DP 1-10. Quantification was achieved using (-)-epicatechin-based relative response factors for DP 2-10. Spike recovery samples and seven different types of cocoa-based samples were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method. The within-day precision of the reported content for the samples was 1.15-5.08%, and overall precision was 3.97-13.61%. Spike-recovery experiments demonstrated recoveries of over 98%. The results of this SLV were compared to those previously obtained in the MLV and found to be consistent. The translation to rapid resolution LC allowed for an 80% reduction in analysis time and solvent usage, while retaining the accuracy and reliability of the original method. The savings in both cost and time of this rapid method make it well-suited for routine laboratory use. PMID:24672873

Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine

2014-01-01

189

Cocoa, Hazelnuts, Sterols and Soluble Fiber Cream Reduces Lipids and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa, mixed with other food ingredients, intake can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. We compared the effects of 4 cocoa cream products on some of these biomarkers. Methods and Findings In this multi-centered, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial, volunteers (n?=?113; age range: 43–65 years) who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic received one of 4 cocoa cream products (13 g/unit; 1 g cocoa/unit, 6 units/d; 465 Kcal/d) added to a low saturated fat diet for 4 weeks. The groups were: A) (n?=?28), cocoa cream considered as control; B) (n?=?28), cocoa+hazelnut cream (30 g/d hazelnuts); C) (n?=?30), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols (2 g/d); and D) (n?=?27), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols+soluble fiber (20 g/d) the patented “LMN product”. Primary outcome measures were BP, LDL-c, apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B), ApoB/ApoA ratio, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determined at baseline and post-cocoa cream product intake. Statistical analysis used was ANCOVA or mixed models (in case of repeated measurements), with baseline observation included as a covariate. After 4 weeks, compared to product A, product C reduced LDL-c by 11.2%, Apo B by 8.1% and ApoB/ApoA ratio by 7.8% (P?=?0.01). LMN decreased LDL-c by 9.2%, Apo B-100 by 8.5%, ApoB/ApoA ratio by 10.5%, hsCRP by 33.4% and oxLDL by 5.9% (P?=?0.01). Surprisingly, even “control” product A reduced systolic BP (?7.89 mmHg; 95%CI: ?11.45 to ?4.3) and diastolic BP (?5.54 mmHg; 95%CI: ?7.79 to ?3.29). The BP reductions were similar with the other 3 products. Limitations of the study are that the trial period was relatively short and that a better “BP control” product would have been preferable. Conclusion The creams (particularly the LMN) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in addition to lowering LDL-c, Apo B and ApoB/ApoA ratio. Thus, the soluble fiber effects amplified with sterols (as contained in the cocoa creams) provide new dietary therapeutic perspectives. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420

Sola, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Godas, Gemma; Perez-Busquets, Gloria; Ribalta, Josep; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Cabre, Anna; Castro, Antoni; Domenech, Gema; Torres, Ferran; Masana, Lluis; Angles, Neus; Reguant, Jordi; Ramirez, Bartolome; Barriach, Joaquim M.

2012-01-01

190

Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.  

PubMed

The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40?60?4?6?10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

1986-01-01

191

Chocolate at heart: the anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

Chronic and acute inflammation underlies the molecular basis of atherosclerosis. Cocoa-based products are among the richest functional foods based upon flavanols and their influence on the inflammatory pathway, as demonstrated by several in vitro or ex vivo studies. Indeed, flavanols modify the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the synthesis of eicosanoids, the activation of platelets, and nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. A relative paucity of data still characterizes the in vivo implications of these findings albeit there have been studies suggesting that the regular or occasional consumption of cocoa-rich compounds exerts beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance, vascular damage, and oxidative stress. Accordingly, rigorous controlled human studies with adequate follow-up and with the use of critical dietary questionnaires are needed to determine the effects of flavanols on the major endpoints of cardiovascular health. PMID:18991246

Selmi, Carlo; Cocchi, Claudio A; Lanfredini, Mario; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2008-11-01

192

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought by flatbed truck to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

193

A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human A?1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P?0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after A?1–42 peptide induction (P?0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of A? deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce A? deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals.

Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Nuria; Alvarez, Beatriz; Monton, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramon, Daniel; Genoves, Salvador

2013-01-01

194

A study of the polygalacturonase activity of several yeast strains isolated from cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the traditional fermentation of cocoa, yeasts with pectinolytic activity are involved in the degradation of the pulp. Saccharomyces chevalieri, Torulopsis candila, and Candida norvegensis, as well as Kluyveromyces fragilis included in this study as a control strain all have a pectinolytic activity (endopolygalacturonase E.C. 3.2.1.15). The enzymes studied have the same optimal pH of activity [5] but are different

J. Sanchez; J. P. Guiraud; P. Galzy

1984-01-01

195

Stereospecific analysis of the major triglyceride species in the monounsaturated fraction of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereospecific analysis employing pancreatic lipase,Geotrichum candidum lipase and phospholipase A was applied to the monounsaturated triglyceride fraction of cocoa butter. Diacid triglycerides\\u000a required additional analyses involving the gas liquid chromatographic determination of the proportions of digly ceride acetates\\u000a produced by separately acetylating the ?,? and ?,?-digly cerides obtained from aG. candidum digestion mixture. Results indicated that the major triacid

J. Sampugna; R. G. Jensen

1969-01-01

196

CoCoA: a system for computations in commutative algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

CoCoA is a special-purpose system for doing Computations in Commutative Algebra. It runs on all common platforms.CoCoA's particular strengths include ideal\\/module operations (such as Gröbner bases, syzygies and minimal free resolutions, intersections, divisions, the radical of an ideal, etc), polynomial factorization, exact linear algebra, computing Hilbert functions, and computing with zero-dimensional schemes and toric ideals.The usefulness of these technical skills

Anna Maria Bigatti; Lorenzo Robbiano

2006-01-01

197

Endopolygalacturonase secretion by Kluyveromyces marxianus and other cocoa pulp-degrading yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 12 yeast strains isolated from cocoa fermentations, only four showed extracellular pectinase activity. Kluyveromyces marxianus was the most pectinolytic with 85% of total secreted protein consisting of a constitutive endopolygalacturonase (PG). No pectic lyases or methylesterases were produced. The pH and temperature optima for PG activity were 5.0 and 40°C, respectively. Purified PG comprised four proteins of Mr 47,

Rosane F Schwan; Richard M. Cooper; Alan E. Wheals

1997-01-01

198

The effect of exercise and training status on platelet activation: do cocoa polyphenols play a role?  

PubMed

Sedentary and trained men respond differently to the same intensity of exercise, this is probably related to their platelet reactivity and antioxidant capacity. There is growing interest in the utilization of antioxidant-rich plant extracts as dietary food supplements. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of sub maximal exercise on platelet count and differential response of platelet activation in trained and sedentary subjects and to observe if cocoa polyphenols reverse the effect of exercise on platelet function. The practical significance of this study was that many sedentary people engage in occasional strenuous exercise that may predispose them to risk of heart disease. Fasting blood samples were collected from 16 male subjects, pre and post 1-h cycling exercise at 70% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) before and after consumption of cocoa or placebo. Agonist stimulated citrated whole blood was utilized for measuring platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and platelet activation. Baseline platelet count (221 +/- 33 x 10(9)/L) and ATP release (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmol) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise in all subjects. Baseline platelet numbers in the trained were higher (P < 0.05) than in the sedentary (235 +/- 37 vs. 208 +/- 34 x 10(9)/L), where as platelet activation in trained was lower (P < 0.05) than sedentary (51 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 5%). Seven days of cocoa polyphenol supplementation had little effect on any of the parameters measured. We conclude that trained subjects show decreased activation of stimulated platelets when compared to the sedentary subjects and short-term cocoa polyphenol supplementation did not decrease platelet activity in response to exercise independent of prior training status. PMID:16973496

Singh, I; Quinn, H; Mok, M; Southgate, R J; Turner, A H; Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Hawley, J A

2006-09-01

199

Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise.  

PubMed

Impaired endothelial vasodilatation may contribute to the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise in individuals who are overweight/obese. The present study investigated whether consumption of cocoa flavanols, which improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), can modify BP responsiveness to exercise. Twenty-one volunteers (eight females and thirteen males, 54.9 (se 2.2) years, BMI 31.6 (se 0.8) kg/m2, systolic BP 134 (se 2) mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) 87 (se 2) mmHg) were randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design with 3-7-d washout between treatments. Two hours after cocoa consumption, FMD was measured, followed by continuous beat-to-beat assessment (Finapres) of BP before and during 10 min of cycling at 75 % of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Averaged data from two assessments on each type of beverage were compared by analysis of covariance using pre-exercise BP as the covariate. Pre-exercise BP was similar after taking LF and HF (153 (se 3)/88 (se 3) v. 153 (se 4)/87 (se 2) mmHg, respectively, P>0.05). However, the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals. PMID:20082737

Berry, Narelle M; Davison, Kade; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

2010-05-01

200

A Method to Qualify and Quantify the Crystalline State of Cocoa Butter in Industrial Chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of methods, mainly X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), have been used to characterise\\u000a the polymorphism of fats in food products. As sugars present in chocolate have a significant XRD pattern, partially overlapping\\u000a with the signal of cocoa butter, XRD cannot be applied directly to chocolate. In this paper, the XRD signal of a molten sample,

Benjamin J. D. Le Révérend; Peter J. Fryer; Simon Coles; Serafim Bakalis

2010-01-01

201

Blooming in Cocoa Butter Substitutes Based Compound Chocolate: Investigations on Composition, Morphology and Melting Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a comprehensive analysis on the development of bloom on cocoa butter substitutes based compound chocolate, the\\u000a morphology, chemical composition and melting behavior were examined. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electric microscopy\\u000a (SEM), and polarized light microscopy (PLM) measurements were carried out to study the morphological properties of chocolate.\\u000a AFM analyses showed a crystal growth which was confirmed by

Fengyan WangYuanfa; Yuanfa Liu; Liang Shan; Qingzhe Jin; Xingguo Wang; Lingling Li

2010-01-01

202

Triglyceride interesterification by lipases. 1. Cocoa butter equivalents from a fraction of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve commercially available triacylglycerol lipase preparations were screened for their suitability as catalysts in the\\u000a interesterification of palm oil mid fraction and ethyl stearate to form a cocoa butter equivalent. Five fungal lipase preparations\\u000a were found to be suitable. The hydrolytic activity of the commercial lipase preparations was tested with sunflower seed oil\\u000a and was independent of their interesterification activity.

Scott Bloomer; Patrick Adlercreutz; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

203

Cadmium and zinc in acid tropical soils: III. Response of cocoa seedlings in a greenhouse experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many phosphate rock (PR) materials used as direct application of fertilizer containing variable amounts of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). The effect of Cd and Zn addition to unlimed and limed (pH 5.5) soils on the growth of cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.) U1T1 X NA33 hybrid was conducted in the field at Kunak, Tawau, Sabah.

Mohamed M. Hanafi; G. Jomol Maria

1998-01-01

204

Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on unshaded Amazon cocoa in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

No extensive investigation on the effect of fertilizers on Amazon cocoa variety (Theobroma cacao L.) has been performed in Nigeria. Therefore eight fertilizer treatments involving nitrogen and phosphorus, replicated six times at four locations across southern Nigeria, were established in 1973. The four N levels (N0, N1, N2, N3) involved were 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 y-1, and

SO Ojeniyi; NE Egbe; TI Omotoso

1982-01-01

205

Early growth and nutritional response to resource competition in cocoa-shade intercropped systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercropping is often promoted for effective mutualism between species, thus compensating for external inputs. However, for\\u000a optimal farm design resulting in superior production and nutrition, an accurate assessment of plant inter- and intra-specific\\u000a competition is required. In predominant shade tree-cocoa (Theobroma cacao) systems, inconclusive evidence remains on species interactions, limitations to resource availability and subsequent growth\\u000a and nutritional response, particularly

M. E. Isaac; F. Ulzen-Appiah; V. R. Timmer; S. J. Quashie-Sam

2007-01-01

206

Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa polyphenols on cognition and mood. In a randomized, double-blind study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. Participants consumed their assigned treatment once daily for 30 days. Cognition was measured with the Cognitive Drug Research system and self-rated mood with the Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scale. Participants were tested at baseline, at 1, 2.5 and 4 h after a single acute dose and again after receiving 30 days of treatment. In total, 72 participants completed the trial. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. Mood was unchanged by treatment acutely while cognition was unaffected by treatment at all time points. This randomized controlled trial is perhaps the first to demonstrate the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants. This provides a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression. PMID:23364814

Pase, Matthew P; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Kras, Marni; Nolidin, Karen; Gibbs, Amy; Wesnes, Keith; Stough, Con

2013-05-01

207

Composite powder particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

208

Ceramic powder compaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experime...

S. J. Glass K. G. Ewsuk F. M. Mahoney

1995-01-01

209

The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people.  

PubMed

Flavanols are the main flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate, and can be especially abundant in certain cocoas. Research over the past decade has identified flavanols as showing diverse beneficial physiologic and antioxidant effects, particularly in context of vascular function. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to explore the effect of flavanols on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure BOLD responses to a cognitive task in 16 healthy young subjects. The data presented show an increase in the BOLD signal intensity in response to a cognitive task following ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa (5 days of 150 mg of cocoa flavanols). This may arise either as a result of altered neuronal activity, or a change in vascular responsiveness, or both--the net effect then being dependent on which of the two effects is dominant. No significant effects were evident in behavioral reaction times, switch cost, and heart rate after consumption of this moderate dose of cocoa flavanols. A pilot study evaluated the relationship between cerebral blood flow and a single acute dose (450 mg flavanols) of flavanol-rich cocoa and showed that flavanol-rich cocoa can increase the cerebral blood flow to gray matter, suggesting the potential of cocoa flavanols for treatment of vascular impairment, including dementia and strokes, and thus for maintaining cardiovascular health. PMID:16794461

Francis, S T; Head, K; Morris, P G; Macdonald, I A

2006-01-01

210

Cocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertension1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Essential hypertension is characterized by reciprocal relations between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Cocoa flavanols stimulate production of the vasodilator nitric oxide from vascular endothelium. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that consump- tion of cocoa may simultaneously lower blood pressure, improve endothelial dysfunction, and ameliorate insulin resistance in sub- jects with essential hypertension. Design: We conducted

Ranganath Muniyappa; Terrie L Kolodziej; Rajaram J Karne; Sonja K Crandon; Michael J Quon

211

Effect of zinc application on the dry matter yield uptake and distribution of zinc and other micronutrients in cocoa (Theobroma cacao. L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of application of zinc fertilizer on dry matter yield, uptake and distribution of zinc and other nutrients by Amazon and Amelonado cocoa cultivars grown in a soil of low zinc content in the greenhouse were investigated.There was a differential response to zinc fertilization by the two cocoa cultivars. Maximum dry matter yields of Amazon and Amelonado were attained

V. O. Chude; G. O. Obigbesan

1983-01-01

212

Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.  

PubMed

Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology. PMID:17009291

Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

2006-01-01

213

Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study.  

PubMed

Flavanol consumption is favorably associated with cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that dietary flavanols might improve cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We conducted a double-blind, parallel arm study in 90 elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment randomized to consume once daily for 8 weeks a drink containing ?990 mg (high flavanols), ?520 mg (intermediate flavanols), or ?45 mg (low flavanols) of cocoa flavanols per day. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A and B, and verbal fluency test. At the end of the follow-up period, Mini Mental State Examination was similar in the 3 treatment groups (P=0.13). The time required to complete Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B was significantly (P<0.05) lower in subjects assigned to high flavanols (38.10±10.94 and 104.10±28.73 seconds, respectively) and intermediate flavanols (40.20±11.35 and 115.97±28.35 seconds, respectively) in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (52.60±17.97 and 139.23±43.02 seconds, respectively). Similarly, verbal fluency test score was significantly (P<0.05) better in subjects assigned to high flavanols in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (27.50±6.75 versus 22.30±8.09 words per 60 seconds). Insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation also decreased among subjects in the high-flavanol and intermediate-flavanol groups. Changes of insulin resistance explained ?40% of composite z score variability through the study period (partial r(2)=0.4013; P<0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first dietary intervention study demonstrating that the regular consumption of cocoa flavanols might be effective in improving cognitive function in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This effect appears mediated in part by an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22892813

Desideri, Giovambattista; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Raffaele, Angelo; Ferri, Livia; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio

2012-09-01

214

In-vitro effects of polyphenols from cocoa and beta-sitosterol on the growth of human prostate cancer and normal cells.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains many different types of physiologically active components. It was shown that cocoa beans are rich in specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, catechins, epicatechins and proanthocyanidins. Additionally, beta-sitosterol, the most common phytosterol, may play a protective role in the development of cancer. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different cocoa polyphenols extracts, alone or combined with beta-sitosterol, on two human prostate cancer cell lines (nonmetastatic 22Rv1 cells and metastatic DU145 cells) and a normal human prostate cell line (RWEP-1). A synergy between beta-sitosterol and cocoa polyphenols extract was also researched. Cells were treated independently with five products from 1 to 72 h: (1/) synthetic beta-sitosterol, (2/) a cocoa polyphenols extract supplemented with beta-sitosterol, (3/) three different cocoa polyphenols extracts naturally containing beta-sitosterol. In the experiment, beta-sitosterol was tested from 10(-6) to 10(-3)%; cocoa polyphenols extract supplementation was with 0.72% beta-sitosterol; finally cocoa polyphenols extracts were added to the cells at very low concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.2%. The growth and viability of cells were measured using colorimetric assay at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. IC50 and IC100 corresponding to the concentration leading to a decrease of 50% and 100% of cell growth were determined. At the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts induced a complete inhibition of growth of metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer cell lines. In addition, cocoa polyphenols extracts were more active against local cancer cells than against metastatic cells. Moreover, at the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts are not effective on a normal prostate cell lines. Beta-sitosterol induced low growth inhibition of both cancer cell line. Cocoa polyphenols extracts, however, were significantly more active and showed a strong and fast inhibition of cell growth than beta-sitosterol alone. No synergy or addition was observed when beta-sitosterol was tested together with the cocoa polyphenols extract. Our results show that cocoa polyphenols extracts have an antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cell growth but not on normal cells, at the highest tested concentration. PMID:16835506

Jourdain, Carine; Tenca, Guillaume; Deguercy, Alain; Troplin, Philippe; Poelman, Dirk

2006-08-01

215

Attenuated total reflection infrared microspectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis: a novel tool to study the presence of cocoa polyphenol metabolites in urine samples.  

PubMed

The detection and quantification of polyphenols in biological samples is mainly performed by liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This technique requires the use of organic solvents and needs control and maintenance of several MS/MS parameters, which makes the method expensive and time consuming. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the potential of using attenuated total reflection infrared microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) coupled with multivariate analysis to detect and quantify phenolic compounds excreted in human urine. Samples were collected from 5 healthy volunteers before and 6, 12 and 24 h after ingestion of 40 g cocoa powder with 250 mL of water or whole milk, and stored at -80 °C. Each sample was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min and at 4 °C and applied onto grids of a hydrophobic membrane. Spectra were collected in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm(-1)) and were analyzed by a multivariate analysis technique, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Spectral models showed that IR bands responsible for chemical differences among samples were related to aromatic rings. Therefore, ATR-IRMS could be an interesting and straightforward technique for the detection of phenolic compounds excreted in urine. Moreover, it could be a valuable tool in studies aimed to identify biomarkers of consumption of polyphenol-rich diets. PMID:22705559

Sánchez-González, Claudia; Nigussie, Worku; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; de Lamo-Castellví, Silvia

2012-08-01

216

Quantification of triacylglycerol molecular species in cocoa butter using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with nano quantity analyte detector.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a nano quantity analyte detector (NQAD). TAG standard compounds, i.e., 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-POP), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol (?-POS), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-SOS), and natural cocoa butter were used for analyses. NQAD gave the first order equation passing through the origin for all TAG standard compounds. TAG molecular species in cocoa butter were quantified using the calibration curves and the obtained values were almost the same as the reported ones of conventional cocoa butter. Furthermore, a recovery test was also carried out and the values were almost 100. Therefore, HPLC-NQAD can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils. PMID:24088516

Beppu, Fumiaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

2013-01-01

217

Determination of ochratoxin A in cocoa beans using immunoaffinity column cleanup with high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A method was developed and validated for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal metabolite, in cocoa beans of high fat content. The sample was extracted by blending with a 1% sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 10) followed by ultrasonication, and the sample was defatted by treatment with a flocculant. The defatted sample was purified using immunoaffinity column chromatography, and OTA was detected using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was fully optimized, validated, and quality controlled using spike recovery analyses, with recoveries of 89-105% over spiking ranges of 320-2.5 ng/g with CV of analyses generally <10% over 4 consecutive years and an LOQ of 0.66 ng/g in cocoa bean samples. This method overcomes the problems posed by the high fat contents of cocoa and chocolate samples with a high degree of reliability. PMID:25051638

Roberts, Jillian; Chang-Yen, Ivan; Bekele, Frances; Bekele, Isaac; Harrynanan, Lisa

2014-01-01

218

Distribution of epicatechin metabolites in lymphoid tissues and testes of young rats with a cocoa-enriched diet.  

PubMed

An increasing number of scientific studies support that flavanol-rich foods and beverages such as cocoa can promote human health, and are beneficial agents for the prevention of some diseases. Our previous studies showed that long-term cocoa intake enhances the antioxidant status in lymphoid organs and also modulates lymphocyte functionality in healthy young rats. Cocoa polyphenolic antioxidants seem to be the best candidates for those effects. However, data regarding polyphenol metabolites in tissues after a long-term cocoa intake are scarce. In the present study we mainly focus on the uptake and accumulation of epicatechin metabolites in lymphoid organs, including the thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes, as well as in the liver and testes after a diet rich in cocoa. Ten young weaned Wistar rats were fed randomly with a 10 % (w/w) cocoa diet or a control diet for 3 weeks, corresponding to their infancy and youth. Tissues were treated with a solid-phase extraction and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. The major compounds recovered in these tissues were glucuronide derivatives of epicatechin and methylepicatechin. The highest concentration of these metabolites was found in the thymus, testicles and liver, followed by lymphatic nodes and spleen. The high amount of epicatechin metabolites found in the thymus supports our previous findings showing its high antioxidant capacity compared with other tissues such as the spleen. Moreover, this is the first time that epicatechin metabolites have been found in high concentrations in the testes, confirming other studies that have suggested the testes as an important site of oxidation. PMID:20100378

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Khan, Nasiruddin; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Llorach, Rafael; Castell, Margarida; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2010-05-01

219

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

PubMed Central

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

220

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

221

CYP1A1 is overexpressed upon incubation of breast cancer cells with a polyphenolic cocoa extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the effect of cocoa flavonoids in breast cancer cells at the molecular level, a functional genomic analysis was\\u000a performed using a polyphenolic cocoa extract (PCE) in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cell lines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The expression profile of 84 genes included in the Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinder™ PCR Array was analyzed after PCE incubation\\u000a for 24 h. mRNA and protein levels were

Carlota Oleaga; Miriam García; Anna Solé; Carlos J. Ciudad; Maria Izquierdo-Pulido; Véronique Noé

222

Molecular identification and pectate lyase production by Bacillus strains involved in cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the implication of Bacillus in the production of pectinolytic enzymes during cocoa fermentation. The objective of this work was to identify the Bacillus strains isolated from cocoa fermentation and study their ability to produce pectate lyase (PL) in various growth conditions. Ninety-eight strains were analyzed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). Four different banding patterns were obtained leading to the clustering of the bacterial isolates into 4 distinct ARDRA groups. A subset of representative isolates for each group was identified by 16S rRNA gene partial sequencing. Six species were identified: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, together with Bacillus fusiformis which was isolated for the first time from cocoa fermentation. The best PL producers, yielding at least 9 U/mg of bacterial dry weight, belonged to B. fusiformis, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus species while those belonging to B. sphaericus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis generally showed a low level of activity. Two kinds of PL were produced, as revealed by isoelectrofocusing: one with a pI of 9.8 produced by B. subtilis and B. fusiformis, the other with a pI of 10.5 was produced by B. pumilus. Strains yielded about 2 fold more PL in a pectic compound medium than in glucose medium and maximum enzyme production occurred in the late stationary bacterial growth phase. Together all these results indicate that PL production in the bacilli studied is modulated by the growth phase and by the carbon source present in the medium. PMID:21056768

Ouattara, Honoré G; Reverchon, Sylvie; Niamke, Sébastien L; Nasser, William

2011-02-01

223

[Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].  

PubMed

Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield. PMID:18589574

Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

2008-03-01

224

Fractionation procedures for obtaining cocoa butter-like fat from enzymatically interesterified palm olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed incorporation of stearic acid in palm olein by the 1,3-regiospecific Novo Lipase Lipozyme IM20\\u000a resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of fatty acid glycerides and free fatty acids. The stearoyl incorporation in\\u000a palm olein gave rise to the formation of 39.3% of the desired cocoa butter-like triglycerides in the fatty acid glyceride\\u000a portion, namely distearoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS),

C. N. Chong; Y. M. Hoh; C. W. Wang

1992-01-01

225

Isolation and characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Cell wall material (CWM) was prepared from sun-dried cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) bean cotyledons before and after fermentation. The monosaccharide composition of the CWM was identical for unfermented\\u000a and fermented beans. Polysaccharides of the CWM were solubilised by sequential extraction with 0.05?M trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), 0.05?M Na2CO3, and 1?M, 4?M and 8?M KOH. The non-cellulosic sugar composition for each fraction

Robert J. Redgwell; Carl E. Hansen

2000-01-01

226

Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.  

PubMed

In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States. PMID:16719535

Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

2006-05-31

227

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

2007-01-01

228

Isolation and characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.  

PubMed

Cell wall material (CWM) was prepared from sun-dried cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) bean cotyledons before and after fermentation. The monosaccharide composition of the CWM was identical for unfermented and fermented beans. Polysaccharides of the CWM were solubilised by sequential extraction with 0.05 M trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), 0.05 M Na2CO3, and 1 M, 4 M and 8 M KOH. The non-cellulosic sugar composition for each fraction was similar for unfermented and fermented samples, indicating that fermentation caused no significant modification of the structural features of individual cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic polysaccharides accounted for 60% of the cell wall polysaccharides but only small amounts could be solubilised in solutions of CDTA, Na2CO3, and 1 M and 4 M KOH. The bulk of the pectic polysaccharides were solubilised in 8 M KOH and were characterised by a rhamnogalacturonan backbone heavily substituted with side-chains of 5-linked arabinose and 4-linked galactose. Linkage analysis indicated the presence of additional acidic polysaccharides, including a xylogalacturonan and a glucuronoxylan. Cellulose, xyloglucan and a galactoglucomannan accounted for 28%, 8% and 3% of the cell wall polysaccharides, respectively. It is concluded that the types and structural features of cell wall polysaccharides in cocoa beans resemble those found in the parenchymatous tissue of many fruits and vegetables rather than those reported for many seed storage polysaccharides. PMID:10805455

Redgwell, R J; Hansen, C E

2000-04-01

229

Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa.

Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

2011-01-01

230

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. Overseeing the recovery and protection of the piece is KSC criminal investigator Jan Seinkner, facing camera at center, of EG&G Florida Inc., base operations contractor. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

231

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

News media representatives and other onlookers get a close-up view of the piece of Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger debris which washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. A Cocoa Beach front-end loader picks up the debris which will be carried by flatbed truck to Kennedy Space Center. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

232

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

Kroposki, B.

1998-12-17

233

Cocoa flavanols lower vascular arginase activity in human endothelial cells in vitro and in erythrocytes in vivo.  

PubMed

The availability of l-arginine can be a rate-limiting factor for cellular NO production by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Arginase competes with NOS for l-arginine as the common substrate. Increased arginase activity has been linked to low NO levels, and an inhibition of arginase activity has been reported to improve endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Based on the above, we hypothesized that an increase in the circulating NO pool following flavanol consumption could be correlated with decreased arginase activity. To test this hypothesis we (a) investigated the effects of (-)-epicatechin and its structurally related metabolites on endothelial arginase expression and activity in vitro; (b) evaluated the effects of dietary flavanol-rich cocoa on kidney arginase activity in vivo; and (c) assessed human erythrocyte arginase activity following flavanol-rich cocoa beverage consumption in a double-blind intervention study with cross-over design. The results demonstrate that cocoa flavanols lower arginase-2 mRNA expression and activity in HUVEC. Dietary intervention with flavanol-rich cocoa caused diminished arginase activity in rat kidney and, erythrocyte arginase activity was lowered in healthy humans following consumption of a high flavanol beverage in vivo. PMID:18348861

Schnorr, Oliver; Brossette, Tatjana; Momma, Tony Y; Kleinbongard, Petra; Keen, Carl L; Schroeter, Hagen; Sies, Helmut

2008-08-15

234

Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.  

PubMed

Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers. PMID:11210035

Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

2001-01-01

235

Establishment of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an endophyte in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana became established as an endophyte in in vitro-grown cocoa seedlings tested for up to 2 mo after inoculation to the radicle with B. bassiana suspensions. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots. B. bassiana also was detected as an epiphyte 1 and 2 mo postinoculation. Penicillium oxalicum and five bacterial morphospecies

Francisco Posada; Fernando E. Vega

2005-01-01

236

Influence of chocolate matrix composition on cocoa flavan-3-ol bioaccessibility in vitro and bioavailability in humans.  

PubMed

Conflicting data exist regarding the influence of chocolate matrices on the bioavailability of epicatechin (EC) from cocoa. The objective of this study was to assess the bioavailability of EC from matrices varying in macronutrient composition and physical form. EC bioavailability was assessed from chocolate confections [reference dark chocolate (CDK), high sucrose (CHS), high milk protein (CMP)] and cocoa beverages [sucrose milk protein (BSMP), non-nutritive sweetener milk protein (BNMP)], in humans and in vitro. Six subjects consumed each product in a randomized crossover design, with serum EC concentrations monitored over 6 h post consumption. Areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) were similar among chocolate matrices. However, AUCs were significantly increased for BSMP and BNMP (132 and 143 nM h) versus CMP (101 nM h). Peak serum concentrations (C(MAX)) were also increased for BSMP and BNMP (43 and 42 nM) compared to CDK and CMP (32 and 25 nM). Mean T(MAX) values were lower, although not statistically different, for beverages (0.9-1.1 h) versus confections (1.8-2.3 h), reflecting distinct shapes of the pharmacokinetic curves for beverages and confections. In vitro bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation did not differ between treatments. These data suggest that bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ols is likely similar from typical commercial cocoa based foods and beverages, but that the physical form and sucrose content may influence T(MAX) and C(MAX). PMID:19780539

Neilson, Andrew P; George, Judy C; Janle, Elsa M; Mattes, Richard D; Rudolph, Ralf; Matusheski, Nathan V; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2009-10-28

237

Arylsulphatase activity of different latosol soils of Ghana cropped to cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) and coffee ( Coffea canephora var. robusta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to investigate arylsulphatase activity in 15 soils cropped to cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and coffee (Coffea canephora var. robusta) in Ghana. The arylsulphatase activity was correlated positively and significantly with organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity, and correlated negatively with acetate soluble sulphate. The enzyme was deactivated at an incubation temperature of over 60°C. Preheating

M. R. Appiah; Y. Ahenkorah

1989-01-01

238

Effect of fertilizer and endomycorrhizal inoculum on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings treated with five levels of palm oil mill effluent, in an unsterilized Oxisol and an Ultisol, either with or without addition of the VAM fungus Scutellospora calospora (Nicol. & Gred.) Walker and Sanders. Inoculation with the VAM fungi

H. Azizah Chulan

1991-01-01

239

Use of floral descriptors to study variability in wild cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

155 clones of wild cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana, belonging to 16 populations identified by surveyors in two different river basins (three sub-basins), along with four international clones used as controls, were characterized with four floral descriptors: petal ligule width, sepal width, gynoecium length and number of ovules per ovary. The data underwent an analysis of variance

P. Lachenaud; F. Bonnot; G. Oliver

1999-01-01

240

Powders for magnetoabrasive machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions On the basis of literature data an analysis is made of the abrasive power and magnetic properties of powders of various magnetoabrasive materials and of the degree of interaction between their magnetic and abrasive constituents. It is concluded that the greatest potentiality for MAP is shown by materials containing a refractory compound powder as their abrasive component and an

G. D. Nalivka; A. N. Stepanchuk; L. N. Tul'chinskii

1976-01-01

241

Aluminum powder applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum powders have physical and metallurgical characteristics related to their method of manufacture that make them extremely important in a variety of applications. They can propel rockets, improve personal hygiene, increase computer reliability, refine exotic alloys, and reduce weight in the family sedan or the newest Air Force fighter. Powders formed into parts for structural and non-structural applications hold the

Gurganus

1995-01-01

242

Vacuum Powder Injector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method developed to provide uniform impregnation of bundles of carbon-fiber tow with low-solubility, high-melt-flow polymer powder materials to produce composite prepregs. Vacuum powder injector expands bundle of fiber tow, applies polymer to it, then compresses bundle to hold powder. System provides for control of amount of polymer on bundle. Crystallinity of polymer maintained by controlled melt on takeup system. All powder entrapped, and most collected for reuse. Process provides inexpensive and efficient method for making composite materials. Allows for coating of any bundle of fine fibers with powders. Shows high potential for making prepregs of improved materials and for preparation of high-temperature, high-modulus, reinforced thermoplastics.

Working, Dennis C.

1991-01-01

243

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Jablonski, Paul D.

2011-05-01

244

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

2011-05-01

245

Sintering titanium powders  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

2005-09-01

246

Effects on peripheral and central blood pressure of cocoa with natural or high-dose theobromine: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial.  

PubMed

Flavanol-rich cocoa products have been reported to lower blood pressure. It has been suggested that theobromine is partially responsible for this effect. We tested whether consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa drinks with natural or added theobromine could lower peripheral and central blood pressure. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-period crossover trial we assigned 42 healthy individuals (age 62±4.5 years; 32 men) with office blood pressure of 130 to 159 mm Hg/85 to 99 mm Hg and low added cardiovascular risk to a random treatment sequence of dairy drinks containing placebo, flavanol-rich cocoa with natural dose consisting of 106 mg of theobromine, or theobromine-enriched flavanol-rich cocoa with 979 mg of theobromine. Treatment duration was 3 weeks with a 2-week washout. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure between placebo and active treatment after 3 weeks. The difference in central systolic blood pressure between placebo and active treatment was a secondary outcome. Treatment with theobromine-enriched cocoa resulted in a mean±SE of 3.2±1.1 mm Hg higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure compared with placebo (P<0.01). In contrast, 2 hours after theobromine-enriched cocoa, laboratory peripheral systolic blood pressure was not different from placebo, whereas central systolic blood pressure was 4.3±1.4 mm Hg lower (P=0.001). Natural dose theobromine cocoa did not significantly change either 24-hour ambulatory or central systolic blood pressure compared with placebo. In conclusion, theobromine-enriched cocoa significantly increased 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure while lowering central systolic blood pressure. PMID:20823377

van den Bogaard, Bas; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E; van den Meiracker, Anton H; van Montfrans, Gert A; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

2010-11-01

247

Cocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertension123  

PubMed Central

Background Essential hypertension is characterized by reciprocal relations between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Cocoa flavanols stimulate production of the vasodilator nitric oxide from vascular endothelium. Objective The objective was to test the hypothesis that consumption of cocoa may simultaneously lower blood pressure, improve endothelial dysfunction, and ameliorate insulin resistance in subjects with essential hypertension. Design We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink (150 mL twice a day, ?900 mg flavanols/d) in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 20). Antihypertensive medications were discontinued before study enrollment. After a 7-d cocoa-free run-in period, cocoa or flavanol-poor placebo (?28 mg flavanols/d) treatment for 2 wk was followed by a 1-wk washout and then crossover to the other treatment arm. Blood pressure was measured thrice weekly. At baseline and after each treatment period, we assessed insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic glucose clamp) and insulin-stimulated changes in brachial artery diameter and forearm skeletal muscle capillary recruitment (Doppler ultrasound with or without microbubble contrast). Results Cocoa treatment for 2 wk increased insulin-stimulated changes in brachial artery diameter when compared with placebo [median percentage increase from baseline (25th–75th percentile): 8.3 (4.2–11.3) compared with 5.9 (?0.3 to 9.6); P < 0.04]. Nevertheless, cocoa treatment did not significantly reduce blood pressure or improve insulin resistance and had no significant effects on skeletal muscle capillary recruitment, circulating plasma concentrations of adipocytokines, or endothelial adhesion molecules. Conclusions Daily consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa for 2 wk is not sufficient to reduce blood pressure or improve insulin resistance in human subjects with essential hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00099476.

Muniyappa, Ranganath; Hall, Gail; Kolodziej, Terrie L; Karne, Rajaram J; Crandon, Sonja K; Quon, Michael J

2010-01-01

248

Shade tree effects in an 8-year-old cocoa agroforestry system: biomass and nutrient diagnosis of Theobroma cacao by vector analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm product diversification, shade provision and low access to fertilizers often result in the purposeful integration of\\u000a upper canopy trees in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. Subsequent modification to light and soil conditions presumably affects nutrient availability and cocoa tree\\u000a nutrition. However, the level of complementarity between species requires investigation to minimize interspecific competition\\u000a and improve resource availability. We hypothesized beneficial

M. E. Isaac; V. R. Timmer; S. J. Quashie-Sam

2007-01-01

249

Ceramic powder compaction  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, F.M. [Norton Co., Worcester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

250

Mystery Powder Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Hallettnjuguna, Rachel

2012-07-27

251

Combustibility of titanium powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion of compact samples was studied; the mechanism of autoignition is defined. Several studies are made of the combustibility of titanium using 50 samples. The data provide a clear idea of the combustibility of titanium powders.

Popov, Ye. I.; Poyarkov, V. G.; Finayev, Yu. A.

1989-01-01

252

Some Candidate Louse Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past several years, several new candidate louse powders have been developed through a cooperative program between the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Department of Defense. These compounds include Abate, Cidial, Mobam, Carbaryl and GS-1...

M. M. Cole P. H. Clark R. H. Grothaus

1973-01-01

253

Gelcasting superalloy powders  

SciTech Connect

Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and has been used to produce ceramic parts from over a dozen different ceramic compositions ranging from alumina-based refractories to high-performance silicon nitride. Recently, gelcasting has been applied to forming superalloy powders into complex shapes. This application has posed several challenges not previously encountered in ceramics. In particular, problems were caused by the larger particle size and the higher density of the particles. Additional problems were encountered with binder removal. How these problems were overcome will be described.

Janney, M.A.

1995-12-31

254

Hepagene (PowderJect).  

PubMed

Celltech Group (formerly Medeva) developed Hepagene, a recombinant polyvalent vaccine with potential activity against hepatitis B virus infections [353474]. In September 2000, PowderJect acquired the product as part of its acquisition of Celltech's vaccine manufacturing business [381557]. In July 2001, PowderJect reported that evaluation was nearing completion. At this time, the company expected to launch the vaccine in the coming months [443490]. Hepagene is a polyvalent vaccine with S, pre-S1 and pre-S2 hepatitis B epitopes forming the basis of its antigenicity. Additionally, these surface markers have been glycosylated in order to resemble the live virus more closely [254780]. By June 2000, Celltech and PowderJect were evaluating Hepagene, utilizing PowderJect's needle-less injection technology [379536]. In December 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted that the product had a 50% chance of reaching the treatment (rather than prevention) market, with potential peak sales of US $600 million [352078]. PMID:12186276

Jones, Taff

2002-07-01

255

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger washes up on Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar almost 11 years after Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff from KSC's Launch Pad 39B. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. The previously retrieved remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination, documentation and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

256

Textured powder wires  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for fabricating a wire from textured powder includes compressing a powder comprising a plurality of particles into a ribbon. The method further includes encasing the ribbon between two foil sheets to create a sheet of encased ribbon. The method additionally includes rolling the encased ribbon into a substantially cylindrical undrawn wire. The method further includes drawing the undrawn wire to create a substantially cylindrical wire having a diameter less than a diameter of the substantially cylindrical undrawn wire.

2013-11-26

257

Powder Core Dielectric Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder-filled surface of a led groove in the teflon substrate has been demonstrated as a dielectric waveguide at 94 GHz. Guide wavelengths measured for combinations of guide dimensions and powders agree within 10% of values predicted by Marcatili 's approximate theory. Attenuation constants of 0.2 to 0.3 dB\\/cm were measured for barium tetra-titanate.

W. M. Bruno; W. B. Bridges

1984-01-01

258

Immune effects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

There has been considerable work on the relationships between nutrition and the immune response, particularly on studies that have focused on adaptive responses. There is increasing recognition of the importance of innate immunity in host protection and initiation of cytokine networks. In this study, we examined the effect of select cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on innate responses in vitro. Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as purified monocytes and CD4 and CD8 T cells, were isolated from healthy volunteers and cultured in the presence of cocoa flavanol fractions that differ from another by the degree of flavanol polymerization: short-chain flavanol fraction (SCFF), monomers to pentamers; and long-chain flavanol fraction (LCFF), hexamers to decamers. Parallel investigations were also done with highly purified flavanol monomers and procyanidin dimers. The isolated cells were then challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with quantitation of activation using CD69 and CD83 expression and analysis of secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The chain length of flavanol fractions had a significant effect on cytokine release from both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated PBMCs. For example, there was a striking increase of LPS-induced synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the presence of LCFF. LCFF and SCFF, in the absence of LPS, stimulated the production of GM-CSF. In addition, LCFF and SCFF increased expression of the B cell markers CD69 and CD83. There were also unique differential responses in the mononuclear cell populations studied. We conclude that the oligomers are potent stimulators of both the innate immune system and early events in adaptive immunity. PMID:17259337

Kenny, Thomas P; Keen, Carl L; Schmitz, Harold H; Gershwin, M Eric

2007-02-01

259

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

2010-01-01

260

Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) upon infection with Phytophthora megakarya  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora megakarya, the causative agent of cacao black pod disease in West African countries causes an extensive loss of yield. In this study we have analyzed 4 libraries of ESTs derived from Phytophthora megakarya infected cocoa leaf and pod tissues. Totally 6379 redundant sequences were retrieved from ESTtik database and EST processing was performed using seqclean tool. Clustering and assembling using CAP3 generated 3333 non-redundant (907 contigs and 2426 singletons) sequences. The primary sequence analysis of 3333 non-redundant sequences showed that the GC percentage was 42.7 and the sequence length ranged from 101 – 2576 nucleotides. Further, functional analysis (Blast, Interproscan, Gene ontology and KEGG search) were executed and 1230 orthologous genes were annotated. Totally 272 enzymes corresponding to 114 metabolic pathways were identified. Functional annotation revealed that most of the sequences are related to molecular function, stress response and biological processes. The annotated enzymes are aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C: 1.2.1.3), catalase (E.C: 1.11.1.6), acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (E.C: 2.3.1.9), threonine ammonia-lyase (E.C: 4.3.1.19), acetolactate synthase (E.C: 2.2.1.6), O-methyltransferase (E.C: 2.1.1.68) which play an important role in amino acid biosynthesis and phenyl propanoid biosynthesis. All this information was stored in MySQL database management system to be used in future for reconstruction of biotic stress response pathway in cocoa.

Naganeeswaran, Sudalaimuthu Asari; Subbian, Elain Apshara; Ramaswamy, Manimekalai

2012-01-01

261

Characterization of primary standards for use in the HPLC analysis of the procyanidin content of cocoa and chocolate containing products.  

PubMed

This report describes the characterization of a series of commercially available procyanidin standards ranging from dimers DP = 2 to decamers DP = 10 for the determination of procyanidins from cocoa and chocolate. Using a combination of HPLC with fluorescence detection and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the purity of each standard was determined and these data were used to determine relative response factors. These response factors were compared with other response factors obtained from published methods. Data comparing the procyanidin analysis of a commercially available US dark chocolate calculated using each of the calibration methods indicates divergent results and demonstrate that previous methods may significantly underreport the procyanidins in cocoa-containing products. These results have far reaching implications because the previous calibration methods have been used to develop data for a variety of scientific reports, including food databases and clinical studies. PMID:19924052

Hurst, William J; Stanley, Bruce; Glinski, Jan A; Davey, Matthew; Payne, Mark J; Stuart, David A

2009-01-01

262

A strategy for tree-perennial crop productivity: nursery phase nutrient additions in cocoa-shade agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shade tolerant species response to nutrient additions and light regulation by canopy trees in perennial agroforestry systems\\u000a has been well documented. However, accelerated early growth, particularly in cocoa-shade systems, may be offset by competition\\u000a for limited resources on nutrient poor sites. To date, few agroforestry management strategies focus on nutrient manipulation\\u000a of the shade tree component or strategies for precision

Marney E. IsaacEric; Eric O. Adjei; Roland N. Issaka; Vic R. Timmer

2011-01-01

263

Thermal analysis of palm mid-fraction, cocoa butter and milk fat blends by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial samples of anhydrous milk fat (AMF), Ivory Coast cocoa butter (CB) and palm mid-fraction (PMF) were blended in\\u000a a ternary system. The melting characteristics of the blends were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results\\u000a suggest that in the studies of interaction involving more than two fats, partial area (Ai) under the melting peak should be converted to partial

P. S. Dimick

1994-01-01

264

Identification of Procyanidins in Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) and Chocolate Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa and chocolate were separated and identified using a modified normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with on-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis using an atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray chamber. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a silica stationary phase in combination with a gradient ascending in polarity. This qualitative report confirms the presence

John F. Hammerstone; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Robert Rucker; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

265

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. V. Comparison of natural, interesterified, and synthetic cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glyceride structure of cocoa butter is of considerable practical importance and of particular theoretical interest Countereurrent\\u000a distribution, gas chromatography, and isotopic dilution methods are employed in its study. The observed fractionation of glycerides\\u000a is acounted for by assuming that palmitie and stearic acids are randomly esterified on the 1 and 3 positions of glycerol and\\u000a that oleic is on

H. J. Dutton; C. R. Scholfield; T. L. Mounts

1961-01-01

266

The cooling rate effect on the microstructure and rheological properties of blends of cocoa butter with vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elasticity (G?) and yield stress (??) of blends of cocoa butter (CB) in vegetable oils (i.e., 30% CB\\/canola and 30% CB\\/soybean oil) crystallized at temperatures (TCr) between 9.5°C and 13.5°C and two cooling rates (1°C\\/min and 5°C\\/min) were determined, evaluating their relationship with parameters associated with the formation and structural organization of the crystal network [i.e., solid fat content

David Pérez-Martínez; C. Alvarez-Salas; M. Charó-Alonso; E. Dibildox-Alvarado; J. F. Toro-Vazquez

2007-01-01

267

The anti-oxidation potential of polyphenol extract from cocoa leaves on mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypenols were extracted from young cocoa leaves (CL) and analysed for their total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteau method), catechin composition (HPLC method) and reducing power (Fe3+ reduction). The extracts (at different concentrations) were tested for their anti-oxidation potential in a model meat system, based on mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). The anti-oxidation characteristics were compared against a 1:1 butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)\\/butylated

Osman Hassan; Lam Swet Fan

2005-01-01

268

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

269

Comparison of the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed polyphenolic beverages (coffee, cocoa, and tea) prepared per cup serving.  

PubMed

In this study, the in vitro low-density lipoprotein oxidation model was used to assess the relative antioxidant activity of the polyphenolic beverages tea, coffee, and cocoa on a cup-serving basis. The beverages were prepared as 0.7-2.5% soluble coffee and 1.5-3.5% cocoa; teas (green, black, or herbal) were prepared as one tea bag infused over 5 min in 220 mL of hot water. Under these standard cup serving conditions, the antioxidant activity as determined by the lag time was in the range of 292-948 min for coffee, 217-444 min for cocoa, 186-338 min for green tea, 67-277 min for black tea, and 6-78 min for herbal tea. Addition of milk did not alter the antioxidant activity. The influence of coffee bean source and degree of roasting was further investigated. Green coffee beans of Robusta coffee exhibited a 2-fold higher antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee, but after roasting this difference was no longer significant. In conclusion, these commonly consumed beverages have a significant antioxidant activity, the highest being soluble coffee on a cup-serving basis. PMID:11453788

Richelle, M; Tavazzi, I; Offord, E

2001-07-01

270

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

ScienceCinema

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2013-03-01

271

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01

272

Powder towpreg process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

1991-01-01

273

Powder magnetoresistance (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoresistance observed in pressed powder compacts of half-metallic ferromagnetic oxides is reviewed. The main, isotropic negative magnetoresistance, which exceeds 50% in CrO2 at low temperature, is due to alignment of the the ferromagnetic moments of contiguous ferromagnetic grains. The effect is related to interparticle tunelling and shows hysteresis similar to that of the bulk magnetization. Spin-dependent Coulomb blocade observed in the smallest particles. There is also, an anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to 1% and a high-field increase in conductivity of order 1%/T in the powder compacts.

Coey, J. M. D.

1999-04-01

274

Magnetic powder filled polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite magnetic materials with commercial polymer matrix along with different magnetic fillers have been studied, with the aim of tailoring their properties. The measured magnetic parameters of the prepared samples have been compared by those calculated using a model in which the magnetic powder particles are surrounded by the thin layer of matrix material

Jozef Slama; Anna Gruskova; Ludovit Keszegh; Mojmir Kollar

1994-01-01

275

Laser powder deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the art of laser powder deposition (LPD), a solid freeform fabrication technique capable of fabricating fully dense functional items from a wide range of common engineering materials, such as aluminum alloys, steels, titanium alloys, nickel superalloys and refractory materials. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The main R&D efforts and the

Lino Costa; Rui Vilar

2009-01-01

276

Demystifying Mystery Powders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

Kotar, Michael

1989-01-01

277

Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P < 0.01) and significant increase of NO (P < 0.001) were seen in HUVEC. In the study subjects, a significant inhibition of ACE activity (mean 18%) 3 hours after intake of dark chocolate was seen, but no significant change in NO was seen. According to ACE genotype, significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen after 3 hours in individuals with genotype insertion/insertion and deletion/deletion (mean 21% and 28%, respectively). Data suggest that intake of dark chocolate containing high amount of cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20966764

Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

2011-01-01

278

Method to blend separator powders  

DOEpatents

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04

279

Cocoa Beach students take part in nationwide project for STARSHINE spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students Scott Kerley and Bryan Geer demonstrate how they polished mirrors for STARSHINE, a student spacecraft built by the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. The two seventh graders at McNair Magnet School, Cocoa Beach, Fla., are among dozens of students teams of elementary, middle and high school students who have polished nearly nine hundred of the one-inch mirrors and returned them to Utah for coating with a protective transparent layer of Silicon Dioxide at Hill Air Force Base. The mirrors are being mounted on the surface of the spacecraft. STARSHINE is being deployed into a highly inclined low-earth orbit from a Hitchhiker canister on mission STS-96, targeted to launch May 20. After deployment from the Shuttle in May, the spacecraft will reflect flashes of sunlight to observers on the earth during the mission. This twinkling satellite will be naked- eye visible against the star background for about six months during recurring morning and evening twilight periods to student observers around the world.

1999-01-01

280

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

281

Lactobacillus ghanensis sp. nov., a motile lactic acid bacterium isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations.  

PubMed

Three Gram-positive, catalase-negative, motile, rod-shaped strains, designated L486, L489(T) and L499, were isolated from fermenting cocoa. These organisms produced DL-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. Ammonia was not produced from arginine. Acid was produced from amygdalin, D-cellobiose, aesculin, D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, L-rhamnose, sucrose, salicin and D-trehalose. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belong phylogenetically to the genus Lactobacillus and are closely related to Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus vini and Lactobacillus satsumensis. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values were obtained between the isolates and the phylogenetically closest neighbours. On the basis of the genetic and phenotypic results, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus ghanensis is proposed. The type strain is L489(T) (=DSM 18630(T)=CCUG 53453(T)). PMID:17625177

Nielsen, Dennis S; Schillinger, Ulrich; Franz, Charles M A P; Bresciani, José; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Jakobsen, Mogens

2007-07-01

282

Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.  

PubMed

The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries. PMID:24518349

Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

2014-07-01

283

[Residues of ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) in infusions of cocoa and in chocolate (author's transl)].  

PubMed

With a sensitive method residues of 0.2--0.6 ppm ECH are found in commercial and bendtop infusions of cocoa and 1.8--5.6 ppm ECH in chocolate. The balance is established with time between ECH and ethylene oxide (EO) in the boiling infusion and the distillate depending on time. It is found that the ECH concentration in the infusion is reduced in 15 min to 1/7 by evaporation alone. No reaction to EO or ethylene glycol or other metabolites is detectable. For the determination alkali is added to the sample, followed by distillation of any formed EO into dilute sulfuric acid, where ethylene glycol is oxidized to formaldehyd according to Malaprade. This is distilled off for further enrichment and determined according to Bremanis by photometry at 570 nm. The determination for limit was to 0.01 ppm, the standard deviation is s = 0.0034 ppm (N = 30), the yield 99.8%. The sensitivity may be increased tenfold by increasing sample size. PMID:735415

Pfeilsticker, K; Leyendecker, A

1978-11-28

284

Development of Dry Powder Inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of dry powder inhalers involves powder recrystallization, formulation, dispersion, delivery, and deposition of the therapeutic agent in different regions of the airways in prophylaxis\\/ treatment\\/ diagnosis of pulmonary and systemic disorders. Conventional powder production by crystallization and milling has many limitations resulting into development of alternative techniques to overcome the problems. In the last decade many patents have been

Mahavir B. Chougule; Bijay K. Padhi; Kaustubh A. Jinturkar; Ambikanandan Misra

2007-01-01

285

Synthesis of boron nitride powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the materials science community there is much interest in the development of new, efficient approaches for preparing ceramic powders having properties or performance characteristics not found with powders produced by traditional metallurgical synthesis methods. In this regard, aerosol-based syntheses are finding general acceptance for the preparation of non-metal and metal oxide powders. In contrast, much less effort has been

Dirk Horst Dreissig

2002-01-01

286

Ignition characteristics of plutonium powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fires occurred recently in a vacuum cleaner used to pick up plutonium powder during brushing of plutonium. The plutonium powder was collected by a conventional canister vacuum cleaner passing directly into the clean bag which was changed daily and sent to Building 771 for recovery. Finely divided metal powder is known to be a potential fire and explosion hazard.

Musgrave

1971-01-01

287

Stilbenic profile of cocoa liquors from different origins determined by RP-HPLC-APCI(+)-MS/MS. Detection of a new resveratrol hexoside.  

PubMed

trans-Resveratrol and trans-piceid were recently discovered in chocolate. In the present work, both were quantified by RP-HPLC-APCI(+)-MS/MS in 22 cocoa liquors from 11 different countries. A very large range of concentrations was observed for trans-piceid. The most concentrated sample (Arriba 06) reached 0.4 and 2.6 mg/kg of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid, respectively, but in other cultivars stilbene levels were five times lower. Neither cis-resveratrol nor cis-piceid was found in cocoa liquors. An unknown compound eluting 0.5 min before trans-piceid and present at concentrations up to 0.8 mg/kg of trans-piceid equivalents in cocoa liquors was tentatively identified by HRMS as a trans-piceid-like hexoside. PMID:20438125

Jerkovic, Vesna; Bröhan, Meike; Monnart, Elise; Nguyen, Fanny; Nizet, Sabrina; Collin, Sonia

2010-06-01

288

Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

Working, Dennis C. (inventor)

1993-01-01

289

Chocolate: Temptation or Health Food?  

MedlinePLUS

... separates into cocoa butter (the fat) and cocoa powder. To make eating chocolate, the chocolate liquor is ... top The Color of Chocolate The dry cocoa powder, used in products such as hot chocolate, can ...

290

Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.  

PubMed

Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. PMID:23664257

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2013-09-01

291

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

1998-01-01

292

Structures, sensory activity, and dose/response functions of 2,5-diketopiperazines in roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao).  

PubMed

The taste compounds inducing the blood-like, metallic bitter taste sensation reported recently for a dichloromethane extract prepared from roasted cocoa nibs were identified as a series of 25 diketopiperazines by means of HPLC degustation, LC-MS/MS, and independent synthesis. Among these 25 compounds, 13 cis-configured diketopiperazines, namely, cyclo(L-IIe-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Val-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Pro), cyclo(L-IIe-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Val-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Ala-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Phe-L-Ser), cyclo(L-Ala-L-IIe), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Thr), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), and cyclo(L-Val-L-Val) were identified for the first time in cocoa. In addition, the taste recognition thresholds for the metallic as well as the bitter taste of the diketopiperazines were determined, and after quantitative analysis by using two diastereomeric diketopiperazines as the internal standards, the sensory impact of the diketopiperazines was evaluated on the basis of their dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors calculated as the ratio of the concentration and the threshold concentration of a compound. These data revealed DoT factors above 1.0 exclusively for cis-cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), cis-cyclo(L-Val-L-Leu), cis-cyclo(L-Ala-L-Ile), cis-cyclo(L-Ala-L-Leu), and cis-cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro), whereas all of the other diketopiperazines were present below their individual bitter taste threshold concentrations and should therefore not contribute to the cocoa taste. Because the DoT factors do not consider the nonlinear relationship between the concentration and gustatory response of an individual compound, we, for the first time, report on the recording of dose/response functions describing the human bitter taste perception of diketopiperazines more precisely. PMID:16131134

Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

2005-09-01

293

Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao).  

PubMed

Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these amino acid amides. Besides the previously reported (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, seven additional amides, namely, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-[(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, were identified for the first time in cocoa products by means of LC-MS/MS, 1D/2D-NMR, UV-vis, CD spectroscopy, and polarimetry, as well as independent enantiopure synthesis. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying oral sensation were determined to be between 26 and 220 micromol/L (water) depending on the amino acid moiety. In addition, exposure to light rapidly converted these [E]-configured N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids into the corresponding [Z]-isomers, thus indicating that analysis of these compounds in food and plant materials needs to be performed very carefully in the absence of light to prevent artifact formation. PMID:15969528

Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

2005-06-29

294

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity  

PubMed Central

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

295

Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.  

PubMed

Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance. PMID:21699218

Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

2011-08-10

296

Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) and structure determination of taste-active polyphenols.  

PubMed

Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments and thiolytic degradation, revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, the flavan-3-ols epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin B-5, procyanidin C-1, [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](3)-epicatechin, and [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](4)-epicatechin were among the key compounds contributing to the bitter taste as well as the astringent mouthfeel imparted upon consumption of roasted cocoa. In addition, a series of quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin glycopyranosides as well as a family of not previously identified amino acid amides, namely, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-(E)-cinnamoyl-L-aspartic acid, have been identified as key astringent compounds of roasted cocoa. Furthermore, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, reported previously as antioxidants, have been found as contributors of cocoa's astringent taste. By means of the half-tongue test, the taste thresholds of flavan-3-ols and glycosides have been determined. PMID:15969527

Stark, Timo; Bareuther, Sabine; Hofmann, Thomas

2005-06-29

297

Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of milk fat and cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

A collaborative trial was conducted to validate an analytical approach comprising method procedures for determination of milk fat and the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate. The whole approach is based on (1) comprehensive databases covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat, cocoa butter, and CBE samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof; (2) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material for calibration; (3) an evaluation algorithm, which allows reliable quantitation of the milk fat content in chocolate; (4) a subsequent correction to take account of the triacylglycerols derived from milk fat; (5) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate; and (6) a multivariate statistical formula to quantitate the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation study. CBE admixtures were detected down to a level of 0.5 g CBE/100 g milk chocolate, without false-positive or -negative results. The applied quantitation model performed well at the statutory limit of 5% CBE addition to milk chocolate, with a prediction error of 0.7%, and HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 1.5. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values for quantitation of CBEs in analyses of chocolate fat solutions ranged from 2.2 to 3.8% and for analyses of real chocolate samples, from 4.1 to 4.7%, demonstrating that the whole approach, based solely on chocolate fat blends, is applicable to real milk chocolate samples. PMID:17955976

Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona

2007-01-01

298

Interrelationship of stearic acid content and triacylglycerol composition of lard, beef tallow and cocoa butter in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated modes whereby stearic acid (18?0) exerts a neutral or cholesterol-lowering effect using dietary fats which\\u000a provided graded levels of 18?0 and distinct triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150–175 g) were fed\\u000a diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 16% fat from corn oil, or from 1% corn oil plus 15% lard (13.2% 18?0), beef tallow (19.2%\\u000a 18?0) or cocoa

Cathy C. Monsma; Denise M. Ney

1993-01-01

299

Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P < 0.01) for the average chromosome length and the length of chromosome pairs within and between accessions. The average chromosome lengths of mutants of Cacau Rui and Cacau Jaca were not statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The karyotypic diversity observed in this study is not necessarily associated with the changing character of the accessions analyzed, but may reflect the genetic variation observed in Theobroma cacao. PMID:24222243

Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

2013-01-01

300

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of neural function, and previous studies have found positive influences of CF on cognitive performance. In this preliminary study we investigated whether visual, as well as cognitive, function is influenced by an acute dose of CF in young adults. We employed a randomized, single-blinded, order counterbalanced, crossover design in which 30 healthy adults consumed both dark chocolate containing 720mg CF and a matched quantity of white chocolate, with a one week interval between testing sessions. Visual contrast sensitivity was assessed by reading numbers that became progressively more similar in luminance to their background. Motion sensitivity was assessed firstly by measuring the threshold proportion of coherently moving signal dots that could be detected against a background of random motion, and secondly by determining the minimum time required to detect motion direction in a display containing a high proportion of coherent motion. Cognitive performance was assessed using a visual spatial working memory for location task and a choice reaction time task designed to engage processes of sustained attention and inhibition. Relative to the control condition, CF improved visual contrast sensitivity and reduced the time required to detect motion direction, but had no statistically reliable effect on the minimum proportion of coherent motion that could be detected. In terms of cognitive performance, CF improved spatial memory and performance on some aspects of the choice reaction time task. As well as extending the range of cognitive tasks that are known to be influenced by CF consumption, this is the first report of acute effects of CF on the efficiency of visual function. These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes. PMID:21324330

Field, David T; Williams, Claire M; Butler, Laurie T

2011-06-01

301

Mechanical milling of magnesium powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of microstructure during mechanical milling of magnesium powder has been studied. Commercially pure (99.6%, ?325 mesh) magnesium powder was mechanically milled in a modified SPEX 8000 shaker mill in an inert atmosphere. The optical microscopy of the powder in the early stage of milling showed deformation by twinning and re-twinning within the grains developing sub-grain boundaries, which eventually

S Hwang; C Nishimura; P. G McCormick

2001-01-01

302

The Gene Mutated in Cocoa Mice, Carrying a Defect of Organelle Biogenesis, Is a Homologue of the Human Hermansky–Pudlak Syndrome3 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of human disorders of organelle biogenesis characterized by defective synthesis of melanosomes, lysosomes, and platelet dense granules. In the mouse, at least 15 loci are associated with mutant phenotypes similar to human HPS. We have identified the gene mutated in cocoa (coa) mice, which is associated with an HPS-like mutant phenotype and thus represents

Tamio Suzuki; Wei Li; Qing Zhang; Edward K Novak; Elena V Sviderskaya; Amanda Wilson; Dorothy C Bennett; Bruce A Roe; Richard T Swank; Richard A Spritz

2001-01-01

303

Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.  

PubMed

Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans. PMID:22425756

Monahan, Kevin D

2012-11-15

304

Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.  

PubMed

Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating. PMID:11049061

Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

2000-10-01

305

Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermenta- tions performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic

Nicholas Camu; Angel Gonzalez; Tom De Winter; Ann Van Schoor; Katrien De Bruyne; Peter Vandamme; Jemmy S. Takrama; Solomon K. Addo; Luc De Vuyst

2008-01-01

306

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda

2012-01-01

307

Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa.  

PubMed

(-)-Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol in cacao stimulates mitochondrial volume and cristae density and protein markers of skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and heart failure (HF) are diseases associated with defects in SkM mitochondrial structure/function. A study was implemented to assess perturbations and to determine the effects of Epi-rich cocoa in SkM mitochondrial structure and mediators of biogenesis. Five patients with DM2 and stage II/III HF consumed dark chocolate and a beverage containing approximately 100 mg of Epi per day for 3 months. We assessed changes in protein and/or activity levels of oxidative phosphorylation proteins, porin, mitofilin, nNOS, nitric oxide, cGMP, SIRT1, PGC1?, Tfam, and mitochondria volume and cristae abundance by electron microscopy from SkM. Apparent major losses in normal mitochondria structure were observed before treatment. Epi-rich cocoa increased protein and/or activity of mediators of biogenesis and cristae abundance while not changing mitochondrial volume density. Epi-rich cocoa treatment improves SkM mitochondrial structure and in an orchestrated manner, increases molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in enhanced cristae density. Future controlled studies are warranted using Epi-rich cocoa (or pure Epi) to translate improved mitochondrial structure into enhanced cardiac and/or SkM muscle function. PMID:22376256

Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Perkins, Guy; Murphy, Anne N; Naviaux, Robert; Hogan, Michael; Maisel, Alan S; Henry, Robert R; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

2012-02-01

308

EFFECT OF COCOA (Theobroma cacao L.) BIOFERTILIZATION IN NURSERY WITH Azospirillum brasilense Tarrand, Krieg et Döbereiner AND Glomus intraradices Schenk et Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Theobroma cacao L. originated in America and has been as- sociated with the development of various Indian cultures in the tropical forest. Its beans are used for the production of food, beverages and sweets. The demand of cocoa cultivated without agrochemical products has increased. Plant nutrition with mi- crobial fertilizers is an alternative for increasing its organic production. In

Juan F. Aguirre-Medina; Alexander Mendoza-López; Jorge Cadena-Iñiguez; Carlos H. Avendaño-Arrazate

2007-01-01

309

Plasmasynthesized nano-aluminum powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma electro-condensation\\u000a process was used to synthesize nano-sized aluminum powders. Adding different\\u000a chemicals modified the physical and chemical properties of these powders.\\u000a To characterize the nano-sized powders, X-ray diffraction, TEM, BET analyses,\\u000a and simultaneous TG\\/DSC analyses were performed. TG\\/DSC analyses revealed\\u000a a dramatic degradation of the aluminum oxide layer after storage of the aluminum\\u000a powder in air for a

Alla Pivkina; D. Ivanov; Yu. Frolov; Svetlana Mudretsova; Anna Nickolskaya; J. Schoonman

2006-01-01

310

Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

Throne, James L.

1988-01-01

311

Kinetics of Crystallization in n-Hexadecane and Cocoa Butter Oil-in-Water Emulsions Accounting for Droplet Collision-Mediated Nucleation.  

PubMed

Droplet collision is shown to be important in the propagation of nucleation through supercooled oil-in-water emulsions by the use of a novel membrane technique. On the other hand, nucleation mediated by Tween 20 micelles is shown to be of relatively much less importance in both n-hexadecane and cocoa butter oil-in-water emulsions. The droplet collision phenomenon probably occurs via a surfactant bridge between the colliding droplets. When this process is taken into account we show that the Turnbull model for crystal nucleation kinetics explains very well nucleation in cocoa butter oil-in-water emulsions by seed crystals. On the basis of this model we characterized the seed crystals in cocoa butter via isothermal crystallization studies at 14.2, 15.0, 15.5, and 15.8 degrees C. We suggest that there are few seed crystals whose size exceeds 0.28 µm at 80 degrees C. In our cocoa butter samples there were between 10(16) and 10(17) seed crystals m(-3) whose average size we inferred to be less than 0.09 µm. A value of 0.133 mJ m(-2) is obtained for the Gibbs free energy of the nucleating surface in our West African cocoa butter samples. There is evidence that the alpha-polymorph of POS comprises the nucleating layer in the seed crystal. There is no evidence that surfactant influences the primary nucleation of oil crystals. However, the surfactant has a big effect on the kinetics of the secondary nucleation process, mediated by droplet collision. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11097773

Hindle; Povey; Smith

2000-12-15

312

Investigations of Light Transfer in Powder Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

At selective laser sintering \\/ melting of powder bodies by laser irradiation it is very important to determine the actual energy deposited in a layer of powder and its distribution over the thickness of the powder bed. By varying the thickness of the powder bed the distribution of absorbed energy over the thickness of the powder bed has been determined.

Chivel Yuri

2011-01-01

313

Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao

1974-01-01

314

Ignition characteristics of plutonium powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two fires occurred recently in a vacuum cleaner used to pick up plutonium powder during brushing of plutonium. The plutonium powder was collected by a conventional canister vacuum cleaner passing directly into the clean bag which was changed daily and sen...

L. E. Musgrave

1971-01-01

315

Electrical conductivity of carbonaceous powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the electrical conductivity of a number of carbonaceous powders undergoing a low compaction. It is shown that the contributions to the conductivity of such samples are too numerous and too complex to be solved exactly. Hence, several criteria are proposed in order to quantify the behaviour of moderately compressed powders, and thus derive several useful

A. Celzard; J. F. Marêché; F. Payot; G. Furdin

2002-01-01

316

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

317

Mound powder loader, Mod 1  

SciTech Connect

At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

Gress, A.V. Jr.

1985-08-21

318

Synthesis of boron nitride powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the materials science community there is much interest in the development of new, efficient approaches for preparing ceramic powders having properties or performance characteristics not found with powders produced by traditional metallurgical synthesis methods. In this regard, aerosol-based syntheses are finding general acceptance for the preparation of non-metal and metal oxide powders. In contrast, much less effort has been given to aerosol-type syntheses for non-oxide powders despite potentially useful benefits. This dissertation describes the application of two chemical systems in aerosol assisted vapor phase synthesis (AAVS) for the preparation of spherical morphology boron oxynitride, BNxOy, powders that are subsequently converted to spherical morphology boron nitride in a second nitridation step. Chapter 1 describes the AAVS synthesis of BNxOy powders using a reaction of an aqueous boric acid containing aerosol with ammonia at 1000°C. The effect of reactor tube material, total gas flow rate, ammonia concentration, boric acid concentration, and urea addition to the boric acid aerosol on the percent oxygen composition is described. The resulting BNxOy powders contain significant amounts of oxygen that require replacement in a second stage nitridation reaction at elevated temperature under ammonia. The influences of the reaction temperature profile, crucible geometry and transformation additive on final oxygen composition and powder crystallinity are described. Chapter 2 outlines the formation of BNxOy powders from an AAVS reaction between the boron precursor (MeO)3B and ammonia. The formation of the powders is studied as a function of total gas flow rate and ammonia concentration. In all cases the resulting powders contain lower levels of oxygen compared to powders produced from aqueous boric acid aerosols. The conversion of the BNxOy powders in the second stage nitridation reaction with ammonia is examined as a function of crucible geometry, temperature profile and ammonia flow rate. In support of this process, the molecular reaction between (MeO)3B and NH3 was reexamined. The adduct, (MeO)3B·NH3, was isolated and its molecular structure determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of these studies provide guidance for more detailed studies that should result in industrial scale synthesis of spherical morphology BN which currently is not formed by standard metallurgical syntheses. This new material has potential applications in several areas including the formation of BN loaded organic polymer composites.

Dreissig, Dirk Horst

2002-09-01

319

21 CFR 520.441 - Chlortetracycline powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Chlortetracycline powder. 520.441 Section 520...441 Chlortetracycline powder. (a) Specifications. Chlortetracycline powder contains not less than...administer this product with milk or milk replacers;...

2013-04-01

320

21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys...virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small...zinc, tin, and copper content shall be based...weight of the dried powder after being...

2009-04-01

321

21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys...virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small...zinc, tin, and copper content shall be based...weight of the dried powder after being...

2010-04-01

322

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2009-04-01

324

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 ...Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and...

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 ...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and...

2013-04-01

326

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 ...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and...

2013-04-01

327

Properties of an atomized iron powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ction Association by atomization of molten EP-612 steel with water under a pressure of 40 atm gauge [2] and two reduced iron powders - Brovary Powder Metallurgy Factory PZh4M2 powder and Hoeganaes NC 100.24 powder, in addition, a similar study was made of specially prepared atomized powders having particle-size distributions corresponding to those of PZh4M2 and NC 100.24 powders. By

A. E. Kushchevskii; A. T. Pekarik; O. S. Nichiporenko; A. B. Medvedovskii

1978-01-01

328

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

Bhattacharya, R.

1998-08-04

329

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01

330

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

1996-01-02

331

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

1983-01-01

332

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

333

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

Janney, M.A.

1990-01-16

334

Ceramic powder for sintering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

1984-01-01

335

Characterization of nanometer tungsten powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of tungsten powders were prepared by hydrogen reduction of three precursor powders at low temperature, which were used as samples, and were then characterized by Brunauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) respectively. The results showed that although BET and SEM could not

Huiqian LI; Tao LIN; Huiping SHAO; Chengyi WU; Zhimeng GUO; Ji LUO

2008-01-01

336

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

337

Preparation of zirconium boride powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intermediate reaction in the synthesis of ZrBâ powder by the reduction of ZrOâ with BâC and carbon was confirmed through both thermodynamical calculation and experimental results. Because the intermediate product BâOâ was volatile, excess boron should be added to compensate for the boron loss in order to prepare high-purity ZrBâ powder. The synthesis temperatures of the intermediate reaction and

Hong Zhao; Yu He; Zongzhe Jin

1995-01-01

338

Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

1974-01-01

339

Method for Production of Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

1997-01-01

340

Powder metal technologies and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is: (1) a completely updated and expanded edition in all areas of powder production, sampling, characterization, shaping, consolidation, sintering, quality control, machining, heat treating, and P\\/M applications; (2) single source for practical engineering information on sintering practices, tool design, P\\/M metallography, dimensional control, part design, powders, binders, lubricants, and the processing, properties, and performance of P\\/M materials in

W. B. Eisen; B. L. Ferguson; R. M. German; R. Iacocca; P. W. Lee; D. Madan; K. Moyer; H. Sanderow; Y. Trudel

1998-01-01

341

Powder collection apparatus/method  

DOEpatents

Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

1994-01-11

342

Composite copper\\/stainless steel coated powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work concerns the development of new composites based on austenitic stainless steel (SS) or copper (Cu) microsized powders coated with thin nanostructured layers of copper or stainless steels, respectively. A home-manufactured magnetron sputtering system equipped with a powder vibration device was used to coat the powders. A detailed analysis of the coated copper or stainless steel powders

Mariana Matos; José M. Castanho; Maria T. Vieira

2009-01-01

343

21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder...

2013-04-01

344

Endophytes and mycoparasites associated with an indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri , in Ecuador and a preliminary assessment of their potential as biocontrol agents of cocoa diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main constraint and continuing threat to cocoa production in Latin America is disease caused by two basidiomycete fungi\\u000a belonging to the genus Crinipellis (Agaricales), both of which are currently on an invasive front. Classical biological control, in which coevolved natural enemies are\\u000a considered to offer the most potential for sustainable control of invasive alien organisms, is investigated as a

Harry C. Evans; Keith A. Holmes; Sarah E. Thomas

2003-01-01

345

Fast determination of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids (NPA) in cocoa samples from different origins by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

N-Phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids (NPA) are among the key contributors to the astringent taste of cocoa. Two fast and easy to use methods (CE and UPLC®, both with PDA detection) for routine determination of the main NPA were developed. Crude extracts of defatted seeds were analysed by means of capillary electrophoresis leading to separation in less than 30min. Separation by means of UPLC® was much faster (<4min), however, a preceding SPE clean-up abolishes this benefit in time saving. Thus, the CE- and UPLC®-methods are comparable concerning time consumption and provide similar results. Analysis of 18 samples of raw and roasted beans from the global cocoa market originated from 12 countries and 4 continents showed a great variability of NPA content (0.7-3.6mg/g) and qualitative composition of different NPA. Anyway, all samples from cocoa beans showed a comparable NPA pattern. N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-l-aspartic acid was the most abundant metabolite, followed by N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-l-aspartic acid and N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine (clovamide). The analysis of other plant organs (flowers, leaves, fruits) revealed an entirely different situation. NPA were detected in all parts of the fruit, with husk and pulp being clearly dominated by clovamide. In flowers and leaves no NPA were detected; 2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid was shown to be the major caffeic acid metabolite in leaves. PMID:22953909

Lechtenberg, Matthias; Henschel, Katrin; Liefländer-Wulf, Ursula; Quandt, Bettina; Hensel, Andreas

2012-12-01

346

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from palm olein and saturated fatty acid distillate from palm oil physical refinery.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter equivalent was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm olein oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored and the compositions of the five major triacylglycerol (TAG) of the structured lipids were identified and quantified using cocoa butter-certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cococa butter equivent with TAG compostion (POP 26.6 %, POS 42.1, POO 7.5, SOS 18.0 %, and SOO 5.8 %) and melting temperature between 34.7 and 39.6 °C which is close to that of the cocoa butter. The result of this research demonstrated the potential use of saturated fatty acid distillate (palmitic and stearic fatty acids) obtained from palm oil physical refining process into a value-added product. PMID:22968586

Mohamed, Ibrahim O

2012-11-01

347

Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B) with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively) on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p < 0.001) with respect to the non-cocoa stage. No changes in body weight were observed in either of the 4 week interventions. With cocoa product B, the number of daily bowel movements increased (p = 0.002), the frequency of having a bowel movement once a day increased (p = 0.009), the time to have a bowel movement was lower (p = 0.016) as well as the feeling of constipation (p = 0.046) without inducing adverse gastrointestinal symptoms, only flatulence increased (p = 0.019). Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

2012-01-01

348

Production and consumption of aluminum powders (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 621.762 The prod, ration of powder products of aluminum and its alloys (medium and very fine powders, pastes, granules) is one of the fastest growing areas of international aluminum metallurgy. In terms of volume of production, the output of aluminum powders and pastes is second after iron powders. World pro~iuction of powder aluminum products annually during the period 1993-1996

O. S. Nichiporenko

1997-01-01

349

Powder metal technologies and applications  

SciTech Connect

This volume is: (1) a completely updated and expanded edition in all areas of powder production, sampling, characterization, shaping, consolidation, sintering, quality control, machining, heat treating, and P/M applications; (2) single source for practical engineering information on sintering practices, tool design, P/M metallography, dimensional control, part design, powders, binders, lubricants, and the processing, properties, and performance of P/M materials in different production technologies and applications; (3) comprehensive coverage of P/M technologies and applications including warm compaction, injection molding, rapid prototyping, thermal spray forming, reactive sintering, and P/M gears, bearings, high-performance parts, composites, machine parts, electric contacts, magnetic materials, metallic foams, hardfacing powders, automotive parts, and more.

Eisen, W.B.; Ferguson, B.L.; German, R.M.; Iacocca, R.; Lee, P.W.; Madan, D.; Moyer, K.; Sanderow, H.; Trudel, Y. [eds.

1998-12-31

350

Method for Manufacturing Aluminum Oxynitride (A1ON) Powder and Other Nitrogen-Containing Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of preparing substantially homogeneous aluminum oxynitride powder and other nitrogen-containing powders is provided. Particularly with respect to the AlON powder, the method comprises the steps of milling a mixture of aluminum and aluminum oxide ...

W. Miao

2002-01-01

351

Triboelectric charging of polymer powders in fluidization and transport processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady flow of powder at a desired rate is a necessity for controlling thickness and uniformity of the deposited powder layer in electrostatic spray painting. In most powder coating applications, the polymer powder is fluidized to transport the powder to the spray gun using a powder pump. The powder delivery tube is often long; sometimes in excess of 10 m.

J. R. Mountaint; D. L. Wankum; M. K. Mazumder; T. Chasser; P. Pettit

1997-01-01

352

Pore formation in atomized powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have demonstrated that contamination of an alloy with argon in the manufacture of an atomized powder takes place during two stages of the production process: during contact between argon and the melt in the furnace and during atomization. Contamination during the first stage is characteristic of centrifugal atomization, and during both stages, of gas atomization. The porosity of particles

Yu. F. Ternovoi; A. G. Tsipunov; S. B. Kuratchenko; O. M. Kuimova; K. V. Kondakova

1985-01-01

353

PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM HYDRIDE POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the production of lithium hydride powder is described. ; Lithium carbonate was converted into the chloride. From a saturated solution of ; the chloride lithium amalgam was produced by electrolysis. The lithium amalgam ; was then converted into the hydride by heating the amalgam in a hydrogen ; atmosphere. The apparatus used for the reaction of the

J. Novotny; M. Novotna

1959-01-01

354

Shocks in porous powder media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to a motion model for a porous powder medium, developed previously to describe the process of combustion-to-detonation transition. The model is applicable up to pressures of 1 kbar. The case of one-dimensional motion is examined, and an effective axial intergranular pressure is introduced whose dependence on porosity during compression is obtained from experimental data.

Vainshtein, P. B.

1988-12-01

355

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy\\/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the

Alan Lawley; Thomas F. Murphy

2003-01-01

356

Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To increasing the safety factor of the space vehicles, Perspirable Skin, a new designed Thermal Protection System (TPS) was proposed by bio-mimicking the process of human sweating. Powder Metallurgy (P/M) was considered to be the best candidate method to ...

P. Kwon

2009-01-01

357

Forging of Powder Metallurgy Gears.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to produce a very near-net shape spur gear by isothermal forging of a powder metallurgy 4600 grade preform. Die fill and densification on test coupons were complete at a forging temperature of 1650F (900C), pressure of 10...

B. L. Ferguson D. T. Ostberg

1980-01-01

358

POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

359

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOEpatents

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01

360

Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)). PMID:24517011

Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

2013-12-15

361

Cocoa-based protein and carbohydrate drink decreases perceived soreness after exhaustive aerobic exercise: a pragmatic preliminary analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pragmatic preliminary analysis was to examine the effectiveness of a cocoa-based protein and carbohydrate prototype drink on skeletal muscle damage and perceived soreness after exhaustive exercise. A repeated-measures experimental design was used. Common biomarkers indicative of skeletal muscle damage included creatine kinase (CK), urinary isoprostanes and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, C-Reactive Protein [CRP]). Self-reported perception of postexercise soreness was also evaluated. Seven men participated in an exercise session consisting of a 30-minute run on a declined treadmill (-10% grade). Running speed was adjusted accordingly so that participants consistently maintained 75% maximal heart rate. Drinks were ingested immediately after exercise, 2 hours postexercise, and before bed. Blood draws were sampled 30, 60, 120, and 360 minutes postexercise; urine was collected 24 and 48 hours postexercise. A perceived soreness questionnaire was administered 24 and 48 hours postexercise. The test drink had no effect on IL-6, CK, IL-8, CRP, or urinary isoprostanes (p > 0.05). However, the drink decreased the change in perceived soreness from 24 to 48 hours (p = 0.03). Consuming the drink after exercise resulted in a mean change of 2.6 +/- 6 compared to 13.7 +/- 10 for the control. In summary, the drink was effective in decreasing the level of self-reported perceived soreness after exhaustive exercise. PMID:20634742

McBrier, Nicole M; Vairo, Giampietro L; Bagshaw, Dee; Lekan, Jaimy M; Bordi, Peter L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

2010-08-01

362

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

2010-10-01

363

Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.  

PubMed

Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE. PMID:23931630

Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

2013-08-21

364

21 CFR 520.445 - Chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine powder. 520.445 Section 520.445 Food...445 Chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound of soluble powder contains chlortetracycline...

2013-04-01

365

Application of Powder Technology to Military Hardware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short description of powder metallurgy and its possible application to the manufacture of military hardware is discussed. The first part deals with the experimental aspects of producing compacts from powders. The basic processes of material preparation ...

J. P. Drolet

1972-01-01

366

Titanium Sheet Production from Commercial Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Powder metallurgy titanium sheet was produced from hydride dehydride (HDH) powder using a diverse industrial supply chain. Three different processing routes were developed and production protocols were established in each route to provide options for manu...

D. Harper T. R. Muth W. Chen W. H. Peter Y. Yamamoto

2013-01-01

367

Process for the Synthesis of Iron Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation fro...

1982-01-01

368

Chemical and Physical Properties of Tantalum Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is intended to produce capacitor grade Tantalum powder by sodium reduction of potassium tantalum fluoride prepared from an indigenous ore source. The powder has been characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and compared with the commercially available powders. It is found that indigenous powder has higher impurity levels which could, however, be reduced to acceptance limits. The average particle size is within the prescribed limits.

Purushotham, Y.; Balaji, T.; Kumar, Arbind; Govindaiah, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Sethi, V. C.; Prakash, T. L.

369

Review: aqueous tape casting of ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry formulations and processing parameters of the water-based tape casting of ceramic powders are reviewed. Additives include binders, like cellulose ethers, vinyl or acrylic-type polymers; plasticizers, like glycols; and dispersants, like ammonium salts of poly(acrylic acids). Mostly alumina powders have been employed. Hydrophobing of ceramic powders permits the aqueous processing even of water-reactive powders, like aluminium nitride. Non-toxicity and non-inflammability

D. Hotza; P. Greil

1995-01-01

370

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF SILVER POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

To diversify the range of products JSC Krastsvetmet developed a method for production of electro- lytic silver powders that are widely used in electronic industry for manufacturing contacts. The relevant specification (Silver Powder, TU43-1-702-87) (2) provides for production of two grades of silver powder, PSr1 and PSr2. The grade PSr1 powder shall contain particles with dimensions not larger than 56

E. Pavlov; V. Ilyashevich; S. Zhuravleva

2009-01-01

371

Effect of Powder Polydispersity on Aerosol Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We investigated the effect of primary powder polydispersity on the generation of pharmaceutical powder aerosols, using mannitol and bovine serum albu- min (BSA) as the model compounds. Methods. Primary powders with different polydispersity but comparable physical and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) were obtained from spray drying. The polydispersity, i.e. the width of the particle size distribution, of the

Nora Y. K. Chew; Hak-Kim Chan

372

Reflection of Ultracold Neutrons from Powder Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diffusion of ultracold neutrons on powder copper, powder copper oxide and powder graphite has been observed and studied. It was the first experiment to show that it is possible on a level of approx. 10/sup -5/ to determine by measuring the reflection coef...

V. V. Golikov E. N. Kulagin Y. V. Nikitenko

1987-01-01

373

Pourability enhancement of petn explosive powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacture of precision detonators requires the pelletizing of very fine, organic, crystalline explosive powders. Production of pellets in automatic machines within critical dimensional and weight tolerances requires that the powders pour uniformly into die cavities. The pellets must be able to be initiated with low energy and have a predictable energy output. Modifications to needle-like crystalline PETN explosive powders to

Marcia Dee Vannet; George L. Ball

1987-01-01

374

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or...

2013-04-01

375

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or...

2010-04-01

376

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and Drugs...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or...

2009-04-01

377

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2013-04-01

378

21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing...

2013-04-01

379

PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF TUNGSTEN METAL POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of particle size analysis for sub-sieve, tungsten metal powder ; has been developed using the Andreasen pipette. Use of 1\\/4 per cent by volume ; of tungsten powder in demineralized water gives minimum agglomeration. The ; method is useful for comparing the distribution of different batches of tungsten ; powder. No correlation between results from this method and

H. J. de Bruin; R. C. Cairns

1957-01-01

380

Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

Mike, R. A.

1986-01-01

381

Physical Characteristics of Fire-Extinguishing Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Powders are known to be highly efficient fire-extinguishing agents. There are powders available that, on both weight and volume bases, are more efficient than Halon 1301 as fire-extinguishing agents. A project was undertaken to examine several powders by ...

A. E. Finnerty L. J. VandeKieft A. Drysdale

1997-01-01

382

Effective thermal conductivity of copper powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective thermal conductivity of copper powders of different particle size has been measured experimentally at room temperature and normal pressure using the transient hot strip method. A variation in the values of the effective thermal conductivity of these powders with their porosities is observed. To explain this variation a model for a two-phase system (powders) is developed. Theoretical calculations of

K. Bala; P. R. Pradhan; N. S. Saxena; M. P. Saksena

1989-01-01

383

Prefused Mold Powder and Its Manufacturing Technology,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent need for the continuous casting of steel at higher speed without subsequent surface conditioning urged the development of a new type of mold powder that can replace the conventional blended powders. The prefused powder developed to meet the nee...

T. Kishi T. Nakano T. Maruyamano H. Taniguchi M. Fuji

1987-01-01

384

Theory and Practice of Rolling Metal Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical and technological fundamentals are considered for rolling metal powders. The equipment and production schemes for rolling powders is described as well as unit for feeding powder between rolls for the case of manufacturing two-layer strips. The main technological schemes for production copper rollings are presented.

Gleb A. Vinogradov

2002-01-01

385

High-speed rolling of metal powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the rolling of metal powders at velocities of up to 3.2 m\\/sec with forced powder feed into the deformation zone.2.Empirical relationships were obtained enabling the mill output rate and strip thickness and density to be evaluated in terms of roll gap, rolling velocity, and powder head.

A. M. Musikhin; G. A. Vinogradov

1970-01-01

386

A comparison between superfine magnesium hydroxide powders and commercial dry powders on fire suppression effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of superfine magnesium hydroxide powders and commercial dry powder in fire suppression were compared in a laboratory-scale, immovable fire suppression apparatus. The investigation focused on their suppression effectiveness under various pressures. It likewise studied the relationship between the powders’ surface structures and their effectiveness on fire suppression. The microcosmic structure of the powders was observed by scanning electron

Kaiqian Kuang; Xin Huang; Guangxuan Liao

2008-01-01

387

Thermal Plasma Modification of Titanium Carbide Powder Numerical Analysis of Powder Behavior in Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of behavior of TiC powders in an Ar-H2 RF plasma has been performed with the numerical analysis of the plasma fields of velocity, temperature and concentration. The transferred energy to the powders decreases with an increase in the powder feed rate, and with a decrease in the pressure. These parameters have important effects on the powder modification.

T. Watanabe; A. Kanzawa; T. Ishigakiand; Y. Moriyoshi

1995-01-01

388

Influences of powder specifications and powder delivery on laser and powder particle interaction during the LRF process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With deep studying on the process of laser rapid forming (LRF) the researchers gradually meet the knowledge that it is very important to understand the mechanism of interaction between the laser and the powder particles since it is the key point to realize the effective control of the LRF process. The high-speed photography has been employed to realize in situ observation on the delivery process of powdered materials for the first time. A group of parameters -- delivery parameters of powder is put forward to characterize the delivery process in quantitative by dealing with the digital images obtained. On the basis of quantitative description of the powder delivery, an analytical model is presented to study the attenuation of the laser power caused by the cloud of the power particles. Another analytical model is also presented to study the temperature rise of the particle irradiated by the laser. It can be found that the attenuation ratio is determined together by the powder specifications, the powder feeding parameters and the powder delivery parameters. With the off axial powder nozzle being employed in the paper, the diameter of the powder steam was always bigger than the diameter of laser spot, thus the laser processing parameters have no effect on the laser attenuation. The temperature rise of the particle is determined by the powder specifications and the powder delivery parameters too. Meanwhile the laser processing parameters also affects the temperature rise of the particle. With the decreasing of the particle radius, the irradiation heating effect increases remarkably.

Chen, Jing; Yang, Haiou; Lin, Xin; Huang, Weidong

2005-01-01

389

Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

2009-12-01

390

MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION  

SciTech Connect

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

2009-12-28

391

Pixe analysis of powdered milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accelerator-based elemental study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), was performed on four full-cream and four\\u000a half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe,\\u000a Cu, Zn, Br, and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their\\u000a effect

A. B. Hallak

1983-01-01

392

Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

1988-01-01

393

Polycapillary optics for powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a low power system using Polycapillary collimating and focusing optics that were designed to collect Cu Ka radiation from an Oxford Ultra-Bright micro-focus source for X-ray powder diffraction measurements. The characterizations of the source and polycapillary optics are presented. A collimator with two apertures was used to block high energy X-rays. An optic alignment system

Huapeng Huang; Carolyn A. MacDonald; Walter M. Gibson; John Chik; Adrian Parsegian; Igor Y. Ponomarev

2001-01-01

394

Composition of reactive powder concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an ultra-high strength ductile concrete designated RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete), was made possible by the application of a certain number of basic principles relating to the composition, mixing and post-set heat curing of the concrete.RPC 200, which can be used under job site conditions similar to those for conventional high performance concretes, can be used in the construction

Pierre Richard; Marcel Cheyrezy

1995-01-01

395

Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.  

PubMed

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter ghanaensis" (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-03-01

396

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxfendazole powder and pellets. 520.1628 Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1628 Oxfendazole powder and pellets. (a) Specifications â(1) Powder for suspension. Each gram of powder...

2013-04-01

397

Anti-Corrosive Powder Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks partners for a new approach in protecting embedded steel surfaces from corrosion. Corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete structures is a significant problem for NASA structures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the close proximity of the structures to salt spray from the nearby Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to minimize the damage to such structures, coatings were developed that could be applied as liquids to the external surfaces of a substrate in which the metal structures were embedded. The Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology was developed by NASA at KSC. This technology combines the metallic materials into a uniform particle. The resultant powder can be sprayed simultaneously with a liquid binder onto the surface of concrete structures with a uniform distribution of the metallic pigment for optimum cathodic protection of the underlying steel in the concrete. Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology improves upon the performance of an earlier NASA technology Liquid Galvanic Coating (U.S. Patent No. 6,627,065).

Parker, Donald; MacDowell, Louis, III

2005-01-01

398

Mesoscale simulations of powder compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to experimental match compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show evidence of hard-to-explain reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line, which have also been observed in the experiments. We found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations, since 2D results tend to underpredict stress levels for high-porosity powders regardless of material properties. We developed a process to extract macroscale information for the simulation which can be directly used in calibration of continuum model for heterogeneous media.

Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

2009-06-01

399

Evaluation of solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds in cocoa products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aroma profile of cocoa products was investigated by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). SPME fibers coated with 100?m polydimethylsiloxane coating (PDMS), 65?m polydimethylsiloxane\\/divinylbenzene coating (PDMS-DVB), 75?m carboxen\\/polydimethylsiloxane coating (CAR-PDMS) and 50\\/30?m divinylbenzene\\/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane on a StableFlex fiber (DVB\\/CAR-PDMS) were evaluated. Several extraction times and temperature conditions were also tested to achieve optimum recovery.

Sylvie Ducki; Javier Miralles-Garcia; Albert Zumbé; Antonio Tornero; David M. Storey

2008-01-01

400

Titanium alloy powder preparation for selective laser sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a solid freeform fabrication process whereby a part is built layerwise by scanning a powder bed. The processability of metal powder varies depending on the state of the powder prior to SLS. A powder thermal pre-treatment was developed which involved degassing the powder at an elevated temperature in a vacuum. Without powder thermal pre-treatment, the

B. Engel; D. L. Bourell

2000-01-01

401

Increase in AMPK brought about by cocoa is renoprotective in experimental diabetes mellitus by reducing NOX4/TGF?-1 signaling.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate, in diabetes mellitus (DM), the mechanism of NOX4 up-regulation, its link with 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inactivation and transforming growth factor (TGF) ß-1 signaling in determining the accumulation of kidney extracellular matrix (ECM), and the possible action of cocoa enriched with polyphenols (CH) in these events. After 16 weeks of DM, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed increased kidney TGF?-1 levels and expression of phosphorylated smad2, collagen IV and fibronectin in parallel with elevated NOX4 expression and reduced phosphorylated AMPK. CH treatment in diabetic rats prevented all of these abnormalities. In immortalized human mesangial cells exposed to high glucose (HG), or TGF?-1, CH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate blocker, or silencing NOX4 ameliorated enhanced phosphorylated smad2 and collagen IV. Reduction in phosphorylated AMPK induced by HG or TGF?-1 was ameliorated by CH or activation of AMPK, which reduced phosphorylation of smad2 and collagen IV via reduction in NOX4 expression. The effects of CH were abolished by AMPK blockade. These results suggest that inactivation in AMPK leads to NOX4 up-regulation, activation of TGF?-1 signaling and increased ECM accumulation. Additionally, increased TGF-ß1 per se leads to the amplification of ECM production by reducing AMPK and promoting the activation of NOX4. It is suggested that the activation of AMPK by CH followed by reduction in NOX4/TGF?-1 signaling may have a therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24768660

Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Peixoto, Elisa B M I; Silva, Kamila C; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

2014-07-01

402

New technology for separating resin powder and fiberglass powder from fiberglass-resin powder of waste printed circuit boards.  

PubMed

New recycling technologies have been developed lately to enhance the value of the fiberglass powder-resin powder fraction (FRP) from waste printed circuit boards. The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use the image forces for the separation of the resin powder and fiberglass powder generated from FRP during the corona electrostatic separating process. The particle shape charactization and particle trajectory simulation were performed on samples of mixed non-metallic particles. The simulation results pointed out that particles of resin powder and particles of fiberglass powder had different detach trajectories at the conditions of the same size and certain device parameters. An experiment carried out using a corona electrostatic separator validated the possibility of sorting these particles based on the differences in their shape characteristics. The differences in the physical properties of the different types of particles provided the technical basis for the development of electrostatic separation technologies for the recycling industry. PMID:24678800

Li, Jia; Gao, Bei; Xu, Zhenming

2014-05-01

403

Trends in powder processing equipment  

SciTech Connect

Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

Sheppard, L.M.

1993-05-01

404

A powder particle size effect on ceramic powder based separator for lithium rechargeable battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the thermal stability of separators for lithium batteries, we have developed heat-resistant separator films based on ceramic powder. These ceramic powder based separators (CPS) consist of ceramic powder with binder resin. We used two different particle size powders of aluminum oxide (0.01 or 0.3 ?m). By mixing ceramic powder and resin at an appropriate content ratio, both types of CPS films satisfied needs for the heat-resistance. Furthermore, CPS film using 0.01 ?m powder showed excellent charge-discharge cycling properties when applied to lithium rechargeable batteries as a separator.

Takemura, Daigo; Aihara, Shigeru; Hamano, Kouji; Kise, Makiko; Nishimura, Takashi; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu

405

Antibacterial characteristics of magnesium oxide powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of magnesium oxide (MgO) was studied. Inhibitory zones appeared around the MgO powder slurry put directly on nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. However, no zone was observed using a penicillin cup to avoid contact between the bacteria and the MgO powder. Moreover, the supernatant solution of the MgO powder slurry and a

J. Sawai; H. Kojima; H. Igarashi; A. Hashimoto; S. Shoji; T. Sawaki; A. Hakoda; E. Kawada; T. Kokugan; M. Shimizu

2000-01-01

406

Chemical synthesis of magnesium niobate powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6) powders in orthorhombic form have been successfully prepared via an oxalate synthetic route. Solutions of magnesium chloride hexahydrate and niobium pentachloride were used as the starting materials in the synthesis of MgNb2O6 powders. The formation mechanism of MgNb2O6 was clarified by TG–DTA, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the formed powders was examined by scanning

L. Srisombat; Supon Ananta; S. Phanichphant

2004-01-01

407

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

Welbon, W.W.

1983-11-08

408

Modeling of laser cladding with powder injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cladding is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce a metallurgically bonded deposition\\u000a layer. To obtain a high-quality resulting part, a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms is required. In this article,\\u000a a mathematical model is developed to simulate the coaxial laser-cladding process with powder injection, which includes laser-\\u000a substrate, laser-powder, and powder-substrate interactions. The model

L. Han; K. M. Phatak; F. W. Liou

2004-01-01

409

A method for rubber toughening powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for rubber toughening brittle powder coatings. The design involves the use of toughening agents with specific physical and chemical properties. The modifiers are low-to-medium molecular weight polymers with polymerizable end groups (macromonomers). To achieve the physical properties required for fabrication into fine powders for subsequent deposition using conventional powder coating equipment, semi-crystalline polymers with

J. L. Hedrick; R. D. Allen; A. Diaz; J. G. Hilborn; J. C. Hedrick

1993-01-01

410

Selective laser sintering of amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, selective sintering of amorphous PtCuNiP powder with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been studied. Upon pulsed interaction, the grains melt only superficially to build necks between the grains. Depending on the laser parameters, the sintered material can be crystallized or retained amorphous. By contrast with crystalline powder, laser sintering of amorphous powder is achieved at substantially

P. Fischer; A. Blatter; V. Romano; H. P. Weber

2005-01-01

411

Microbial Quality of Formulated Infant Milk Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study was carried out to examine the microbiological quality of Infant formula milk powder. Total 60 of dried milk powders, 20 each of Group A (1-6), B (7-12) and C (13-18 months). Infant formula milk powders were purchased from Hyderabad, Sindh and evaluated for microbiological examination, like Total Viable Count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae Count (EbC) and Yeasts and Moulds Count (YMC).

Imran Rashid Rajput; M. Khaskheli; S. Rao; S. A. Fazlani; Q. A. Shah; G. B. Khaskheli

2009-01-01

412

Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

1986-01-01

413

Superconducting properties of powder-in-tube MgB2 tapes prepared with fine powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to increase the Jc values to develop useful MgB2 tape. We investigated superconducting properties of in situ processed Powder-In-Tube (PIT) MgB2 tapes prepared with fine powders. Fine crystalline Mg powder with the average particle size of about 300 nm was fabricated by applying the thermal plasma method. In addition, 5?15 mol% SiC powder doping was tried to

H. Yamada; M. Hirakawa; H. Kumakura; A. Matsumoto; H. Kitaguchi

2005-01-01

414

Application of powder rheometer to determine powder flow properties and lubrication efficiency of pharmaceutical particulate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to understand the behavior of particulate systems under different conditions of shear dynamics\\u000a before and after granulation and to investigate the efficiency of powder lubrication. Three drug powders, metronidazole, colloidal\\u000a bismuth citrate, and tetracycline hydrochloride, were chosen as model drugs representing noncohesive and cohesive powder systems.\\u000a Each powder was individually granulated with microcrystalline cellulose

Charu V. Navaneethan; Shahrzad Missaghi; Reza Fassihi

2005-01-01

415

The Role of Powder Particle Size Distribution in the Processability of Powder Injection Molding Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of particle size distribution of hard-metal carbide powder compounds in structural changes caused by shear deformation is investigated via their response to dynamic viscoelastic strain. Materials employed in the study are intended for the production of sintered carbide components via powder injection molding. Four grades of hard-metal carbide powders differing in their particle size distribution were mixed thoroughly

B. Hausnerova; T. Kitano; I. Kuritka; J. Prindis; L. Marcanikova

2011-01-01

416

Thermal conductivity of metal powder-polymer feedstock for powder injection moulding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal conductivity of a powder injection moulding feedstock (mixture of metal powders and polymers) in solid and molten states has been measured by using the laser flash method. The filler material was 316L stainless steel powder and its content in the mixture amounted 60% by volume. An attempt has been made to employ two most promising existing mathematical models (theoretical

L. Kowalski; J. Duszczyk; L. Katgerman

1999-01-01

417

PowderSolve – a complete package for crystal structure solution from powder diffraction patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder diffraction techniques are becoming increasingly popular as tools for the determination of crystal structures. The authors of this paper have developed a software package, named PowderSolve, to solve crystal structures from experi- mental powder diffraction patterns and have applied this package to solve the crystal structures of organic compounds with up to 18 variable degrees of freedom (defined in

G. E. Engel; S. Wilke; O. König; K. D. M. Harris; F. J. J. Leusen

1999-01-01

418

Method for producing coral powder  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A coral is washed with purified water or tap water, and a crushed coral is heat-treated. Proteins and other organic matter are incorporated between calcium molecules in the coral skeleton, and the organic matter is decomposed and released as volatile components. In the skeleton from which organic matter is released, a calcium skeleton having a porous structure is formed, and the surface area of pores is increased. A hydrogen gas can be retained in the structure by adsorbing a hydrogen gas to the pores in such a calcium skeleton a porous structure (micropores). The resulting coral powder, with which ions dissolved in water are easily extracted, shows a low oxidation reduction potential when dissolved in water.

2012-05-01

419

Oxidation sizing of iron and iron-neodymium-boron powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder sizing test developed for use on WC powders has been extended for use on iron and iron-neodymium-boron powders. In this test the particle size is derived from the rate of oxidation, because finer powders oxidize quicker. The rate of oxidation is monitored in a thermogravimetric analyser, where the powders are subjected to a controlled heating rate from room

M. Stewart; B. Roebuck; M. G. Gee

1991-01-01

420

Ignition of Titanium Powder Layers by Electrostatic Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium powder heating and ignition by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark was investigated. The effect of powder layer thickness and morphology was determined. Ti powder was chosen for these experiments because it is commonly found in energetic formulations, used for materials preparation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, and is extensively used in powder metallurgy. Two Ti powders were used: spherical

Ervin Beloni; Edward L. Dreizin

2011-01-01

421

Electrical Resistivity of Metal Powder Aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation for calculating the electrical resistivity of a compressed powder mass, consisting of oxide-coated metal particles, has been derived. In addition to the intrinsic interest of the problem, the proposed equation is useful for describing the very early stages of electrical sintering processes. The problem is approached in a new way, relating the actual powder system to an equivalent

J. M. Montes; F. G. Cuevas; J. Cintas

2007-01-01

422

Dynamic Powder Feeding System for Laser Cladding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder feeding equipment has been designed for laser cladding. Tests have showed that the powder feeder is able to deliver a flow rate from 1.5 - 40 g/min, with a tolerance better than + or - 2% measured over a period of 30 seconds. This makes the feede...

T. A. Jensen

1990-01-01

423

Process for Thickening and Sintering Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is described for thickening and sintering powders of metals, metal carbides, or ceramic or similar materials, in which the powder is stirred into a metal container and heated to a high temperature within this form. At the same time the air is ev...

P. Riegelmayer

1969-01-01

424

Grinding and Characterization of Scrap Rubbers Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

SBR and EPDM extruded profile scraps are ground under ambient conditions for further utilization in recycling and reclaiming processes. The obtained powders (SBR-r and EPDM-r, respectively) are physically, thermally, and chemically characterized and the results are analyzed as for its suitability for reuse methods. It is possible to obtain powdered SBR and EPDM rubber with irregular shape and high surface

Tatiana Weber; Aline Zanchet; Rosmary N. Brandalise; Janaina S. Crespo; Regina C. R. Nunes

2008-01-01

425

Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at

Donald A. Rabern; Robert Valdiviez

2012-01-01

426

Caking phenomena in amorphous food powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caking of free-flowing powders during storage is a deleterious phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the feed, fertilizer and pharmaceutical industries, and of economical importance for low-moisture foods. Among other subjects related to caking of amorphous powders, the following aspects are reviewed in this article: (1) physical and morphological changes, and quantitative procedures to assess caking; (2) proposed mechanisms of caking

José M. Aguilera; José M. del Valle; Marcus Karel

1995-01-01

427

Constitutive mechanical modeling of BSCCO powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to feed a new mechanical model of the Powder In Tube (PIT) processing BSCCO\\/Ag conductors, a plastically compressible constitutive model of the powder is proposed and its parameters measured. We use a simple compressible model of the CAM-CLAY type with work hardening and softening depending on density variation. The unknown parameters of the model, the plastic properties of

A. Allais; C. E. Bruzek; N. Lallouet; P. Montmitonnet; P. Herrmann; D. Pelissier; F. Toussaint

2003-01-01

428

Simulation and modeling of cohesive powder flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation and modeling of the flow behavior of cohesive powders are carried out through discrete element simulation (DES) and the kinetic theory of gas-based continuum model to gain a fundamental understanding of the cohesive powder flows. The cohesive forces between particles, such as van der Waal's forces, are accounted for by particle surface energy through a microscopic contact force model.

Hong Shang

1998-01-01

429

Adsorption of arsenate on untreated dolomite powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw dolomite powder was evaluated for its efficiency in adsorbing As(V) from water. An experimental setup comprised of a fluidized dolomite powder bed was used to assess the impact of various test variables on the efficiency of removal of As(V). Test influents including distilled water (DW), synthetic groundwater (SGW) and filtered sewage effluent (FSE) were employed to assess the effect

G. M. Ayoub; M. Mehawej

2007-01-01

430

FBE powder and coating tests evaluated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) external pipeline coating can be significantly affected by the conditions under which the FBE powder has been stored. Nova, An Alberta Corporation, and 3M Co. undertook a program of evaluating easily run tests to determine the suitability of FBE powder. These tests are less time consuming than the most commonly used series of tests

K. E. W. Coulson; D. G. Temple; J. A. Kehr

1987-01-01

431

21 CFR 529.2464 - Ticarcillin powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ticarcillin powder. 529.2464 Section 529.2464 Food and Drugs FOOD...OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.2464 Ticarcillin powder. (a) Specifications. Each vial contains...

2013-04-01

432

Compatibility of header materials with pyrotechnic powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this research program is to qualify several stainless steels, nickel-base alloys and a titanium alloy as candidates for explosive component applications. This report focuses on the compatibility of these materials with pyrotechnic powder. The powder is a combined titanium subhydride-potassium perchlorate mixture, used both wet and dry. Hollow tensile bars were utilized to discern interactions between the

Weirick

1982-01-01

433

Subharmonic Square Waves for a Vibrated Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe experiments on vibrated powders in a gas environment. Because the powders are fine, typically about 60 mum in diameter, the system is inherently two-phase in nature. In the experiments, we control the amplitude and frequency of shaking and the ambient pressure, P. At high enough accelerations, subharmonic waves appear. We focus on a novel wave form that consists

Jean-Philippe Matas; Jun Uehara; Bob Behringer

2006-01-01

434

Preparation of Silver Powder for Conductive Paste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel technology for preparing silver flake powder has been studied. The solution containing KAg(CN)2 was reduced by suspension mixture of formaldehyde and benzaldehyde with surfactant TN, and luminous silver flake powder with an average particle size o...

L. Y. Chai, H. Zhong, H. Wu

1994-01-01

435

Predicting the conductivity of biporous powder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical conductivity of biporous permeable powdered materials is calculated on the basis of percolation theory. These\\u000a materials are made with a pore-forming additive having a different ratio of particle size than does the metal phase. Calculations\\u000a for nickel powder specimens as an example are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Y. N. Kruchkov; L. I. Chernyshev; L. E. Lunin

2000-01-01

436

Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

Seiko, Y.

1985-03-01

437

Physical and dielectric properties of pharmaceutical powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited availability of published physical and dielectric property data for pharmaceutical powders hinders the design of processing systems, particularly dryers. In this study, the physical properties (solubility and boiling point) and dielectric properties, in terms of temperature rise, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss factor, of selected pharmaceutical powders were measured. The pharmaceutical actives, paracetamol and aspirin, and selected common

C. M McLoughlin; W. A. M McMinn; T. R. A Magee

2003-01-01

438

Thoria powder process development (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

The development program to identify the critical parameters for the process of converting thorium nitrate solution into thoria powder is described. Thorium oxalate hexahydrate is precipitated from the reaction of thorium nitrate solution with oxalic acid. The resulting thorium oxalate hexahydrate slurry is filter pressed into a cake which is air calcined to form thoria powder. Changes in the critical processing parameters such as free nitric acid content of the thorium nitrate solution, precipitation temperature, and calcining temperature altered the thoria powder characteristics, and thus its capability for being fabricated into fuel pellets. The objective of the powder preparation effort was to obtain thoria powders which could be formed by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques into thoria and thoria-urania pellets of high density and high integrity having a nearly uniform large grain structure.

Hutchison, C.R.; Lloyd, R.

1979-10-01

439

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOEpatents

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY) [Sayville, NY

1982-01-01

440

Effect of detergent on powder triboelectrification.  

PubMed

Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders during processing and manufacture may cause adhesion/cohesion effects, reduce fill and dose uniformity, affect powder flow and packing behaviour and even obstruct the manufacturing of the product. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the triboelectrification of microcrystalline cellulose in contact with stainless steel pipes washed with several different detergents. Detergents and their concentrations were chosen to be similar to typical industrial manufacturing stages. The adhesion of powder to the surface had a considerable effect on the triboelectrification process. Therefore, polystyrene spheres were also charged in a similar way and the results were compared with the powder charging results. The results clearly indicate that detergent contamination on the pipe surface has a considerable effect on the generated charge. The detergents and powders used could be arranged in a triboelectric series with only one exception. PMID:12453608

Murtomaa, Matti; Ojanen, Kalle; Laine, Ensio; Poutanen, Jutta

2002-12-01

441

Nanostructured GGG powders via gel combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline nano-sized gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd 3Ga 5O 12, GGG) powders were synthesized via a gel combustion method from a mixed solution of Ga(NO 3) 3, Gd(NO 3) 3 and citric acid. The evolution of phase composition and micro-structure of the powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Well-crystallized, single phase GGG nano-sized powders could be obtained at the calcining temperature as low as 750 °C for 2 h. No any intermediate phases formed during the calcining process. The resulting powders were well dispersed and had a relatively narrow size distribution with an average particle size of approximately 30-50 nm.

Li, Xianxue; Hu, Zhang-Gui; Li, Jiangtao

2007-03-01

442

A System for Concurrently Delivering a Stream of Powdered Fuel and a Stream of Powdered Oxidizer to a Combustion Chamber for a Reaction Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A propellant delivery subsystem adapted to concurrently supply streams of powdered fuel and fluidized oxidizer includes one reservoir for powdered fuel and a second for powdered oxidizer. The particle size for the powdered fuel and powdered oxidizer is su...

L. M. Delionback R. M. Stein

1978-01-01

443

21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. ...Diagnostic Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. (a) Identification. An antimicrobial susceptibility test powder...

2009-04-01

444

21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. ...Diagnostic Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. (a) Identification. An antimicrobial susceptibility test powder...

2010-04-01

445

21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chlortetracycline powder. 520.445b Section 520...445b Chlortetracycline powder. (a) Specifications. Chlortetracycline powder contains not less than...administer this product with milk or milk replacers;...

2009-04-01

446

21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chlortetracycline powder. 520.445b Section 520...445b Chlortetracycline powder. (a) Specifications. Chlortetracycline powder contains not less than...administer this product with milk or milk replacers;...

2010-04-01

447

21 CFR 520.2200b - Sulfachlorpyridazine powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sulfachlorpyridazine powder. 520.2200b Section 520...2200b Sulfachlorpyridazine powder. (a) Specifications . Sodium sulfachlorpyridazine powder. (b) Sponsor . See No...lb) body weight per day in milk or milk replacer for 1 to...

2009-04-01

448

21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044c Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

2010-04-01

449

21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044c Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

2009-04-01

450

Linear shrinkage of metal powder compacts during sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence exerted by various factors (particle size, particle size distribution, ultrafine powder addition, sintering temperature, etc.) on the linear shrinkage ratio during sintering was examined. Electrolytic, atomized, and ultrafine copper powders, as well as electrolytic iron powder, were used.

H. H. Hausner; O. V. Roman

1965-01-01

451

21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522.1085 Food...DRUGS § 522.1085 Guaifenesin sterile powder. (a) Specifications. It is a sterile powder containing guaifenesin. (b)...

2013-04-01

452

21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520.2380f Section 520.2380f... Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of...

2013-04-01

453

21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide powder. 520.763b Section 520.763b ...DRUGS § 520.763b Dithiazanine iodide powder. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2...Specifications. Dithiazanine iodide powder contains 200 milligrams of...

2013-04-01

454

21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660 Section...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6660 Porcelain powder for clinical use. (a) Identification. Porcelain powder for clinical use is a device...

2013-04-01

455

21 CFR 520.1265 - Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder. 520.1265 Section 520.1265 ...1265 Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder. (a) Specifications . The following...spectinomycin are present in a soluble powder in the ratio of 1 to 2 on the...

2013-04-01

456

21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613 Section 520.2613 Food...520.2613 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim...

2013-04-01

457

21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. 520.110 Section 520.110 Food... § 520.110 Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking...

2013-04-01

458

30 CFR 75.1101-18 - Dry powder requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dry powder requirements. 75.1101-18 Section 75...MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-18 Dry powder requirements. Each dry powder chemical system shall contain the following...

2013-07-01

459

49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle...vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive plastic receptacles not...must be marked “BLACK POWDER FOR SMALL ARMS” and “NA...

2010-10-01

460

High Performance Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloys: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The historic development of aluminum powder metallurgy dates back to the early 1900s with initial flake powder production and has matured to the present day production of viable aerospace alloys. Primary powder production and processing techniques, such a...

M. J. Koczak M. K. Premkumar

1989-01-01

461

High Performance Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloys - an Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The historic development of aluminum powder metallurgy dates back to the early 1900's with initial flake powder production and has matured to the present day production of viable aerospace alloys. Primary powder production and processing techniques, such ...

M. J. Koczak M. K. Premkumar

1989-01-01

462

CVD boron on calcium chromate powder  

SciTech Connect

This study was an experimental effort to improve the compositional homogeneity of a pyrotechnic mixture of boron and calcium chromate (CaCrO/sub 4/). Boron was deposited onto calcium chromate powders at 350/sup 0/C from a diborane and hydrogen gas mixture at a pressure of 40 torr by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The B:CaCrO/sub 4/ ratio of the coated powders was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and the distribution of the two phases was observed by electron microprobe analysis. The pyrotechnic activity was determined by differential thermal analysis. In addition to varying the composition of the mixture, an attempt was made to vary the boron distribution by coating both sized and unsized CaCrO/sub 4/ powders. Boron was deposited for 2 h onto sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder, which resulted in a higher weight percentage of boron in comparison to the unsized powder. CVD coated CaCrO/sub 4/ powders began their pyrotechnic activity at an auto ignition temperature that was lower than the auto ignition temperature observed for mechanically blended mixtures. The coating of sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder improved the uniformity of boron deposition of CaCrO/sub 4/, but it also decreased the pyrotechnic activity.

Coonen, R.M.

1984-09-01

463

Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders  

PubMed Central

Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscal