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1

Factors affecting instant properties of powdered cocoa beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of small and medium scale manufacturers of powder cocoa beverages (PCBs) in Nigeria requires relevant technical data useful in designing new and value added products from cocoa powder. This paper reports a preliminary study carried out to determine how some physical and chemical factors relate to the instant properties of some commercial samples of PCBs produced in

T. A. Shittu; M. O. Lawal

2007-01-01

2

Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.  

PubMed

Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

2013-06-21

3

Three-generation reproductive study of cocoa powder in rats.  

PubMed

Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to dietary cocoa powder at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.5 or 5.0% for three generations. During the initial 12-wk growth periods for the F0-, F1b- and F2b-generation rats, mean methylxanthine exposures (mg/kg/day) for males/females were 30/36, 72/86 and 104/126 for the 1.5, 3.5 and 5.0% cocoa powder groups, respectively. No consistent dose-related effects on any of the monitored reproductive indices (mating, fertility, conception, gestation, viability or lactation) were noted over three generations. Minor reductions in mean body weight relative to controls at wk 12 were observed in male rats exposed to 3.5 or 5.0% cocoa powder and female rats exposed to 5.0% cocoa powder in the F1b and F2b generations. Renal tubular mineralization in the F0-generation male rats in the 5.0% cocoa powder group was the only statistically elevated histomorphological lesion observed. Plasma cholesterol concentrations in F1b-generation rats were elevated, but cocoa powder did not affect this parameter consistently across multiple generations. Thus, continuous cocoa powder consumption by rats at levels as high as 5.0% of the diet was without effect on reproductive capacity under the conditions of a standard three-generation evaluation. PMID:2210520

Hostetler, K A; Morrissey, R B; Tarka, S M; Apgar, J L; Shively, C A

1990-07-01

4

Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder.  

PubMed

We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) as a result of alkalizing, while fungi (4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.7 to 2.8 log CFU/g) were inactivated to levels below the detection limit, remaining undetectable throughout processing. Roasting further decreased the levels of TAM and TS, but they increased slightly during subsequent processing. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities based on enriched cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

Lima, Lídia J R; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob

2012-02-10

5

Avaliação química de substitutos de cacau e estudo sensorial de achocolatados formulados Chemical evaluation of cocoa substitutes and study of formulated chocolate drink powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa powder is obtained from cocoa paste. It is prepared with fermented, dried, toasted, grinded and pressed beans (to separate cocoa butter). It can be used to produce chocolate powders, which contains cocoa powder, sugar, chocolate flavor and other ingredients. In the major producing countries, the price of cocoa by-product is affected by the climate, plagues and political factors. Cocoa

Magda Leite; Suzana Caetano da Silva

6

Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.  

PubMed

An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%. PMID:24000740

Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

7

Protein profiles and organoleptic properties of bread from wheat flour and full-fat or defatted fermented cocoa bean powder.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the protein in bread may be quantitatively increased significantly by addition of full-fat or defatted cocoa powder to white flour. The recipe in which white flour is incorporated with up to 10 percent defatted cocoa powder gives bread that is nearly as well accepted as white bread, but with a significantly higher protein content than the latter. However, organoleptic acceptability drops with increasing percentage of cocoa supplementation. The bitter taste of theobromine, which is normally present in high amounts in cocoa bean, is thought to be responsible for this problem of poor acceptability of high cocoa breads. This problem will have to be addressed in order to enhance the scope of increasing bread protein by cocoa supplementation. PMID:8882367

Aremu, C Y; Agiang, M A; Ayatse, J O

1995-12-01

8

Microbiota of cocoa powder with particular reference to aerobic thermoresistant spore-formers.  

PubMed

The microbiological criteria of commercial cocoa powder are defined in guidelines instituted by the cocoa industry. Twenty-five commercial samples were collected with the aim of assessing the compliance with the microbiological quality guidelines and investigating the occurrence and properties of aerobic Thermoresistant Spores (ThrS). Seventeen samples complied with the guidelines, but one was positive for Salmonella, five for Enterobacteriaceae and two had mould levels just exceeding the maximum admissible level. The treatment of the cocoa powder suspensions from 100 °C to 170 °C for 10 min, revealed the presence of ThrS in 36% of the samples. In total 61 ThrS strains were isolated, of which the majority belonged to the Bacillus subtilis complex (65.6%). Strains resporulation and spore crops inactivation at 110 °C for 5 min showed a wide diversity of heat-resistance capacities. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed not only a large intraspecies diversity, but also different clusters of heat-resistant spore-forming strains. The heat-resistance of spores of six B. subtilis complex strains was further examined by determination of their D and z-values. We concluded that B. subtilis complex spores, in particular those from strain M112, were the most heat-resistant and these may survive subsequent preservation treatments, being potentially problematic in food products, such as chocolate milk. PMID:21356467

Lima, Lídia J R; Kamphuis, Henri J; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

2010-11-24

9

Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

PubMed

An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts. PMID:22970585

Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

10

Real-time X-ray powder diffraction investigations on cocoa butter. I. temperature-dependent crystallization behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization behavior of cocoa butter has been investigated by means of real-time X-ray powder diffraction. Two procedures\\u000a have been followed: cooling from 60°C at a constant rate until maximum solidification has taken place; and cooling from 60°C\\u000a in 2 min to a constant solidification temperature. It appears that all polymorphic forms of cocoa butter, with the exception\\u000a of the

Kees van Malssen; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

1996-01-01

11

Real-time X-ray powder diffraction investigations on cocoa butter. II. The relationship between melting behavior and composition of ?-cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting behavior of twelve different cocoa butter samples, in the ?-phase, has been investigated with real-time X-ray\\u000a powder diffraction. The melting trajectory of each sample is characterized by three temperature values: a starting point,\\u000a a point of maximum melting, and a point of complete melting. These points are determined by an analysis of the subsequent\\u000a X-ray diffraction patterns. A

Kees van Malssen; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

1996-01-01

12

Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg\\/kg per d between

Jean-François Bisson; Amine Nejdi; Pascale Rozan; Sophie Hidalgo; Robert Lalonde; Michaël Messaoudi

2008-01-01

13

Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.  

PubMed

Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder. PMID:20222713

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2010-04-28

14

Phase behavior and extended phase scheme of static cocoa butter investigated with real-time X-ray powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete isothermal phase-transition scheme of cocoa butter under static conditions is presented, based on time-resolved\\u000a X-ray powder diffraction experiments. In contrast to what is known from literature, not only ? V, but also ? VI can be obtained\\u000a directly through transformation from ??. Another remarkable result is that ?? exists as a phase range rather than as two separate

Kees van Malssen; Arjen van Langevelde; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

1999-01-01

15

Real-time X-ray powder diffraction investigations on cocoa butter. III. Direct ?-crystallization of cocoa butter: Occurrence of a memory effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct ?-crystallization of different samples of cocoa butter has been investigated. The influence of the thermal history\\u000a of cocoa butter on its phase behavior is defined as a memory effect. The chemical composition of cocoa butter has been related\\u000a to the occurrence of the short-term ?-memory effectvia statistical analysis of the results. We explain how this effect can be attributed

Kees van Malssen; René Peschar; Claudia Brito; Henk Schenk

1996-01-01

16

Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of cocoa powder and theobromine in New Zealand White rabbits.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine the teratogenic potential of theobromine (TBR) and cocoa powder (CP) in rabbits. TBR was given either by gavage at dose levels of 0, 25, 75, 125 or 200 mg/kg body weight/day or administered in the diet at 0, 0.0625, 0.125 or 0.1875% (approximately 0, 21, 41 or 63 mg/kg/day, respectively). CP was given at 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% of the diet (approximately 25, 50 or 75 mg methylxanthines/kg body weight/day). The duration of exposure was from days 6 to 29 of gestation. Significant maternal mortality (40%) and reduced food consumption were observed at 200 mg TBR/kg/day. Mean foetal weights were similar to those of the control group at 25 or 75 mg TBR/kg/day, but decreases in foetal body weight and increases in various malformations and developmental variations were observed in groups given 125 or 200 mg/kg/day. Insufficient litters were available for examination in the 200-mg/kg/day dose group because of maternal toxicity/lethality (repetitive exposure by gavage to 200 mg TBR/kg approached the maternal LD50). In the dietary CP studies, three does died and three aborted, but these deaths and abortions were not treatment related. No maternal deaths occurred during dietary TBR exposure. Maternal weight gain and food consumption, and the mean number of corpora lutea were unaffected by either dietary CP or TBR. Neither foetotoxicity nor teratogenicity was associated with dietary ingestion of CP or TBR. The foetuses exposed to 0.125% or 0.1875% TBR had a significantly higher incidence of incompletely ossified or absent sternebrae, whereas exposure to 0.1875% or 7.5% CP resulted in corresponding effects on metacarpal bones, indicating a delay in osteogenesis. The predominant compound found in serum after TBR ingestion was unchanged TBR, and there was no evidence of bioaccumulation of TBR in serum during gestation. The highest levels of CP or TBR used in these studies was 38 times greater than the maximum consumption level reported for humans in marketing surveys, and corresponds to a consumption of greater than 7.5 lb milk chocolate/day. PMID:3744189

Tarka, S M; Applebaum, R S; Borzelleca, J F

1986-05-01

17

Milk Does Not Affect the Bioavailability of Cocoa Powder Flavonoid in Healthy Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols depend on the amount consumed, their bioavailability and the biological activities of the formed conjugates. The food matrix is one the factors than can affect their bioavailability, but previous studies have concluded rather contradictory results about the effect of milk on the bioavailability of polyphenols. Aim: The objective was to evaluate the possible

Elena Roura; Cristina Andrés-Lacueva; Ramon Estruch; M. Lourdes Mata-Bilbao; Maria Izquierdo-Pulido; Andrew L. Waterhouse; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós

2007-01-01

18

Improved analysis of theobromine and caffeine in chocolate food products formulated with cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of methylxanthines (i.e. caffeine, theobromine) in food products continues to be of interest to the public. To provide such data, an improved analytical method for their determination in cocoa-based food products was developed. An aqueous extraction followed by analysis using the method of known additions was found to give a higher degree of accuracy and precision in comparison

Austin G Caudle; Yifang Gu; Leonard N Bell

2001-01-01

19

Comparison of a modified hemoglobin regeneration efficiency method with a slope-ratio assay in measuring relative bioavailability of cocoa powder iron using rats.  

PubMed

The slope-ratio assay is being used as a gold standard for determining iron bioavailability in foods. We compared the modified hemoglobin (Hb) regeneration efficiency (HRE) method (Yokoi K, Konomi A, & Otagi M (2009) Br J Nutr 102: 215-220) with the slope-ratio assay for measurement of iron bioavailability. The relative bioavailability of iron in cocoa powder was measured by both methods using ferric citrate as a control (i.e., 1.00). In the slope-ratio assay, thirty-two 4-week-old male F/344 N rats were depleted in iron stores for 28 days, and then eight groups of four rats each were repleted for 25 days using graded levels of dietary ferric citrate or the cocoa powder. The slope for the cocoa powder 1.720 g Hb/L/(mg Fe/kg) was 0.99 that of ferric citrate 1.727 g Hb/L/(mg Fe/kg). On the other hand, the HRE value of the cocoa powder was 0.96 that of ferric citrate, based on the previous report. The relative iron bioavailabilities measured by both methods agreed, indicating that the modified HRE method is compatible with the slope-ratio assay in measuring the bioavailability of iron in foods. PMID:21225476

Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Konomi, Aki; Otagi, Miki

2011-01-12

20

Evaluation of the perinatal, postnatal and teratogenic effects of cocoa powder and theobromine in Sprague-Dawley/CD rats.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cocoa powder (CP) and theobromine (TBR) on perinatal and postnatal parameters and to assess their potential teratogenicity in the rat. In the peri/postnatal study, CP was given at 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% in the diet throughout gestation and lactation (postnatal day 21). In the teratology study, rats were given diets containing 0, 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR on days 6-19 of gestation. The CP-treated dams in the peri/postnatal study consumed significantly more food than did the controls during gestation. Weight gain was increased only in the 5.0 and 7.5% CP groups during lactation. Litter size was reduced slightly at 7.5% CP and pup survival was slightly decreased at 5.0 and 7.5% CP but none of these reductions was statistically significant. However, small but statistically significant decreases in pup body weights were noted in all treatment groups throughout lactation. In the teratology studies, rats given 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR consumed significantly more food than did the controls and the CP-treated dams gained significantly more weight. The percentage of pregnant dams and the mean number of corpora lutea were not affected by either CP or TBR. Foetuses exposed to 0.135 TBR had a significantly higher incidence of incompletely ossified or absent sternebrae and pubic bones, indicating a delay in osteogenesis. On the basis of the survival of treated offspring in the peri/postnatal study, these effects were not considered to be deleterious to either growth or survival. The effects are similar to those that have been reported elsewhere and been considered to indicate potential maternal or foetal toxicity that is unrelated to a specific compound/treatment. We conclude that any variations observed in these studies may be attributed to this non-specific maternal toxicity and are not related to the ingestion of either CP or TBR. The major methylxanthine found in the serum after CP or TBR ingestion was unchanged TBR and it did not bioaccumulate during gestation. The levels of CP and TBR used in these studies were more than 50 times greater than the maximum level of consumption by humans as reported in marketing surveys and were equivalent to a consumption of 10 lb of milk chocolate per day. The results indicate that neither CP nor TBR pose any health hazard to the developing foetus. PMID:3744190

Tarka, S M; Applebaum, R S; Borzelleca, J F

1986-05-01

21

Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk,

Marina V. Copetti; Beatriz T. Iamanaka; Jens C. Frisvad; José L. Pereira; Marta H. Taniwaki

2011-01-01

22

Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrixes such as chocolate powder, cocoa, and coffee by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An improved sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) is presented that enables the quantification of low levels of acrylamide in difficult matrixes, including soluble chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogate. Final analysis is done by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d3-acrylamide as internal standard. Sample pretreatment essentially encompasses (a) protein precipitation with Carrez I and II solutions, (b) extraction of the analyte into ethyl acetate, and (c) solid-phase extraction on a Multimode cartridge. The stability of acrylamide in final extracts and in certain commercial foods and beverages is also reported. This approach provided good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Full validation was conducted in soluble chocolate powder, achieving a decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 9.2 and 12.5 microg/kg, respectively. The method was extended to the analysis of acrylamide in various foodstuffs such as mashed potatoes, crisp bread, and butter biscuit and cookies. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the results obtained in three inter-laboratory proficiency tests. PMID:15264891

Delatour, Thierry; Périsset, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Riediker, Sonja; Stadler, Richard H

2004-07-28

23

Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

24

6.NS Making Hot Cocoa, Variation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One mug of hot chocolate uses $\\frac23$ cup of cocoa powder. How many mugs can Nelli make with 3 cups of cocoa powder? Solve the problem by drawing a p...

25

Cocoa and Cardiovascular Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa

Roberto Corti; Andreas J. Flammer; Norman K. Hollenberg; Thomas F. Lüscher

2009-01-01

26

Cocoa: antioxidant and immunomodulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa, a product consumed since 600 BC, is now a subject of increasing interest because of its antioxidant properties, which are mainly attributed to the content of flavonoids such as (2)-epicatechin, catechin and procyanidins. Moreover, recent findings suggest a regulatory effect of cocoa on the immune cells implicated in innate and acquired immunity. Cocoa exerts regulatory activity on the secretion

Emma Ramiro-Puig; Margarida Castell

2009-01-01

27

Solidification of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter and other confectionery fats do not behave alike on molding. Explanations for the behavior of cocoa butter generally\\u000a are unavailable. The linear contraction of molded cocoa butter on solidification under various conditions was determined.\\u000a Maximum linear contraction of about 2% was measured when a well-seeded sample was solidified at 16C. Nearly all of this contraction\\u000a occurred during the

N. V. Lovegren; R. O. Feuge

1965-01-01

28

Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. PMID:21925035

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

2011-08-12

29

Variability of butterfat content in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): combination and correlation with other seed-derived traits at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butterfat and cocoa powder are key economic products from the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.). In this study, 323 accessions from the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were analysed for bean number (BNO), bean size as bean length x bean width (BLW), bean mass (BM), bean mass per fruit (BM...

30

Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet acti- vation and function over 6 h in humans. Objective: This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supple- mentation with cocoa flavanols and

Karen J Murphy; Andriana K Chronopoulos; Indu Singh; Maureen A Francis; Helen Moriarty; Marilyn J Pike; Alan H Turner; Neil J Mann; Andrew J Sinclair

31

Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.  

PubMed

This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies. PMID:22394229

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

2012-03-07

32

Serving 'COCOA' to Webb  

NASA Video Gallery

The Center of Curvature Optical Assembly, or COCOA is a piece of equipment that will measure the accuracy of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope's primary mirror, to ensure the mirrors are perfectly shaped and will work in the frosty environment of space. This behind-the-scenes NASA video explains the purpose of COCOA and how it is used in testing the mirrors. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center > Download video in HD quality

Robert Garner

2012-11-20

33

Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.  

PubMed

Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa. PMID:23564311

Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

2013-04-07

34

Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.  

PubMed

Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, no ?-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. PMID:23107706

Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

2012-03-07

35

Relationship between Crystallization Behavior and Structure in Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was crystallized statically from the melt to various temperatures in the range of -20 to 26 °C and annealed for up to 45 days. During this period, the polymorphism of the solid state was monitored using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the microstructure of the materials was imaged using polarized light microscopy. Below -15 °C,

Alejandro G. Marangoni; Sara E. McGauley

2003-01-01

36

Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g?1) were 75–84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93–94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07–0.08 ng g?1), accurate (recovery = 75–94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g?1; in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g?1, the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g?1; one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g?1).

Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P.M.

2011-01-01

37

Cocoa polyphenols are absorbed in Caco-2 cell model of intestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

Cocoa is an abundant source of polyphenols, mainly flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers. In the literature, there are contradictory data on the absorption limit of procyanidins in humans. In our study, the Caco-2 cell model of intestinal epithelium was used to determine the absorption and secretion of cocoa flavan-3-ols. Three compounds: (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were detected and quantified at the receiver side of Caco-2 monolayer after 2h transport experiment. The obtained results of apparent permeability coefficient suggest paracellular route of transport of investigated compounds. Additionally, the results suggest that compounds of cocoa powder purified extract are able to affect tight junction functioning. PMID:22953816

Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Andlauer, Wilfried

2012-06-07

38

Polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely by x-ray diffraction six crystalline states, I–VI, in order of increasing melting point, have been identified for\\u000a cocoa butter. Of these states II, IV, V and VI are pure and identifiable with previously (or presently) identified polymorphs\\u000a of 2-oleoylpalmitoyl stearin (POS), namely?-2,??-2,?-3 (“V”) and?-3 (“VI”); V and VI representing distinct but very closely related crystalline structures. State I is

R. L. Wille; E. S. Lutton

1966-01-01

39

Composition of Genuine Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Butter Equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compositional variation of the fatty acid, triacylglycerol, tocopherol, tocotrienol and sterene composition of genuine cocoa butter (CB) due to different geographical growing regions and breeding lines as well as other vegetable fats used in confectionery manufacturing (cocoa butter equivalents, CBE) have been investigated. Genuine CB showed quite narrow ranges of compositional variation compared to CBEs. CBEs are prepared by

M. Lipp; C. Simoneau; F. Ulberth; E. Anklam; C. Crews; P. Brereton; W. de Greyt; W. Schwack; C. Wiedmaier

2001-01-01

40

Impact of cocoa processing technologies in free fatty acids formation in stored raw cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of raw cocoa beans depends widely on their free fatty acids (FFA) content. High FFA content is a serious quality defect and reduces the technical and economic value of the cocoa beans. The work investigates the influence of cocoa processing technologies on FFA formation during storage of raw cocoa beans. Different samples of ferment dried cocoa beans purchased

Simplice Tagro Guehi; Michael Dingkuhn; Emile Cros; Gérard Fourny; Robert Ratomahenina; Guy Moulin; Anne Clement Vidal

41

Targeted metabolic profiling of phenolics in urine and plasma after regular consumption of cocoa by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological properties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) polyphenols are strictly dependent on their bioavailability. A long-term cocoa feeding trial was performed with subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Subjects (n=42) received two sachets of 20g of cocoa powder\\/day with 250mL of skimmed milk each, or only 500mL\\/day of skimmed milk, both for two 4-week periods. The phenolic metabolic

Mireia Urpi-Sarda; María Monagas; Nasiruddin Khan; Rafael Llorach; Rosa Ma Lamuela-Raventós; Olga Jáuregui; Ramón Estruch; María Izquierdo-Pulido; Cristina Andrés-Lacueva

2009-01-01

42

World Cocoa Situation, October 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for the October-September 1992/93 marketing year is forecast at 2.35 million tons, 4 percent greater than a year earlier, but 7 percent below the record 1990/91 harvest of 2.53 million. Low world cocoa prices have discouraged g...

1992-01-01

43

Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.  

PubMed

Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet. PMID:18759443

Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

2008-08-30

44

77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2012-08-20

45

Analysis of the World Cocoa Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reports the results from a new world cocoa model constructed to project consumption, output and price over the next decade. The projections are based on econometric analysis of cocoa demand and production in major consuming and producing countri...

T. Akiyama R. C. Duncan

1982-01-01

46

21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of the breakfast cocoa under the conditions and limitations...2). (4) Breakfast cocoa may be spiced, flavored...flavor of chocolate, milk, or butter; or (4) Salt. (c...of the food is âbreakfast cocoaâ, or âhigh fat...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of the breakfast cocoa under the conditions and limitations...2). (4) Breakfast cocoa may be spiced, flavored...flavor of chocolate, milk, or butter; or (4) Salt. (c...of the food is âbreakfast cocoaâ, or âhigh fat...

2009-04-01

48

Could Hot Cocoa Improve Brainpower in Seniors?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Hot Cocoa Improve Brainpower in Seniors? Small early study ... A preliminary new study links two cups of hot cocoa per day to improved memory skills in ...

49

Cocoa bean cell and embryo culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus culture of cocoa bean was initiated from immature cotyledons on agar medium. By dispersing these callus cells, a liquid\\u000a suspension culture was established. The lipid composition of cocoa suspension culture was investigated and compared with those\\u000a of cocoa beans of different maturities. Factors affecting fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in cocoa suspension cultures\\u000a also were studied. In parallel studies,

Ming-Che Wen; Bruce German; John E. Kinsella

1984-01-01

50

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs...Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition...

2009-04-01

51

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs...Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition...

2010-04-01

52

Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.  

PubMed

This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of chocolate products. Hot cocoa provides 62 mg/serving of theobromine and 4 mg/serving of caffeine when prepared from commercial instant mixes. Instant cold chocolate milk mixes supply an average of 58 mg/serving of theobromine and 5 mg/serving of caffeine. The methylxanthine content of chocolate foods has received only slight attention in the literature. The methylxanthine content of sweet chocolate ranges from 0.359 to 0.628% for theobromine and 0.017 to 0.125% for caffeine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6396642

Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

1984-01-01

53

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. I. Kinetics of solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of seeding of fat crystals on the crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter and dark chocolate were examined with a\\u000a rotational viscometer. The seed crystals employed were cocoa butter, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS), 1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol\\u000a (BOB) and 1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol (SSS). The seed powders were prepared by pulverization below —50?C, the dimensions being\\u000a in a range from 20–70 ?m. Particular attention was paid to the

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

54

World Cocoa Situation, October 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for the 1990/91 October-September crop year is forecast at 2.39 million tons, about at the same level as a year earlier, but three percent below the record 1988/89 harvest of 2.47 million tons.

1990-01-01

55

World Cocoa Situation, March 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for the October-September 1989/90 marketing year is estimated at 2.39 million tons, slightly below the record 1988/89 harvest. Larger crops are anticipated for Brazil, Nigeria, Malaysia, and Indonesia, while declines are foreca...

1990-01-01

56

World Cocoa Situation, March 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for October-September 1991/92 is now established at 2.26 million tons, 10 percent below the record harvest of a year earlier, reflecting less favorable growing conditions for the 1992 African mid crops and prospects of a sharp ...

1992-01-01

57

World Cocoa Situation, March 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean stocks for 1992/93 are expected to fall 115,000 tons, following a reduction of 63,000 tons a year earlier. Global carryover stocks still remain at near-record levels, following 7 consecutive years of stock increases during 1984/85 through...

R. E. T. Dull

1993-01-01

58

World Cocoa Situation, March 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World cocoa bean production for the 1990/91 October-September crop year is estimated at 2.43 million tons, 1 percent greater than a year earlier, but still below the record 1988/89 outturn of 2.47 million tons. Despite an anticipated 3.4 percent increase ...

1991-01-01

59

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds.

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

60

Comparision of acidic and basic volatile compounds of cocoa butters from roasted and unroasted cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nine acidic and 83 basic compounds was identified in the roasted and unroasted cocoa butter samples. Forty seven\\u000a of the compounds identified are being reported for the first time in cocoa. The higher concentration of short chain fatty\\u000a acids in the unroasted cocoa butter is responsible for its acidic aroma characteristics. The roasted cocoa butter generally\\u000a contained

James T. Carlin; Ken N. Lee; Oliver A.-L. Hsieh; Lucy Sun Hwang; Chi-Tang Ho; Stephen S. Chang

1986-01-01

61

Extraction of cocoa butter from Brazilian cocoa beans using supercritical CO 2 and ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the use of supercritical CO2 and ethane, both acceptable and non-contaminating solvents for food products, in the recovery of cocoa butter from Theobroma cacao cocoa beans. Continuos extractions were performed using a high pressure apparatus. Extractions were first performed using processed cocoa butter to assess and compare the extraction efficiencies of CO2 and ethane. These extractions were

Marleny D. A. Saldaña; Rahoma S. Mohamed; Paulo Mazzafera

2002-01-01

62

Shaded versus unshaded cocoa: implications on litter fall, decomposition, soil fertility and cocoa pod development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, cocoa is grown in Ghana in conjunction with a diverse selection of trees that provide shade and habitat for a variety of wildlife forms thus enhancing biodiversity. In recent years, more cocoa plantations are being managed intensively and in full sun. A study was carried out to examine the implications of growing cocoa under different shade regimes provided by

K. Ofori-Frimpong; A. Asase; J. Mason; L. Danku

63

Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.  

PubMed

Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect. PMID:23561077

Calatayud, Marta; López-de-Dicastillo, Carolina; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vélez, Dinoraz; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

2013-02-10

64

Polymorphous transitions in cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Large experimental evidence was collected on polymorphous transitions of triacyl glycerols (TAG) in cocoa butter by means\\u000a of DSC investigations. The cooling treatment (in conditions close to those of the industrial practice) and the annealing temperature\\u000a significantly affect the overall crystal fraction and the distribution of the various polymorphs. These data allowed a quantitative,\\u000a although purely phenomenological, kinetic parameterization of

D. Fessas; M. Signorelli; A. Schiraldi

2005-01-01

65

Drying with Chemical Reaction in Cocoa Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable flavor qualities of cocoa are dependent on how the cocoa beans are fermented, dried, and roasted. During fermentation and drying, polyphenols such as leucocyanidin and apecatechin are oxidized by polyphenols oxidase to form o-quinone, which later react nonenzymatically with a hydroquinone in a condensation reaction to form browning products and moisture. The objective of this article is to model

Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Meor Zainal Meor Talib; Tin Mar Kyi

2007-01-01

66

Volatile compounds of oxidized cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the oxidative behavior of cocoa butter, the autoxidation of refined and non-refined butter samples was accelerated (oxidized at day light at room temperature and at 90 °C). The quantity of certain aldehydes formed during the oxidation of cocoa butter was examined by gas chromatography. The oxidation stability of butter was evaluated over a 12-week period. The influence of

L. Hashim; S. Hudiyono; H. Chaveron

1997-01-01

67

The effects of particle size, fermentation and roasting of cocoa nibs on supercritical fluid extraction of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particle size, fermentation, roasting time and roasting temperature of cocoa nibs on cocoa butter extraction using supercritical fluid technology were studied. The effect of particle size was studied using cocoa liquor (D=0.074mm), ground cocoa nib (D=0.25–0.50mm and 1.0–1.2mm) and whole cocoa nibs at 35MPa, 60°C and flow rate of 2ml\\/min using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The effect

E. K. Asep; S. Jinap; T. J. Tan; A. R. Russly; S. Harcharan; S. A. H. Nazimah

2008-01-01

68

Cocoa-based media for culturing Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl., causal agent of black pod disease of cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green cocoa pod husk agar (GCPA), ripe cocoa pod husk agar (RCPA), green cocoabean agar (GCBA), ripe cocoa bean agar (RCBA),\\u000a green cocoa mucilage agar (GCMA)and ripe cocoa mucilage agar (RCMA) were prepared and assessd for their clarity andfor potential\\u000a to support mycelial growth and sporulation of P. palmivora. Oatmeal agar (OMA), potato-dextrose agar (PDA), vegetable 8 juice agar (V8JA)

R. T. Awuah; M. Frimpong

2002-01-01

69

Effect of liquid fat on melting point and polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter and a cocoa butter fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter and a high-melting fraction of cocoa butter (CBF) was investigated by differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry. The effect of liquid fat on melting point and polymorphic behavior was established for six mixtures:\\u000a 83.5% cocoa butter and 16.5% of a low-melting fraction of cocoa butter (CBF-LM), 90% cocoa butter and 10% olive oil, and four\\u000a mixtures of

N. V. Lovegren; M. S. Gray; R. O. Feuge

1976-01-01

70

[Biologically active substances in grated cocoa and cocoa butter].  

PubMed

In the article results of comparative analysis of grated cocoa and cocoa butter samples are presented. The investigation was done by modern instrumental methods such as HPLC, GC, UV- VIS-spectroscopy, and also with application of titrimetric and grarimetric methods. In the analyzed samples contents of total phenolics changes in an interval 1,0-3,2%, including monomeric proantocyanidins 0,6-1,35%; pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) 0,34-0,76 microg/g; phenyl ethylamine from 2,79 to 14,97 microg/g, tyramine from 9,56 to 71,68 microg/g, dopamine from 5,3 to 25,85 microg/g; theobromine from 3,3 to 8%, caffeine from 0,49 to 0,70%; among the amino acids at the greatest quantities were presented glutaminic and asparaginic acids, arginin and leucin; three main fatty acids were determined - palmitinic (31+/-2% rel.), oleinic (35+/-2% rel.) and stearinic (35+/-2% rel.); the main phytosterins were sytosterin (up to 192 mg%) and obtusifoliol (up to 198,5 mg%). PMID:17674523

Kosman, V M; Stankevich, N M; Makarov, V G; Tikhonov, V P

2007-01-01

71

In-situ lecithination of dairy powders in spray-drying for confectionery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powders are essential ingredients of chocolate. In particular for milk chocolate milk and whey powders are important, together with sucrose, lactose and cocoa solids. During processing to maintain a good flow of the molten chocolate mass, particles with hydrophilic surfaces, such as dairy powders and sugars, are coated with a surface-active compound. Only lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) (at a

Anna Millqvist-Fureby; Paul Smith

2007-01-01

72

In-Situ X-Ray Studies of Cocoa Butter Droplets Undergoing Simulated Spray Freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray freezing offers a novel manufacturing route to fine powders with controlled crystalline structures. Here we simulate\\u000a this process by freezing (using a cold dry air flow) suspended 2-mm diameter droplets of cocoa butter such that X-ray diffraction\\u000a observation of the droplet’s evolving crystalline structure is possible in situ. Initially the Form I polymorph is observed\\u000a in the droplets: this

M. Pore; H. H. Seah; J. W. H. Glover; D. J. Holmes; M. L. Johns; D. I. Wilson; G. D. Moggridge

2009-01-01

73

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

PubMed Central

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

2005-01-01

74

Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (?M TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

2011-01-01

75

Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.  

PubMed

A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin. PMID:19007497

Risner, Charles H

76

Screening Antioxidants Using LC-MS: A Case Study with Cocoa  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Since rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts. This assay is based on the comparison of electrospray LC-MS profiles of sample extracts before and after treatment with reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide or DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Using this assay, methanolic extracts of cocoa powder were analyzed, and procyanidins were found to be the most potent antioxidant species. These species were identified using LC-MS, LC-MS-MS, accurate mass measurement, and comparison with reference standards. Furthermore, LC-MS was used to determine the levels of these species in cocoa samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant antioxidants followed by their dimers and trimers. The most potent antioxidants in cocoa were trimers and dimers of catechin and epicatechin, such as procyanidin B2, followed by catechin and epicatechin. This new LC-MS assay facilitates the rapid identification and then the determination of the relative antioxidant activities of individual antioxidant species in complex natural product samples and food products such as cocoa.

Calderon, Angela I.; Wright, Brian J.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

2009-01-01

77

On the configuration of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  It is concluded from x-ray diffraction, thermal curve, and enzymatic hydrolysis that the predominant glyceride of cocoa butter\\u000a is 2-oleoyl palmitoyl stearin (POS) instead of 2-palmitoyl oleoyl stearin (OPS), the configuration which has been rather generally\\u000a accepted. Accordingly it is suggested that a fully satisfactory cocoa butter extender should be largely of symmetrical, disaturated\\u000a configuration since only thus is the

E. S. Lutton

1957-01-01

78

Detection of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acids at the sn-2 position and the sterol composition of cocoa butter and three common cocoa butter equivalents\\u000a (CBE), namely Coberine, Choclin and Calvetta, were studied comparatively, in order to develop a sensitive method for detecting\\u000a CBE in chocolate. Differences observed in the composition of saturated fatty acids at position-sn-2 present some interest\\u000a in detecting CBE in chocolate.

D. Gegiou; K. Staphylakis

1985-01-01

79

Cocoa butter substitutes from mango fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango fat obtained by solvent extraction of the kernels of the mango fruit (Magnifera indica) has been studied for its suitability in making cocoa butter substitutes. The fat has been fractioned from acetone at low\\u000a temperatures in one and\\/or two stages in order to segregate suitable solid fractions having physical properties closer to\\u000a cocoa butter. The data pertaining to the

B. P. Baliga; A. D. Shitole

1981-01-01

80

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients...

2013-01-01

81

Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase high pressure liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative parameters and method performance for a normal-phase HPLC separation of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing food products were optimized and assessed. Single laboratory method performance was examined over three months using three separate secondary standards. RSD(r) ranged from 1.9%, 4.5% to 9.0% for cocoa powder, liquor and chocolate samples containing 74.39, 15.47 and 1.87mg\\/g flavanols and

Rebecca J. Robbins; Jadwiga Leonczak; J. Christopher Johnson; Julia Li; Catherine Kwik-Uribe; Ronald L. Prior; Liwei Gu

2009-01-01

82

Acoustic properties of organic powders as ultrasonic contrast agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experiments on measuring attenuation and the effective acoustic nonlinear parameter of the second order are given for a suspension of cocoa-powder in water at different concentrations of the suspension. In the process of evaluating the value of the nonlinear parameter the attenuation in the suspension and generation of the second harmonic not only in the suspension but also in water are taken into account. The obtained results are evidence of the possibility of using a suspension of cocoa-powder in water as a technical substitute for ultrasonic contrast agents. The values of attenuation (up to 60 m-1 at the concentration of 1 g of the powder per 1 l of water) and the nonlinear parameter (up to 120 m-1 at the same concentration) mean that the suspension of cocoa-powder in water has smaller attenuation and the nonlinear parameter than ultrasonic contrast agents at the same concentration. However, these values for the suspension differ considerably from corresponding values for water or blood and, therefore, a suspension of cocoa-powder in water is a promising "substitute" for ultrasonic contrast agents in the case of technical testing of systems for nonlinear tomography of a blood flow, but cannot replace them in medical studies.

Burov, V. A.; Loginov, S. V.; Dmitriev, K. V.

2011-11-01

83

The vasculoprotective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current evidence on the vasculoprotective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate is reviewed. Cocoa flavonoids are derived from the cacao bean, found in the fruit pod of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao. There is growing evidence that dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate may be cardioprotective because of their interference in many pathophysiological mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis. Possible

Mary B. Engler; Marguerite M. Engler

2004-01-01

84

76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-ASO-43] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...This action amends Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional...E airspace at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No....

2011-06-21

85

The effect of milk protein on the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether milk proteins interact with cocoa polyphenols to modulate the uptake and concentration of polyphenols in plasma, 24 middle-aged men and women consumed 2 g of chocolate polyphenols, plus sugar and cocoa butter in 200 mL water, on 2 occasions. On 1 occasion, the chocolate mix contained 2.45 g of milk proteins. Blood samples were taken fasting and at regular intervals for 8 h. Catechin and epicatechins levels were measured in these samples and no differences were seen in average concentrations between the 2 treatments. Milk protein caused a slight increase in concentration at the early time points and a decrease at the later time points. In conclusion, milk powder did not influence the average concentration of polyphenols. While it slightly accelerated absorption, this is of no physiological significance. PMID:17995820

Keogh, J B; McInerney, J; Clifton, P M

2007-04-01

86

The declining cocoa economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation attitudes of cocoa planters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the south-eastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Large land-owners were found to be responsible for most of the forest clearing that occurred in the past: cocoa prices compensated investment in the expansion of the

Keith Alger; Marcellus Caldas

1994-01-01

87

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

88

The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were

D. S. Nielsen; O. D. Teniola; L. Ban-Koffi; M. Owusu; T. S. Andersson; W. H. Holzapfel

2007-01-01

89

Descriptive analysis and external preference mapping of powdered chocolate milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appearance, texture and flavor descriptors were developed for powdered chocolate milk. The influence of cocoa and gum concentrations on these descriptors was studied using stepwise multiple regression. Out of a total of 23 descriptors, four were non-significant. For the significant descriptors, the percentage variance explained ranged from 65 to 93%, with an average of 82%. Visual viscosity and oral thickness

Guillermo Hough; Ricardo Sánchez

1998-01-01

90

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 163...Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium...

2010-04-01

92

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium...

2009-04-01

93

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Sarah E. Guthrie; Eric B. Sirota; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2004-01-01

94

The effects of milk as a food matrix for polyphenols on the excretion profile of cocoa (-)-epicatechin metabolites in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

The effect of different food matrices on the metabolism and excretion of polyphenols is uncertain. The objective of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of milk on the excretion of (2)-epicatechin metabolites from cocoa powder after its ingestion with and without milk. Twenty-one volunteers received the following three test meals each in a randomised cross-over design with a 1-week interval between meals: (1) 250 ml whole milk as a control; (2) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml whole milk (CC-M); (3) 40 g cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml water (CC-W). Urine was collected before consumption and during the 0-6, 6-12 and 12-24 h periods after consumption. (2)-Epicatechin metabolite excretion was measured using liquid chromatography-MS. One (2)-epicatechin glucuronide and three (2)-epicatechin sulfates were detected in urine excreted after the intake of the two cocoa beverages (CC-M and CC-W). The results show that milk does not significantly affect the total amount of metabolites excreted in urine. However, differences in metabolite excretion profiles were observed; there were changes in the glucuronide and sulfate excretion rates, and the sulfation position between the period of excretion and the matrix. The matrix in which polyphenols are consumed can affect their metabolism and excretion, and this may affect their biological activity. Thus, more studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these different metabolite profiles on the body. PMID:18257943

Roura, Elena; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Lourdes Mata Bilbao, M; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

2008-02-07

95

The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to\\u000acigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in\\u000athe literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated\\u000apsychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin,\\u000ahistamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, octopamine\\u000aand anandamide. The general conclusion is that the level of these\\u000acompounds in added cocoa in cigarettes

Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W

2007-01-01

96

Effect of temperature on recrystallization behavior of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization of cocoa butter in the ? phase directly from the melt is only possible by employing the memory effect of cocoa\\u000a butter. Cocoa butter crystallized in the ? phase, heated to the so-called maximal temperature (just above its melting end\\u000a point), recrystallizes in the ? phase after cooling to a crystallization temperature. The influence of the maximal and crystallization

Arjen van Langevelde; Kees Van Malssen; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

2001-01-01

97

The determination of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate and cocoa butter is described. The method relies on a new approach\\u000a for interpreting data obtained by triglyceride gas liquid chromatography (GLC). This technique provides information on the\\u000a composition of a fat according to the carbon number of the triglycerides (Cn). Examination of the data for a wide range of cocoa

F. B. Padley; R. E. Timms

1980-01-01

98

Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.  

PubMed

The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America¾ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

Pucciarelli, Deanna L

2013-09-26

99

Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.  

PubMed

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23637048

Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

2013-05-02

100

Method for the determination of catechin and epicatechin enantiomers in cocoa-based ingredients and products by high-performance liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A single-laboratory validation study was performed for an HPLC method to identify and quantify the flavanol enantiomers (+)- and (-)-epicatechin and (+)- and (-)-catechin in cocoa-based ingredients and products. These compounds were eluted isocratically with an ammonium acetate-methanol mobile phase applied to a modified beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase and detected using fluorescence. Spike recovery experiments using appropriate matrix blanks, along with cocoa extract, cocoa powder, and dark chocolate, were used to evaluate accuracy, repeatability, specificity, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method as performed by a single analyst on multiple days. In all samples analyzed, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant flavanol and represented 68-91% of the total monomeric flavanols detected. For the cocoa-based products, within-day (intraday) precision for (-)-epicatechin was between 1.46-3.22%, for (+)-catechin between 3.66-6.90%, and for (-)-catechin between 1.69-6.89%; (+)-epicatechin was not detected in these samples. Recoveries for the three sample types investigated ranged from 82.2 to 102.1% at the 50% spiking level, 83.7 to 102.0% at the 100% spiking level, and 80.4 to 101.1% at the 200% spiking level. Based on performance results, this method may be suitable for routine laboratory use in analysis of cocoa-based ingredients and products. PMID:22649938

Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Schaneberg, Brian T; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L

101

The advantages of solid fat content determination in cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by the Karlshamns method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of samples and the evaluation techniques applied to determine the Solid Fat Content (SFC)\\u000a by means of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in confectionery fats characterized by distinct polymorphism (cocoa butter,\\u000a cocoa butter equivalents and their mixtures). Due to the deviation of SFC values in certain softer cocoa butter equivalents\\u000a at the temperature of 20 °C,

Aleksandra Torbica; Olga Jovanovic; Biljana Pajin

2006-01-01

102

Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.  

PubMed

The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate. PMID:20859797

Smit, Hendrik Jan

2011-01-01

103

Child labour and cocoa: whose voices prevail?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide ethnographic data on the lives of children working in cocoa-producing communities in Ghana and to illustrate the importance of contextualisation in understanding the phenomenon of child labour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in Ghana using participant observation and child-focused participatory research methods. It also

Amanda Berlan

2009-01-01

104

Technology Adoption: Classroom in the Cocoa Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The adoption of technology aimed at improving the sustainability of food, fibre and fuel production is one of the greatest\\u000a impediments to improving the quality of life, particularly for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Cocoa is Papua\\u000a New Guinea’s third most important agricultural export crop, after coffee and palm oil, contributing up to 17% of the national\\u000a agricultural revenue. This

D. I. Guest; R. Daniel; Y. Namaliu; J. K. Konam

105

Cocoa butter extender from Simarouba glauca fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simarouba glauca is a rich source of fat, having a melting point of about 29C and consisting of palmitic (12.5%), stearic (27%) and oleic\\u000a (56%) as major fatty acids. It consists of about 30% of symmetrical monounsaturated-type triacylglycerols and appears to be\\u000a a good source of fat for preparation of cocoa butter (CB) extender. The stearin fraction (35% yield) obtained

T. Jeyarani; S. Yella Reddy

2001-01-01

106

Biocontrol of Cocoa Pod Diseases with Mycoparasite Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five native mycoparasitic strains of Clonostachys rosea and three of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from healthy cocoa tissue or basidiocarps of Crinipellis perniciosa using a baiting technique. They were compared singly or in combination with the commercial biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens (SoilGuard) for their potential to control three cocoa pod diseases: moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri; witches' broom, caused by

Ulrike Krauss; Whilly Soberanis

2001-01-01

107

Evaluation of Cocoa Land Use Management in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is a result of a study which was made to explore the possibilities of improving the administration, planning and management of the cocoa industry in Ghana. It discusses the present situation of identification of cocoa farms and farmers and the ...

P. H. van Oorschot W. L. M. Sosef

1990-01-01

108

Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-?B. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. PMID:21470061

Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

2011-06-13

109

Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to

W. A. Jonfia-Essien; P. G. Alderson; G. Tucker

2008-01-01

110

21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common...1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin is âcocoa butter substitute primarily from palm...

2010-01-01

111

21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common...1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin is âcocoa butter substitute primarily from palm...

2009-04-01

112

Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on

Francene M Steinberg; Monica M Bearden; Carl L Keen

2003-01-01

113

Impact of removing diseased pods on cocoa black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya and on cocoa production in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses in Cameroon. Field experiments were carried out over two successive years in two smallholders’ plots of cocoa trees, in order to assess the impact of diseased pod removal (phytosanitary pod removal) on disease progress, total production and final harvest. The generalized linear mixed model proved

M. Ndoumbe-Nkeng; C. Cilas; E. Nyemb; S. Nyasse; D. Bieysse; A. Flori; I. Sache

2004-01-01

114

Impact of removing diseased pods on cocoa black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya and on cocoa production in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses in Cameroon. Field experiments were carried out over two successive years in two smallholders’ plots of cocoa trees, in order to assess the impact of diseased pod removal (phytosanitary pod removal) on disease progress, total production and final harvest. The generalized linear mixed model

M. Ndoumbe-nkeng; C. Cilas; E. Nyemb; S. Nyasse; D. Bieysse; A. Flori; I. Sache

2004-01-01

115

The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended.…

Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

1994-01-01

116

Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism and phase transitions of cocoa butter (CB) have been reexamined separately by differential scanning calorimetry\\u000a (DSC) and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT) at scanning rates between 0.1 to 5C\\/min and 0.1 to 2C\\/min,\\u000a respectively. A new instrument, which allowed simultaneous DSC and XRDT recordings from the same sample by taking advantage\\u000a of the high-energy flux

C. Loisel; G. Keller; G. Lecq; C. Bourgaux; M. Ollivon

1998-01-01

117

Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.  

PubMed

A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark chocolate and semisweet chips, (4) milk chocolates, and (5) syrup. PCA also shows that most factors group closely together including the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and the flavan-3-ol measures with the exception of catechin and % fat in the product, which group separately. Because catechin distribution appears to be different from the other flavan-3-ol measures, an analysis of the epicatechin to catechin ratio was done, indicating there is a >5-fold variation in this measure across the products studied. The cocoa-containing products tested range from cocoa powder with 227.34 +/- 17.23 mg of procyanidins per serving to 25.75 +/- 9.91 mg of procyanidins per serving for chocolate syrup. These results are discussed with respect to other studies on commercial products, the bioavailability of the flavanols, and the possible role of processing on the amount of catechin in products. PMID:19754118

Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

2009-10-14

118

Metal Powders (Metall Pulver).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book discusses metal powders for powder metallurgy, specific topics include Electrolytic copper powder, Copper alloy powders, Lead powders, tin powders, Partially prealloyed powders, Premixes, Mixed powders to customers' specifications, Quality contr...

1986-01-01

119

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

120

Cocoa Production: Present Constraints and Priorities for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cocoa is produced almost exclusively by developing nations in the tropics. Although it is in many ways a suitable crop for small farmers, yields are seriously reduced by several major pests and diseases. The paper identifies the major constraints, summari...

R. A. Lass G. A. R. Wood

1985-01-01

121

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, âDefinitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products.â Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official...

2009-01-01

122

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, âDefinitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products.â Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official...

2010-01-01

123

Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health  

PubMed Central

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

Andujar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Rios, J. L.

2012-01-01

124

Chromosome size differences in Phytophthora palmivora, a pathogen of cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora palmivora is one of the most ubiquitous and destructive plant pathogens of tropical tree crops such as palms, cocoa, citrus and rubber1. On cocoa, where it causes black-pod disease, annual losses are conservatively estimated at 10% of the crop2. Progress in disease control has been impeded by confusion over the taxonomy of the species, which has become a pigeon-hole

Eva Sansome; C. M. BRASIER; M. J. GRIFFIN

1975-01-01

125

Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a crop grown largely by smallholder farmers in the lowland tropics, including parts of Latin America, West Africa,\\u000a and Indonesia. Research suggests that it has the potential to provide biodiversity benefits when grown under certain shade\\u000a conditions, especially when compared with alternative land uses. The primary literature on cocoa production reveals a range\\u000a of objectives for improvement of

Margaret Franzen; Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2007-01-01

126

Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:17565606

Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

2007-06-12

127

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing... § 172.520 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive âcocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for...

2013-04-01

128

76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is...Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011....

2011-05-13

129

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...fat. The fats, oils, and stearins may be hydrogenated; (4) Safe and...sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...cocoa and ___ oil coatingâ,...

2013-04-01

130

Chemical Evaluation and Digestibility of Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) Byproducts Fed to Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of the cocoa byproducts CPH (cocoa pod husk), CS (cocoa shell) and CD (cocoa dust), and to establish a rational use of CS and CD in the diets of growing goats. CD had a high crude protein (CP) content of 15.9%, while CS and CPH had 13.8% and 6.7%,

E. M. Aregheore

2002-01-01

131

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating is the...

2010-04-01

132

76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional...procedures developed at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL. Airspace reconfiguration is...

2011-05-25

133

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating is the...

2009-04-01

134

77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic...descriptor of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic...

2012-04-11

135

Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis profiles and Near Infrared spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans. The process is complex involving activity of several different groups of microorganisms which bring about numerous

Dennis S. Nielsen; Pia Snitkjaer; Frans van den Berg

2008-01-01

136

Traditional cocoa-based agroforestry and forest species conservation in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa agroforests are a common farming system in the humid zone of West and Central Africa, in which forest trees provide shade and other environmental services as well as marketable products. To determine the extent of these benefits, data were collected in nine cocoa farms located in three major cocoa producing local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo State. Reserved natural

D. O. Oke; K. A. Odebiyi

2007-01-01

137

Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Equivalent from Palm Oil by Carica papaya Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter equivalent could be synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification of oil. The objective of this research was to investigate the synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from interesterification of palm oil catalyzed by Carica papaya lipase. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction

Porntippa Pinyaphong

2009-01-01

138

Review of cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate—Part A. Compositional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the literature on the compositional data of vegetable fats used or proposed as alternatives to cocoa butter in chocolate and confectionery products. Cocoa butter is the only continuous phase in chocolate, thus responsible for the dispersion of all other constituents and for the physical behaviour of chocolate. Unique to cocoa butter is its brittleness at room temperature

M. Lipp; E. Anklam

1998-01-01

139

Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

140

Effect of Boiling Time on the Utilization of Cocoa Bean Shell in Laying Hen Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Efficient utilization of cocoa by-products has been identified as one of the means of ensuring the sustainability of the cocoa economy. A series of studies was started in 2000 with the aim of findin g commercial usage for cocoa bean shell (CBS) in poultry (layer) diets. In the first trial, CBS was fed raw at graded levels (0,

2006-01-01

141

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans. PMID:20843086

Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

2010-10-13

142

The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses. PMID:16794453

Selmi, Carlo; Mao, Tin K; Keen, Carl L; Schmitz, Harold H; Eric Gershwin, M

2006-01-01

143

Mystery Powders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

Society, American C.

2000-01-01

144

Flavanol-rich cocoa ameliorates lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Consumption of flavanols improves chronic endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether it can also improve acute lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 healthy subjects received a fatty meal with cocoa either rich in flavanols (918 mg) or flavanol-poor. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were then determined over 6 h. After the flavanol-poor fat loading, the FMD deteriorated over 4 h. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa, in contrast, improved this deterioration in hours 2, 3, and 4 without abolishing it completely. Flavanols did not have any influence on triglycerides or on free fatty acids. Flavanol-rich cocoa can alleviate the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably through an improvement in endothelial NO synthase. PMID:21140269

Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus

2010-12-08

145

Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonids on in vitro oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids that, among other functions, can act as antioxidants. In living systems, the production\\u000a of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an array of intracellular cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases\\u000a (MAPK), that are closely associated with cell death or survival pathways.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To ascertain the role of a cocoa extract and its main

Emma Ramiro-Puig; Gemma Casadesús; Hyoung-gon Lee; Xiongwei Zhu; Andrew McShea; George Perry; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano; Mark A. Smith; Margarida Castell

2009-01-01

146

Cocoa butter-like fats from domestic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Technical considerations indicate that cocoa butter-like mixtures can be prepared readily by the esterification of mixtures\\u000a of oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids, or the interesterification of their glycerides, followed by the fractional crystallization\\u000a of the reaction products.\\u000a \\u000a Using the indicated procedures, three cocoa butter-like fractions were prepared. One consisted essentially of oleopalmitostearins,\\u000a another consisted essentially of oleodistearins, while the third

R. O. Feuge; Norman V. Lovegren; H. B. Cosler

1958-01-01

147

Cocoa butter biosynthesis: Effect of temperature on Theobroma cacao acyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes catalyzing the first and last steps in cocoa butter biosynthesis were studied in microsomal preparations from developing\\u000a cocoa seeds. Both the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol\\u000a 0-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) showed broad specificity for three fatty acid donors (palmitoyl-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA),\\u000a but the relative amounts of incorporation of these fatty acids into lysophosphatidic acid and triacylglycerol were

Lauren McHenry; Paul J. Fritz

1987-01-01

148

Powder Particulars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory activity and demonstration, learners are introduced to the concept that different substances react chemically in characteristic ways. First learners compare the way baking soda and baking powder react with vinegar. Then they see dramatic color changes when red cabbage indicator is added to cream of tartar and laundry detergent. From this, learners are ready to identify unknown powders based on their reactive properties.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

149

Influence of Chemical Composition on the Isothermal Cocoa Butter Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of chemical composition on the isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was investigated quantitatively. Apart from the fatty acid and triacylglycerol profile, the amounts of some minor components (diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids, soap, unsaponifiable matter, iron, and primary oxidation products) were determined. With the forward model selection technique, a multiple linear regression model was established, showing the influence of

I. Foubert; P. A. Vanrolleghem; O. Thas; K. Dewettinck

2006-01-01

150

Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.  

PubMed

The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-05-15

151

Witches’ broom disease of cocoa in Rondonia, Brazil: Pod losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pod losses caused by Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer passed 50% in cocoa plantings in their sixth year in Rondonia, Brazil where no control was applied. It is recommended that pruning should be initiated in the fourth year after planting. Recovery of fermentable seeds from diseased fruits was minimal, and pod losses could be used to estimate yield loss. Monthly losses

S. A. Rudgard

1986-01-01

152

Multiple sclerosis and possible relationship to cocoa: a hypothesis.  

PubMed

The hypothesis presented in this paper suggests that MS may be caused by an allergic or other adverse reaction to certain foods, mostly cocoa products, cola, and coffee. Many MS patients have one or more manifestations of other well known reactions to those foods, such as migraine, urticaria, or gastrointestinal disturbances. PMID:2955724

Maas, A G; Hogenhuis, L A

1987-07-01

153

Cracking the cocoa nut: user interface programming at runtime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces runtime toolkit overloading, a novel approach to help third-party developers modify the interaction and behavior of existing software applications without access to their underlying source code. We describe the abstractions provided by this approach as well as the mechanisms for implementing them in existing environments. We describe Scotty, a prototype implementation for Mac OS X Cocoa that

James R. Eagan; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Wendy E. Mackay

2011-01-01

154

Can Cocoa Farmer Organizations Countervail Buyer Market Power?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural adjustment in less developed countries has often mandated removal of state-run marketing boards to enhance efficiency in the marketing chain and to raise farm income. Concerns have been mounting about the negative side effects of cocoa market liberalization, including replacement of the parastatal by imperfectly competitive marketing institutions and the loss of public goods (e.g. research and extension). It

Michael D. Wilcox; Philip C. Abbott

2006-01-01

155

Market Institutions and Productivity: Microeconomic Evidence from Ghanaian Cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to assess the impact of market institutions on rural productivity. In particular, it tests the hypothesis that liberal- izing domestic institutions has led to productivity gains in Ghanaian cocoa production. The paper uses a unique panel dataset that pro- vides variation across villages and years in the degree of competition efiected by changes to the institutional structure.

Andrew Zeitlin

156

Cocoa bean carbohydrates: roasting-induced changes and polymer interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roasting induced change to carbohydrates and cell wall polysaccharides was investigated in three varieties of cocoa beans. The concentrations of glucose and fructose decreased after roasting but levels of the non-reducing sugars, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, were not markedly affected. Approximately 10% of the arabinose content of the polysaccharides was degraded but, overall, the pectic and hemicellulosic polymers remained

R. J Redgwell; V Trovato; D Curti

2003-01-01

157

Cocoa butter equivalent through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction (POMF) with stearic acid in a solvent free system using Novo lipase Lipozyme™ as a catalyst was analyzed. A two level factorial design was used to study the effect of the initial ratio of stearic acid–POMF, initial humidity of the enzyme preparation and the enzyme–substrate

Daniel Undurraga; Andrés Markovits; Sonia Erazo

2001-01-01

158

Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.  

PubMed

Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:? This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix. PMID:22384959

Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

2012-03-01

159

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cocoa pod husks. [Trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory results are presented of the bioconversion of cellulose from cocoa pod husks, utilizing cellulase from three mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Total reducing sugars in filtered hydrolysates were estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The sugars present were identified by paper chromatography as glucose and xylose.

Simpson, B.K.; Oldham, J.H.; Martin, A.M

1984-07-01

160

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy

N. Meunier; J. Laroulandie; J. F. Blais; R. D. Tyagi

2003-01-01

161

Molecular characterization of an International cocoa collection using microsallte markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High levels of redundancy and limited information on genetic structure hinder the efficient conservation and utilization of cacao germplasm. The present study targeted the assessment of genetic identity and population structure in an international cocoa collection maintained in Costa Rica. Using a c...

162

Leaf litter mulch reduces the survival of Phytophthora palmivora under cocoa trees in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saprophytic survival of Phytophthora palmivora in infected cocoa residues over the dry season provides primary inoculum for the development of rainy season epidemics of\\u000a black pod and stem canker diseases of cocoa. In field trials conducted in Papua New Guinea, we examined pathogen survival\\u000a in various types of colonised cocoa tissues under two different ground covers. Pathogen survival was

John K. Konam; David I. Guest

2002-01-01

163

A new industrial process for extracting cocoa butter and xanthines with supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the feasibility of extracting cocoa butter and xanthines (theobromine and caffeine) from cocoa beans\\u000a with supercritical CO2. It is difficult to carry out the extraction with CO2 alone in the temperature range 40–90C at pressures between 80 to 300 bar. However, the addition of a polar cosolvent, such\\u000a as ethanol, greatly enhances solubilities, especially that of cocoa

Shufen Li; Stanley Hartland

1996-01-01

164

Synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

With supercritical carbon dixoide as a reaction medium, the syntheses of cocoa butter equivalent by interesterification with\\u000a various lipases were investigated. The study showed that among those five lipases tested, lipase IM-20 from Mucor miehei was the most effective and specific in synthesizing this cocoa butter equivalent product by interesterification. The yields\\u000a of cocoa butter equivalent are affected by pressure,

Kuan-Ju Liu; Hong-Ming Cheng; Rey-Chang Chang; Jei-Fu Shaw

1997-01-01

165

Effect of 2oleodipalmitin and 2-elaidodipalmitin on polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter mixed with 2-oleodipalmitin (POP) or 2-elaidodipalmitin (PEP) was investigated with\\u000a a differential scanning calorimeter. Six mixtures of cocoa butter containing 10, 25, and 50% POP and 10, 25, and 50% PEP were\\u000a used. Each of the three cocoa butter-POP mixtures exhibited at least four polymorphic forms. The lowmelting form was obtained\\u000a by quick chilling;

M. S. Gray; N. V. Lovegren; R. O. Feuge

1976-01-01

166

Lipid and hardness characteristics of cocoa butters from different geographic regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four commercially pressed cocoa butters and 39 laboratory solvent extracted cocoa butters were evaluated. A rapid method\\u000a using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the hardness of small quantities of cocoa butter. In the\\u000a DSC thermogram of a quenched sample, the percentage area under the polymorph II endotherm had a positive correlation (r=0.74)\\u000a with the mechanical hardness. Soft

Siree Chaiseri; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

167

Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults  

PubMed Central

An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (??0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (?0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa ?0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa ?1.6 ± 0.3%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) and 2-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.5 ± 0.3%, 5 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.4 ± 0.2%, and 26 g cocoa ?2.5 ± 0.4%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) on the other study days. A serum marker of cocoa ingestion (total epicatechin) correlated with increased FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44–0.48; both P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases brachial artery FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans.

Feehan, Robert P.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra L.; Lott, Mary E. J.

2011-01-01

168

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

169

Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption. PMID:23462053

Latif, R

2013-03-01

170

Transmission of Phytophthora Pod Rot of Cocoa by Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl., the causal agent of black pod of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), accounts for an estimated 19% crop loss in Ghana1, and losses are considerably higher in wetter countries such as Nigeria and the Cameroun Republic. The epidemiology of the disease is still uncertain but rain-splash from soil is considered by some workers2,3 to trigger-off disease cycles.

H. C. Evans

1971-01-01

171

Cocoa procyanidins and human cytokine transcription and secretion.  

PubMed

We examined whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate cytokine production at the levels of transcription and protein secretion in both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In resting cells, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-4 gene expression from cocoa-treated cells varied markedly among the subjects tested. However, at the protein level, the larger fractions (pentamer through decamer) stimulated a dramatic increase in IL-1beta concentration (up to ninefold) with increasing degree of polymerization. Similarly, these larger fractions augmented IL-4 concentration by as much as 2 pg/ml, whereas the control displayed levels nearly undetectable. In the presence of PHA, gene expression also seemed to be most affected by the larger procyanidin fractions. The pentameric through decameric fractions increased IL-1 beta expression by 7-19% compared with PHA control, whereas the hexameric through decameric fractions significantly inhibited PHA-induced IL-4 transcription in the range of 71-86%. This observation at the transcription level for IL-1 beta was reflected at the protein level in PHA-stimulated PBMC. Significant reductions in mitogen-induced IL-4 production were also seen at the protein level with the hexamer, heptamer and octamer. Individual oligomeric cocoa fractions were unstimulatory for IL-2 in resting PBMC. However, when induced with PHA, the pentamer, hexamer and heptamer fractions caused a 61-73% inhibition in IL-2 gene expression. This study offers additional data for the consideration of the health benefits of dietary polyphenols from a wide variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with cocoa and chocolate consumption. PMID:10917928

Mao, T; Van De Water, J; Keen, C L; Schmitz, H H; Gershwin, M E

2000-08-01

172

Effect of food emulsifiers on polymorphic transitions of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter in the presence of several food emulsifiers serving as crystal structure modifiers\\u000a was investigated. Emphasis was placed on transitions among the relatively stable forms IV, V and VI, which are significant\\u000a for a confectionery industry.\\u000a \\u000a As known from industry work, within the series of sorbitan esters and ethoxylated sorbitan esters, the solid emulsifiers were

Nissim Garti; Judith Schlichter; Sara Sarig

1986-01-01

173

Reconsideration of polymorphic transformations in cocoa butter using the DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was crystallized in the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the presence and the absence of sorbitan monostearate\\u000a at different cooling rates. The solidification and fusion curves were recorded. It was found that cooling rate affects enthalpies\\u000a and temperatures of phase transitions. The very slow cooling rate causes a significant decrease in crystallization enthalpy,\\u000a suggesting that fractionation of glycerides

Judith Schlichter Aronhime; Sara Sarig; Nissim Garti

1988-01-01

174

Thermal and compositional properties of cocoa butter during static crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to\\u000a determine the thermal properties and glyceride composition of cocoa butter crystals formed under static conditions. In addition\\u000a to these studies, visual characterization of the crystallites was obtained with polarized light microscopy (PLM). Crystals\\u000a were formed under controlled static or motionless conditions at formation temperatures of

Paul S. Dimick; Douglas M. Manning

1987-01-01

175

Filamentous fungi producing ochratoxin a during cocoa processing in Cameroon.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin occurring in cocoa. A study was conducted in Cameroon to assess how filamentous fungi and toxigenesis were affected by the type of cocoa post-harvest treatment (boxes or heaps). The filamentous fungi isolated were almost identical when fermentation was carried out in boxes or heaps, with the presence of abundant black Aspergillus filamentous fungi: A. niger and A. carbonarius. Filamentous fungi were more abundant at the end of the harvesting season. Factors affecting bean integrity (poor handling, deferred processing) resulted in a qualitative and quantitative increase in contamination, when the total number of filamentous fungi could reach a maximum value of 5.5+/-1.4x10(7) CFU g(-1) and black Aspergilli a maximum value of 1.42+/-2.2x10(7) CFU g(-1). A toxigenesis study showed that Aspergillus carbonarius was the main OTA-producing strain isolated. Its maximum production could reach 2.77 microg g(-1) on rice medium. Aspergillus niger strains did not always produce OTA and their toxigenesis was much lower. Fermented dried cocoa from poor quality pods was the most contaminated by OTA: up to 48 ng g(-1). PMID:18068845

Mounjouenpou, Pauline; Gueule, Dominique; Fontana-Tachon, Angélique; Guyot, Bernard; Tondje, Pierre Roger; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre

2007-11-17

176

Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.  

PubMed

The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. PMID:23107501

Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

2012-08-30

177

PHOSPHONIC ACID: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF COCOA CAUSED BY PHYTOPHTHORA MEGAKARYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cocoa is the main commodity crop of Ghana and is financially important for the livelihood of many rural communities. The relatively recent arrival of the more aggressive black pod pathogen Phytophthora megakarya and its continued progress westwards threatens the cocoa farming communities. In a wider context its recent arrival in Ivory Coast, currently the worlds largest producer of cocoa,

Isaac Y. Opoku; Andrews Y. Akrofi; Mark Holderness; Keith A. Holmes

178

Chocolate: Modern Science Investigates an Ancient Medicine Cocoa and Wine Polyphenols Modulate Platelet Activation and Function1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is speculation that dietary polyphenols can provide cardioprotective effects due to direct antioxidant or antithrombotic mechanisms. We report in vitro and postingestion ex vivo effects of cocoa procya- nidins, a procyanidin-rich cocoa beverage and dealcoholized red wine (DRW) on human platelet activation. In a series of in vitro studies, cocoa procyanidin trimers, pentamers or DRW (3 and 10 mmol\\/L)

Dietrich Rein; Teresa G. Paglieroni; Debra A. Pearson; Ted Wun; Harold H. Schmitz; Robert Gosselin; Carl L. Keen

179

Detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate model systems: analysis of triglyceride profiles by high resolution GC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of vegetable fats added to cocoa butters in chocolate formulations was investigated in model mixtures. Cocoa butters varying in origins, crop and treatment were analysed alone and combined at levels of 5, 10, 15 or 20% to a variety of cocoa butter equivalents. Triglyceride profiles were obtained by high resolution GC. The areas of the major triglycerides present

C. Simoneau; P. Hannaert; E. Anklam

1999-01-01

180

Performance of a Cocoa Butter-Like Fat Enzymatically Produced from Olive Pomace Oil as a Partial Cocoa Butter Replacer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pomace oil is a by-product of olive oil processing and it is considered a low-quality oil. Considering its suitable\\u000a triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, this work aimed to convert refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) to a cocoa butter (CB)-like\\u000a fat using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and to investigate its performance as a partial CB replacer. CB-like fat was produced from olive pomace

Ozan Naz?m Çiftçi; Fahrettin Gö?ü?; Sibel Fad?lo?lu

2010-01-01

181

Flavor Formation and Character in Cocoa and Chocolate: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype,

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Alistair Paterson; Mark Fowler; Angela Ryan

2008-01-01

182

AN EVALUATION OF COCOA SMALLHOLDER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (CSDP) IN TENOM SABAH REGION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of the evaluation on the implementation of the Malaysia Cocoa Smallholder Development Program (CSDP), one of the extension programs by Malaysian Cocoa Board MCB in Tenom area of Sabah. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss the achievement of the CSDP. This evaluation will involve a systematic collection of information on CSDP: including

Turiman Suandi; Azhar I

183

Shade trees are alternative hosts of the cocoa pathogen Phytophthora megakarya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of isolation, direct plating on selective agar medium and baiting with cocoa pod husks, were used to isolate Phytophthora megakarya from root pieces of some shade trees. Isolates were identified on the basis of their growth rates, colony morphology and sporangium characteristics. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on detached green mature cocoa pods and stems of the relevant host

I. Y. Opoku; A. Y. Akrofi; A. A. Appiah

2002-01-01

184

Predatory elites, rents and cocoa: a comparative analysis of Ghana and Ivory Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the way in which the cocoa sector shaped the rent-seeking behaviour of ruling elites and rural producers in Ghana and Ivory Coast. Analysis of their rent-seeking behaviour is done in two different contexts. The first context is a boom period in which the exploitation of the rent generated from cocoa production leads elites and rural producers to

Dwayne Woods

2004-01-01

185

Systemic contact dermatitis to nickel present in cocoa in 14-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited in nickel sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure from food with high content of this metal, such as cocoa. We present a case report of a nonatopic teenager who developed allergic contact dermatitis due to nickel, cobalt, copper, and palladium, but exacerbations of skin lesions were mainly related to cocoa consumption. PMID:21371113

Krecisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Kaszuba, Andrzej

2011-03-03

186

Cardioprotective effects of cocoa: clinical evidence from randomized clinical intervention trials in humans.  

PubMed

Cocoa is an important source of polyphenols, which comprise 12-18% of its total dry weight. The major phenolic compounds in cocoa and cocoa products are mainly flavonoids such as epicatechin, catechin, and proanthocyanidins. These products contain higher amounts of flavonoids than other polyphenol-rich foods. However, the bioavailability of these compounds depends on other food constituents and their interactions with the food matrix. Many epidemiological and clinical intervention trials have concluded that the ingestion of flavonoids reduces the risk factors of developing cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the new findings regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms involved in the cardioprotective effects of cocoa flavonoids include reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of low-density lipoproteins oxidation and platelet aggregation, vasodilatation of blood vessels, inhibition of the adherence of monocytes to vascular endothelium, promotion of fibrinolysis, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Scientific evidence supports a cause and effect relationship between consumption of cocoa flavonoids and the maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which contributes to normal blood flow. However, larger randomized trials are required to definitively establish the impact of cocoa and cocoa products consumption on hard cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:23650217

Arranz, Sara; Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

2013-05-03

187

COCOA: A New Validated Instrument to Assess Medical Students' Attitudes towards Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the reliability and validity of the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA) survey compared with the Geriatric Assessment Survey (GAS). Participants were first year medical students (n = 160). A Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) measurement model for COCOA had a moderately strong fit that was significantly better…

Hollar, David; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

2011-01-01

188

Anticariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols occurring in cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated

Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano; Ivana Amato; Aniello Ingenito; Antonino De Natale; Antonino Pollio

2009-01-01

189

Crystallization behavior of blends of cocoa butter and milk fat or melk fat fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of milk fat or milk fat fractions, produced by melt crystallization, and cocoa butter were studied using isothermal calorimetry. Crystallization of cocoa butter (at 15, 20 and 25‡C) was observed, and induction time for nucleation, peak time and amount of heat produced were recorded. Melting profiles and X-ray spectra were also obtained, yielding information about extent of crystallization and

S. Metin; R. W. Hortel

1996-01-01

190

Cocoa polyphenols and their influence on parameters involved in ex vivo skin restructuring.  

PubMed

Polyphenols in general are compounds that are known to promote health and have a preventive effect against various chronic diseases. The influence of cocoa polyphenols on skin, however, has scarcely been studied from a histological point of view. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of cocoa polyphenols on several indicators of skin elasticity and skin tonus, namely, glycosaminoglycans and collagen I, III and IV. This was carried out by using a model of ex vivo human skin explants maintained in survival, on which a cocoa polyphenol extract was applied. After processing by standard histological techniques (fixation, paraffin embedding, sectioning, staining, immunostaining and microscopical observation), the influence of cocoa polyphenols on the evaluated parameters was quantified by image analysis. The results obtained show that cocoa polyphenols exhibit a positive action on the parameters assessed, and the dose at which they improve the most parameters associated with skin tonus and elasticity was determined. Their activity was compared with a commercially available product, and the results obtained show that their efficacy is equivalent. Moreover, an enhancing effect of cocoa butter on activity of cocoa polyphenol was highlighted. Now that the properties of cocoa polyphenols on ex vivo skin restructuring parameters have been assessed, the next step could include their evaluation in vivo. PMID:18822039

Gasser, P; Lati, E; Peno-Mazzarino, L; Bouzoud, D; Allegaert, L; Bernaert, H

2008-10-01

191

Desiccation and Freezing Sensitivity in Recalcitrant Seeds of Tea, Cocoa and Jackfruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were undertaken on the desiccation and freezing sensitivity of recalcitrant seeds of three species: tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.). All species showed changes in the physiological characteristics, desiccation and freezing sensitivity of both the seed and the embryonic axes with increasing seed maturity. Fully mature seeds of tea, cocoa

K. P. S. Chandel; Rekha Chaudhury; J. Radhamani; S. K. Malik

1995-01-01

192

Analysis of triacylglycerol isomers in Malaysian cocoa butter using HPLC–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chocolate is acclaimed for its unique and highly desirable flavor and its unusual melting characteristics (a narrow melting point range centered a few degrees below body temperature ?32 to ?35 °C). The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of cocoa butter is responsible for this important melting behavior. The exact composition of the primary TAG in a Malaysian cocoa butter sample was elucidated

S. D. Segall; W. E. Artz; D. S. Raslan; V. P. Ferraz; J. A. Takahashi

2005-01-01

193

Breadmaking Performance and Keeping Behavior of Cocoa-soluble Fiber-enriched Wheat Breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of increasing amounts (from 0 up to 8%) of soluble dietary fiber preparations from cocoa shell samples obtained at different pH, on fresh and stored wheat bread performance were investigated, and results were compared with those provided by addition of a `hidden' fiber inulin. Flour addition with dietary fibers from cocoa shell — natural (ACSF) and alkalinized treatment

C. Collar; C. M. Rosell; B. Muguerza; L. Moulay

2009-01-01

194

Automatic optosensing device based on photo-induced fluorescence for determination of piceid in cocoa-containing products.  

PubMed

Piceid (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-3-?-D: -glucoside) is a stilbene which occurs naturally in various families of plants and has been shown to protect lipoproteins from oxidative damage and to have cancer chemopreventive activity. This paper deals with the determination of piceid in cocoa-containing products by using photo-induced fluorescence and the aid of a multicommutated continuous-flow assembly which was provided with an on-line photoreactor. A strongly fluorescent photoproduct is generated from piceid when it is irradiated under UV light for 30 s, which is retained on Sephadex QAE A-25 and directly monitored on this active solid support at 257/382 nm (? (exc)/? (em), respectively). The pre-concentration of the photoproduct of piceid on the solid support greatly improves both sensitivity and selectivity. The influence of different experimental parameters, both chemical (pH, ionic strength) and hydrodynamic (irradiation time, flow rate, photoreactor length, sampling time), was tested. The sample pre-treatment included delipidation with toluene and cyclohexane, stilbene extraction with ethanol/water (80:20, v/v) and clean-up by solid-phase extraction on C(18) cartridges and methanol/water (40:20, v/v) as eluting solution. This procedure allowed the elimination of the aglycon of piceid, resveratrol and other potential interfering species and a recovery of about a 90% piceid. The method was applied to the analysis of piceid in cocoa powder, dark chocolate and milk chocolate. The quantification limits were 1.4, 1.1 and 0.09 mg kg(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations ranged from 1.8% to 3.1%. This is the first reported non-chromatographic method for determination of piceid in these foods. PMID:20953776

Molina-García, Lucía; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio; Fernández-de Córdova, Maria Luisa

2010-10-16

195

Correlation analysis of cocoa consumption data with worldwide incidence rates of testicular cancer and hypospadias.  

PubMed

The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965-80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients. PMID:19440400

Giannandrea, Fabrizio

2009-02-05

196

Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998–2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999–2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999–2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

Giannandrea, Fabrizio

2009-01-01

197

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24hour intervals during 120h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-07-01

198

Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

Martin, Maria Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-01-01

199

Cocoa phenolic extract protects pancreatic beta cells against oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5-20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult. PMID:23912326

Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-07-31

200

Assessment of the yeast species composition of cocoa bean fermentations in different cocoa-producing regions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The yeast species composition of 12 cocoa bean fermentations carried out in Brazil, Ecuador, Ivory Coast and Malaysia was investigated culture-independently. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 26S rRNA gene fragments, obtained through polymerase chain reaction with universal eukaryotic primers, was carried out with two different commercial apparatus (the DCode and CBS systems). In general, this molecular method allowed a rapid monitoring of the yeast species prevailing during fermentation. Under similar and optimal denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis conditions, the CBS system allowed a better separated band pattern than the DCode system and an unambiguous detection of the prevailing species present in the fermentation samples. The most frequent yeast species were Hanseniaspora sp., followed by Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, independent of the origin of the cocoa. This indicates a restricted yeast species composition of the cocoa bean fermentation process. Exceptionally, the Ivorian cocoa bean box fermentation samples showed a wider yeast species composition, with Hyphopichia burtonii and Meyerozyma caribbica among the main representatives. Yeasts were not detected in the samples when the temperature inside the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass reached values higher than 45 °C or under early acetic acid production conditions. PMID:22093683

Papalexandratou, Zoi; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-08-30

201

Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (?-0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (?0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa ?0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa ?1.6 ± 0.3%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) and 2-h postingestion (2 g cocoa ?0.5 ± 0.3%, 5 g cocoa ?1.0 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa ?1.4 ± 0.2%, and 26 g cocoa ?2.5 ± 0.4%: P < 0.05 compared with placebo for 5, 13, and 26 g cocoa) on the other study days. A serum marker of cocoa ingestion (total epicatechin) correlated with increased FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44-0.48; both P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases brachial artery FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans. PMID:21903881

Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Kunselman, Allen R; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Lott, Mary E J

2011-09-08

202

PROCYANIDIN AND CATECHIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blinded for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORACFL), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate wit...

203

Continuous Fractionation of Tallow and Production of a Cocoa Butter-Like Plastic Fat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Edible tallow is continuously processed through a crystallizing system to produce three fractions, one of which has physical and thermal properties like those of cocoa butter. Nominal residence time of the crystallizing solution in the system at steady st...

J. C. Craig M. F. Kozempel S. Elias

1977-01-01

204

Respiratory function and immunological status in cocoa and flour processing workers.  

PubMed

Respiratory function and immunological status were studied in 40 cocoa and 53 flour processing workers employed as packers in a confectionery industry and in 65 unexposed control workers in the same industry. A high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded in exposed workers, varying from 5.0% to 30.0% in cocoa workers and from 5.7% to 28.3% in flour workers. Occupational asthma was diagnosed in 2 (5%) of the cocoa workers and in 3 (5.7%) of the flour workers. None of the control workers suffered from occupational asthma. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly greater in cocoa and flour workers than in control workers. There was also a high prevalence of acute symptoms that developed during the work shift, being highest for cough (cocoa: 57.5%; flour: 50.9%) and eye irritation (cocoa: 50.0%; flour: 54.7%). Significant across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity were recorded in exposed workers, being largest for flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the vital capacity on maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves (FEF50, FEF75). The prevalence of positive skin tests for cocoa (60.2%) was significantly higher than the prevalence of positive skin tests for flour (25.8%) among the 93 exposed workers (p < 0.05). Control workers had significantly lower prevalences of positive skin tests to cocoa (4.6%) and flour (12.3%) than exposed workers (p < 0.01). Increased total serum IgE levels were found in 17.5% of cocoa and in 18.7% of flour workers; none of the control workers had increased IgE levels. Bronchoprovocation testing demonstrated significant decreases in lung function following inhalation of cocoa dust extract and flour dust in workers with respiratory symptoms and large across-shift reductions in lung function. Dust concentrations in the working environment were higher than those recommended by Croatian standards. These data suggest that workers employed in the processing of cocoa and flour may be at a high risk for the development of allergic sensitization and respiratory impairment. PMID:9408526

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Godnic-Cvar, J; Mustajbegovic, J; Budak, A

1998-01-01

205

Isolation and thermal characterization of high-melting seed crystals formed during cocoa butter solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed crystals which formed during early stages of cocoa butter solidification have been isolated and determined to have extremely\\u000a high melting points. The melting points of the seed crystals generally exceeded 60C, in contrast to cocoa butter, which melts\\u000a between 30–35C. In addition, the melting point of the seed crystals decreased as a function of crystal growth time. Evidence\\u000a suggests

Thomas R. Davis; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

206

Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect.

Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Perez-Cano, Francisco J.

2013-01-01

207

A diet enriched with cocoa prevents IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model.  

PubMed

Previous studies in young rats reported the impact of cocoa intake on healthy immune status and allow suggesting it may have a role in the prevention of some immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of a cocoa diet in a model of allergy in young rats. Three-week-old Brown Norway rats were immunized by i.p. injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum as adjuvant and Bordetella pertussis toxin. During the next 4 weeks rats received either a cocoa diet (containing 0.2% polyphenols, w/w) or a standard diet. Animals fed a standard diet showed high concentrations of anti-OVA IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and high anti-OVA IgE titres, which is the antibody involved in allergic response. In contrast, animals fed a cocoa diet showed significantly lower concentrations of anti-OVA IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Interestingly, the cocoa diet prevented anti-OVA IgE synthesis and decreased total serum IgE concentration. Analysis of cytokine production in lymph node cells at the end of the study revealed that, in this compartment, the cocoa diet decreased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and the interleukin (IL)-10 secretion but not IL-4 production. In conclusion, a cocoa-enriched diet in young rats produces an immunomodulatory effect that prevents anti-allergen IgE synthesis, suggesting a potential role for cocoa flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:22342543

Abril-Gil, Mar; Massot-Cladera, Malén; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

2012-02-10

208

Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: Cocoa instead of ambrosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is\\u000a of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich\\u000a cocoa have beneficial acute and shortterm effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults\\u000a with cardiovascular

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Nikolaos Alexopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

209

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. IV. Cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cocoa butter has been fractionated by countercurrent distribution between pentane-hexane and furfural-uitroethane solvent\\u000a phases with the application of 1,100 transfer stages. Except for a small percentage of trisaturates and linoleic acid-containing\\u000a triglycerides, oleic acid occurs at least once in each glyceride molecule. Cocoa butter is composed principally of mono-oleins:\\u000a oleodistearin, 22%; oleopalmitostearin, 41%; and oleodipalmitin, 12%. Whereas the latter glyceride

C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

1959-01-01

210

Comparative study of commercially available cocoa products in terms of their bioactive composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in food marketing suggest that cocoa products, besides being favourite sweets among consumers, also present multiple-benefit foodstuffs, which are becoming objects of increased scientific research, mainly because of their interesting phytochemical composition. UV\\/VIS spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA) methods were applied in order to compare the composition of polyphenols and methylxanthines in commercial cocoa products affected by

Ana Belš?ak; Draženka Komes; Dunja Horži?; Karin Kova?evi? Gani?; Damir Karlovi?

2009-01-01

211

Digestibility of cocoa butter from chocolate in humans: a comparison with corn-oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare, in humans, the digestibility of moderate amounts of cocoa butter (30.7 g\\/d) consumed in the form of chocolate as part of a normal western diet with that of a well-absorbed fat (corn oil); and hence determine whether, by virtue of its apparent low absorption, cocoa butter can be considered to be a low calorie fat.Design: Randomised, two-period

Y Shahkhalili; E Duruz; K Acheson

2000-01-01

212

Lipid composition of high-melting seed crystals formed during cocoa butter solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-melting seed crystals which form during the early stages of cocoa butter solidification possess a lipid composition different\\u000a than the cocoa butter from which the seed crystals were grown. Significantly large quantities of glycolipids, 11.1%, and phospholipids,\\u000a 6.6–8.1%, were found in the high-melting seed crystals along with a dramatic decrease in the simple lipid class. The fatty\\u000a acids comprising the

Thomas R. Davis; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

213

Analysis of the glyceride structure of cocoa butter by thermal gradient crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was separated into 43 fractions by crystallization in a thermal gradient. Similar fractions were pooled and converted\\u000a into methyl esters which were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The amount of cocoa butter separated into a pure glyceride\\u000a type was 85%. No significant difference was found in the ratio of palmitic to stearic acid in the GSU2 and GS2U. In

Gary V. Jones; Earl G. Hammond

1961-01-01

214

Tree crop based agroforestry in Nigeria: a checklist of crops intercropped with cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of cocoa farmers in Bendel, Ogun, Ondo and Oyo States of Nigeria, carried out in 1985, showed that almost all the farmers intercropped other crops with cocoa. The intercrops included food crops such as plantain (92.3), cocoyam (85.7%), cassava (51.3%), yam (41.3%), maize (38.9%), melon (31.4%), cowpea (28.6%) and pineapple (26.0%) and tree crops such as oil palm

M. A. O. Oladokun

1990-01-01

215

Cocoa butter-like fats from fractionated cottonseed oil: II. Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously it was reported that the stearine obtained as a byproduct in the solvent winterization of cottonseed oil is a good\\u000a starting material for the preparation of cocoa butter-like fats by way of hydrogenation and fractionation. The composition,\\u000a physical properties, and compatability with cocoa butter have been determined for some of these fats. While the products contained\\u000a triglyceride species other

N. V. Lovegren; B. B. Gajee; M. S. Gray; R. O. Feuge

1973-01-01

216

Effect of zinc plating of low carbon steel on corrosion resistance in cocoa fluid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the corrosion resistance of zinc-plated low carbon steel in cocoa fluid. Low carbon steel samples were zinc electroplated at voltages between 0.5V and 0.9V for 5–20min. The plated samples were then subjected to a cocoa fluid environment for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE) were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5

O. O. Oluwole; D. T. Oloruntoba; O. Awheme

2008-01-01

217

Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for PCR detection of fungal and bacterial contamination in cocoa extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct and sensitive PCR detection of contaminant microflora in cocoa extracts is affected by the quality of the template\\u000a DNA. This study compares the efficacy of five different commercial DNA extraction methods, selective enrichment broths and\\u000a use of glycolitic enzymes to obtain quality DNA for PCR detection of both fungi and bacteria in artificially inoculated cocoa\\u000a extract samples. PCR-based methods

Marta Tortajada; Pedro Vicente Martínez-Culebras; Verónica Navarro; Honorato Monzó; Daniel Ramón

2009-01-01

218

Characterization of Fine Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine powders are used in many applications and across many industries such as powdered paints and pigments, ceramics, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and bulk and fine chemicals, to name a few. In addition, fine powders must often be handled as a waste by-product, such as ash generated in combustion and gasification processes. In order to correctly design a process and process equipment for application and handling of powders, especially fine powders, it is essential to understand how the powder would behave. Many characterization techniques are available for determining the flow properties of powders; however, care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate technique(s).

Krantz, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

219

Preparation of titanium diboride powder  

DOEpatents

Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

220

Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.  

PubMed

Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 < 0.40), but these relationships were independent of the nature of the chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities. PMID:18052039

Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

2007-12-01

221

Cocoa butter and confectionery fats. Studies using programmed temperature X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior and thermal properties of cocoa butter have been investigated by means of programmed temperature\\u000a x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship of this polymorphism to the technical problems of\\u000a “tempering” and “bloom” development is discussed. Cocoa butter containing, respectively, milk fat and a bloom inhibitor, and\\u000a some alternatives to cocoa butter have been studied. These results

G. M. Chapman; E. E. Akehurst; W. B. Wright

1971-01-01

222

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

2011-01-01

223

Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. I. characterization of simple lipids in rapid- and slow-nucleating cocoa butters and their seed crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six cocoa butters with different crystallization induction times and their seed crystals were analyzed for simple lipid composition.\\u000a The rapid-nucleating cocoa butter samples had higher concentrations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoylglycerol and 1,3-stearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol\\u000a (SOS), and lower concentrations of the diunsaturated triacylglycerols, 1-palmitoyl-2,3-oleoylglycerol and 1-stearoyl-2,3-oleoylglycerol,\\u000a as well as higher stearic acid concentrations within their diacylglycerol fractions when compared to the slow-nucleating samples.\\u000a At the

Siree Chaiseri; Paul S. Dimick

1995-01-01

224

Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

Macronutrients in food and gastric acid are known to have a pronounced effect on the metabolism of many xenobiotics, an effect that impacts their efficacy as bioactive agents. In this investigation we assessed the impact of select food treatments and the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist Famotidine (Pepcid-AC) on flavanol absorption and metabolism. Four crossover intervention studies were conducted with 6 subjects each. Volunteers consumed sugar-free, flavanol-rich cocoa (0.125 g/kg body wt) alone, with macronutrient-rich foods (8.75 or 17.5 kJ/kg subject body wt) or Famotidine (Pepcid-AC). Blood samples were drawn at 5 time points including baseline. Plasma samples were analyzed for epicatechin and catechin flavanols by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed using non-compartmental methodology. When provided at 17.5 kJ/kg subject body weight (approximately 4 kcal/kg), sugar and bread test meals increased flavanol area under the curve (AUC) values to 140% of control values (P < 0.05). A corresponding tendency for plasma antioxidant capacity to increase was observed for the cocoa treatment at 1.5 and 2.5 h (P < 0.17, P < 0.06, respectively). The ability of treatment meals to affect AUC values was positively correlated with treatment carbohydrate content (r = 0.83; P< 0.02). In contrast to carbohydrate rich meals, lipid and protein rich meals and Famotidine treatment had minimal effects on flavanol absorption. Based on C(max) and AUC values, this data suggests that the uptake of flavanols can be increased significantly by concurrent carbohydrate consumption. PMID:12798412

Schramm, Derek D; Karim, Malina; Schrader, Heather R; Holt, Roberta R; Kirkpatrick, Nadine J; Polagruto, John A; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Schmitz, Harold H; Keen, Carl L

2003-07-01

225

Differential regulation of the two transcriptional activation domains of the coiled-coil coactivator CoCoA by sumoylation  

PubMed Central

Background The coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA) enhances transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors, the xenobiotic aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the lymphocyte enhancer factors (LEF) in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. CoCoA is comprised of a large central coiled coil domain flanked by N-terminal and C-terminal activation domains (AD). The N-terminal AD of CoCoA is required for coactivator function with LEF and ?-catenin, while the C-terminal AD of CoCoA is required for coactivator function with nuclear receptors. We explored the role of sumoylation in regulating the activities of the two ADs and the coactivator function of CoCoA. Results The N-terminus of CoCoA is covalently modified by SUMO1 at Lys-29; both PIAS1 and ARIP3 function as E3 ligases. Fusion of SUMO1 to the N-terminus (mimicking sumoylation) reduced coactivator function of CoCoA with LEF1 and the activity of the N-terminal AD. The N- and C-termini of CoCoA can bind to each other, and C-terminal transactivation activity is attenuated in the presence of the N-terminus, indicating that the N-C interaction regulates the activity of the C-terminal AD. Fusion of SUMO1 to the N-terminal fragment of CoCoA reduced the N-C interaction and inhibition of C-terminal AD activity by the N-terminal fragment. Conclusion Sumoylation of CoCoA differentially regulates the coactivator activity of CoCoA with nuclear receptors versus LEF1, by attenuating the N-terminal AD activity and enhancing the activity of the C-terminal AD.

Yang, Catherine K; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Ann, David K; Stallcup, Michael R

2008-01-01

226

Effect of cocoa-enriched diets on lymphocytes involved in adjuvant arthritis in rats.  

PubMed

Cocoa and its flavonoids have potential anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in acute inflammation models in vivo. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the effects of two cocoa-enriched diets on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats, considering not only clinical and biochemical inflammatory indices, but also antibody response and lymphocyte composition. Female Wistar rats were fed with a 5 or 10 % cocoa-enriched diet beginning 2 weeks before arthritis induction and until the end of the study. AA was induced by an intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspension. The hind-paw swelling (plethysmometry), serum anti-mycobacterial antibody concentration (ELISA), blood and inguinal lymph node lymphocyte subset percentage (flow cytometry), and IL-2, interferon ? and PGE? released from splenocytes (ELISA) were assessed. Although the cocoa diets had no significant effect on hind-paw swelling, a tendency to reduce it was observed at the end of the study. Cocoa-enriched diets were able to decrease the serum anti-mycobacterial antibody concentration and the splenocyte PGE2 production, as well as the proportion of T-helper (Th) lymphocytes in blood and regional lymph nodes, which probably includes cells responsible for the arthritic process. The cocoa diets prevented a decrease in the proportion of regulatory T-cells in blood and a disequilibrium between inguinal lymph node natural killer (NK) CD8? and NK CD8? subsets. In conclusion, the cocoa-enriched diets during AA were not able to significantly decrease joint inflammation but modified Th-cell proportions and prevented specific antibody synthesis. PMID:21762542

Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Franch, Àngels

2011-07-15

227

Theobroma cacao L., “The food of the gods”: Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of the fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices and the post-harvest processing. Among these, cocoa beans fermentation is still the most relevant, since it is the process whereby precursors of the cocoa flavour arise. The formation of these precursors

Lídia J. Rebelo-Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

228

Theobroma cacao L., “The Food of the Gods”: Quality Determinants of Commercial Cocoa Beans, with Particular Reference to the Impact of Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The

Lídia J. R. Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

229

Talcum Powder and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... is talcum powder? Talcum powder is made from talc, a mineral made up mainly of the elements ... other consumer products. In its natural form, some talc may contain asbestos, a substance known to cause ...

230

Precision powder feeder  

DOEpatents

A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

2001-07-10

231

Smokeless Powder Manufacture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smokeless powder propellants are suitable for propelling military rockets and actuating jet devices such as assisted takeoff motors for airplanes. Smokeless powder granules are introduced into a container, pressure is placed on the granules and nonvol...

D. H. Black

1965-01-01

232

Atomized copper powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in the Soviet Union pilot-plant batches of copper powder have been produced by the method of atomization of melts with water under high pressure. The powder produced is characterized by increased apparent density and flowability. The best compressibility (2–6 tons\\/cm2) is exhibited by the powder after annealing. The compressibility of the powder in the as-atomized condition

A. N. Karibyan; A. B. Medvedovskii; V. A. Belyakov; N. S. Sarkisyan; N. G. Dyuzhakova; O. S. Nichiporenko; V. T. Aivazyan; V. P. Poteshkina; Yu. I. Naida

1981-01-01

233

Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Witches' broom disease (WBD) is caused by the hemi- biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa, which is one of the most important diseases of cocoa in the western hemisphere. In this study, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phen- olics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), glycerol, and fatty acids were analysed in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shoots during the

L. M. Scarpari; L. W. Meinhardt; P. Mazzafera; A. W. V. Pomella; M. A. Schiavinato; J. C. M. Cascardo; G. A. G. Pereira

2005-01-01

234

Probable Mechanism of Resistance of Varieties of Cocoa to Black Pod Disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISOLATES of Phytophthora palmivora showed different degrees of pathogenic activity (measured by rate of spread of lesions at 25° C.) when wound-inoculated into surface-sterilized pods of particular varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.). One isolate, WA 8, failed to attack any variety. Isolates also showed varied rates of spread in different varieties of cocoa. The variety SCA 6 was consistently

John A. Spence

1961-01-01

235

Cacao Diseases: Important Threats to Chocolate Production Worldwide Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guest, D. 2007. Black pod: Diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology 97:1650-1653. Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes signifi- cant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The

David Guest

236

Integrated management of Phytophthora diseases on cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L): Impact of plant breeding on pod rot incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pod rot, caused by several species belonging to the genus Phytophthora, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses worldwide. Among the methods making up integrated disease management (IDM), the creation of resistant cultivars has been identified as a priority in cocoa breeding research programmes. To that end, various experiments have enhanced knowledge about the genetic basis of resistance to

S. Nyassé; M. I. B. Efombagn; B. I. Kébé; M. Tahi; D. Despréaux; C. Cilas

2007-01-01

237

An assessment of pathological research on cocoa in Jamaica from 1950 to 1980 and current research priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological research on cocoa in Jamaica has been confined to black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.) which is the main disease of cocoa in the island and a major limiting factor to production. Experimental control of this disease with copper hydroxide has been obtained but the recommended programme is of doubtful economic benefit at the present productivity levels. Non?chemical

H. J. Fagan

1984-01-01

238

Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest

2010-01-01

239

Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phytophthora black pod disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a leaf inoculation method was used to standardize a bioassay for testing the genetic susceptibility (or resistance) of cocoa cultivars to black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya. Both whole leaves and leaf discs from non-lignified twigs, were suitable for inoculation with suspensions of 3 × 105 zoospores\\/ml. Cocoa clones tested for resistance to

S. Nyassé; C. Cilas; C. Herail; G. Blaha

1995-01-01

240

An Assessment of Agricultural Extension Activities to Cocoa Farmers in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important cash crop that contributes si gnificantly to agriculture's earning in Nigerian economy. Agricultural extension programmes have been targeted at the cocoa farmers to develop the ente rprise since the importance of the cash crop. This study a ssessed the agricultural extension activities to th e targeted farmers to identify the institutions that render th e services,

O. T. Yekinni

2008-01-01

241

Soil nutrient management research in the humid forest zone of Nigeria for cocoa production between 1940 and 2000: missing gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil nutrient balances in the forest znoe of Nigeria to sustain cocoa production has been an object of research for some sixty years. After its introduction into the zone of West Africa in 1890, the area planted to cocoa increased rapidly to its present 1.5 million hectares and yield increased to peak of 310,000 tons in 1965. However, as early

2002-01-01

242

PRODUCTION OF COCOA BUTTER-LIKE FATS BY THE LIPASE-CATALYZED INTERESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL AND HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butter-like fats were prepared from refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) and fully hydrogenated soy oil (HSO) by enzymatic interesterification at various weight ratios of substrates. The cocoa butter-like fats were isolated from the crude interesterification mixture by fractiona...

243

Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

2013-10-01

244

Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Flavanols and procyanidins isolated from cocoa have been reported to possess multiple activities potentially relevant to oxidant defenses, vascular function, and immune function. In a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we and others have observed that cocoa can be an anti-inflammatory modulator and that compounds in cocoa are capable of modulating eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation, and the pool size of nitric oxide. The present study extends these findings by examining the in vitro effects of cocoa procyanidins on polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). PMNs, part of the innate arm of the immune system, represent 50-60% of the total peripheral white blood cells and are the first cells to be recruited to the sites of inflammation or injury secondary to bacterial infections. Herein, we demonstrate that certain flavanols and procyanidins isolated from cocoa can moderate a subset of signaling pathways derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of PMNs, mainly, PMN oxidative bursts and activation markers, and they can influence select apoptosis mechanisms. We hypothesize that flavanols and procyanidins can decrease the impact of LPS on the N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-primed PMN ability to generate reactive oxygen species by partially interfering in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:19298189

Kenny, Thomas P; Shu, Shang-an; Moritoki, Yuki; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2009-02-01

245

Relation of fat bloom in chocolate to polymorphic transition of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special chocolate with spray-dried sugar (50:50 w\\/w sucrose\\/20 Dextrose Equivalent corn syrup solids) was made to study\\u000a the polymorphic changes in cocoa butter crystals using X-ray diffraction. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and high-, middle-, and\\u000a low-melting milk fat fractions were used to replace 2% (w\\/w) of cocoa butter. Chocolates were tempered, and the consistency\\u000a of temper among chocolate samples

J. Bricknell; R. W. Hartel

1998-01-01

246

Which Powder is It?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners identify an unknown white powder by comparing it with common household powders. Learners first explore what happens when baking soda, baking powder, and washing soda are mixed with water, vinegar, and PHTH (the indicator phenolphthalein mixed with alcohol and water). Learners then work to identify the unknown based on how it reacts with the known solutions. This is a simplified form of "qualitative analysis," which was historically an important approach chemists used for identifying unknown samples.

Sciencenter

2012-06-26

247

Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of cocoa on vascular function are mediated by the absorption of monomeric flavanols into the circulation from the small intestine. As such, an understanding of the impact of the food matrix on the delivery of flavanols to the circulation is critical in assessing the potential vascular impact of a food. In the present study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate type on flavanol absorption and metabolism from chocolate. A randomised, double-blind, three-arm cross-over study was conducted, where fifteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a high-flavanol (266 mg) chocolate containing maltitol, a high-flavanol (251 mg) chocolate with sucrose or a low-flavanol (48 mg) chocolate with sucrose. Test chocolates were matched for micro- and macronutrients, including the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, and were similar in taste and appearance. Total flavanol absorption was lower after consumption of the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with following consumption of its sucrose-containing equivalent (P = 0·002). Although the O-methylation pattern observed for absorbed flavanols was unaffected by sugar type, individual levels of unmethylated ( - )-epicatechin metabolites, 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin and 4'-O-methyl-epicatechin metabolites were lower for the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with the sucrose-containing equivalent. Despite a reduction in the total plasma pool of flavanols, the maximum time (T max) was unaffected. The present data indicate that full assessment of intervention treatments is vital in future intervention trials with flavanols and that carbohydrate content is an important determinant for the optimal delivery of flavanols to the circulation. PMID:22397837

Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Vidal, Alberto; Spencer, Jeremy P E

2012-03-07

248

Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.  

PubMed

Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology. PMID:17009291

Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

2006-01-01

249

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. METHODS: We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor\\/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL\\/PR) in comparison

Thozhukat Sathyapalan; Stephen Beckett; Alan S Rigby; Duane D Mellor; Stephen L Atkin

2010-01-01

250

Cancer Protective Properties of Cocoa: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their high concentration of catechins and procyanidins, bioactive compounds with distinct properties, cocoa and chocolate products may have beneficial health effects against oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, risk factors for cancer and other chronic diseases. This review focuses on the epidemiologic evidence for protective effects against cancer and overall mortality. The very small number of observational epidemiologic studies

Gertraud Maskarinec

2009-01-01

251

Comparative effects of a tree crop (cocoa) and shifting cultivation on a forest soil in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examines the organic matter and nutrient levels in soils under a 26-year old cocoa plantation and shifting cultivation farmlands cropped with cassava and maize, in Nigeria. The characteristics of soils under the two contrasting agricultural modes were compared with those of soils under rain forest, in order to infer the differential effects. Relative to the forest levels,

A. O. Aweto; O. A. Obe

1993-01-01

252

Indications of heritability of resistance of a cocoa cultivar to Phytophthora palmivora pod rot in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The cocoa cultivar Y44, a local selection from Ghana showed the least susceptibility to black pod infection in the jîeld among 20 types tested in a clonal trial. Resistant breeding lines segregated from its jirst generation pro- geny grown in the jïeld. The seecllings of the F1 and F, generation inbreds tested arti$cially in the green house segregated into

A. ASARE NYAKO; J. D. AMPONSAH

253

Effect of fertilization and biocontrol application frequency on cocoa pod diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three native and two commercial biocontrol agents (Clonostachys rosea and Trichoderma spp.) were evaluated against the cocoa diseases moniliasis, witches' broom, and black pod. Antagonists were applied either separately or as mixed inoculum in comparison with a copper fungicide and a nontreated control. Cultural control (weekly removal of diseased pods) was practiced in all treatments. Field trials were conducted on

Ulrike Krauss; Whilly Soberanis

2002-01-01

254

Management of black pod disease of cocoa with reduced number of fungicide application and crop sanitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is the most important fungal disease on cocoa in Ghana. The current recommended control method of combining sanitation practices with 6 - 8 fungicide applications in a year is considered unfriendly to the environment, too expensive and time consuming. Consequently, fungicide adoption rate by farmers is extremely low. Studies were therefore conducted to

I. Y. Opoku; F. Aneani

255

An Integrated Control Scheme for Cocoa Pests and Diseases in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control recommendations in Papua New Guinea cocoa plantings are based on an integrated approach to insect pest and disease management. The most damaging problems are Pantorhytes weevils, black pod and bark canker disease (both caused by Phytophthora palmivora) but vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease is important in some areas of the country. Most other insect pests can be kept

E. S. C. Smith

1981-01-01

256

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

257

CHOCOLATE QUALITIES INFLUENCED BY AN OAT HYDROCOLLOID SUBSTITUTE FOR COCOA BUTTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chocolate produced by replacing cocoa butter with an oat hydrocolloid was prepared and evaluated by rheology, tribology, and sensory properties. The oat hydrocolloid, called C-trim30, was used to decrease the chocolate fat content and to add a soluble fiber substance known as beta-glucan. The beta...

258

The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavanols modulate platelet function in vitro, but less is known of their in vivo effects and how they compare to pharmacological platelet inhibitors. We investigated the effect of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage (897 mg\\/ml) in combination with and in comparison to aspirin on platelet function and activation in healthy subjects. Methods and results: On separate test days in a

Debra A Pearson; Teresa G Paglieroni; Dietrich Rein; Ted Wun; Derek D Schramm; Janice F Wang; Roberta R Holt; Robert Gosselin; Harold H Schmitz; Carl L Keen

2002-01-01

259

Grading of Fermented and Dried Cocoa Beans Using Fungal Contamination, Ergosterol Index and Ochratoxin a Production  

PubMed Central

Sixty four samples of cocoa beans replicated in quadruplicates were collected from five warehouses from southwest Nigeria and examined for fungal loads, ergosterol and ochratoxin A The levels of all the variables obtained were further used as indices for cocoa grading into food quality, FoQ (erg < 5 mg/kg; OTA < 1 µg/kg), feed quality, FeQ (erg = 5~10 mg/kg; OTA in the range of 1.1~3.11 µg/kg), Screen for mycotoxin, SFM (erg = 10~20 mg/kg; OTA from 3.12 µg/kg and above) with fuel quality, FuQ having erg > 20 mg/kg and OTA > 6.12 µg/kg. Using these ergosterol indices, 18.75% of the cocoa beans examined was classified with the FoQ, 18.75% with the FuQ while 31.25% was classified with both the FeQ and the SFM, respectively. In conclusion, ergosterol can be used as a rapid index to grade fermented, dried cocoa beans meant for export.

Adegoke, G. O.; Varga, J.; Teren, J.

2009-01-01

260

Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

261

Immune Effects of Cocoa Procyanidin Oligomers on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable work on the relationships between nutrition and the immune response, particularly on studies that have focused on adaptive responses. There is increasing recognition of the importance of innate immunity in host protection and initiation of cytokine networks. In this study, we examined the effect of select cocoa flavanols and procya- nidins on innate responses in vitro.

THOMAS P. KENNY; CARL L. KEEN; HAROLD H. SCHMITZ; M. ERIC

262

Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa

Fabrizio Giannandrea

2009-01-01

263

Cocoa butter equivalent from enzymatic interesterification of tea seed oil and fatty acid methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by interesterification of tea seed oil, methyl palmitate and methyl stearate with lipase. The lipase was immobilized on macroporous resin selected from eight carriers. The rate of reaction of lipase immobilized on macroporous resin was 6.9 times higher than that of the free enzyme. After repeating application five times, 83.50% activity, of the immobilized

Hai-Xiong Wang; Hou Wu; Chi-Tang Ho; Xin-Chu Weng

2006-01-01

264

A differential scanning calorimetry method to determine the isothermal crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to reduce the variability on the data obtained from differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the isothermal crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter.To enable transformation of the DSC crystallization peak to a sigmoid crystallization curve, the DSC peak area has to be integrated. Usually, the start and end points of the crystallization peak are determined visually. The result

Imogen Foubert; Peter A. Vanrolleghem; Koen Dewettinck

2003-01-01

265

Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the use of implants for studies of maternal hormonal influences on adult fishes and their offspring. PMID:21884102

Hoogenboom, M O; Armstrong, J D; Miles, M S; Burton, T; Groothuis, T G G; Metcalfe, N B

2011-07-14

266

Characterization of cocoa butter extracted from Criollo cultivars of Theobroma cacao L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theobroma cacao L. cultivars grown in Venezuela are internationally, the most appreciated, due to their excellent flavor and aroma. The main objective of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of cocoa butter extracted from different cultivars of Criollo cacao belonging to the germplasm bank of the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National Foundation for Agricultural

Rigel Liendo; Fanny C Padilla; Agricia Quintana

1997-01-01

267

Effectiveness and profitability of integrated pest management for improving yield on smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low

E. N. A. Dormon; A. van Huis; C. Leeuwis

2007-01-01

268

Natural occurrence and distribution of stem cankers caused by Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies were conducted in five cocoa growing districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana solely infected by Phytophthora palmivora and five districts in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions prevalently infected by Phytophthora megakarya to determine the natural incidence, the vertical distribution on trees and the probable sources of stem canker infections, and to isolate and identify the causal

Alex A. Appiah; Isaac Y. Opoku; Andrews Y. Akrofi

2004-01-01

269

Influence of roasting on the antioxidant activity and HMF formation of a cocoa bean model systems.  

PubMed

During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 degrees C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation. PMID:19086900

Oliviero, Teresa; Capuano, Edoardo; Cämmerer, Bettina; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2009-01-14

270

Capsid control for organic cocoa in Ghana : results of participatory learning and action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, compared to Ivory Coast and Malaysia, two other major producing countries, yields are extremely low. The causes of low yields are many. They inc!ude low producer price offered until recently by the government costs of labour, poor tree husbandry practices, and pest and diseases. The recent increase in producer price

G. K. Ayenor

2006-01-01

271

Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

272

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

273

The powder dilemma  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the high Tc powder market. Two types of suppliers are distinguished: large materials suppliers and small start-up superconductor firms. The author analyzes the role each is playing in the present market and discusses future possibilities for both. The problem of a lack of standards for high Tc powder is addressed.

Carlson, L

1989-01-01

274

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 mum, <75 mum, and < 45 mum; two

Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

2011-01-01

275

Sinterability of titanium powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sintering process of compacts from dispersed titanium powders (as well as from metal powders with easily reducible oxides) is accomplished in two stages — a nonsteady stage with a high densification rate and a steady stage, whose rate is determined by volume diffusion. The low values of energy of activation for densification in the first stage of sintering may

D. S. Arensburger

1970-01-01

276

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.  

PubMed

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-08-22

277

Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51?mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials. PMID:21559039

Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

2011-05-11

278

Characterization of mutagenic activity in instant hot beverage powders.  

PubMed

Extracts of several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees were mutagenic in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024, and YG1029 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders induced 150 to 500 TA98 and 1,150 to 4,050 YG1024 revertant colonies/g, respectively. Increased sensitivity was achieved using strain YG1024. No mutagenic activity was found in instant hot cocoa products. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Differential bacterial strain specificity, and a requirement for metabolic activation suggest that aromatic amines are present. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds. Known heterocyclic amines are not responsible for the major part of the mutagenic activity. The main mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees is due to several unidentified compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines. PMID:7698108

Johansson, M A; Knize, M G; Jägerstad, M; Felton, J S

1995-01-01

279

Effect of antibloom fat migration from a nut oil filling on the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter.  

PubMed

In confectionery products, loss in texture contrast between chocolate and filling and the appearance of fat bloom on the surface of the chocolate can be caused by fat migration. Bloom is often linked to the transformation of the cocoa butter betaV polymorph into betaVI. A previous study showed that small additions (1%) of nut oil can have a significant impact on the rate of transformation and that migration of nut oil from a filling would increase polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter. In the present study, antibloom fat was added to the filling in a model system. The antibloom fat migrated with the nut oil and inhibited the transformation of cocoa butter from the betaV polymorph into betaVI. Despite experiencing migration of greater amounts of nut oil, cocoa butter closest to the filling transformed more slowly than that farther away (i.e., the reverse of the situation in the absence of antibloom fat). PMID:18254592

Smith, Kevin W; Zand, Imro't; Talbot, Geoff

2008-02-07

280

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

2010-11-01

281

Sintering titanium powders  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

2005-09-01

282

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Jablonski, Paul D.

2011-05-01

283

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

284

DETERMINANTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF COCOA IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA: A MULTIVARIATE PROBIT ANALYSIS APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oluyole, K. A. and Lawal, J. O. 2008. Determinants of the Occurrence of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa in Edo State, Nigeria: A Multivariate Probit Analysis Approach. j. innov.dev.strategy 2(2): 1-4 This study was conducted at Edo state of Nigeria during July 2007 to determine factors that favor the infestation of black pod disease of cocoa in the study area.

K. A. OLUYOLE; J. O. LAWAL

2008-01-01

285

Converging farmers' and scientists' perspectives on researchable constraints on organic cocoa production in Ghana: results of a diagnostic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic study was conducted to identify the major constraints on organic cocoa production at Brong-Densuso and surrounding communities in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar District, Eastern Region, Ghana. The study followed a technographic study that highlighted cocoa as a public crop requiring broad techno-social innovations. In the technographic study, problems identified included low yields, persistent pest management constraints and a low adoption

G. K. Ayenor; N. G. Röling; B. Padi; A. Van Huis; D. Obeng-Ofori; P. B. Atengdem

2004-01-01

286

Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. Objective: This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults (mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg\\/m2): 30). In phase 1, subjects were

Zubaida Faridi; Valentine Yanchou Njike; Suparna Dutta; Ather Ali; David L Katz

287

The interpretation of GLC triglyceride data for the determination of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate: A new approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to interpret triglyceride data obtained by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) in order to determine cocoa butter\\u000a equivalents (CBE) in chocolate is described. The approach is based on the known straight line relationship which exists between\\u000a the C50 and C54 triglycerides of cocoa butter of different origins and the realization that, for currently available CBE conforming to CAOBISCO’s

C. C. Young

1984-01-01

288

In-line measurement of tempered cocoa butter and chocolate by means of near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work cocoa butter and chocolate were precrystallized by means of a newly developed shear crystallizer. The\\u000a shear crystallizer was integrated into a circular loop. The handling of precrystallized cocoa butter showed a high dependency\\u000a on the timing of applied analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry, calorimetry, rheometry, and in-line near-infrared (NIR)\\u000a were all directly influenced by the fat crystal

Stefan Bolliger; Yuantong Zeng; Erich J. Windhab

1999-01-01

289

Thermal analysis of isothermal crystallization kinetics in blends of cocoa butter with milk fat or milk fat fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of isothermal crystallization of binary mixtures of cocoa butter with milk fat and milk fat fractions were evaluated\\u000a by applying the Avrami equation. Application of the Avrami equation to isothermal crystallization of the fats and the binary\\u000a fat blends revealed different nucleation and growth mechanisms for the fats, based on the Avrami exponent. The suggested mechanism\\u000a for cocoa

Serpil Metin; Richard W. Hartel

1998-01-01

290

HPLC Method for the Quantification of Procyanidins in Cocoa and Chocolate Samples and Correlation to Total Antioxidant Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatog- raphy (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chroma- tography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The purity of each

Gary E. Adamson; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Ronald L. Prior; Guohua Cao; Pieter H. Jacobs; Bart G. Kremers; John F. Hammerstone; Robert B. Rucker; Karl A. Ritter; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

291

Cocoa Butter and Safflower Oil Elicit Different Effects on Hepatic Gene Expression and Lipid Metabolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism\\u000a and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride\\u000a (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced\\u000a that might

Carolina Gustavsson; Paolo Parini; Jovanca Ostojic; Louisa Cheung; Jin Hu; Fahad Zadjali; Faheem Tahir; Kerstin Brismar; Gunnar Norstedt; Petra Tollet-Egnell

2009-01-01

292

Ceramic powder compaction  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, F.M. [Norton Co., Worcester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

293

The effect of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription and secretion of interleukin 1 beta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Recent data has demonstrated that cacao liquor polyphenols (procyanidins) have antioxidant activity, inhibit mRNA expression of interleukin-2 and are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation. Given the widespread ingestion of cocoa in many cultures, we investigated whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta. Both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were investigated at the levels of transcription and protein secretion. Individual cocoa fractions were shown to augment constitutive IL-1 beta gene expression, although values varied between subjects. Interestingly, the smaller fractions of cocoa (monomer-tetramer) consistently reduced IL-1 beta expression of PHA-stimulated cells by 1-15%, while the larger oligomers (pentamer-decamer) increased expression by 4-52%. These data, observed at the transcription level, were reflected in protein levels in PHA-induced PBMC. The presence or absence of PHA did not alter the effects of the cocoa procyanidins with the exception of the pentamer. This study offers additional data for the consideration of the health-benefits of dietary polyphenols from a wide variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with cocoa and chocolate consumption. PMID:11210713

Mao, T K; Powell, J; Van de Water, J; Keen, C L; Schmitz, H H; Hammerstone, J F; Gershwin, M E

2000-03-01

294

Super Chi Flush Powder  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Chi Flush Powder “Super Chi Flush fights the toughest clogs in the body slowly opening up the blockades which hindered the flow of Chi energy. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

295

Aluminum powder metallurgy processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from a...

J. F. Flumerfelt

1999-01-01

296

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts\\u000a were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods.\\u000a In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines ?m, ?m, and ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride

Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

2011-01-01

297

Powders for metal injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal injection molding (MIM) uses powders which differ considerably from the ceramics powders used for ceramic injection molding. Metal powders are hardly available in the sub-micron ranges that are almost standard in ceramics. The reason for this lies in the ductility and reactivity of the metals which make it difficult and very expensive to produce fine powders. In this paper

T. Hartwig; G. Veltl; F. Petzoldt; H. Kunze; R. Scholl; B. Kieback

1998-01-01

298

Cocoa, Hazelnuts, Sterols and Soluble Fiber Cream Reduces Lipids and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa, mixed with other food ingredients, intake can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. We compared the effects of 4 cocoa cream products on some of these biomarkers. Methods and Findings In this multi-centered, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial, volunteers (n?=?113; age range: 43–65 years) who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic received one of 4 cocoa cream products (13 g/unit; 1 g cocoa/unit, 6 units/d; 465 Kcal/d) added to a low saturated fat diet for 4 weeks. The groups were: A) (n?=?28), cocoa cream considered as control; B) (n?=?28), cocoa+hazelnut cream (30 g/d hazelnuts); C) (n?=?30), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols (2 g/d); and D) (n?=?27), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols+soluble fiber (20 g/d) the patented “LMN product”. Primary outcome measures were BP, LDL-c, apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B), ApoB/ApoA ratio, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determined at baseline and post-cocoa cream product intake. Statistical analysis used was ANCOVA or mixed models (in case of repeated measurements), with baseline observation included as a covariate. After 4 weeks, compared to product A, product C reduced LDL-c by 11.2%, Apo B by 8.1% and ApoB/ApoA ratio by 7.8% (P?=?0.01). LMN decreased LDL-c by 9.2%, Apo B-100 by 8.5%, ApoB/ApoA ratio by 10.5%, hsCRP by 33.4% and oxLDL by 5.9% (P?=?0.01). Surprisingly, even “control” product A reduced systolic BP (?7.89 mmHg; 95%CI: ?11.45 to ?4.3) and diastolic BP (?5.54 mmHg; 95%CI: ?7.79 to ?3.29). The BP reductions were similar with the other 3 products. Limitations of the study are that the trial period was relatively short and that a better “BP control” product would have been preferable. Conclusion The creams (particularly the LMN) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in addition to lowering LDL-c, Apo B and ApoB/ApoA ratio. Thus, the soluble fiber effects amplified with sterols (as contained in the cocoa creams) provide new dietary therapeutic perspectives. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420

Sola, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Godas, Gemma; Perez-Busquets, Gloria; Ribalta, Josep; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Cabre, Anna; Castro, Antoni; Domenech, Gema; Torres, Ferran; Masana, Lluis; Angles, Neus; Reguant, Jordi; Ramirez, Bartolome; Barriach, Joaquim M.

2012-01-01

299

What is "powder free"? Characterisation of powder aerosol produced during simulated use of powdered and powder free latex gloves  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To characterise the distribution of particle size and mass of glove powder aerosol released from powdered and powder free non-sterile latex gloves under controlled conditions.?METHODS—Gravimetric sampling and aerodynamic particle size analysis were performed during simulated use of gloves on a prosthetic hand in a chamber designed to minimise background particle concentrations.?RESULTS—Aerosol was detectable for both powdered and powder free gloves under both aggressive and non-aggressive handling conditions. Most of the particles detected had aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm.?CONCLUSION—Powder free gloves were not entirely free of powder aerosol. Particles from both powdered and powder free gloves are sufficiently fine to penetrate into the thoracic region of the respiratory tract.???Keywords: latex gloves; glove powder; aerosol

Phillips, M; Meagher, C; Johnson, D

2001-01-01

300

Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis  

PubMed Central

Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa.

Babin, Regis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

301

Water sorption isotherms of non-fermented cocoa beans ( Theobroma cacao)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water sorption isotherms of non-fermented (Venezuelan fine second grade) cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) were determined at three temperatures typically found during storage in tropical countries (25°C, 30°C and 35°C). For this purpose the grounded samples were equilibrated in desiccators containing 17 saturated salt solutions of known aw at the temperatures studied, covering a range of aw from 0.08 to

A. J. Sandoval; J. A. Barreiro

2002-01-01

302

Plant biodiversity and vegetation structure in traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon under different management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic surveys were performed in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens under different management regimes in the humid forest\\u000a area of southern Cameroon, to assess the impact of intensification on plant biodiversity. This impact was evaluated by analyzing\\u000a species richness, vegetation structure, carbon sequestration and above ground biomass. We hypothesize that: (a) plant (tree\\u000a and herbs) species richness is negatively correlated

Stefan Vidal

2008-01-01

303

Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International CocoaGenebank, Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) contains about 2000 cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) accessions. The purpose of the collection is to provide a source of genes for the genetic improvement of cacao through\\u000a breeding. In fulfilling this objective, it is imperative that this collection be evaluated to identify major sources of genes\\u000a for the genetic improvement of important agronomic–economic traits.

A. D. Iwaro; D. R. Butler; A. B. Eskes

2006-01-01

304

Efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum oil formulations on the control of cocoa black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was therefore to develop a formulation of conidia of T. asperellum with the aim of improving its efficacy. The formulations developed were oily dispersions. It was a combination of solvents consisting of groundnut oil or palm oil with structural agents and emulsifying-dispersing agents. Emulsification tests were carried out and the stability of the emulsions evaluated. The evaluation of the effect of co-formulants on the growth of conidia of T. asperellum was done by reading the optical densities of the formulated samples on multi-plates using a plate reader. The test on detached cocoa pods was done by treating the cocoa pods with selected formulations at 1.10(7) conidia/ml and inoculation of the treated cocoa pods was done 24 hours later with zoospores of P. megakarya at 1.10(5) zoospores/ml. The growth of necrosis on the fruits was measured daily. The screening of co-formulants and emulsification tests ended up with the selection of two formulations. The first composed of conidia of T. asperellum, groundnut oil, Tensiofix NTM and Tensiofix 869. The second differed from the first by utilisation of palm oil as the solvent. These formulations proved stable when diluted in water with 1% and 0.5% of sedimentation respectively after 24 hours. The viability test of the conidia indicated that the different formulations selected did not have a fungitoxic effect. The test on detached cocoa pods showed an improved efficacy of T. asperellum to control the disease. The growth rates of necrosis were 6.29 mm/day, 7.25 mm/day and 31.6 mm/day for treatment with formulation 1, pure conidia and control treated with water respectively. PMID:23878961

Mbarga, J B; Ten Hoopen, G Martijn; Begoude, A D; Tondje, P R; Kuate, J; Ambang, Z; Amougou, A; Schiffers, B

2012-01-01

305

Farmer-Researcher Participatory On-farm Selection of Improved Cocoa Varieties: the Nigerian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of superior progenies for release and distribution to farmers is often done on-station within researcher-managed breeding trials. From an on-going study on the collection of germplasm in farmers' plots carried out in all three cocoa growing regions in Nigeria, several findings which have great implications for a successful breeding programme and ultimate adoption of research results by farmers were

Peter O. Aikpokpodion; Kolawole Badaru; Maria Kolesnikova-Allen; Ivan Ingelbrecht; Victor O. Adetimirin; Bertus Eskes

306

Utilization of Olive-Pomace Oil for Enzymatic Production of Cocoa Butter-like Fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) was utilized as a source for the production of a cocoa butter (CB)-like fat. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of ROPO with palmitic (PA) and stearic (SA) acids was performed at various substrate\\u000a mole ratios (ROPO:PA:SA) to produce major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of CB. Products obtained for various substrate mole ratios\\u000a were compared to a commercial CB

Ozan Naz?m Çiftçi; Sibel Fad?lo?lu; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

2009-01-01

307

The effect of shear rate, temperature, sugar and emulsifier on the tempering of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of shear rate and temperature on the tempering of different mixtures of cocoa butter, sugar and lecithin has been studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer as a shearing device and using viscosity measurement to monitor crystallization. Shear rates ranging from 1 to 50s?1 were tested at four different isothermal temperatures (13°C, 17°C, 20°C and 23°C). Three different material

D. Dhonsi; A. G. F. Stapley

2006-01-01

308

Assessing the shapes and speech sounds that people associate with chocolate samples varying in cocoa content  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of three experiments designed to highlight the reliable crossmodal correspondences that exist between the cocoa content of various commercially-available chocolate products and both visually-presented shapes and nonsense words. The chocolates tested in this study included three kinds of Lindt chocolate and a milk chocolate truffle (‘Koko’ brand from Cadbury). Participants were given paper-based line scales, anchored

Mary Kim Ngo; Reeva Misra; Charles Spence

2011-01-01

309

A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human A?1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P?0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after A?1–42 peptide induction (P?0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of A? deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce A? deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals.

Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Nuria; Alvarez, Beatriz; Monton, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramon, Daniel; Genoves, Salvador

2013-01-01

310

Hydrocyanate, oxalate, phytate, calcium and zinc in selected brands of Nigerian cocoa beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocyanate, oxalate, phytate, calcium and zinc were determined in five brands of cocoa beverage which were coded NC, BT, PN, CT and CA. Hydrocyanate ranged from 5.40 to 9.64 mg\\/100 g dry matter (DM), oxalate 68 to 146 mg\\/100 g DM, phytate 590 to 750 mg\\/100 g DM, calcium 28.7 to 116.4 mg\\/100 g DM and zinc 0.516 to 0.675

C. Y. Aremu; A. E. Abara

1992-01-01

311

A study of the polygalacturonase activity of several yeast strains isolated from cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the traditional fermentation of cocoa, yeasts with pectinolytic activity are involved in the degradation of the pulp. Saccharomyces chevalieri, Torulopsis candila, and Candida norvegensis, as well as Kluyveromyces fragilis included in this study as a control strain all have a pectinolytic activity (endopolygalacturonase E.C. 3.2.1.15). The enzymes studied have the same optimal pH of activity [5] but are different

J. Sanchez; J. P. Guiraud; P. Galzy

1984-01-01

312

Phospholipid composition of lipid seed crystal isolates from ivory coast cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed crystals isolated from Ivory Coast cocoa butter were shown to differ in chemical and thermal characteristics from solidified\\u000a Ivory Coast butter. Higher concentrations of complex lipids in the seed crystals have led to speculation on the role these\\u000a polar molecules play in lipid crystallization events. Phospholipids separated from lipid seed crystal isolates were twelve-fold\\u000a more concentrated than the original

Doris H. Arruda; Paul S. Dimick

1991-01-01

313

Modification of selected indian vegetable fats into cocoa butter substitutes by lipase-catalyzed ester interchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few solid and semi-solid fats of tree origin in India, namely sal (Shorea robusta), kokum(Garcinia indica), mahua (Madhuca latifolia), dhupa (Vateria indica) and mango (Mangifera indica), were chosen for modification into cocoa butter substitutes by lipase-catalyzed ester interchange with methyl palmitate\\u000a and\\/or stearate. Hexane solutions of mixtures of fat and methyl ester(s) in various molar proportions were passed through

R. Sridhar; G. Lakshminarayana; T. N. B. Kaimal

1991-01-01

314

The difference between cocoa butter and salatrim® lies in the microstructure of the fat crystal network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid fat content of Salatrim at 22C is 9% higher than that of cocoa butter; however, its storage modulus, G? (1 Hz),\\u000a or solid-like character, is one order of magnitude lower (2.5 MPa vs. 52 MPa). This difference may be explained by structural\\u000a differences in the microstructure of the fat crystal network of the respective fat systems. Polarized light

Suresh S. Narine; Alejandro G. Marangoni

1999-01-01

315

A pulsed low resolution NMR study on crystallization and melting processes of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to measure the «melting» curves of different series of\\u000a cocoa butter samples. The samples were prepared from completely liquid phase by cooling and tempering them at different temperatures\\u000a Tc for varying time ?t. The «melting» curves were measured while keeping the sample at a fixed temperature Tm. The complex shape of

E. Brosio; F. Conti; A. Di Nola; S. Sykora

1980-01-01

316

Rheometry and polymorphism of cocoa butter during crystallization under static and stirring conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the association between polymorphism and the crystal network structure developed by the TAG of cocoa butter (CB)\\u000a was investigated under static and stirring crystallization conditions using a dynamic mechanical spectrometer. The results\\u000a obtained showed that parameters obtained through oscillatory rheometry (i.e., phase shift angle, ?) followed the polymorphism\\u000a of CB during static crystallization. Although standard DSC was

Jorge F. Toro-Vazquez; David Pérez-Martínez; Elena Dibildox-Alvarado; Miriam Charó-Alonso; Jaime Reyes-Hernández

2004-01-01

317

Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. II. Morphological, thermal, and chemical characteristics during crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an induction period, crystallization of cocoa butter under dynamic conditions at 26.5C occurs in two stages, primary\\u000a and secondary. The primary stage involves nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and sintering. Crystals formed during the\\u000a primary stage were slightly or non-birefringent, and had long, irregular-shaped filaments. The secondary stage was initiated\\u000a by the formation of spherulites. Total crystallization time may depend

Siree Chaiseri I; Paul S. Dimick

1995-01-01

318

Stereospecific analysis of the major triglyceride species in the monounsaturated fraction of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereospecific analysis employing pancreatic lipase,Geotrichum candidum lipase and phospholipase A was applied to the monounsaturated triglyceride fraction of cocoa butter. Diacid triglycerides\\u000a required additional analyses involving the gas liquid chromatographic determination of the proportions of digly ceride acetates\\u000a produced by separately acetylating the ?,? and ?,?-digly cerides obtained from aG. candidum digestion mixture. Results indicated that the major triacid

J. Sampugna; R. G. Jensen

1969-01-01

319

The effect of supercooling on crystallization of cocoa butter-vegetable oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid fat content (SFC), Avrami index (n), crystallization rate (z), fractal dimension (D), and the pre-exponential term [log(?)] were determined in blends of cocoa butter (CB) with canola oil or soybean oil crystallized\\u000a at temperatures (T\\u000a Cr) between 9.5 and 13.5°C. The relationship of these parameters with the elasticity (G?) and yield stress (?*) values of the crystallized blends

David Pérez-Martínez; C. Alvarez-Salas; J. A. Morales-Rueda; J. F. Toro-Vazquez; M. Charó-Alonso; E. Dibildox-Alvarado

2005-01-01

320

Impacts of Bleaching and Packed Column Steam Refining on Cocoa Butter Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and alkalized cocoa butters were bleached and subsequently steam refined in a continuous packed column at temperatures\\u000a ranging between 160 and 220 °C. None of the processes evaluated gave rise to any detectable formation of trans fatty acids, interesterification or polymerization. For the pressures and steam injection rates used, packed-column steam\\u000a refining required a minimum temperature of 170 °C to achieve

José Vila Ayala; Gijs Calliauw; Imogen Foubert; Koen Dewettinck; Bill Dyer; Wim De Greyt

2007-01-01

321

Synthesis and properties of minor crypto-active triglycerides of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. The crypto-active triglycerides sn-PPO, sn-SSO, and sn-OSS have been synthesized.\\u000a \\u000a 2. It has been shown that the melting points of mixtures of the main racemic triglyceride components of cocoa butter are affected\\u000a by more unsaturated triglycerides. Cryptoactive triglycerides scarcely affect the melting points of the mixtures.

M. S. Bainova; G. I. Bazilevskaya; I. K. Sarycheva; R. P. Evstigneeva

1975-01-01

322

Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise.  

PubMed

Impaired endothelial vasodilatation may contribute to the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise in individuals who are overweight/obese. The present study investigated whether consumption of cocoa flavanols, which improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), can modify BP responsiveness to exercise. Twenty-one volunteers (eight females and thirteen males, 54.9 (se 2.2) years, BMI 31.6 (se 0.8) kg/m2, systolic BP 134 (se 2) mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) 87 (se 2) mmHg) were randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design with 3-7-d washout between treatments. Two hours after cocoa consumption, FMD was measured, followed by continuous beat-to-beat assessment (Finapres) of BP before and during 10 min of cycling at 75 % of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Averaged data from two assessments on each type of beverage were compared by analysis of covariance using pre-exercise BP as the covariate. Pre-exercise BP was similar after taking LF and HF (153 (se 3)/88 (se 3) v. 153 (se 4)/87 (se 2) mmHg, respectively, P>0.05). However, the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals. PMID:20082737

Berry, Narelle M; Davison, Kade; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

2010-01-19

323

Triglyceride characteristics of cocoa butter from cacao fruit matured in a microclimate of elevated temperature 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the melting characteristic of cocoa butter is relatively constant. However, softer than normal butter is sometimes\\u000a encountered. In Brazil the occurrence of soft butter has been correlated with mean daily temperature during the cropping season.\\u000a The temperature effect was, therefore, studied more fully by positioning heat lamps near fruit of cacao to create a microclimate\\u000a of elevated temperature during

D. W. Lehrian; P. G. Keeney; D. R. Butler

1980-01-01

324

Original article Elaboration of a fruit wine from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were the selection of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the elaboration of a fermentative process using cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) fruit pulp, and the assessment of the acceptance of the elaborated beverage. Three S. cerevisiae strains (CA116, CA1162 and CA1183) were assessed while growing in a fruit pulp medium at different temperatures. The ethanol:biomass

Disney Ribeiro Dias; Rosane Freitas Schwan; Evandro Sena Freire; Rogerio dos Santos Serodio

2007-01-01

325

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

326

A polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract reduces free radicals produced by mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are characterized by the presence of phenol units in the molecules. These compounds may show antioxidant ability by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the free radical type. A polyphenol enriched cocoa extract (PECE) was obtained from cocoa seeds with 28% of procyanidins which were mainly epicatechin oligomers. PECE was very active as free radical scavenger against 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and tris(2,4,6-trichloro-3,5-dinitrophenyl)methyl (HNTTM) radicals; and the tris(2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitrophenyl)methyl (TNPTM) assay showed that the PECE might not be pro-oxidant. Thus it was considered a good candidate to be tested in in vitro models. It showed mild cytotoxic power on Hep G2 cells and induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner being weak oxidant only at high concentrations near the limit of solubility. The antioxidant properties were assayed in Hep G2 treated with the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The PECE was not effective against AFB1 but it increased the cell viability and reduced significantly the amounts of ROS in cells treated with OTA or mixtures of AFB1+OTA. These results are coherent with the role of oxidative pathways in the mechanism of OTA and indicate that polyphenols extracted from cocoa may be good candidates as antioxidant agents. PMID:22166788

Corcuera, L A; Amézqueta, S; Arbillaga, L; Vettorazzi, A; Touriño, S; Torres, J L; López de Cerain, A

2011-12-06

327

Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa polyphenols on cognition and mood. In a randomized, double-blind study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. Participants consumed their assigned treatment once daily for 30 days. Cognition was measured with the Cognitive Drug Research system and self-rated mood with the Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scale. Participants were tested at baseline, at 1, 2.5 and 4 h after a single acute dose and again after receiving 30 days of treatment. In total, 72 participants completed the trial. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. Mood was unchanged by treatment acutely while cognition was unaffected by treatment at all time points. This randomized controlled trial is perhaps the first to demonstrate the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants. This provides a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression. PMID:23364814

Pase, Matthew P; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Kras, Marni; Nolidin, Karen; Gibbs, Amy; Wesnes, Keith; Stough, Con

2013-01-29

328

Determination of cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate by triacylglycerol profiling.  

PubMed

An analytical approach for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate is presented. It is based on (i) a comprehensive standardized database covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat (n=310), cocoa butter (n=75), and CBE (n=74) samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof, (ii) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material (IRMM-801) for calibration, (iii) an evaluation algorithm, which allows a reliable quantification of the milk fat content in chocolate fats using a simple linear regression model, (iv) a subsequent correction of triacylglycerols deriving from milk fat, (v) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate, and (vi) a multivariate statistical formula to quantify the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. The detection limit was 1% CBE in chocolate fat (0.3% CBE in milk chocolate, having a fat content of 30%). For quantification, the average error for prediction was 1.2% CBE in chocolate fat, corresponding to 0.4% in milk chocolate (fat content, 30%). PMID:17394334

Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

2007-03-30

329

On-farm selection for quality and resistance to pest\\/diseases of cocoa in Sulawesi: (ii) quality and performance of selections against Phytophthora pod rot and vascular-streak dieback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cocoa industry in Sulawesi, the main region of cocoa production in Indonesia, is threatened by destructive diseases, including vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by the basidiomycete Oncobasidium theobromae and stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Using the considerable genetic diversity of cocoa on farms, host resistance was identified and tested with the

Peter McMahon; Agus Purwantara; Agung W. Susilo; Sri Sukamto; Abdul Wahab; Hussin bin Purung; Muhammad Hidayat; Darna Ismail; Tap Taproni; Smilja Lambert; David Guest; Philip Keane

2010-01-01

330

Study of Some Chemical and Physical Quality Parameters of Irradiated Cocoa Beans. Part of a Coordinated Programme on Technological and Economic Feasibility of Food Irradiation. Final Report for the Period 15 March 1977 - 30 April 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cocoa beans were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 kGy. To prevent decay of cocoa beans by moulds a radiation dose of at least 4 kGy appears necessary for long storage at 28 exp 0 C and 80% relative humidity. Storage of cocoa beans, whether irradiated or no...

H. Stegeman J. G. van Kooij

1980-01-01

331

Attenuated total reflection infrared microspectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis: a novel tool to study the presence of cocoa polyphenol metabolites in urine samples.  

PubMed

The detection and quantification of polyphenols in biological samples is mainly performed by liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). This technique requires the use of organic solvents and needs control and maintenance of several MS/MS parameters, which makes the method expensive and time consuming. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the potential of using attenuated total reflection infrared microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) coupled with multivariate analysis to detect and quantify phenolic compounds excreted in human urine. Samples were collected from 5 healthy volunteers before and 6, 12 and 24 h after ingestion of 40 g cocoa powder with 250 mL of water or whole milk, and stored at -80 °C. Each sample was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min and at 4 °C and applied onto grids of a hydrophobic membrane. Spectra were collected in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm(-1)) and were analyzed by a multivariate analysis technique, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Spectral models showed that IR bands responsible for chemical differences among samples were related to aromatic rings. Therefore, ATR-IRMS could be an interesting and straightforward technique for the detection of phenolic compounds excreted in urine. Moreover, it could be a valuable tool in studies aimed to identify biomarkers of consumption of polyphenol-rich diets. PMID:22705559

Sánchez-González, Claudia; Nigussie, Worku; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; de Lamo-Castellví, Silvia

2012-06-18

332

Cocoa Procyanidins Inhibit Proliferation and Angiogenic Signals in Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells Following Stimulation by Low-Level H2O2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procyanidins extracted from cocoa play a role in the defense against oxidative stress, as well as in vascular and immune functions. We previously reported that pentameric procyanidins isolated from cocoa inhibit the expression of the tyrosine kinase ErbB2 gene, thus slowing the growth of cultured human aortic endothelial cells. We herein investigate the further consequen- ces of such inhibition by

THOMAS P. KENNY; CARL L. KEEN; PAUL JONES; HSING-JIEN KUNG; HAROLD H. SCHMITZ; M. ERIC GERSHWIN

333

Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. Cocoa is mainly produced on small holdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and cocoa quality improvement are two impo...

334

The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these metabolites can be produced according to the fermentation practices adopted in the farms, which could affect the growth and ochratoxin A production by fungi. This work presents two independent experiments carried out to investigate the effect of some fermentation practices on ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius in cocoa, and the effect of weak organic acids such as acetic, lactic and citric at different pH values on growth and ochratoxin A production by A. carbonarius and Aspergillus niger in culture media. A statistical difference (?<0.05) in the ochratoxin A level in the cured cocoa beans was observed in some fermentation practices adopted. The laboratorial studies demonstrate the influence of organic acids on fungal growth and ochratoxin A production, with differences according to the media pH and the organic acid present. Acetic acid was the most inhibitory acid against A. carbonarius and A. niger. From the point of view of food safety, considering the amount of ochratoxin A produced, fermentation practices should be conducted towards the enhancement of acetic acid, although lactic and citric acids also have an important role in lowering the pH to improve the toxicity of acetic acid. PMID:22349177

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Mororó, Raimundo C; Pereira, José L; Frisvad, Jens C; Taniwaki, Marta H

2012-02-04

335

Demystifying Mystery Powders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)|

Kotar, Michael

1989-01-01

336

FORGING BERYLLIUM POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developments and results obtained in press forging beryllium powder ; are described. The forging method consists of using pressures in the range of ; 20,000 to 100,000 psi, sintering times from l sec to l min, and two temperature ; ranges of l600 and 1900 deg F. The description of a nonberyllium (stainless ; steel) can fabricated for holding

Cieslicki

1962-01-01

337

Laser powder deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the art of laser powder deposition (LPD), a solid freeform fabrication technique capable of fabricating fully dense functional items from a wide range of common engineering materials, such as aluminum alloys, steels, titanium alloys, nickel superalloys and refractory materials. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The main R&D efforts and the

Lino Costa; Rui Vilar

2009-01-01

338

Electrically conductive ceramic powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive ceramic powders were investigated in this project. There are three ways to produce those materials. The first is doping alkali metal into the titanium dioxides in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The second is reducing un-doped titanium dioxide, forming a non-stoichiometric composition in a hydrogen atmosphere. The third is to coat a conductive layer, reduced titanium dioxide, on an insulating core such as alumina. Highly conductive powders have been produced by all these processes. The conductivity of powder compacts ranged between 10-2 and 10° S/cm. A novel doping process was developed. All samples were doped by a solid-vapor reaction instead of a solid state reaction. Titanium dioxide was doped with alkali metals such as Na or Li in this study. The alkali metal atom contributes an electron to the host material (TiO2), which then creates Ti 3+ ion. The conductivity was enhanced by creating the donor level due to the presence of these Ti3+ ions. The conductivity of those alkali doped titanium oxides was dependent on the doping level and charge mobility. Non-stoichiometric titanium oxides were produced by reduction of titanium dioxide in a hydrogen atmosphere at 800°C to 1000°C for 2 to 6 hours. The reduced titanium oxides showed better stability with respect to conductivity at ambient condition when compared with the Na or Li doped samples. Conductive coatings were prepared by coating titanium precursors on insulating core materials like SiO2, Al2O3 or mica. The titania coating was made by hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4) followed by a reduction procedure to form reduced titanium oxide. The reduced titanium oxides are highly conductive. A uniform coating of titanium oxides on alumina cores was successfully produced. The conductivity of coated powder composites was a function of coating quantity and hydrolysis reaction temperature. The conductivity of the powder as a function of structure, composition, temperature, frequency and moisture was studied. Three classifications of structure were identified for alkali-doped titanium oxides: (1) Pure titanium dioxide phase with alkali ions located in interstitial positions. (2) The titanium bronze phases. (3) Alkali-doped titanium oxides. Highly conductive powders were obtained in the first and second classifications with conductivity of 10-2 to 10° S/cm. Materials in the third classification had poor conductivity below 10-3 S/cm. The conductivity of a powder was determined mainly by the grain conductivity and the grain contact conductivity. The present results of impedance spectroscopy suggested that the grain contact resistance was a major factor of the electrical resistance of the samples. The aging effect at different moisture conditions was also caused by an increase of the contact resistance. Both sodium-doped and reduced titanium oxides showed re-oxidation at elevated temperature (above 140°C) in air, which is most probably caused by oxidizing the Ti3+ ions under those conditions. Lithium doped titanium oxides did not show this re-oxidation at temperatures up to 200°C. Theoretical models were applied to describe the effects of porosity, contact configuration and grain surface on conductivity of powder compacts. Percolation theory was used in the present study to demonstrate the effect of mixtures of conductive and non-conductive powders, which is one of applications for conductive ceramic powders when they are used as filler materials in paper, paints or plastics.

Lu, Yanxia

1999-11-01

339

Thin Steel Strip from Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for rolling thin strip is described which overcomes the disadvantages normally associated with powder rolling. Strip samples were made from both iron and stainless steel powders and an experimental plant has been built for continuous strip produ...

I. Davies W. M. Gibbon A. G. Harris

1969-01-01

340

Method to blend separator powders  

DOEpatents

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04

341

Quantification of triacylglycerol molecular species in cocoa butter using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with nano quantity analyte detector.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a nano quantity analyte detector (NQAD). TAG standard compounds, i.e., 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-POP), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol (?-POS), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-SOS), and natural cocoa butter were used for analyses. NQAD gave the first order equation passing through the origin for all TAG standard compounds. TAG molecular species in cocoa butter were quantified using the calibration curves and the obtained values were almost the same as the reported ones of conventional cocoa butter. Furthermore, a recovery test was also carried out and the values were almost 100. Therefore, HPLC-NQAD can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils. PMID:24088516

Beppu, Fumiaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

2013-01-01

342

Powder compaction with ultrasonic assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compaction behaviour of a ceramic powder can be improved by ultrasonic assistance, only when ultrasounds are used at pressures lower than a critical value,PC. This critical pressure is connected with the limit of mobility of the powder grains under ultrasonic vibrations. Its value depends on the characteristics of the powder, as well as those of the ultrasounds: frequency, amplitude,

E. Emeruwa; J. Jarrige; J. Mexmain; M. Billy; K. Bouzouita

1990-01-01

343

Cocoa polyphenols prevent inflammation in the colon of azoxymethane-treated rats and in TNF-?-stimulated Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Numerous lines of evidence support a relationship between intestinal inflammation and cancer. Therefore, much attention has recently been focused on the identification of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory activities as a strategy to suppress the early stages of colorectal cancer. Because cocoa is a rich source of bioactive compounds, the present study investigated its anti-inflammatory properties in a rat model of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis and in TNF-?-stimulated Caco-2 cells. A total of forty male rats were fed with control or cocoa-enriched diets (12 %) during 8 weeks and injected with saline or AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) during the third and fourth week (n 10 rats/group). At the end of the experiment, colon samples were evaluated for markers of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (10 ?g/ml) was examined in TNF-?-stimulated Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. The signalling pathways involved, including NF-?B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase family such as c-Jun NH?-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38, were also evaluated. The results show that the cocoa-rich diet decreases the nuclear levels of NF-?B and the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase induced by AOM in the colon. Additionally, the experiments in Caco-2 cells confirm that cocoa polyphenols effectively down-regulate the levels of inflammatory markers induced by TNF-? by inhibiting NF-?B translocation and JNK phosphorylation. We conclude that cocoa polyphenols suppress inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and could be promising in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related cancer development. PMID:23186731

Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Ramos, Sonia; López-Oliva, Elvira; Agis-Torres, Angel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Martín, Maria Angeles

2012-11-28

344

The effect of cocoa supplementation on hepatic steatosis, reactive oxygen species and LFABP in a rat model of NASH  

PubMed Central

Background Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is hypothesised to develop via a mechanism involving fat accumulation and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to investigate if an increase in oxidative stress was associated with changes in the expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in a rat model of non alcoholic steatohepatitis and whether cocoa supplementation attenuated those changes. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat control diet, a high fat methionine choline deficient diet, or one of four 12.5% cocoa supplementation regimes in combination with the high fat methionine choline deficient diet. Results Liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the liver of animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. Increased hepatic fat content was accompanied by higher levels of oxidative stress in animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. An inverse association was found between the levels of hepatic liver fatty acid binding protein and the level of hepatic oxidative stress in fatty liver disease. Elevated NADPH oxidase protein levels were detected in the liver of animals with increased severity in inflammation and fibrosis. Cocoa supplementation was associated with partial attenuation of these pathological changes, although the severity of liver disease induced by the methionine choline deficient diet prevented complete reversal of any disease associated changes. Red blood cell glutathione was increased by cocoa supplementation, whereas liver glutathione was reduced by cocoa compared to methionine choline deficient diet fed animals. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential role for liver fatty acid binding protein and NADPH oxidase in the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, cocoa supplementation may have be of therapeutic benefit in less sever forms of NASH.

2011-01-01

345

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

PubMed Central

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

346

Powder metallurgy of superalloys  

SciTech Connect

Powder metallurgy superalloys were developed in the mid-1960's when stronger aircraft turbine disk materials were needed. Their characteristics of greatly reduced segregation, better hot-workability, improved mechanical properties, and cost-effective manufacturing processes made P/M superalloys highly desirable in high-temperature applications. This book deals with prealloyed superalloys including rapidly solidified (RSR) alloys and oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, as well as processing techniques such as sintering, hot isostatic pressing, extrusion, and isothermal forging. The large range of microstructures possible are correlated with mechanical properties at intermediate and elevated temperatures. Methods of powder production and consolidation are detailed, as are thermomechanical processing principles by which different microstructures can be created. Non-destructive testing techniques, and problems and advances relating to mechanical properties and processing are also covered.

Gessinger, G.H.

1984-01-01

347

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

348

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. II. Physical properties of dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demolding property just after solidification, we examined the polymorphism of cocoa butter in seed-solidified dark chocolate\\u000a and fat-bloom stability through two thermocycle tests between 38 and 20°C (38\\/20) and between 32 and 20°C (32\\/20). The seed\\u000a crystals employed are Form VI of cocoa butter,?\\u000a 1 of SOS (1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol), pseudo-?’ and?\\u000a 2 of BOB (1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol) and ? of SSS (1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol). The

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

349

Powder metallurgy of superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metallurgy superalloys were developed in the mid-1960's when stronger aircraft turbine disk materials were needed. Their characteristics of greatly reduced segregation, better hot-workability, improved mechanical properties, and cost-effective manufacturing processes made P\\/M superalloys highly desirable in high-temperature applications. This book deals with prealloyed superalloys including rapidly solidified (RSR) alloys and oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, as well as processing techniques such

Gessinger

1984-01-01

350

Powder characteristics and coating conditions of fresh and reused polyester resins for electrostatic powder coating: powder recycling and loss prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder characteristics and coating conditions are significant factors in electrostatic powder coating. In this work, powder characteristics of the reused polyester resin or recycled powder particles in terms of shape, size, particle size distribution, moisture content, density, flowability, fluidity and chargeability were compared with those of fresh resin or as-received powder to consider powder recycling. The coating conditions for a

A. W. Lothongkum; R. Nonthapone; K. Seangkiatiyuth; W. Tanthapanichkoon

2007-01-01

351

[Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].  

PubMed

Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield. PMID:18589574

Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

2008-03-01

352

Molecular identification and pectate lyase production by Bacillus strains involved in cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the implication of Bacillus in the production of pectinolytic enzymes during cocoa fermentation. The objective of this work was to identify the Bacillus strains isolated from cocoa fermentation and study their ability to produce pectate lyase (PL) in various growth conditions. Ninety-eight strains were analyzed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). Four different banding patterns were obtained leading to the clustering of the bacterial isolates into 4 distinct ARDRA groups. A subset of representative isolates for each group was identified by 16S rRNA gene partial sequencing. Six species were identified: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, together with Bacillus fusiformis which was isolated for the first time from cocoa fermentation. The best PL producers, yielding at least 9 U/mg of bacterial dry weight, belonged to B. fusiformis, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus species while those belonging to B. sphaericus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis generally showed a low level of activity. Two kinds of PL were produced, as revealed by isoelectrofocusing: one with a pI of 9.8 produced by B. subtilis and B. fusiformis, the other with a pI of 10.5 was produced by B. pumilus. Strains yielded about 2 fold more PL in a pectic compound medium than in glucose medium and maximum enzyme production occurred in the late stationary bacterial growth phase. Together all these results indicate that PL production in the bacilli studied is modulated by the growth phase and by the carbon source present in the medium. PMID:21056768

Ouattara, Honoré G; Reverchon, Sylvie; Niamke, Sébastien L; Nasser, William

2010-08-14

353

Fractionation procedures for obtaining cocoa butter-like fat from enzymatically interesterified palm olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed incorporation of stearic acid in palm olein by the 1,3-regiospecific Novo Lipase Lipozyme IM20\\u000a resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of fatty acid glycerides and free fatty acids. The stearoyl incorporation in\\u000a palm olein gave rise to the formation of 39.3% of the desired cocoa butter-like triglycerides in the fatty acid glyceride\\u000a portion, namely distearoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS),

C. N. Chong; Y. M. Hoh; C. W. Wang

1992-01-01

354

Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

Nganhou, J.

355

Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders  

DOEpatents

Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Midland, MI); Weimer, Alan W. (Midland, MI); Carroll, Daniel F. (Midland, MI); Eisman, Glenn A. (Midland, MI); Cochran, Gene A. (Midland, MI); Susnitzky, David W. (Midland, MI); Beaman, Donald R. (Midland, MI); Nilsen, Kevin J. (Midland, MI)

1996-06-11

356

Effect of Fruiting Traits on the Field Resistance of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Clones to Phytophthora megakarya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of some traits of field resistance (precocity and duration of the fruiting cycle, age of diseased fruit and vertical pod distribution on the tree) to Phytoph- thora megakarya of four known cocoa clones were studied in an on-station clonal plot planted in 1982 in the south-west of Cameroon. Weekly observations of fruit set and development, black pod and

M. I. B. Efombagn; J. P. Marelli; M. Ducamp; C. Cilas; S. Nyasse; D. Vefonge

2004-01-01

357

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

Kroposki, B.

1998-12-17

358

Household Welfare and the Pricing of Cocoa and Coffee in Cote d'Ivoire: Lessons from the Living Standards Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa and coffee are the most important crops in Cote d'Ivoire. Until recently, the difference between world and administered producer prices provided an important source of government revenue. As a result of a continued decline of world prices of both crops, however, the Ivoirien government was forced to cut producer prices in half. Because 40 percent of Ivoirien households grow

Dwayne Benjamin; Angus Deaton

1993-01-01

359

Creation of BAC genomic resources for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) for physical mapping of RGA containing BAC clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed and validated the first cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) BAC library, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the structure and evolution of the genome of this perennial crop. This library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 120 kb, representing approximately ten haploid genome equivalents. It was constructed from the genotype Scavina-6 (Sca-6),

D. Clément; C. Lanaud; X. Sabau; O. Fouet; L. Le Cunff; E. Ruiz; A. M. Risterucci; J. C. Glaszmann; P. Piffanelli

2004-01-01

360

Growth of Cocoa Planted on Highly Weathered Soil as Affected by Application of Basalt and\\/or Compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxisols, which are highly weathered, occupy a large area of Malaysia. These soils are infertile because of low pH, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) levels but high aluminum (Al) content. The infertility can be ameliorated by applying soil amendments. A study was conducted to determine the effects of basalt and\\/or rice husk compost application on cocoa growth planted

J. Shamshuddin; M. Anda; C. I. Fauziah; S. R. Syed Omar

2011-01-01

361

Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

362

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA STROMATICUM, A MYCO-PARASITE OF THE COCOA WITCHES' BROOM PATHOGEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Witches’ broom, caused by Crinipellis perniciosa, inflicts severe damage in cocoa plantations in Central and South America. In Brazil, a commercial formulation of Trichoderma stromaticum is being used in the field. However, performance has been inconsistent. One strategy to improve biocontrol is ...

363

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

2007-01-01

364

Plasmasynthesized nano-aluminum powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma electro-condensation\\u000a process was used to synthesize nano-sized aluminum powders. Adding different\\u000a chemicals modified the physical and chemical properties of these powders.\\u000a To characterize the nano-sized powders, X-ray diffraction, TEM, BET analyses,\\u000a and simultaneous TG\\/DSC analyses were performed. TG\\/DSC analyses revealed\\u000a a dramatic degradation of the aluminum oxide layer after storage of the aluminum\\u000a powder in air for a

Alla Pivkina; D. Ivanov; Yu. Frolov; Svetlana Mudretsova; Anna Nickolskaya; J. Schoonman

2006-01-01

365

Focus Products Group International, LLC Announces a Nationwide Recall of Cocoa Latte™ Hot Drink Makers Due to Possible Lead Risk  

NASA Website

Focus Products Group International, LLC announces the following voluntary recall.  Consumers should immediately stop using the Cocoa Latte™ Hot Drink Maker and contact the Focus Products Call Center for instructions on how to return the product ...

366

Role of beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Nitidulidae) in the spread of Phytophthora palmivora pod rot of cocoa in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated after pod-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Nitidulidae) were seen to preferentially colonise\\u000a cocoa pod lesions caused by Phytophthora palmivora. We hypothesised that these beetles, which colonise discarded pod cases and infected pods, are an important and previously\\u000a unrecognised vector of the black pod pathogen, P. palmivora, in cocoa plantations. Beetles colonise lesions within 24 h of

J. K. Konam; D. I. Guest

2004-01-01

367

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics as a tool for the rapid detection of other vegetable fats mixed in cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique in combination with multivariate data evaluation was used to analyze a wide\\u000a variety of cocoa butters (CB), cocoa butter equivalents (CBE), and mixtures thereof. The sample set consisted of 14 CB (10\\u000a pure from various geographical origins and 4 commercial mixtures), 18 CBE (12 mixtures and 6 pure CBE from kokum, illip,\\u000a and palm

Royston Goodacre; Elke Anklam

2001-01-01

368

Alcohol interaction with zirconia powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which alcohol washing of ceramic powders produces soft agglomerates has been investigated by studying the interaction of ethanol with hydrous ZrOâ powders using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Unambiguous evidence of ethoxide formation has been found, which apparently prevents bond formation between adjacent particles and thus the formation of hard agglomerates.

Mary Sue Kaliszewski; Arthur H. Heuer

1990-01-01

369

Powdered resin for condensate polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered resin systems have a lot to offer in the deionization of low TDS waters, as can be seen in the wide use of this process for the treatment of condensate in the electric power industry. I believe that as new ion-exchange resins are developed, we will see the powdered ion-exchange resin process adopted in other industries. At this time,

Richard Hetherington

1997-01-01

370

Mound powder loader, Mod 1  

SciTech Connect

At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

Gress, A.V. Jr.

1985-08-21

371

Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao

1974-01-01

372

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

373

Organic vs. traditional potato powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the profile of primary metabolites in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Agria) grown under organic vs traditional farming system was studied, and the influence of heat processing (for producing potato powder) on nutritionally important compounds such as essential amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates was evaluated. The potato powder was obtained by means of a drum dryer using

Petronia Carillo; Domenico Cacace; Stefania De Pascale; Mariateresa Rapacciuolo; Amodio Fuggi

374

Innovations in titanium powder processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One way of reducing the cost of titanium components is to use near-net shape powder-metallurgy techniques. This article describes a number of new approaches to producing components using the powder-metallurgy method for the aerospace, industrial, and consumer marketplaces.

Moxson, Vladimir; Senkov, O. N.; Froes, F. H.

2000-05-01

375

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2009-04-01

376

Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.  

PubMed

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain. PMID:21838556

Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

2011-09-01

377

Effect of the addition of a cocoa butter-like fat enzymatically produced from olive pomace oil on the oxidative stability of cocoa butter.  

PubMed

A cocoa butter (CB)-like fat was produced in a packed bed enzyme reactor using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and its blends with CB were prepared at different ratios (CB: CB-like fat; 100: 0, 90: 10, 80: 20, 70: 30, 60: 40, 50: 50, 0: 100). The oxidation kinetics of CB: CB-like fat blends was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Samples were heated in DSC at different temperatures (130, 140, 150, 160 degrees C) under 100 mL/min oxygen. From DSC exotherms, oxidation induction times (OIT) were determined and used for the assessment of the oxidative stabilities of the blends. Oxidation kinetics parameters (activation energy, E(a); preexponential factor, Z; and oxidation rate constant, k) were calculated. In general, it has been observed that above 110 degrees C increasing the ratio of CB-like fat in the blend increased the k value with increasing temperature. It has been observed that for all blends the increase in k value with temperature was significant (P < 0.05). Increasing CB-like fat ratio in the blend decreased the content of major TAGs (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POP]; 1[3]-palmitoyl-3[1]stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POS]; 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [SOS]), and decreased the oxidative stability of the blends. PMID:19490323

Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Kowalski, Boles?aw; Gö?ü?, Fahrettin; Fadilo?lu, Sibel

378

30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...Explosives Storage § 56.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests...

2010-07-01

379

30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...Explosives Storage § 56.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests...

2009-07-01

380

Properties of Prealloyed Steel Powder Metallurgy Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability of conventional powder metallurgy fabrication procedures to prealloyed steel powders was investigated. Fifteen lots of steel powder, representing six different major alloy types (4130, 1040, 8620, 4650, 8650, and 9450), have been formed ...

K. R. Sump R. E. Westerman

1971-01-01

381

21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys...virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small...zinc, tin, and copper content shall be based...weight of the dried powder after being...

2010-04-01

382

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2010-04-01

383

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2009-04-01

384

21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys...virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small...zinc, tin, and copper content shall be based...weight of the dried powder after being...

2009-04-01

385

Compaction of Amorphous Ferromagnetic Metal Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The attractive magnetic properties of certain amorphous metal powders might be exploited in the electrical industry if the powders can be consolidated into relatively dense compacts. The production of integral bodies of an amorphous powder was attempted u...

R. D. Caligiuri

1982-01-01

386

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2013-04-01

387

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2013-04-01

389

Hydrocyanate, oxalate, phytate, calcium and zinc in selected brands of Nigerian cocoa beverage.  

PubMed

Hydrocyanate, oxalate, phytate, calcium and zinc were determined in five brands of cocoa beverage which were coded NC, BT, PN, CT and CA. Hydrocyanate ranged from 5.40 to 9.64 mg/100 g dry matter (DM), oxalate 68 to 146 mg/100 g DM, phytate 590 to 750 mg/100 g DM, calcium 28.7 to 116.4 mg/100 g DM and zinc 0.516 to 0.675 mg/100 g DM. The computed phytate:zinc, calcium:phytate and [calcium] [phytate]/[zinc] molar ratios ranged from 89 to 132, 0.80 to 3.01 and 0.64 to 3.03 respectively. The discussion is focused on toxic levels of hydrocyanate and oxalate, and the significance of the molar ratios in predicting the bioavailability of dietary zinc. PMID:1323827

Aremu, C Y; Abara, A E

1992-07-01

390

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

2010-01-01

391

Immune effects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

There has been considerable work on the relationships between nutrition and the immune response, particularly on studies that have focused on adaptive responses. There is increasing recognition of the importance of innate immunity in host protection and initiation of cytokine networks. In this study, we examined the effect of select cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on innate responses in vitro. Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as purified monocytes and CD4 and CD8 T cells, were isolated from healthy volunteers and cultured in the presence of cocoa flavanol fractions that differ from another by the degree of flavanol polymerization: short-chain flavanol fraction (SCFF), monomers to pentamers; and long-chain flavanol fraction (LCFF), hexamers to decamers. Parallel investigations were also done with highly purified flavanol monomers and procyanidin dimers. The isolated cells were then challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with quantitation of activation using CD69 and CD83 expression and analysis of secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The chain length of flavanol fractions had a significant effect on cytokine release from both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated PBMCs. For example, there was a striking increase of LPS-induced synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the presence of LCFF. LCFF and SCFF, in the absence of LPS, stimulated the production of GM-CSF. In addition, LCFF and SCFF increased expression of the B cell markers CD69 and CD83. There were also unique differential responses in the mononuclear cell populations studied. We conclude that the oligomers are potent stimulators of both the innate immune system and early events in adaptive immunity. PMID:17259337

Kenny, Thomas P; Keen, Carl L; Schmitz, Harold H; Gershwin, M Eric

2007-02-01

392

Modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.  

PubMed

Epidemiological reports have suggested that the consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is associated with a lower incidence of certain degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Flavanols and their related oligomers, the procyanidins CFP, isolated from cocoa can modulate the production and level of several signaling molecules associated with immune function and inflammation in vitro, including several cytokines and eicosanoids. To further elucidate the potential immuno-modulatory functions of flavanol-rich cocoa, the present investigation examined whether isolated CFP fractions (monomers through decamers) influence the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from resting and phytohemagluttinin (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We used an in vitro culture system where PBMC from 14 healthy subjects were introduced to individual CFP fractions for 72 h prior to measuring the levels of TNF-alpha released. The intermediate-sized CFP fractions (tetramers through octamers) were the most active on resting cells, causing a 3-4 fold increase in TNF-alpha relative to media baseline. The monomers and dimers were the least stimulatory of the fractions tested, displaying a 42 and 31% increase, respectively, over media control, whereas the trimers, nonamers and decamers showed an intermediate stimulation of this cytokine. In the presence of PHA, the intermediate-sized CFP fractions again were the most active, enhancing TNF-alpha secretion in the range of 48-128% relative to the PHA control. The monomers and dimers were slightly inhibitory (-1.5 and -15%, respectively), while trimers, nonamers and decamers stimulated moderate increases in TNF-alpha levels (13, 19 and 15%, respectively). The above results lend support to the concept that CFP can be immunomodulatory. The stimulation of TNF-alpha secretion may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of dietary flavanoids against microbial infection and tumorigenesis. PMID:12885154

Mao, T K; van de Water, J; Keen, C L; Schmitz, H H; Gershwin, M E

2002-09-01

393

Evaluation of cocoa butter as potential lubricant for coprocessing in pharmaceutical tablets.  

PubMed

The lubricant activity of cocoa butter coprocessed with magnesium stearate plus talc (CMT) was compared with magnesium stearate plus talc (MT) using flow and compressional characteristics of paracetamol granules and mechanical properties of their tablets as assessment parameters. The flow of the granules quantified as Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, and angle of repose showed that CMT has a higher ability than MT to reduce densification of granules due to vibration. Compressional characteristics analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots revealed that CMT did not facilitate the increase in the densification of the granules during the filling and at low pressures, D(b). Also, CMT reduced the plastic deformation of the granules measured by the P(y)-yield pressure at onset of plastic deformation and P(k)-yield pressure of deformation under compression. The mechanical properties determined by the tensile strength, T, and brittle fracture index, BFI, of the tablets produced were affected by CMT. The T and BFI of tablets with CMT were lower than those of MT. The results suggest that though CMT lowered the plasticity of the granules, it improved their flow rate and assisted in producing tablets with fewer tendencies to cap or laminate. This work concluded that cocoa butter, an inexpensive and easily available lipid, is an effective and viable lubricant that can be co-processed with magnesium stearate/talc mixture for an efficient lubrication of granules and may be useful in reducing lamination and capping in formulations that are susceptible to these 2 defects of tablets. PMID:18484488

Adeagbo, Adebolu Adewole; Alebiowu, Gbenga

2008-01-01

394

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

395

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

396

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

397

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

1996-01-02

398

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

SciTech Connect

Shock recovery experiments carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo appear adequate to compact to full density (< 45 ..mu..m) powders. However, the stress levels are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 ..mu..m particles. The present model predicts that for powders have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 ..mu..m range.

Ahrens, T.J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T. Jr.; Schwarz, R.B.; Kasiraj, P.

1983-09-01

399

Crystallization of comminuted boron powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An x-ray diffraction investigation has established that, irrespective of their degree of amorphization, comminuted boron powders crystallize after melting in the rhombohedralß structure, i.e., revert to their original crystalline state.

K. P. Tsomaya; D. L. Gabuniya; É. A. Knyshev; V. A. Kobyakov

1975-01-01

400

Comprehensive Review of Black Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A diligent attempt has been made to scrutinize black powder and the charcoal it contains as fully as possible, utilizing modern testing techniques and various analytical chemical procedures. Although the tests performed are well established, their applica...

R. A. Sasse

1985-01-01

401

Patterns of Morphological Variation in a Sample of Cacao ( Theobroma Cacao L.) Germplasm from the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) contains 2300 accessions representing a broad range of diversity and geographic\\u000a origins. This study was undertaken to examine the phenotypic relationships in a diverse sample of 600 cacao accessions from\\u000a the Genebank. The major objectives were to test the applicability of the accepted nomenclature, viz., the definition of classes,\\u000a as well as to elucidate

Frances L. Bekele; Isaac Bekele; David R. Butler; Gillian G. Bidaisee

2006-01-01

402

The control of black pod, canker and seedling blight of cocoa, caused by Phytophthora palmivora , with potassium phosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trunk injected potassium phosphonate (8 or 16 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) controls black pod and stem canker of cocoa:\\u000a Foliar sprays of potassium phosphonate (20 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) or Ridomil Plus 72WP (0.72 g a.i. per tree every\\u000a 6 weeks during the wet season) do not control black pod. Trunk injection is less

R. D. Anderson; D. I. Guest

1990-01-01

403

Electrophoretic protein patterns of three species of Phytophthora associated with black pod disease of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When electrophoretic profiles of native proteins from vegetative mycelia ofPhytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora citrophthora causing black pod disease of cocoa in India were compared on a single Polyacrylamide gel, the isolates of same species were\\u000a readily distinguished both qualitatively by visual similarity in banding patterns and quantitatively by calculating similarity\\u000a coefficients. Similarity coefficients were generally much higher between

P Chowdappa; R Chandramohanan

1995-01-01

404

Conversion of olive pomace oil to cocoa butter-like fat in a packed-bed enzyme reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) was utilized as a source oil for production of cocoa butter-like fat. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase catalyzed acidolysis of ROPO with palmitic (PA) and stearic (SA) acids was performed in a laboratory scale packed-bed reactor. Effect of reactor conditions on product formation was studied at various substrate mole ratios (ROPO:PA:SA; 1:1:1, 1:1:3, 1:3:3, 1:2:6), enzyme

Ozan Naz?m Çiftçi; Sibel Fad?lo?lu; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

2009-01-01

405

Biosorption of Cd(II) From Aqueous Solution by Cocoa Pod Husk Biomass: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa pod husk biomass proved to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface structural parameters, and proximate analysis. The effects of operational parameters were investigated. Equilibrium was reached after 120 min at 303 K and optimum biosorption capacity was obtained at pH 6. The

V. O. Njoku; A. A. Ayuk; E. E. Oguzie; E. N. Ejike

2012-01-01

406

Biosorption of Cd(II) From Aqueous Solution by Cocoa Pod Husk Biomass: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa pod husk biomass proved to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface structural parameters and proximate analysis. The effects of operational parameters were investigated. Equilibrium was reached after 120 min at 303 K and optimum biosorption capacity was obtained at pH 6. The

V. O. Njoku; A. A. Ayuk; E. E. Oguzie; E. N. Ejike

2012-01-01

407

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. V. Comparison of natural, interesterified, and synthetic cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glyceride structure of cocoa butter is of considerable practical importance and of particular theoretical interest Countereurrent\\u000a distribution, gas chromatography, and isotopic dilution methods are employed in its study. The observed fractionation of glycerides\\u000a is acounted for by assuming that palmitie and stearic acids are randomly esterified on the 1 and 3 positions of glycerol and\\u000a that oleic is on

H. J. Dutton; C. R. Scholfield; T. L. Mounts

1961-01-01

408

Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter analog through interesterification of lard and tristearin in supercritical carbon dioxide by lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrate oil composition, reaction time, acyl donor, temperature, and pressure affected the triacylglycerol (TG) content of cocoa butter analog during the interesterification reaction catalyzed by lipase in a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) system. Among oil sources used to interact with tristearin, the content of 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS) (P, palmitate; O, oleate; S, stearate) and 1-palmitoyl-2, 3-dioleoylglycerol (POO) in analog was most

Kuan-Ju Liu; Hung-Min Chang; Kuan-Miao Liu

2007-01-01

409

Thermal analysis of palm mid-fraction, cocoa butter and milk fat blends by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial samples of anhydrous milk fat (AMF), Ivory Coast cocoa butter (CB) and palm mid-fraction (PMF) were blended in\\u000a a ternary system. The melting characteristics of the blends were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results\\u000a suggest that in the studies of interaction involving more than two fats, partial area (Ai) under the melting peak should be converted to partial

P. S. Dimick

1994-01-01

410

Melting and solidification characteristics of confectionery fats: Anhydrous milk fat, cocoa butter and palm kernel stearin blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry measurements of crystallization and melting characteristics of commercial samples of anhydrous\\u000a milk fat (AMF), cocoa butter (CB) and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin (PKS) in ternary blends were studied. Results showed\\u000a that stabilization at 26C (either for 40 h or 7 d) did not greatly affect the melting thermogram trace of PKS. However, the\\u000a effect of stabilization became

P. S. Dimick

1994-01-01

411

Effects of minor lipids on crystallization of milk fat-cocoa butter blends and bloom formation in chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor lipids, such as diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, cholesterol, and phospholipids play a key role in crystallization\\u000a of fats. In this study, the effects of minor lipid components on crystallization of blends of cocoa butter (CB) with 10% milk\\u000a fat or milk-fat fractions, and on bloom formation of chocolate were investigated. Both removing the minor lipids from milk\\u000a fat and doubling the

R. A. Tietz; R. W. Hartel

2000-01-01

412

Long-term Studies on the Hypolipemic Effect of Dietary Calcium in Mature Male Rats Fed Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the hypolipemic action of elevated dietary cal cium previously noted in a 3-week experiment was a transient or a persistent effect, 32 mature male Holtzman-strain albino rats were divided into 5 groups, one being fed commercial rat pellets with 5% fat and 1.15% calcium, and the others a corn- soya ration containing 18% added cocoa butter and

ALAN I. FLEISCHMAN; HAROLD YACOWITZ; THOMAS HAYTON; ANDMARVIN L. BIERENBAUM

413

Identification of Procyanidins in Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) and Chocolate Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa and chocolate were separated and identified using a modified normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with on-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis using an atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray chamber. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a silica stationary phase in combination with a gradient ascending in polarity. This qualitative report confirms the presence

John F. Hammerstone; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Robert Rucker; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

414

Preparation of zirconium boride powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intermediate reaction in the synthesis of ZrBâ powder by the reduction of ZrOâ with BâC and carbon was confirmed through both thermodynamical calculation and experimental results. Because the intermediate product BâOâ was volatile, excess boron should be added to compensate for the boron loss in order to prepare high-purity ZrBâ powder. The synthesis temperatures of the intermediate reaction and

Hong Zhao; Yu He; Zongzhe Jin

1995-01-01

415

Effect of cocoa flavanols and their related oligomers on the secretion of interleukin-5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

We previously showed that flavanols and their related oligomers (FLO) isolated from cocoa can have immunomodulatory effects on production of the cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, and IL-4. In the present study, we examined whether selected FLO fractions isolated from cocoa (monomer through decamer) modulate IL-5 protein secretion from resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Although FLO fractions were unstimulatory for IL-5 secretion in resting cells, PHA-induced IL-5 release from PBMC was markedly affected by certain FLO fractions. The monomeric and small oligomeric (dimer and trimer) fractions enhanced PHA stimulation by 50%, 54%, and 43%, respectively. In contrast, the larger oligomeric fractions (hexamer through decamer) inhibited IL-5 release in the range of 18% to 39%; the tetramer and pentamer showed intermediate effects. The increment in IL-5 suggests that FLO may preferentially stimulate immunoglobulin A. We suggest that in the oral cavity this could result in reduction in the risk for dental caries and periodontal disease. This work offers additional data for consideration of the health benefits of dietary FLO from a variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with consumption of some cocoas and chocolates. PMID:12511109

Mao, T K; Van de Water, J; Keen, C L; Schmitz, H H; Gershwin, M E

2002-01-01

416

Apparent metabolisable energy and digestibility of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) fat, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) fat and soybean oil in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this experiment was to determine and compare the apparent lipid digestibility coefficient and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) fat in broiler chickens with that of soybean oil and cocoa fat. 2. One hundred and sixty 13-d-old male broiler chicks were used in a randomised complete block design. The fats were added at 30, 60 and 90 g/kg to a basal diet. A tenth dietary treatment was the basal feed with no added fats or oils. The birds were fed on the diets for 8 d and all droppings were collected for the final 4 d. 3. The mean coefficient of apparent lipid digestibility for shea fat (0.58) was similar to that of cocoa fat (0.54) but lower than that of soybean oil (0.95). There was evidence of a lipid x concentration interaction with the 90 g/kg shea fat diet having low lipid digestibility (0.43). 4. There was an interaction between the effects of dietary lipid concentration and test lipid on AME but, at dietary levels of 60 g/kg and below, the AME of shea fat (22.0 MJ/kg DM) and cocoa fat (26.4 MJ/kg DM) was significantly lower than that of soybean oil (39.8 MJ/kg DM). PMID:17050106

Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

2006-10-01

417

Antimicrobial activities of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant against fungi isolated from cocoa beans and reference strains of bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the antibacterial and the antifungal activity of a polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH)-based disinfectant and to determine if it could be used as a disinfectant for the treatment of cocoa beans. The activity of PHMGH was tested in vitro for efficacy against five reference strains of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of fungi isolated from cocoa beans. All the strains tested were sensitive to the disinfectant. The MICs reported were between 0.01 and 1.9 mg/ml and equal to the MBC or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) regardless of the strains of those microorganisms. The bacteria were more sensitive to PHMGH than were the fungi. Enterobacter cloacae was the most sensitive bacterium with a MIC and MBC of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas the genus Aspergillus was the least susceptible of the microorganisms tested, with a MIC and MFC from 1.0 to 1.9 mg/ml. The time required for the activity of PHMGH varies from 2 min for Enterobacter cloacae to 12 min for Aspergillus tamarii and generally increases with the MBC or the MFC. Through this in vitro study, the PHMGH has been proved to be bactericidal and fungicidal on the strains studied. Hence, it could probably serve as a fungicidal disinfectant for the treatment of cocoa beans after harvesting. PMID:22691490

Mathurin, Yao K; Koffi-Nevry, Rose; Guéhi, Simplice T; Tano, Kablan; Oulé, Mathias K

2012-06-01

418

Explosive containment with spherically tamped powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective technique for maximizing the explosive charge that a given container can safely handle is to fill the space between the charge and the container walls with a porous medium or a powder. Using the wrong powder, however, can be worse than using no powder at all. Moreover, a powder-filled container that performs very well with a small charge

L. A. Glenn

1986-01-01

419

Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof  

DOEpatents

Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

1993-01-01

420

Surface characterization of emulsified lithium powder electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface modification of Li powder was attempted in order to enhance the electrochemical properties of the electrodes used in rechargeable batteries. To create a “native” LiF film on Li powder, Li powder was manufactured using a droplet emulsion technique (DET) process by introducing fluoride as a surfactant. The surface modification of the Li powder was confirmed by means of

Seung-Taek Hong; Jin-Suk Kim; Suk-Jun Lim; Woo Young Yoon

2004-01-01

421

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall beâ (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2013-07-01

422

Investigation of the recyclability of powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

100% recyclability is one of the major advantages of powder coating. However, it can never be achieved in reality. Coating powders, especially finer powders with particle size below 30?m, were found to have much worse flow performances after recycling from electrostatic spraying so as to decrease the recyclability. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate recycled coating powders to determine

Jing Fu; Matthew Krantz; Hui Zhang; Jesse Zhu; Harry Kuo; Yar Ming Wang; Karen Lis

2011-01-01

423

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall beâ (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2009-07-01

424

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall beâ (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2010-07-01

425

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall beâ (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2009-07-01

426

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall beâ (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2010-07-01

427

Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P < 0.01) and significant increase of NO (P < 0.001) were seen in HUVEC. In the study subjects, a significant inhibition of ACE activity (mean 18%) 3 hours after intake of dark chocolate was seen, but no significant change in NO was seen. According to ACE genotype, significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen after 3 hours in individuals with genotype insertion/insertion and deletion/deletion (mean 21% and 28%, respectively). Data suggest that intake of dark chocolate containing high amount of cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20966764

Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

2011-01-01

428

Mask materials for powder blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

2000-06-01

429

Preparation, characterization, and induction of cell apoptosis of cocoa procyanidins-gelatin-chitosan nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Cocoa procyanidins (CPs)-gelatin-chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated based on the procyanidin-protein and electrostatic interactions, with an objective to enhance the stability and bioactivity of CPs. The CPs were purified using chromatographic methods and analyzed using HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD) and mass spectrometer (MS). The purified CPs had a purity of 53.1% (w/w) and contained procyanidin oligomers (from monomer to decamers) and polymers, with polymers being the predominant component (26.4%, w/w). Different CPs-gelatin-chitosan mass ratios were tested to investigate the effects of formulation on the nanoparticle fabrication. Using CPs-gelatin-chitosan mass ratio of 0.75:1:0.5, the resultant nanoparticles had a particle size of 344.7 nm, zeta-potential of +29.8 mV, particle yield of 51.4%, loading efficiency of 50.1%, and loading capacity of 20.5%. The CPs-gelatin-chitosan nanoparticles were spherical as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that the primary interaction between the CPs and gelatin was hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, while electrostatic interaction was the main binding force between chitosan and CPs-gelatin nanoparticles. Nanoencapsulation of the CPs significantly improved the stability of the CPs at 60°C. The CPs-gelatin-chitosan nanoparticles showed the same apoptotic effects at lower concentrations in human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells compared with the CPs in solution. PMID:22641023

Zou, Tao; Percival, Susan S; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Zheng; Rowe, Cheryl A; Gu, Liwei

2012-05-26

430

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

431

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy\\/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the

Alan Lawley; Thomas F. Murphy

2003-01-01

432

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly.

Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F

2003-12-15

433

Pinwheel patterns and powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinwheel patterns and their higher dimensional generalisations display continuous circular or spherical symmetries in spite of being perfectly ordered. The same symmetries show up in the corresponding diffraction images. Interestingly, they also arise from amorphous systems, and also from regular crystals when investigated by powder diffraction. We present first steps and results towards a general frame to investigate such systems,

Michael Baake; D. Frettlöh; Uwe Grimm

2007-01-01

434

Flow Properties of Powder III  

Microsoft Academic Search

When glass granules coated with various amounts of oleic acid are packed into the annular space between two rotating coaxial cylinders, they exhibit the so-called plug flow around the inner cylinder. Theoretically, we have established a method of measuring the internal friction coefficient and cohesive force of loosely packed powder by means of a rotating coaxial cylinder rheometer. The internal

Shin'ichi Taneya

1969-01-01

435

Powdered epoxy resin test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes several test methods which may be used to evaluate powdered epoxy resins for their potential use as integral insulation on fractional horsepower motor iron. These are the edge coverage test method, the hot plate gel time test method, the glass pellet flow test method, and the steel panel impact test method. These test methods may be of

N. Hanssen

1991-01-01

436

Shock Compaction of Molybdenum Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to a...

T. J. Ahrens D. Kostka T. Vreeland R. B. Schwarz P. Kasiraj

1983-01-01

437

POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

438

Solar drying of custard powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large scale forced convection solar drying system has been designed and fabricated, comprising an array of forty solar collectors and three drying cabinets with a blower. Such a system yields 300 kg of dry product of custard powder in a normal sunshine day. It is shown that such a system is feasible and has an ability to save large

R. S. Pawar; M. G. Takwale; V. G. Bhide

1995-01-01

439

Powder metallurgy of titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powder metallurgy of titanium alloys is studied with attention given to blended elemental and prealloyed (PA) approaches. The PA method leads to mechanical behavior in all respects at least at ingot metallurgy levels. The use of the PA method in the aerospace industry is discussed. 230 refs.

F. H. Froes; D. Eylon

1990-01-01

440

Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.  

PubMed

Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance. PMID:21699218

Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

2011-07-11

441

Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of milk fat and cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

A collaborative trial was conducted to validate an analytical approach comprising method procedures for determination of milk fat and the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate. The whole approach is based on (1) comprehensive databases covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat, cocoa butter, and CBE samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof; (2) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material for calibration; (3) an evaluation algorithm, which allows reliable quantitation of the milk fat content in chocolate; (4) a subsequent correction to take account of the triacylglycerols derived from milk fat; (5) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate; and (6) a multivariate statistical formula to quantitate the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation study. CBE admixtures were detected down to a level of 0.5 g CBE/100 g milk chocolate, without false-positive or -negative results. The applied quantitation model performed well at the statutory limit of 5% CBE addition to milk chocolate, with a prediction error of 0.7%, and HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 1.5. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values for quantitation of CBEs in analyses of chocolate fat solutions ranged from 2.2 to 3.8% and for analyses of real chocolate samples, from 4.1 to 4.7%, demonstrating that the whole approach, based solely on chocolate fat blends, is applicable to real milk chocolate samples. PMID:17955976

Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona

442

Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet. PMID:19806378

Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

2009-10-06

443

Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao).  

PubMed

Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these amino acid amides. Besides the previously reported (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, seven additional amides, namely, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-[(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, were identified for the first time in cocoa products by means of LC-MS/MS, 1D/2D-NMR, UV-vis, CD spectroscopy, and polarimetry, as well as independent enantiopure synthesis. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying oral sensation were determined to be between 26 and 220 micromol/L (water) depending on the amino acid moiety. In addition, exposure to light rapidly converted these [E]-configured N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids into the corresponding [Z]-isomers, thus indicating that analysis of these compounds in food and plant materials needs to be performed very carefully in the absence of light to prevent artifact formation. PMID:15969528

Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

2005-06-29

444

Low Porosity Powder Metallurgy Produced Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Components produced by powder metallurgy techniques are described herein. Embodiments of these components have little or no porosity therein after processing. Embodiments of these components are created by creating a preform from a powder; creating a comp...

G. Das

2004-01-01

445

Powder Metallurgy Production of Structural Shapes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program involves an integrated and concurrent study of closely-related topics which represent major critical steps and/or problem areas in a wide variety of powder metallurgy processes. Areas of study include atomization, powder characteristics (and t...

A. Lawley H. L. Gaigher R. H. Haase R. W. Heckel M. J. Koczak

1971-01-01

446

Powdered Metal Sintering of Jet Vanes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the successful efforts to use powdered metallurgy techniques in manufacturing jet vanes from sintered and copper infiltrated tungsten. Isostatic pressing of the powdered tungsten to net shape imparts sufficient hardening to allow hand...

M. J. Ripley-Lotee S. M. O'Neil

1982-01-01

447

Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with ure...

B. Mavis

2003-01-01

448

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity...Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2013-04-01

449

Properties of Prealloyed Steel Powder Metallurgy Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to evaluate the properties of prealloyed steel powders, consolidated by various fabrication techniques, was conducted. Sixteen lots of low-alloy prealloyed steel powder, representing seven different major alloys (4130, 1040, 8620, 4640, 4650, 86...

R. E. Westerman K. R. Sump

1972-01-01

450

Characterization of Powder Coated Thermoplastic Composite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermoplastic powder resin preforms are a relatively new form of composite preform material. Powder preforms offer improved handelability as well as the possibility to produce composites from resins that are difficult to prepreg. The purpose of this proje...

R. Cochran

1991-01-01

451

Powder Metallurgy Production of Structural Shapes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program has involved an integrated and concurrent study of closely-related topics representing major critical steps and/or problem areas in powder metallurgy processing. The areas of major concern have been: quench atomization; powder compaction; pow...

A. Lawley M. J. Koczak R. M. Koerner H. A. Kuhn H. C. Rogers

1973-01-01

452

Interrelationship of stearic acid content and triacylglycerol composition of lard, beef tallow and cocoa butter in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated modes whereby stearic acid (18?0) exerts a neutral or cholesterol-lowering effect using dietary fats which\\u000a provided graded levels of 18?0 and distinct triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150–175 g) were fed\\u000a diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 16% fat from corn oil, or from 1% corn oil plus 15% lard (13.2% 18?0), beef tallow (19.2%\\u000a 18?0) or cocoa

Cathy C. Monsma; Denise M. Ney

1993-01-01

453

Amorphous metal powder for coating substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is for a flat B containing amorphous powder based in Fe, Ni, Co or a combination thereof; a coating resulting from deposition of the powder; and a method for depositing the powder. The composition of the powder and the resulting coating consists essentially of the formulation: (Fe,Ni,Co) \\/sub bal\\/ Crâ⁻ââ(Mn,Mo,W)â⁻ââ (B,Si,C)â⁻ââ(Al,Ti)â⁻ââ where the subscripts are in atomic

J. Dickson; L. F. Nienart; D. W. Roth

1985-01-01

454

Regular Cu-based amorphous alloy powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plate-like powder of Cu60Zr30Ti10 amorphous alloy was prepared by ball milling. The amorphization and deformation mechanisms and thermodynamic properties were also investigated. The powders are milled into plate-like powders and their thicknesses decrease with increasing of milling time. After milling for 184h, the size of the powders decreases down to 250nm and an amorphous structure appears. The average deformation

An-hui Cai; Xiang Xiong; Yong Liu; Yong Zhou; Wei-ke An; Yun Luo

2010-01-01

455

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF SILVER POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

To diversify the range of products JSC Krastsvetmet developed a method for production of electro- lytic silver powders that are widely used in electronic industry for manufacturing contacts. The relevant specification (Silver Powder, TU43-1-702-87) (2) provides for production of two grades of silver powder, PSr1 and PSr2. The grade PSr1 powder shall contain particles with dimensions not larger than 56

E. Pavlov; V. Ilyashevich; S. Zhuravleva

2009-01-01

456

Review: aqueous tape casting of ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry formulations and processing parameters of the water-based tape casting of ceramic powders are reviewed. Additives include binders, like cellulose ethers, vinyl or acrylic-type polymers; plasticizers, like glycols; and dispersants, like ammonium salts of poly(acrylic acids). Mostly alumina powders have been employed. Hydrophobing of ceramic powders permits the aqueous processing even of water-reactive powders, like aluminium nitride. Non-toxicity and non-inflammability

D. Hotza; P. Greil

1995-01-01

457

Process for manufacturing uranium dioxide powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for manufacturing uranium dioxide powder which comprises forming fine uranium dioxide powder having a high sinterability and coarse uranium dioxide powder having a low sinterability continuously in one process by changing periodically the precipitation condition of the ammonium diuranate under the same condition of calcining and reducing of the ammonium diuranate. The thus obtained mixture of

Sh. I. Hasegawa; M. Sekine; E. Takano

1985-01-01

458

Reflection of Ultracold Neutrons from Powder Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diffusion of ultracold neutrons on powder copper, powder copper oxide and powder graphite has been observed and studied. It was the first experiment to show that it is possible on a level of approx. 10/sup -5/ to determine by measuring the reflection coef...

V. V. Golikov E. N. Kulagin Y. V. Nikitenko

1987-01-01

459

Sorption of nicotine to cellulose powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the crystallinity, surface area, and pore volume of cellulose powders on the loading, release, and stability of nicotine. Four different types of cellulose powders with varying crystallinity index, surface area, and pore volume were produced and characterized. The powders were loaded with nicotine by rotary evaporation from an ethanol

Albert Mihranyan; Sven-Börje Andersson; Ragnar Ek

2004-01-01

460

Magnetic Orientation of BI-2212 Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Accelerator Lab at Texas A&M is developing a method of texturing Bi-2212 powder for an oriented powder multifilament round wire. Results of preliminary experiments relating to the orientation of Bi-2212 powders by magnetic fields are presented.

Damborsky, K.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.

2010-04-01

461

Powder metallurgy repair of turbine components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced powder metallurgy repair process called Liburdi Powder Metallurgy (LPM) has been developed for the repair, overlay or joining of nickel and cobalt-based high-temperature alloys. This process involves mechanical cleaning, followed by the application and consolidation of a filler metal powder, which has substantially the same composition as the base metal, and producer joints with mechanical properties similar to

K. A. Ellison; P. Lowden; J. Liburdi

1994-01-01

462

Physical Characteristics of Fire-Extinguishing Powders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Powders are known to be highly efficient fire-extinguishing agents. There are powders available that, on both weight and volume bases, are more efficient than Halon 1301 as fire-extinguishing agents. A project was undertaken to examine several powders by ...

A. E. Finnerty L. J. VandeKieft A. Drysdale

1997-01-01

463

Spherical particles for automotive powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear powder coatings that consist of spherical particles with a narrow particle size distribution were produced via a suspension method that involves the agglomeration and unification of smaller particles. These powder coatings have the advantages of excellent powder flowability and high transfer efficiency. This behavior is attributable to the spherical particle shape and absence of finer particles. This production method

Haruhiko Satoh; Yutaka Harada; Shannon Libke

1997-01-01

464

21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647...FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing...

2013-04-01

465

Implementation of the Powder Dispensing of Digitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose uniformity is one of the important factors in evaluation of microfeeding of fine powders. This paper describes a method for metering and dispensing the fine metal powders. The principle of the powder dispensing of digitalization is distinct from ultrasonic microfeeding, and it not only achieved continuous feeding, but also guaranteed dose uniformity. To avoid the relative movement and with

Xin Geng; Li-ya Hou; Wei-yi Zhang

2010-01-01

466

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of neural function, and previous studies have found positive influences of CF on cognitive performance. In this preliminary study we investigated whether visual, as well as cognitive, function is influenced by an acute dose of CF in young adults. We employed a randomized, single-blinded, order counterbalanced, crossover design in which 30 healthy adults consumed both dark chocolate containing 720mg CF and a matched quantity of white chocolate, with a one week interval between testing sessions. Visual contrast sensitivity was assessed by reading numbers that became progressively more similar in luminance to their background. Motion sensitivity was assessed firstly by measuring the threshold proportion of coherently moving signal dots that could be detected against a background of random motion, and secondly by determining the minimum time required to detect motion direction in a display containing a high proportion of coherent motion. Cognitive performance was assessed using a visual spatial working memory for location task and a choice reaction time task designed to engage processes of sustained attention and inhibition. Relative to the control condition, CF improved visual contrast sensitivity and reduced the time required to detect motion direction, but had no statistically reliable effect on the minimum proportion of coherent motion that could be detected. In terms of cognitive performance, CF improved spatial memory and performance on some aspects of the choice reaction time task. As well as extending the range of cognitive tasks that are known to be influenced by CF consumption, this is the first report of acute effects of CF on the efficiency of visual function. These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes. PMID:21324330

Field, David T; Williams, Claire M; Butler, Laurie T

2011-02-12

467

MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION  

SciTech Connect

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

2009-12-28

468

Wetter for fine dry powder  

DOEpatents

A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

Hall, James E. (131 Arkansas Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Williams, Everett H. (198 Hillside Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1977-01-01

469

Peritonitis from Starch Glove Powder  

PubMed Central

Contamination of surgical wounds by starch glove powders has produced peritoneal inflammation and adhesions in many patients. Some have required surgical operation because of possible infection, others because of obstruction of the intestine. Resolving granulomas and fibrosis have been observed as incidental asymptomatic lesions in some patients during reoperation for other conditions. Starch granules are probably capable of producing inflammation in any patient, and the degree is believed to be related to the amount of starch present. Care in removing glove powder from gloves before they are worn in an operation will diminish or eliminate the problem. Removal can be accomplished by rubbing the gloves with a moist sterile towel or laparotomy tape. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Dutra, Frank R.; Jensen, C. David

1972-01-01

470

Pressure sintering of powder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheological models for pressure sintering of powder materials are described. The rheological models of deformable bodies and\\u000a the associated dynamic deformation theory for porous bodies based on the energy conservation law enable a quantitative description\\u000a of their densification under impulse and static hot pressing as well as hot forging using crank presses. The simulation of\\u000a compaction of porous metals shows

M. S. Kovalchenko

2011-01-01

471

Composition of reactive powder concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an ultra-high strength ductile concrete designated RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete), was made possible by the application of a certain number of basic principles relating to the composition, mixing and post-set heat curing of the concrete.RPC 200, which can be used under job site conditions similar to those for conventional high performance concretes, can be used in the construction

Pierre Richard; Marcel Cheyrezy

1995-01-01

472

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock recovery experiments carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo appear adequate to compact to full density (< 45 ..mu..m) powders. However, the stress levels are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 ..mu..m particles. The

T. J. Ahrens; D. Kostka; T. Jr. Vreeland; R. B. Schwarz; P. Kasiraj

1983-01-01

473

Thermal analysis of black powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is abundant literature describing the factors affecting the performance and the mechanical sensitivity of black\\u000a powder, only a few papers are devoted to its thermal properties. Previous work indicated that no exothermic reactions were\\u000a observed below 300C in an inert gas environment. In the present work a variety of thermal techniques (DSC, TG, simultaneous\\u000a TG-DTA-FTIR-MS, ARC, HFC) has

R. Turcotte; R. C. Fouchard; A.-M. Turcotte; D. E. G. Jones

2003-01-01

474

Amorphous rare earth magnet powders  

SciTech Connect

Gas atomization (GA) processing does not generally have a high enough cooling rate to produce the initial amorphous microstructure needed to obtain optimal magnetic properties in RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B alloys. Phase separation and an underquenched microstructure result from detrimental {alpha}-Fe precipitation, and the resulting magnetic domain structure is very coarse. Additionally, there is a dramatic dependence of the magnetic properties on the cooling rate (and therefore the particle size) and the powders can be sensitive to environmental degradation. Alloy compositions designed just for GA (as opposed to melt spinning) are necessary to produce an amorphous structure that can be crystallized to result in a fine structure with magnetic properties which are independent of particle size. The addition of titanium and carbon to the melt has been found to change the solidification process sufficiently to result in an ``overquenched`` state in which most of the powder size fractions have an amorphous component. Crystallization with a brief heat treatment produces a structure which has improved magnetic properties, in part due to the ability to use compositions with higher Fe contents without {alpha}-Fe precipitation. Results from magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and x-ray analyses will be used to contrast the microstructure, domain structure, and magnetic properties of this new generation of amorphous powders with their multiphase predecessors.

Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lewis, L.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Panchanathan, V. [Magnequench International, Anderson, IN (United States)

1996-08-01

475

A powder particle size effect on ceramic powder based separator for lithium rechargeable battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the thermal stability of separators for lithium batteries, we have developed heat-resistant separator films based on ceramic powder. These ceramic powder based separators (CPS) consist of ceramic powder with binder resin. We used two different particle size powders of aluminum oxide (0.01 or 0.3?m). By mixing ceramic powder and resin at an appropriate content ratio, both types of

Daigo Takemura; Shigeru Aihara; Kouji Hamano; Makiko Kise; Takashi Nishimura; Hiroaki Urushibata; Hajimu Yoshiyasu

2005-01-01

476

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda

2012-01-01

477

The effect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot ( Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod ( Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certified organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn ten Hoopen; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios

2006-01-01

478

The eVect of cane molasses amendment on biocontrol of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) and black pod (Phytophthora spp.) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and black pod (BP), caused by Phytophthora spp., of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) cause combined pod losses of more than 80% in Panama. Biological control of both diseases appeared promising in Peru and is desired by certiWed organic producers in Panama. We evaluated both local and Peruvian fungal antagonists in participatory trials on

Ulrike Krauss; G. Martijn; Eduardo Hidalgo; Adolfo Martínez; Tim Stirrup; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Manuel Palacios

479

Improving the formulation and timing of application of endophytic biocontrol and chemical agents against frosty pod rot ( Moniliophthora roreri) in cocoa ( Theobroma cacao)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri, reduces yields of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) by over 80% within a few years of disease outbreak. Both biological and chemical control approaches are being developed to supplement cultural management. Our objectives were to optimize the agent(s), their formulation and application regime for FPR control in Costa Rica. In order to economize scarce

Ulrike Krauss; Eduardo Hidalgo; Roy Bateman; Valex Adonijah; Claudio Arroyo; Johnny García; Jayne Crozier; Neil A. Brown; G. Martijn ten Hoopen; Keith A. Holmes

2010-01-01

480

SocioEconomic Impact of a Cocoa Integrated Crop and Pest Management Diffusion Knowledge Through a Farmer Field School Approach in Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focused on the Socio-Economic Evaluation of Farmer Field School Training on Integrated Pest Management in the humid forest region of Cameroon. The main objective was to assess the impact of training on integrated pest management (IPM) on cocoa farmer field school graduates. The results indicate that shade management, phytosanitary harvest, pruning, improved spraying practices and grafting of improved materials

Njankoua Wandji Dieu ne Dort; Lapbim Nkeh Julius; James Gockowski; Tchouamo Isaac

2006-01-01

481

Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.  

PubMed

Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans. PMID:22425756

Monahan, Kevin D

2012-03-07

482

Cocoa procyanidins inhibit proliferation and angiogenic signals in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells following stimulation by low-level H2O2.  

PubMed

Procyanidins extracted from cocoa play a role in the defense against oxidative stress, as well as in vascular and immune functions. We previously reported that pentameric procyanidins isolated from cocoa inhibit the expression of the tyrosine kinase ErbB2 gene, thus slowing the growth of cultured human aortic endothelial cells. We herein investigate the further consequences of such inhibition by cocoa procyanidins, particularly regarding the protein level in phosphorylation patterns and the effects on the proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) following angiogenic stimulation with low-level H2O2. We report herein that both the pentameric and octameric procyanidin fractions of cocoa inhibit the proliferation of HDMECs, whereas the pentameric fraction modulates the activity of several crucial proteins in angiogenic signaling by altering their tyrosine phosphorylation. Similar to aortic endothelial cells, the pentameric procyanidin fraction down-regulates the expression of ErbB2 tyrosine kinase in HDMECs. In conclusion, we report evidence suggesting that polyphenols may influence endothelial growth signaling, thus affecting angiogenesis in vitro. If these observations are applicable in vivo, they suggest a beneficial effect for cells overexpressing ErbB2, such as in specific neoplasias PMID:15337830

Kenny, Thomas P; Keen, Carl L; Jones, Paul; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Schmitz, Harold H; Gershwin, M Eric

2004-09-01

483

Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa.  

PubMed

(-)-Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol in cacao stimulates mitochondrial volume and cristae density and protein markers of skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and heart failure (HF) are diseases associated with defects in SkM mitochondrial structure/function. A study was implemented to assess perturbations and to determine the effects of Epi-rich cocoa in SkM mitochondrial structure and mediators of biogenesis. Five patients with DM2 and stage II/III HF consumed dark chocolate and a beverage containing approximately 100 mg of Epi per day for 3 months. We assessed changes in protein and/or activity levels of oxidative phosphorylation proteins, porin, mitofilin, nNOS, nitric oxide, cGMP, SIRT1, PGC1?, Tfam, and mitochondria volume and cristae abundance by electron microscopy from SkM. Apparent major losses in normal mitochondria structure were observed before treatment. Epi-rich cocoa increased protein and/or activity of mediators of biogenesis and cristae abundance while not changing mitochondrial volume density. Epi-rich cocoa treatment improves SkM mitochondrial structure and in an orchestrated manner, increases molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in enhanced cristae density. Future controlled studies are warranted using Epi-rich cocoa (or pure Epi) to translate improved mitochondrial structure into enhanced cardiac and/or SkM muscle function. PMID:22376256

Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Perkins, Guy; Murphy, Anne N; Naviaux, Robert; Hogan, Michael; Maisel, Alan S; Henry, Robert R; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

2011-11-07

484

An industry consensus study on an HPLC fluorescence method for the determination of (?)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products  

PubMed Central

Background This manuscript describes the results of an HPLC study for the determination of the flavan-3-ol monomers, (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin, in cocoa and plain dark and milk chocolate products. The study was performed under the auspices of the National Confectioners Association (NCA) and involved the analysis of a series of samples by laboratories of five member companies using a common method. Methodology The method reported in this paper uses reversed phase HPLC with fluorescence detection to analyze (±)-epicatechin and (±)-catechin extracted with an acidic solvent from defatted cocoa and chocolate. In addition to a variety of cocoa and chocolate products, the sample set included a blind duplicate used to assess method reproducibility. All data were subjected to statistical analysis with outliers eliminated from the data set. Results The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) of the sample set ranged from approximately 7 to 15%. Conclusions Further experimental details are described in the body of the manuscript and the results indicate the method is suitable for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products and represents the first collaborative study of this HPLC method for these compounds in these matrices.

2011-01-01

485

The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

486

Copper status of mice fed hydrogenated vegetable oil, cocoa butter, fresh and cured pork from high and low nitrate\\/nitrite containing diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hydrogenated vegetable oil, cocoa butter, fresh and cured pork from high (spinach = 0.2%) and low (spinach = 0.02%) nitrate\\/nitrite containing diets on copper status of mice. The dietary treatments had no significant effects on urinary and fecal copper excretions and whole blood and liver copper contents of mice.

Soon-Jae Joo; Constance Kies; Marilynn Schnepf

1995-01-01

487

Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

488

Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.  

PubMed

Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, whereas reducing sugars and FFA increased. PS increased the FFA levels, reduced the protein content but did not have any effect on the sugars. The rate of total and non-reducing sugars degeneration with concomitant generation of reducing sugars in the cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS. PMID:21599466

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2011-05-20

489

Population dynamics of epiphytic mycoparasites of the genera Clonostachys and Fusarium for the biocontrol of black pod (Phytophthora palmivora) and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao).  

PubMed

Mycoparasites collected from aerial parts of the cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao) have shown great promise in the control of black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, and moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri. However, the ecology of epiphytic mycoparasites is still poorly understood although it has a direct bearing on applied biocontrol practices, ranging from the identification and isolation of promising biocontrol candidates to formulation needs and required application frequency. One objective of this study was to determine the natural abundance of mycoparasites on cocoa flowers and pods in relation to crop development stage and cultivar. For this purpose, native mycoparasites were detected on cocoa flowers and pods using the precolonised plate baiting technique. Furthermore, the survival of an applied Clonostachys rosea isolate on cocoa pods on shaded and non-shaded trees was compared as well as the recolonisation patterns of surface-sterilised pods by native mycoparasites under these conditions. Clonostachys spp. were the most commonly isolated native mycoparasites, followed by Fusarium spp. No differences in the occurrence of native, epiphytic mycoparasites were observed between the three main cocoa cultivars, 'Criollo', 'Forastero' and 'Trinitario', nor between clones within these groups. Thus, a single biocontrol inoculum can be suitable for application to cultivar mixtures of cocoa commonly grown together in a field. Different susceptibility classes of segregating F1 populations of hybrids with resistance against M. roreri and P. palmivora supported similar population levels and taxonomic assemblages of mycoparasites. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that these antagonists mediate resistance. Mycoparasite abundance and genetic disease resistance to black pod and moniliasis are independent phenomena and should lead to additive effects if employed simultaneously in an integrated disease management programme. The survival of applied C. rosea was not affected by the shading regime or any other meteorological parameter measured. On the other hand, recolonisation of surface-sterilised cocoa pods by most native mycoparasites was faster in the shade. Only Trichoderma spp. colonised pods exposed to direct sunlight faster than shaded ones. The implications for the design of biocontrol inocula and formulation technology are discussed. PMID:12884956

Hoopen, G Martijn ten; Rees, Robert; Aisa, Philo; Stirrup, Tim; Krauss, Ulrike

2003-05-01

490

Titanium alloy powder preparation for selective laser sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a solid freeform fabrication process whereby a part is built layerwise by scanning a powder bed. The processability of metal powder varies depending on the state of the powder prior to SLS. A powder thermal pre-treatment was developed which involved degassing the powder at an elevated temperature in a vacuum. Without powder thermal pre-treatment, the

B. Engel; D. L. Bourell

2000-01-01