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1

Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate  

PubMed Central

Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

2013-01-01

2

Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder  

PubMed Central

We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) as a result of alkalizing, while fungi (4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.7 to 2.8 log CFU/g) were inactivated to levels below the detection limit, remaining undetectable throughout processing. Roasting further decreased the levels of TAM and TS, but they increased slightly during subsequent processing. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities based on enriched cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

2012-01-01

3

Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder.  

PubMed

We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) as a result of alkalizing, while fungi (4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.7 to 2.8 log CFU/g) were inactivated to levels below the detection limit, remaining undetectable throughout processing. Roasting further decreased the levels of TAM and TS, but they increased slightly during subsequent processing. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities based on enriched cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

Lima, Lídia J R; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Nout, M J Rob

2012-04-01

4

Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

2014-12-01

5

Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions\\u000a (100–150?°C; 30–120?min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their\\u000a contents of free L-and D-amino acids.\\u000a \\u000a Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino

R. Pätzold; H. Brückner

2006-01-01

6

Biochemical Effectiveness of Cocoa Powder on Electrolytes Homeostasis, Liver and Cardiac Specific Enzymes and Renal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa beans are main ingredient of chocolate, cakes, cookies and coffee. Cocoa have health benefits effects, previously reported. This study was designed to evaluate the health effects of cocoa powder on different biochemical parameters. For this purpose 12 Male Albino Wistar rats were divided in to 2 groups (n = 6). Group I remain healthy control rats; Group II received

Shafaq Noori; Humaira Zafar; Tabassum Mahboob

2009-01-01

7

Cocoa powder increases postprandial insulinemia in lean young adults.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that chocolate products elicit higher insulin responses than matched products with alternate flavoring. To test this, we used a within-subject, repeated-measures comparison of six pairs of foods, one flavored with chocolate (cocoa powder) and the other not. Healthy subjects (n = 10, 4 men, 6 women) tested each pair of foods. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were determined at intervals over 2 h using standardized glycemic index (GI) methodology. The product categories were chocolate bars, cakes, breakfast cereals, ice creams, flavored milks and puddings. Although the GI did not differ within each pair, the insulin index (II) of the chocolate product was always higher, by a mean of 28%, than the alternate flavored product (P < 0.001). The greatest difference occurred within the flavored milk category in which the chocolate version elicited 45% greater insulinemia than the strawberry flavored milk (P = 0.021). Macronutrient composition (fat, protein, sugar, fiber or energy density) accounted for nearly all of the variation in GI among the foods, but did not explain differences in insulinemia. The presence of cocoa powder in foods leads to greater postprandial insulin secretion than alternate flavorings. Specific insulinogenic amino acids or greater cephalic phase insulin release may explain the findings. PMID:14519800

Brand-Miller, Jennie; Holt, Susanna H A; de Jong, Vanessa; Petocz, Peter

2003-10-01

8

Thin-layer high-vacuum distillation to isolate volatile flavour compounds of cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile fraction of commercial cocoa powders was isolated using thin-layer high-vacuum distillation (TLHVD) of Soxhlet extracts. Calculated and experimental recovery of the internal standard n-undecanoic acid methylester did agree, and a good reproducibility was found for the procedure. Around 70 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified using internal standard-based gas chromatography (GC), coupled GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O).

Ulrich Krings; Kateryna Zelena; Shimin Wu; Ralf G. Berger

2006-01-01

9

The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration\\u000a of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of\\u000a the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in\\u000a brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected

Gerardo Barragán Mejía; David Calderón Guzmán; Hugo Juárez Olguín; Nancy Hernández Martínez; Edna García Cruz; Aline Morales Ramírez; Norma Labra Ruiz; Gabriela Esquivel Jiménez; Norma Osnaya Brizuela; Raquel García Álvarez; Esperanza Ontiveros Mendoza

10

Cocoa Powder Triggers Neuroprotective and Preventive Effects in a Human Alzheimer's Disease Model by Modulating BDNF Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms linking A? to the onset of neurotoxicity are still largely unknown, but several lines of evidence point to reactive oxygen species, which are produced even under the effect of nanomolar concentrations of soluble A?-oligomers. The consequent oxidative stress is considered as the mediator of a cascade of degenerative events in many neurological disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary habits and antioxidants from diet can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In the recent years, a number of reviews have reported on neuroprotective effects of polyphenols in cell and animal models. However, the majority of these studies have focused only on the anti-oxidant properties of these compounds and less on the mechanism/s of action at cellular level. In this work we investigated the effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract on a human AD in vitro model. The results obtained, other than confirming the anti-oxidant properties of cocoa, demonstrate that cocoa polyphenols triggers neuroprotection by activating BDNF survival pathway, both on A? plaque treated cells and on A? oligomers treated cells, resulting in the counteraction of neurite dystrophy. On the light of the results obtained the use of cocoa powder as preventive agent for neurodegeneration is further supported. PMID:23554028

Cimini, Annamaria; Gentile, Roberta; D'Angelo, Barbara; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Cristiano, Loredana; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Giordano, Antonio; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

2014-01-01

11

Flavan-3-ol fraction from cocoa powder promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous clinical studies have reported that ingestion of chocolate has reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we evaluated the influence of flavan-3-ols derived from cocoa powder on energy metabolism in mice using an indirect calorimetric method. Method The mice were divided into two groups, and administered either distilled water or 50 mg/kg of flavan-3-ol fraction for 2 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed after blood pressure and the mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) over 24 hours were measured. Results The mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) over 24 hours was reduced significantly in the flavan-3-ols group. The mean blood pressure was significantly decreased in flavan-3-ols treatment group compared with control group. The protein level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) was increased significantly by flavan-3-ols in skeletal muscle, but not in liver. Uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 was increased significantly in brown adipose tissue by flavan-3-ols. The mitochondria copy number in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and brown adipose tissue were increased significantly by administration of flavan-3-ol fraction. Conclusion These results suggest that flavan-3-ols enhances lipolysis and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. We conclude that improvement of metabolic syndrome risk factors following ingestion of chocolate may be induced, in part, by the mitochondrial biogenesis-promoting effect of flavan-3-ols. PMID:24708519

2014-01-01

12

Cocoa and human health.  

PubMed

Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies. PMID:23642199

Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

2013-01-01

13

Oxalate content in commercially produced cocoa and dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa and dark chocolate have been promoted as health foods due to the high levels of antioxidants found in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) and their products but they also contain moderate to high levels of oxalates which can cause some health concerns. Fifteen samples of commercially available cocoa powder were collected from four different countries and the total and

Theresa Schroder; Leo Vanhanen; Geoffrey P. Savage

2011-01-01

14

Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

15

6.NS Making Hot Cocoa, Variation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One mug of hot chocolate uses $\\frac23$ cup of cocoa powder. How many mugs can Nelli make with 3 cups of cocoa powder? Solve the problem by drawing a p...

2012-05-01

16

Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.  

PubMed

This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. PMID:23017398

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

2013-01-01

17

Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. PMID:21925035

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

2011-12-01

18

Variability of butterfat content in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): combination and correlation with other seed-derived traits at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butterfat and cocoa powder are key economic products from the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.). In this study, 323 accessions from the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were analysed for bean number (BNO), bean size as bean length x bean width (BLW), bean mass (BM), bean mass per fruit (BM...

19

Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet acti- vation and function over 6 h in humans. Objective: This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supple- mentation with cocoa flavanols and

Karen J Murphy; Andriana K Chronopoulos; Indu Singh; Maureen A Francis; Helen Moriarty; Marilyn J Pike; Alan H Turner; Neil J Mann; Andrew J Sinclair

20

Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential.  

PubMed

Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is enriched with nutraceutical abundance of anti-asthmatic compounds theobromine and theophylline. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Anecdotal reports indicate that regular consumption of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), a common practice in Ghana, West Africa, has the potential to reduce the tendency of asthmatic episodes. In the present paper we studied the effect of regular ingestion of aqueous extract of UNCP on hematological and histopathological changes that occur in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized OVA 1 hour after ingestion of 300 mg/kg (low dose) or 600 mg/kg (high dose) of UNCP for 35 consecutive days. Histopathological and haematological changes in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. Both negative and positive controls with distilled water and prednisolone, respectively, were used. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated concentration-independent reduction in immune response to aerosolized OVA. There were no histo-architectural changes in the bronchiolar smooth muscles of the treated groups. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has potential anti-asthmatic properties when administered orally at the doses tested. PMID:25004832

Awortwe, C; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Nkansah, E; Adjei, S

2014-01-01

21

Semiquantitative determination of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in cocoa products using the Soleris NF-TVC method.  

PubMed

The Soleris Non-fermenting Total Viable Count method was previously validated for a wide variety of food products, including cocoa powder. A matrix extension study was conducted to validate the method for use with cocoa butter and cocoa liquor. Test samples included naturally contaminated cocoa liquor and cocoa butter inoculated with natural microbial flora derived from cocoa liquor. A probability of detection statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using the AOAC Official Method 966.23 dilution plating method. Results of the two methods were not statistically different at any dilution level in any of the three trials conducted. The Soleris method offers the advantage of results within 24 h, compared to the 48 h required by standard dilution plating methods. PMID:24672871

Montei, Carolyn; McDougal, Susan; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

2014-01-01

22

Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.  

PubMed

This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies. PMID:22394229

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

2012-01-01

23

Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.  

PubMed

Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa. PMID:23564311

Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

2013-08-01

24

Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.  

PubMed

Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, no ?-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. PMID:23107706

Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

2012-09-15

25

Relationship between Crystallization Behavior and Structure in Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was crystallized statically from the melt to various temperatures in the range of -20 to 26 °C and annealed for up to 45 days. During this period, the polymorphism of the solid state was monitored using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the microstructure of the materials was imaged using polarized light microscopy. Below -15 °C,

Alejandro G. Marangoni; Sara E. McGauley

2003-01-01

26

Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. PMID:24667314

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

2014-05-16

27

label name %cocoa cocoa source Pralus Cuba 75 Despite being called Cuba, the blurb on the back talks  

E-print Network

plantation in Madagascar on the island of Nosy Be (?)cocoa, sugar, pure cocoa butter, GMO-free soya lecithintrinitarioclear, clean fruit taste that is quite rich with molasses und cocoa, sugar, pure cocoa butter, GMO and well rounded, no distinct flavours cocoa beans, sugar, cocoa butter,non-GMO soy lecithin, whole vanilla

Reitsma, Femke E.

28

Pure yeast culture fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L): effect on yield of sweatings and cocoa bean quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa sweatings, the pale yellowish liquid that drains off during cocoa fermentation, is the breakdown product of the mucilage surrounding the fresh cocoa bean, and constitutes about 10% of the weight of the cocoa fruit. On average, about 1.9 million l of sweatings are produced annually in Ghana during the cocoa harvesting season. It has been shown to be a

R. Buamah; V. P. Dzogbefia; J. H. Oldham

1997-01-01

29

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. I. Kinetics of solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of seeding of fat crystals on the crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter and dark chocolate were examined with a\\u000a rotational viscometer. The seed crystals employed were cocoa butter, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS), 1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol\\u000a (BOB) and 1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol (SSS). The seed powders were prepared by pulverization below —50?C, the dimensions being\\u000a in a range from 20–70 ?m. Particular attention was paid to the

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

30

Extraction of cocoa butter from Brazilian cocoa beans using supercritical CO 2 and ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the use of supercritical CO2 and ethane, both acceptable and non-contaminating solvents for food products, in the recovery of cocoa butter from Theobroma cacao cocoa beans. Continuos extractions were performed using a high pressure apparatus. Extractions were first performed using processed cocoa butter to assess and compare the extraction efficiencies of CO2 and ethane. These extractions were

Marleny D. A. Saldaña; Rahoma S. Mohamed; Paulo Mazzafera

2002-01-01

31

Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.  

PubMed

Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect. PMID:23561077

Calatayud, Marta; López-de-Dicastillo, Carolina; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vélez, Dinoraz; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

2013-08-15

32

COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

2006-05-01

33

Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

2013-01-01

34

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

PubMed Central

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products. PMID:16203244

Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

2005-01-01

35

Screening Antioxidants Using LC-MS: A Case Study with Cocoa  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Since rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts. This assay is based on the comparison of electrospray LC-MS profiles of sample extracts before and after treatment with reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide or DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Using this assay, methanolic extracts of cocoa powder were analyzed, and procyanidins were found to be the most potent antioxidant species. These species were identified using LC-MS, LC-MS-MS, accurate mass measurement, and comparison with reference standards. Furthermore, LC-MS was used to determine the levels of these species in cocoa samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant antioxidants followed by their dimers and trimers. The most potent antioxidants in cocoa were trimers and dimers of catechin and epicatechin, such as procyanidin B2, followed by catechin and epicatechin. This new LC-MS assay facilitates the rapid identification and then the determination of the relative antioxidant activities of individual antioxidant species in complex natural product samples and food products such as cocoa. PMID:19489609

Calderón, Angela I.; Wright, Brian J.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

2009-01-01

36

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients...

2014-01-01

37

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients...

2013-01-01

38

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients...

2012-01-01

39

Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health.  

PubMed

Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health. PMID:24580540

Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

2014-01-01

40

Descriptive analysis and external preference mapping of powdered chocolate milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appearance, texture and flavor descriptors were developed for powdered chocolate milk. The influence of cocoa and gum concentrations on these descriptors was studied using stepwise multiple regression. Out of a total of 23 descriptors, four were non-significant. For the significant descriptors, the percentage variance explained ranged from 65 to 93%, with an average of 82%. Visual viscosity and oral thickness

Guillermo Hough; Ricardo Sánchez

1998-01-01

41

Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

42

Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science  

PubMed Central

The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America?ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

2013-01-01

43

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

44

Aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin in cocoa.  

PubMed

This paper reports the occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi and the presence of aflatoxins in 226 cocoa samples collected on Brazilian farms. The samples were taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. A total of 819 potentially aflatoxigenic fungi were isolated using Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce aflatoxins was determined using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of aflatoxins in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC using post-column derivatization with bromide after immunoaffinity column clean up. The aflatoxigenic fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. A considerable increase in numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. In spite of the high prevalence of aflatoxigenic fungi, only low levels of aflatoxin were found in the cocoa samples, suggesting the existence of limiting factors to the accumulation of aflatoxins in the beans. PMID:21663990

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luís; Fungaro, Maria H; Taniwaki, Marta H

2011-08-01

45

The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were

D. S. Nielsen; O. D. Teniola; L. Ban-Koffi; M. Owusu; T. S. Andersson; W. H. Holzapfel

2007-01-01

46

Predictive Relationship between Polyphenol and Nonfat Cocoa Solids Content of Chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol

Karen A. Cooper; Esther Campos-Giménez; Diego Jiménez Alvarez; Andreas Rytz; Kornél Nagy; Gary Williamson

2008-01-01

47

Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

2014-03-17

48

Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V.; Vian, Izabele

2014-01-01

49

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limiting the total milk solids content to less than 12 percent by weight does not apply. (b) Optional ingredients. (1) Breakfast cocoa, cocoa, lowfat cocoa; (2) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and...

2010-04-01

50

Interesting starter culture strains for controlled cocoa bean fermentation revealed by simulated cocoa pulp fermentations of cocoa-specific lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol. PMID:21803901

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-09-01

51

The determination of cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining cocoa butter equivalents in chocolate and cocoa butter is described. The method relies on a new approach\\u000a for interpreting data obtained by triglyceride gas liquid chromatography (GLC). This technique provides information on the\\u000a composition of a fat according to the carbon number of the triglycerides (Cn). Examination of the data for a wide range of cocoa

F. B. Padley; R. E. Timms

1980-01-01

52

Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols.

Gerald Rimbach; Mona Melchin; Jennifer Moehring; Anika E. Wagner

2009-01-01

53

Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2014-01-01

54

Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.  

PubMed

The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

Pucciarelli, Deanna L

2013-10-01

55

Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2014-01-01

56

Cocoa butter extender from Simarouba glauca fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simarouba glauca is a rich source of fat, having a melting point of about 29C and consisting of palmitic (12.5%), stearic (27%) and oleic\\u000a (56%) as major fatty acids. It consists of about 30% of symmetrical monounsaturated-type triacylglycerols and appears to be\\u000a a good source of fat for preparation of cocoa butter (CB) extender. The stearin fraction (35% yield) obtained

T. Jeyarani; S. Yella Reddy

2001-01-01

57

Analyses of polyphenols in cacao liquor, cocoa, and chocolate by normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC.  

PubMed

The antioxidant polyphenols in cacao liquor, a major ingredient of chocolate and cocoa, have been characterized as flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidin oligomers. In this study, various cacao products were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC, and the profiles and quantities of the polyphenols present, grouped by molecular size (monomers to approximately oligomers), were compared. Individual cacao polyphenols, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin), and dimeric (procyanidin B2), trimeric (procyanidin C1), and tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) proanthocyanidins, and galactopyranosyl-ent-(-)-epicatechin (2alpha-->7, 4alpha-->8)-(-)-epicatechin (Gal-EC-EC), were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC and/or HPLC/MS. The profile of monomers (catechins) and proanthocyanidin in dark chocolate was similar to that of cacao liquor, while the ratio of flavan-3-ols to the total amount of monomeric and oligomeric polyphenols in the case of pure cocoa powder was higher than that in the case of cacao liquor or chocolate. PMID:11210120

Natsume, M; Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Takizawa, T; Nakamura, T; Miyatake, H; Hatano, T; Yoshida, T

2000-12-01

58

Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on

Francene M Steinberg; Monica M Bearden; Carl L Keen

2003-01-01

59

Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-?B. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. PMID:21470061

Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

2011-11-15

60

Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to

W. A. Jonfia-Essien; P. G. Alderson; G. Tucker

2008-01-01

61

Mycobiota and mycotoxin producing fungi from cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the natural mycobiota occurring in cocoa beans, paying special attention to the incidence of fungal species that are potential producers of mycotoxins. The results show that predominant fungi were different species of the genus Aspergillus belonging to section Flavi and Nigri. Of the 214 strains of Aspergillus section Flavi collected from cocoa beans, 120 were

M. Sánchez-Hervás; J. V. Gil; F. Bisbal; D. Ramón; P. V. Martínez-Culebras

2008-01-01

62

Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

63

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

64

The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Cocoa powder and chocolate contain numerous substances among which there is a quite large percentage of antioxidant molecules, mainly flavonoids, most abundantly found in the form of epicatechin. These substances display several beneficial actions on the brain. They enter the brain and induce widespread stimulation of brain perfusion. They also provoke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and changes in neuron morphology, mainly in regions involved in learning and memory. Epicatechin improves various aspects of cognition in animals and humans. Chocolate also induces positive effects on mood and is often consumed under emotional stress. In addition, flavonoids preserve cognitive abilities during ageing in rats, lower the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and decrease the risk of stroke in humans. In addition to their beneficial effects on the vascular system and on cerebral blood flow, flavonoids interact with signalization cascades involving protein and lipid kinases that lead to the inhibition of neuronal death by apoptosis induced by neurotoxicants such as oxygen radicals, and promote neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. The present review intends to review the data available on the effects of cocoa and chocolate on brain health and cognitive abilities. PMID:22775434

Nehlig, Astrid

2013-01-01

65

Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae.  

PubMed

Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of cocoa pod borer cause the pods of the cocoa tree to ripen prematurely. They are difficult to control with conventional measures. Preliminary assays identified five toxins that were more active than others. In two subsequent bioassays the activity of selected toxins was determined more accurately. Three Cryl proteins with relatively little homology were all found to be toxic, opening perspectives for controlling cocoa pod borer by expression of Cry proteins in transgenic plants. PMID:15307664

Santoso, Djoko; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Wiryadiputra, Soekadar; de Maagd, Ruud A

2004-08-01

66

Storing Cocoa Pods Longer May Make Chocolate Healthier  

MedlinePLUS

... Chocolate Healthier Study finds processing change results in beans with more antioxidants, better flavor (*this news item ... trees are split open to remove the cocoa beans. The beans are fermented for a few days ...

67

Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as

John W Erdman Jr; LeaAnn Carson; Catherine Kwik-Uribe; Ellen M

68

Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a crop grown largely by smallholder farmers in the lowland tropics, including parts of Latin America, West Africa,\\u000a and Indonesia. Research suggests that it has the potential to provide biodiversity benefits when grown under certain shade\\u000a conditions, especially when compared with alternative land uses. The primary literature on cocoa production reveals a range\\u000a of objectives for improvement of

Margaret Franzen; Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2007-01-01

69

Mystery Powders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

American Chemical Society

2000-01-01

70

Ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in cocoa during farm processing.  

PubMed

This study investigated the occurrence of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), and the occurrence of OTA, in Brazilian cocoa beans. Two hundred and twenty two samples of cocoa were evaluated, taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. Samples were collected from Bahia, the main cocoa producing region in Brazil. Fungi with the potential to produce OTA were isolated by direct plating of cocoa beans on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce OTA was estimated using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of OTA in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean up. The most common ochratoxigenic species found were Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate, with lower numbers of A. melleus, A. westerdijkiae and Av. ochraceus. A considerable increase in the numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. OTA was found at all stages of cocoa processing, with the major incidence during drying and storage. The OTA levels found were in general low and there was a strong positive correlation between the presence of A. carbonarius and OTA contamination in the beans. PMID:20709419

Copetti, Marina V; Pereira, José Luís; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

2010-09-30

71

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans. PMID:20843086

Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

2010-10-13

72

Powder Particulars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory activity and demonstration, learners are introduced to the concept that different substances react chemically in characteristic ways. First learners compare the way baking soda and baking powder react with vinegar. Then they see dramatic color changes when red cabbage indicator is added to cream of tartar and laundry detergent. From this, learners are ready to identify unknown powders based on their reactive properties.

2012-04-08

73

Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations  

E-print Network

Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations), Leuven, Belgium, 3 Barry Callebaut AG, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production

74

The efficiency of bulk and fine/flavor cocoa markets: the case of Trinidad and Tobago  

E-print Network

grindings in 1999/2000 compared to 32'/0 in 1998/1999. 2. 6 Fine/Flavor Cocoa Producers The current International Cocoa Agreement (1993) recognizes 17 countries as producers of FF cocoa. The list includes Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica...

Kalloo, Margaret Surujdai

2002-01-01

75

Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

76

Review of cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate—Part A. Compositional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews the literature on the compositional data of vegetable fats used or proposed as alternatives to cocoa butter in chocolate and confectionery products. Cocoa butter is the only continuous phase in chocolate, thus responsible for the dispersion of all other constituents and for the physical behaviour of chocolate. Unique to cocoa butter is its brittleness at room temperature

M. Lipp; E. Anklam

1998-01-01

77

Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis profiles and Near Infrared spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans. The process is complex involving activity of several different groups of microorganisms which bring about numerous

Dennis S. Nielsen; Pia Snitkjaer; Frans van den Berg

2008-01-01

78

ASSESSMENT OF COCOA FARMERS CHEMICAL USAGE PATTERN IN PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN ONDO STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adeogun S. O. and Agbongiarhuoyi A. E. 2009. Assessment of Cocoa Farmers Chemical Usage Pattern in Pest and Disease Management in Ondo State. J. Innov. Dev. Strategy. 3(2):27-34 Cocoa farmers use a wide range of chemicals to limit losses from pests and diseases in cocoa production. This study was carried out between January and April 2006 in two local government

STEPHEN OLUSEUN ADEOGUN; ANTHONY EGHE AGBONGIARHUOYI

79

Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

80

Cocoa butter biosynthesis. Purification and characterization of a soluble sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from cocoa seeds.  

PubMed

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase has been purified from the post-microsomal supernatant of cocoa seeds using differential ammonium sulfate solubility along with anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing revealed a series of proteins with acyltransferase activity having isoelectric points close to 5.2. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 in 500 mM NaCl, along with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (denaturing and non-denaturing) and immunochemical analysis, gave evidence that the native enzyme has a molecular weight of 2 X 10(5) and consists of an aggregate of 10 Mr 20,000 subunits. The highly purified enzyme carries an acyl donor, probably acyl-CoA, although this is not firmly established. The hydrophobic nature of the purified enzyme was demonstrated by its firm binding to octyl-Sepharose. Mass spectrometric analysis of reaction products revealed the presence of both palmitic and stearic acids. Considering that 1) the fatty acids were derived from the purified enzyme; 2) they were found exclusively in the 1-position of glycerol 3-phosphate; 3) the fatty acid positioning and composition is consistent with that found in cocoa butter, the major storage product of cocoa seeds; and 4) the enzyme is found in the post-microsomal supernatant, it seems reasonable to conclude that the first step in cocoa butter biosynthesis is catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in the cytoplasm of cocoa cotyledon cells. PMID:3941071

Fritz, P J; Kauffman, J M; Robertson, C A; Wilson, M R

1986-01-01

81

[Dark or white chocolate? Cocoa and cardiovascular health].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data show that a regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent research indeed demonstrates interesting data about cocoa consumption, with high concentrations of polyphenols, and beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert their benefits on cardiovascular health have been suggested: activation of nitric oxide, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet effects, which might in turn improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance. This article reviews available data about the effects of the consumption of cocoa and different types of chocolate on cardiovascular health, and outlines potential mechanisms involved on the basis of recent studies. PMID:20373696

Corti, Roberto; Perdrix, Jean; Flammer, Andreas J; Noll, Georg

2010-03-10

82

Neuroprotective effect of cocoa flavonids on in vitro oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids that, among other functions, can act as antioxidants. In living systems, the production\\u000a of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an array of intracellular cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases\\u000a (MAPK), that are closely associated with cell death or survival pathways.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To ascertain the role of a cocoa extract and its main

Emma Ramiro-Puig; Gemma Casadesús; Hyoung-gon Lee; Xiongwei Zhu; Andrew McShea; George Perry; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano; Mark A. Smith; Margarida Castell

2009-01-01

83

Cocoa butter biosynthesis: Effect of temperature on Theobroma cacao acyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes catalyzing the first and last steps in cocoa butter biosynthesis were studied in microsomal preparations from developing\\u000a cocoa seeds. Both the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol\\u000a 0-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) showed broad specificity for three fatty acid donors (palmitoyl-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA),\\u000a but the relative amounts of incorporation of these fatty acids into lysophosphatidic acid and triacylglycerol were

Lauren McHenry; Paul J. Fritz

1987-01-01

84

Cocoa polyphenols and their potential benefits for human health.  

PubMed

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

Andújar, I; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Ríos, J L

2012-01-01

85

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cocoa pod husks. [Trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory results are presented of the bioconversion of cellulose from cocoa pod husks, utilizing cellulase from three mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Total reducing sugars in filtered hydrolysates were estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The sugars present were identified by paper chromatography as glucose and xylose.

Simpson, B.K.; Oldham, J.H.; Martin, A.M

1984-07-01

86

The regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing cocoa cotyledons accumulate initially an unsaturated oil which is particularly rich in oleate and linoleate. However, as maturation proceeds, the characteristic high stearate levels appear in the storage triacylglycerols. In the early stages of maturation, tissue slices of developing cotyledons (105 days post anthesis, dpa) readily accumulate radioactivity from [14C]acetate into the diacylglycerols and label predominantly palmitate and oleate.

Gareth Griffiths; John L. Harwood

1991-01-01

87

Proc. 2nd COCOA 2008 Parameterized Complexity of Candidate Control  

E-print Network

Proc. 2nd COCOA 2008 Parameterized Complexity of Candidate Control in Elections and Related Digraph" by adding or deleting candidates of an election. Our main focus is to investigate the parameterized agent or a group of voters can influence the election in favor or disfavor of a distinguished candidate

Niedermeier, Rolf

88

Molecular characterization of an International cocoa collection using microsallte markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High levels of redundancy and limited information on genetic structure hinder the efficient conservation and utilization of cacao germplasm. The present study targeted the assessment of genetic identity and population structure in an international cocoa collection maintained in Costa Rica. Using a c...

89

Ethical Supply Chains in the Cocoa, Coffee and Tea Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical trade is an increasingly popular approach that allows companies to manage the social and environmental dimensions of their supply chains. Yet is it able to benefit poor producers and workers in developing economies, particularly those who outside of industrial production systems? This paper examines how ethical trade is being applied to smallholder tea, coffee and cocoa growers in Asia,

Mick Blowfield

90

21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is “cocoa butter substitute primarily from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil.” (1) The ingredient 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin...unsaturated 1,2,3-triglycerides (derived from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil) with ethyl stearate or stearic acid...

2010-04-01

91

Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health  

PubMed Central

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

2012-01-01

92

Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.  

PubMed

Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:? This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix. PMID:22384959

Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

2012-03-01

93

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.  

PubMed

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells. PMID:14575948

Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

2003-12-01

94

Energetic powder  

DOEpatents

Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-12-23

95

Leaf litter mulch reduces the survival of Phytophthora palmivora under cocoa trees in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saprophytic survival of Phytophthora palmivora in infected cocoa residues over the dry season provides primary inoculum for the development of rainy season epidemics of\\u000a black pod and stem canker diseases of cocoa. In field trials conducted in Papua New Guinea, we examined pathogen survival\\u000a in various types of colonised cocoa tissues under two different ground covers. Pathogen survival was

John K. Konam; David I. Guest

2002-01-01

96

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2013-04-01

97

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2012-04-01

98

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2010-04-01

99

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2011-04-01

100

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 172.520 ...CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,”...

2014-04-01

101

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

102

The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.  

PubMed

Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. PMID:24269961

Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

2014-01-01

103

Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption. PMID:23462053

Latif, R

2013-03-01

104

Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.  

PubMed

Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent. PMID:24326448

Larsson, Susanna C

2014-01-01

105

Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed\\u000a food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food\\u000a processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited\\u000a to

Joan M. Pinkas; Karen Battista; Theodora Morille-Hinds

2010-01-01

106

Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

107

Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.  

PubMed Central

Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

Kershaw, S J

1982-01-01

108

Effect of Cocoa and Green Tea Consumption on Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vivo and in vitro research has shown that tea and cocoa consumption may have an impact on the glucoregulatory system. This pilot study investigated if there was a dose-response effect of cocoa procyanidins (CP) on glucoregulatory biomarkers and compared the effect of cocoa and tea polyphenols on ...

109

Slow death of Atlantic forest trees in cocoa agroforestry in southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is cultivated in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo in eastern Brazil under the so-called ‘cabruca system’, where the understorey of native Atlantic forest is cleared and the canopy is thinned out to provide adequate shading for the cocoa trees. Apart from its economic and social role, the cabruca system is said to be important for

Samir G. Rolim; Adriano G. Chiarello

2004-01-01

110

Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.  

PubMed

Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

2014-04-01

111

Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate products from the Italian market: Occurrence and exposure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred samples of cocoa and chocolate-based products were randomly collected in South, Center and North Italy. One hundred and seventy nine, out of the 300 samples analyzed, were positive for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, representing 60% of the purchased products. All 40 cocoa samples showed OTA contamination, while grouping all the chocolate products the positive samples accounted for 53%.

C. Brera; F. Debegnach; B. De Santis; E. Iafrate; E. Pannunzi; C. Berdini; E. Prantera; E. Gregori; M. Miraglia

2011-01-01

112

Flavor Formation and Character in Cocoa and Chocolate: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype,

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Alistair Paterson; Mark Fowler; Angela Ryan

2008-01-01

113

The risks of inclusion: shifts in governance processes and upgrading opportunities for cocoa farmers in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This PhD study provides a detailed description and analysis of upgrading opportunities for small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana. It shows how and why producers do, or do not, benefit from being inserted in a global value chain that is increasingly driven by multinational cocoa processors and chocolate manufacturers. The study contributes to the recent discussions on hybrid governance structures, in

A. C. Laven

2010-01-01

114

Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

115

Hypoglycaemic properties of Malaysian cocoa ( Theobroma cacao) polyphenols-rich extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the hypoglycaemic properties of Malaysian cocoa (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols extract in-vivo and insulin sensitivity in-vitro. Cocoa extract (CE) (containing 190 - 286 mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140°C, 20 min) beans by extracting with 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1 to 10. For the

Abbe Maleyki; Selangor Darul Ehsan

116

MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION OF ENDOPHYTIC MORPHO-SPECIES ISOLATED FROM COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy stems and pods of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) trees in natural forest ecosystems and agroecosystems in Latin America and West Africa. These fungi were collected for screening as a potential source of biocontrol agents for the basidiomycetous pathogens of cocoa...

117

Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

118

Evaluation of Antiradical Activity of Different Cocoa and Chocolate Products: Relation with Lipid and Protein Composition  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna

2014-01-01

119

Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

120

COCOA: A New Validated Instrument to Assess Medical Students' Attitudes towards Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the reliability and validity of the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA) survey compared with the Geriatric Assessment Survey (GAS). Participants were first year medical students (n = 160). A Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) measurement model for COCOA had a moderately strong fit that was significantly better…

Hollar, David; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

2011-01-01

121

Temperature influences epimerization and composition of flavanol monomers, dimers and trimers during cocoa bean roasting.  

PubMed

Cocoa consumption is suggested to promote many health benefits, since cocoa is a rich source of flavanols; but amounts and profiles of flavanols depend strongly on the bean type, origin and manufacturing process. Roasting is known as a crucial step in technical treatment of cocoa, which leads to flavanol losses and modifications, especially the epimerization of (-)-epicatechin to (-)-catechin. This study monitors the influence of cocoa bean roasting on the composition of flavanol monomers to trimers, with special focus on epimerization, which was quantified for procyanidin dimers, and also observed for trimers for the first time. Five dimeric and two trimeric potential epimerization products were detected and the extent of epimerization during cocoa roasting was shown to be a function of temperature. The data also showed remarkable variations in the change of flavanol content. The quantified flavanols decreased about 50% in Java beans and increased about 30% in Ivory Coast beans, despite being roasted under equal conditions. PMID:23993533

Kothe, Lisa; Zimmermann, Benno F; Galensa, Rudolf

2013-12-15

122

Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health  

PubMed Central

Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F.; Gonzalez, Salvador

2014-01-01

123

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.  

PubMed

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

2014-02-01

124

Characterization of Fine Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine powders are used in many applications and across many industries such as powdered paints and pigments, ceramics, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and bulk and fine chemicals, to name a few. In addition, fine powders must often be handled as a waste by-product, such as ash generated in combustion and gasification processes. In order to correctly design a process and process equipment for application and handling of powders, especially fine powders, it is essential to understand how the powder would behave. Many characterization techniques are available for determining the flow properties of powders; however, care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate technique(s).

Krantz, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

125

Preparation of titanium diboride powder  

DOEpatents

Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

126

Interplanetary scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (interplanetary scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.

Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.

1976-01-01

127

The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption  

PubMed Central

Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

2015-01-01

128

Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M?+?Na](+) and [M?+?NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile. PMID:25230186

Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

2014-09-01

129

The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.  

PubMed

Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa. PMID:25750625

Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

2015-01-01

130

In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.  

PubMed

Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), ?-amylase inhibition activity, cholesterol and sodium cholate binding capacity, but less significant (>0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level. PMID:22735710

Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

2012-10-01

131

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-10-01

132

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean  

PubMed Central

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

2014-01-01

133

Cocoa phenolic extract protects pancreatic beta cells against oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5-20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult. PMID:23912326

Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-08-01

134

Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

Ç?nar, Miyase; Yalç?nkaya, ?lkay; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

2014-01-01

135

Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; C?nar, Miyase; Yalç?nkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

2014-01-01

136

Effect of powder and target properties on wrap around effect during coating.  

PubMed

Tapioca starch, NaCl (28, 135, and 378 ?m), corn starch, cocoa powder, soy protein isolate, cheese powder, wheat protein, modified starch, nacho cheese, and sugar were coated at 0 kV for nonelectrostatic and at 25 kV for electrostatic coating onto metal, wood, unoiled paper, oiled paper, unoiled plastic, oiled plastic, fresh bread, and dry bread. Powders and targets were allowed to naturally tribocharge, or all charge was removed before coating. Powder particle size, flowability, resistivity, and target resistivity were reported. Electrostatic coating produced the same or better wrap around, or percent side coverage as nonelectrostatic coating for every powder and target. The greatest electrostatic improvement was found when using powders that had the worst nonelectrostatic side coverage: large particle size (>135 ?m), low resistivity, and low cohesiveness, especially on targets that had high-surface resistivity (2 × 10(5) ?m). Tribocharging had a similar effect as electrostatic coating. In both nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder particle size decreased, cohesiveness increased, or target resistivity decreased. In electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder resistivity increased; however, in nonelectrostatic coating, as powder resistivity increased, percent side coverage increased on only oiled plastic and dry bread. Practical Application: The evenness of powder coating on food is very important for consumer acceptability, since consumers judge food from its appearance before they have a chance to taste it. If thick food targets, such as cakes, donuts, and marshmallows need to be coated, the side coverage, due to the wrap around effect, is important. Choosing powders with small particle size, high cohesiveness and high-powder resistivity, and using electrostatic coating can produce food targets coated on all sides. PMID:21535493

Sumonsiri, Nutsuda; Barringer, Sheryl A

2010-10-01

137

Composite powder particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

138

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2011-04-01

139

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2010-04-01

141

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2014-04-01

143

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2013-04-01

144

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2014-04-01

145

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2012-04-01

146

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2011-04-01

147

Aluminum powder metallurgy processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

Flumerfelt, J.F.

1999-02-12

148

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.  

PubMed

This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

2011-01-01

149

Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Impaired endothelial function in obesity may reduce blood flow to sites of metabolism, contributing to impaired fat oxidation and insulin resistance. This study investigated the effects of cocoa flavanols and regular exercise, interventions known to improve endothelial function, on cardiometabolic function and body composition in obese individuals.Design:Overweight and obese adults were randomly assigned to high-flavanol cocoa (HF, 902 mg flavanols),

K Davison; A M Coates; J D Buckley; P R C Howe; PRC Howe

2008-01-01

150

Comparative study of commercially available cocoa products in terms of their bioactive composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in food marketing suggest that cocoa products, besides being favourite sweets among consumers, also present multiple-benefit foodstuffs, which are becoming objects of increased scientific research, mainly because of their interesting phytochemical composition. UV\\/VIS spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA) methods were applied in order to compare the composition of polyphenols and methylxanthines in commercial cocoa products affected by

Ana Belš?ak; Draženka Komes; Dunja Horži?; Karin Kova?evi? Gani?; Damir Karlovi?

2009-01-01

151

Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: Cocoa instead of ambrosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is\\u000a of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich\\u000a cocoa have beneficial acute and shortterm effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults\\u000a with cardiovascular

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Nikolaos Alexopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

152

Influence of Soft Cocoa Butter Equivalents on Color and Other Physical Attributes of Chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics and color of chocolate depend on the physical properties and crystallization behavior of the\\u000a fat phase. In this study, the fat phase of chocolate samples contains cocoa butter from Ghana and soft cocoa butter equivalent\\u000a (CBE). The laboratory-made chocolate samples were tempered at three different precrystallization temperatures (25, 27 and\\u000a 29 °C), using three different concentrations of CBE

Aleksandra Torbica; Biljana Pajin; Radovan Omorjan

2011-01-01

153

Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for PCR detection of fungal and bacterial contamination in cocoa extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct and sensitive PCR detection of contaminant microflora in cocoa extracts is affected by the quality of the template\\u000a DNA. This study compares the efficacy of five different commercial DNA extraction methods, selective enrichment broths and\\u000a use of glycolitic enzymes to obtain quality DNA for PCR detection of both fungi and bacteria in artificially inoculated cocoa\\u000a extract samples. PCR-based methods

Marta Tortajada; Pedro Vicente Martínez-Culebras; Verónica Navarro; Honorato Monzó; Daniel Ramón

2009-01-01

154

The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the effect of cocoa extract on serum glucose levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cocoa extract (contained 285.6mg total polyphenol per gram extract) was prepared from fermented and roasted (140°C, 20min) beans by extracting using 80% ethanol in the ratio of 1–10. The extract of three dosages (1, 2, and 3%) was fed

A. Ruzaidi; I. Amin; A. G. Nawalyah; M. Hamid; H. A. Faizul

2005-01-01

155

Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect. PMID:23966108

Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.

2013-01-01

156

Some quality characteristics of solar-dried cocoa beans in St Lucia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A -eld comparison of solar drying and open-air sun-drying of cocoa (T heobroma cocoa L) beans was carried out in St Lucia. Four methods of drying (indirect solar drier, direct solar drier, open air\\/perforated steel surface and open air\\/non-perforated wooden surface) were examined at three loading rates: 13É7, 26É9 and 40É 4k g m~2. Beans from the open air had

Anthony Bonaparte; Zaman Alikhani; Chandra A Madramootoo; Vijaya Raghavan

1998-01-01

157

Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. PMID:25190869

Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

2014-09-01

158

Shade tree diversity, cocoa pest damage, yield compensating inputs and farmers' net returns in West Africa.  

PubMed

Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers) and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes. PMID:23520451

Bisseleua Daghela, Hervé Bertin; Bisseleua, Hervé Bertin Daghela; Fotio, Daniel; Yede; Missoup, Alain Didier; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

159

Shade Tree Diversity, Cocoa Pest Damage, Yield Compensating Inputs and Farmers' Net Returns in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers) and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes. PMID:23520451

Daghela Bisseleua, Hervé Bertin; Fotio, Daniel; Yede; Missoup, Alain Didier; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

160

Polyphenol-enriched cocoa protects the diabetic retina from glial reaction through the sirtuin pathway.  

PubMed

Cocoa is rich in flavonoids, which are potent antioxidants with established benefits for cardiovascular health but unproven effects on neurodegeneration. Sirtuins (SIRTs), which make up a family of deacetylases, are thought to be sensitive to oxidation. In this study, the possible protective effects of cocoa in the diabetic retina were assessed. Rat Müller cells (rMCs) exposed to normal or high glucose (HG) or H2O2 were submitted to cocoa treatment in the presence or absence of SIRT-1 inhibitor and small interfering RNA The experimental animal study was conducted in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats randomized to receive low-, intermediate-, or high-polyphenol cocoa treatments via daily gavage for 16 weeks (i.e., 0.12, 2.9 or 22.9 mg/kg/day of polyphenols). The rMCs exposed to HG or H2O2 exhibited increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and acetyl-RelA/p65 and decreased SIRT1 activity/expression. These effects were cancelled out by cocoa, which decreased reactive oxygen species production and PARP-1 activity, augmented the intracellular pool of NAD(+), and improved SIRT1 activity. The rat diabetic retinas displayed the early markers of retinopathy accompanied by markedly impaired electroretinogram. The presence of diabetes activated PARP-1 and lowered NAD(+) levels, resulting in SIRT1 impairment. This augmented acetyl RelA/p65 had the effect of up-regulated GFAP. Oral administration of polyphenol cocoa restored the above alterations in a dose-dependent manner. This study reveals that cocoa enriched with polyphenol improves the retinal SIRT-1 pathway, thereby protecting the retina from diabetic milieu insult. PMID:25448608

Duarte, Diego A; Rosales, Mariana Ap B; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Amancio, Vitor Hugo O; Mendonça, Jacqueline N; Lopes, Norberto P; de Faria, José B Lopes; de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes

2015-01-01

161

Multiple feed powder splitter  

DOEpatents

A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

162

Multiple feed powder splitter  

DOEpatents

A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

163

Powder metallurgy in 1995  

SciTech Connect

The powder metallurgy industry has enjoyed extraordinary growth during the last three years, based on progress in materials, processes, and equipment. Total metal powder shipments increased 18% in 1994 to 426,050 tons. For the first time, North American iron powder shipments went beyond 338,000 tons in 1994, a 17.4% increase over 1993. The copper and copper-base powder markets in 1994 reached 23,000 tons, growing slightly less than 3% over 1993. The parts segment of this market reached 19,670 tons, almost flat with 1993 because of the sharply rising price of copper on world commodity markets. This article will discuss advances in steel powders and processing, the range of iron powder applications, advanced particulate materials, equipment improvements, and standards development.

White, D.G. [Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-08-01

164

Theobroma cacao L., “The Food of the Gods”: Quality Determinants of Commercial Cocoa Beans, with Particular Reference to the Impact of Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The

Lídia J. R. Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

165

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2003-08-05

166

Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Witches' broom disease (WBD) is caused by the hemi- biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa, which is one of the most important diseases of cocoa in the western hemisphere. In this study, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phen- olics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), glycerol, and fatty acids were analysed in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shoots during the

L. M. Scarpari; L. W. Meinhardt; P. Mazzafera; A. W. V. Pomella; M. A. Schiavinato; J. C. M. Cascardo; G. A. G. Pereira

2005-01-01

167

Phosphonate applied by trunk injection controls stem canker and decreases Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) incidence in cocoa in Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and

P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest

2010-01-01

168

TRICHODERMA OVALISPORUM, A NOVEL BIOCONTROL AGENT OF FROSTY POD ROT (MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI) OF COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO): FROM DISCOVERY TO FIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multi-national research programme was initiated in 1998 to identify and develop biocontrol agents of the fungal disease frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Latin America. As part of this study, surveys were carried out in the centre of origin of cocoa, other Theob...

169

An assessment of pathological research on cocoa in Jamaica from 1950 to 1980 and current research priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological research on cocoa in Jamaica has been confined to black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.) which is the main disease of cocoa in the island and a major limiting factor to production. Experimental control of this disease with copper hydroxide has been obtained but the recommended programme is of doubtful economic benefit at the present productivity levels. Non?chemical

H. J. Fagan

1984-01-01

170

Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

171

PRODUCTION OF COCOA BUTTER-LIKE FATS BY THE LIPASE-CATALYZED INTERESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL AND HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butter-like fats were prepared from refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) and fully hydrogenated soy oil (HSO) by enzymatic interesterification at various weight ratios of substrates. The cocoa butter-like fats were isolated from the crude interesterification mixture by fractiona...

172

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

173

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

174

Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

2013-10-01

175

Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols.  

PubMed

Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential dietary strategy to reduce glucose intolerance and inflammation is consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa-like cocoa or their by-products. In vitro as well as in vivo data indicate that cocoa polyphenols (CPs) may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in cocoa have been reported to regulate lipid metabolism via inducing metabolic gene expression or activating transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes, many of which play an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor Kappa B, activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, and adiponectin gene) have been identified, which may explain potential beneficial obesity-associated diseases effects of CPs. Further studies have been performed regarding the protective effects of CPs against metabolic diseases by suppressing transcription factors that antagonize lipid accumulation. Thus, polyphenols-rich cocoa products may diminish obesity-mediated metabolic diseases by multiple mechanisms, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation. PMID:24259381

Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Kersten, Sander

2014-01-01

176

Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification.  

PubMed

Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance. PMID:23770507

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

2013-10-01

177

The Content of Polyphenolic Compounds in Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao L.), Depending on Variety, Growing Region, and Processing Operations: A Review.  

PubMed

Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and antifree radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24915346

Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

2015-07-29

178

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first 2-3 days of fermentation were characterised by the successional growth of various species of filamentous fungi, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The principal species found were Penicillium citrinum, an unidentified basidiomycete, Kloeckera apis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The later stages of fermentation were dominated by the presence of Bacillus species, mostly, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid of the bean pulp were utilised during fermentation, with the production of ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid that diffused into the beans. The filamentous fungi were notable for their production of polygalacturonase activity and probably contributed to the degradation of bean pulp. PMID:12892924

Ardhana, Made M; Fleet, Graham H

2003-09-01

179

(-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and medical anthropological investigations suggest that flavanol-rich foods exert cardiovascular health benefits. Endothelial dysfunction, a prognostically relevant key event in atherosclerosis, is characterized by a decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). We show in healthy male adults that the ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with acute elevations in levels of circulating NO species, an enhanced FMD response of conduit arteries, and an augmented microcirculation. In addition, the concentrations and the chemical profiles of circulating flavanol metabolites were determined, and multivariate regression analyses identified (-)-epicatechin and its metabolite, epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide, as independent predictors of the vascular effects after flavanol-rich cocoa ingestion. A mixture of flavanols/metabolites, resembling the profile and concentration of circulating flavanol compounds in plasma after cocoa ingestion, induced a relaxation in preconstricted rabbit aortic rings ex vivo, thus mimicking acetylcholine-induced relaxations. Ex vivo flavanol-induced relaxation, as well as the in vivo increases in FMD, were abolished by inhibition of NO synthase. Oral administration of chemically pure (-)-epicatechin to humans closely emulated acute vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa. Finally, the concept that a chronic intake of high-flavanol diets is associated with prolonged, augmented NO synthesis is supported by data that indicate a correlation between the chronic consumption of a cocoa flavanol-rich diet and the augmented urinary excretion of NO metabolites. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa. PMID:16418281

Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian; Balzer, Jan; Kleinbongard, Petra; Keen, Carl L; Hollenberg, Norman K; Sies, Helmut; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H; Kelm, Malte

2006-01-24

180

Sintering titanium powders  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

2005-09-01

181

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

2011-05-01

182

The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were collected at 12 hour intervals during 96-144 hour tray and traditional heap fermentations. Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) and Bacillus spp. were enumerated on suitable substrates and identified using phenotypic and molecular methods. The yeast and bacterial micro-populations involved in the cocoa fermentation were further investigated using the culture-independent method Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophopresis (DGGE). A microbiological succession was observed during the fermentations. At the onset of fermentation yeasts were the dominating microorganisms. Lactic Acid Bacteria became dominant after 12-24 h of fermentation and remained predominant throughout the fermentations with AAB reaching high counts in the mid phase of fermentation. Bacillus spp. were only detected during heap fermentations where they reached high numbers during the later stages of fermentation. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii was the predominant yeast during the initial phase and Pichia membranifaciens during the later phases of fermentation. A number of other yeast species including three putatively undescribed species were isolated during the fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant LAB in most samples. Several other LAB including Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudoficulneum, Pediocococcus acidilactici and a putatively undescribed LAB species were detected during the fermentations. Acetobacter syzygii, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter tropicalis were the predominant AAB in all investigated fermentations. During the later stages of heap fermentation Bacillus licheniformis and occasionally other Bacillus spp. were detected in high numbers. In general the culture-based findings were confirmed using DGGE. However, DGGE indicated that Lc. pseudoficulneum plays a more important role during the fermentation of cocoa than expected from the culture-based findings as it yielded a strong band in most DGGE fingerprints. Cluster analysis of the DGGE fingerprints revealed that the DGGE fingerprints clustered according to fermentation site. Within each fermentation site the profiles clustered according to fermentation time. The DGGE method seems to offer a relatively fast and reliable tool for studying yeast and bacterial dynamics during cocoa fermentations. PMID:17161485

Nielsen, D S; Teniola, O D; Ban-Koffi, L; Owusu, M; Andersson, T S; Holzapfel, W H

2007-03-10

183

Relation of fat bloom in chocolate to polymorphic transition of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special chocolate with spray-dried sugar (50:50 w\\/w sucrose\\/20 Dextrose Equivalent corn syrup solids) was made to study\\u000a the polymorphic changes in cocoa butter crystals using X-ray diffraction. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and high-, middle-, and\\u000a low-melting milk fat fractions were used to replace 2% (w\\/w) of cocoa butter. Chocolates were tempered, and the consistency\\u000a of temper among chocolate samples

J. Bricknell; R. W. Hartel

1998-01-01

184

Ceramic powder compaction  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, F.M. [Norton Co., Worcester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

185

POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

186

Pyrotechnic filled molding powder  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

Hartzel, Lawrence W. (Dayton, OH); Kettling, George E. (Cincinnati, OH)

1978-01-01

187

Mystery Powder Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Rachel HallettNjuguna

2012-07-27

188

Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall. PMID:25307999

Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

2014-11-01

189

[Otologic diagnosis: powder technique].  

PubMed

The otologic diagnostic powder test with grape - sugar simple will be performed with a powder - blower. It permits a good differentiation between dry squamous epithelium and wet mucosa. In our opinion this test therefore is unrenouncable in microscopic differentiation between mucosa in central perforations on one hand and atrophic scars, retraction pockets or adhesive epithelium of the drum or complete atelectasis of the tympanic cavity on the other hand. PMID:21626473

Tolsdorff, P

2011-06-01

190

The regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) L.  

PubMed

Developing cocoa cotyledons accumulate initially an unsaturated oil which is particularly rich in oleate and linoleate. However, as maturation proceeds, the characteristic high stearate levels appear in the storage triacylglycerols. In the early stages of maturation, tissue slices of developing cotyledons (105 days post anthesis, dpa) readily accumulate radioactivity from [(14)C]acetate into the diacylglycerols and label predominantly palmitate and oleate. In older tissues (130 dpa), by contrast, the triacylglycerols are extensively labelled and, at the same time, there is an increase in the percentage labelling of stearate. Thus, the synthesis of triacylglycerol and the production of stearate are co-ordinated during development. The relative labelling of the phospholipids (particularly phosphatidylcholine) was rather low at both stages of development which contrasts with oil seeds that accumulate a polyunsaturated oil (e.g. safflower). Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing cotyledons readily utilised an equimolar [(14)C]acyl-CoA substrate (consisting of palmitate, stearate and oleate) and glycerol 3-phosphate to form phosphatidate, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol. Analysis of the [(14)C]acyl constituents at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidate and diacylglycerol revealed that the first acylase enzyme (glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase) selectively utilised palmitate over stearate and excluded oleate, whereas the second acylase (lysophosphatidate acyltransferase) was highly selective for the unsaturated acyl-CoA. On the other hand, the third acylase (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) exhibited an almost equal selectivity for palmitate and stearate. Thus, stearate is preferentially enriched at position sn-3 of triacylglycerol at 120-130 dpa because of the relatively higher selectivity of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase for this fatty acid compared with those of the other two acylation enzymes. PMID:24194081

Griffiths, G; Harwood, J L

1991-05-01

191

Interactions among chemical components of Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), a naturally low caffeine-containing tea species.  

PubMed

In the 1980s, a novel tea species, Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), was discovered in Southern China with surprisingly low caffeine content (0.2% by dry weight). Although its health promoting characteristics have been known for a while, a very limited amount of scientific research has been focused on Cocoa tea. Herein, a systematic study on Cocoa tea and its chemical components, interactions and bioactivities was performed. YD tea (Yunnan Daye tea, Camellia sinensis), a tea species with a high caffeine content (5.8% by dry weight), was used as a control. By UV-Vis spectrometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) for chemical composition analysis, C-2 epimeric isomers of tea catechins and theobromine were found to be the major catechins and methylxanthine in Cocoa tea, respectively. More gallated catechins, methylxanthines, and proteins were detected in Cocoa tea compared with YD tea. Moreover, the tendency of major components in Cocoa tea for precipitation was significantly higher than that in YD tea. Catechins, methylxanthines, proteins, iron, calcium, and copper were presumed to be the origins of molecular interactions in Cocoa tea and YD tea. The interactions between catechins and methylxanthines were highly related to the galloyl moiety in catechins and methyl groups in methylxanthines. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity assays revealed that Cocoa tea was a more potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) than YD tea. This study constructs a solid phytochemical foundation for further research on the mechanisms of molecular interactions and the integrated functions of Cocoa tea. PMID:24699984

Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiong; Luo, Wei; Li, Bin

2014-06-01

192

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2004-09-28

193

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2003-08-19

194

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2003-08-26

195

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2005-06-07

196

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2004-09-14

197

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2005-01-25

198

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2005-05-10

199

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2003-07-29

200

Development and characterisation of tempered cocoa butter emulsions containing up to 60% water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter water-in-oil emulsions, with up to 60% water, were created using both a high shear mixer and a bench scale margarine line. The high shear mixer gave a stable, fully emulsified emulsion with water content of up to 20%, and the polymorphic form required for good eating qualities was evident from differential scanning calorimetry measurements after the emulsions had

J. E. Norton; P. J. Fryer; J. Parkinson; P. W. Cox

2009-01-01

201

Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.  

PubMed

Cocoa products and chocolate have recently been recognized as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly flavanols, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with established benefits for cardiovascular health but largely unproven effects on neurocognition and behavior. In this review, we focus on neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions of cocoa flavanols in humans. The absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in the brain regions involved in learning and memory, especially the hippocampus. The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: (i) via direct interactions with cellular cascades yielding expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and (ii) via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Protective effects of long-term flavanol consumption on neurocognition and behavior, including age- and disease-related cognitive decline, were shown in animal models of normal aging, dementia, and stroke. A few human observational and intervention studies appear to corroborate these findings. Evidence on more immediate action of cocoa flavanols remains limited and inconclusive, but warrants further research. As an outline for future research on cocoa flavanol impact on human cognition, mood, and behavior, we underscore combination of functional neuroimaging with cognitive and behavioral measures of performance. PMID:23810791

Sokolov, Alexander N; Pavlova, Marina A; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

2013-12-01

202

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. METHODS: We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor\\/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL\\/PR) in comparison

Thozhukat Sathyapalan; Stephen Beckett; Alan S Rigby; Duane D Mellor; Stephen L Atkin

2010-01-01

203

Influence of roasting on the antioxidant activity and HMF formation of a cocoa bean model systems.  

PubMed

During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 degrees C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation. PMID:19086900

Oliviero, Teresa; Capuano, Edoardo; Cämmerer, Bettina; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2009-01-14

204

Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the use of implants for studies of maternal hormonal influences on adult fishes and their offspring. PMID:21884102

Hoogenboom, M O; Armstrong, J D; Miles, M S; Burton, T; Groothuis, T G G; Metcalfe, N B

2011-09-01

205

Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

206

Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

207

Comparative effects of a tree crop (cocoa) and shifting cultivation on a forest soil in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examines the organic matter and nutrient levels in soils under a 26-year old cocoa plantation and shifting cultivation farmlands cropped with cassava and maize, in Nigeria. The characteristics of soils under the two contrasting agricultural modes were compared with those of soils under rain forest, in order to infer the differential effects. Relative to the forest levels,

A. O. Aweto; O. A. Obe

1993-01-01

208

CHOCOLATE QUALITIES INFLUENCED BY AN OAT HYDROCOLLOID SUBSTITUTE FOR COCOA BUTTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chocolate produced by replacing cocoa butter with an oat hydrocolloid was prepared and evaluated by rheology, tribology, and sensory properties. The oat hydrocolloid, called C-trim30, was used to decrease the chocolate fat content and to add a soluble fiber substance known as beta-glucan. The beta...

209

ESTABLISHMENT OF FUNGAL ENTOMOPATHOGEN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AS AN ENDOPHYTE IN COCOA SEEDINGS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana became established as an endophyte in in vitro grown cocoa seedlings tested for up to two months post-inoculation with B. bassiana suspensions to the radicle. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots. B. bassiana was also detect...

210

Inflation in the West African Countries. The Impact of Cocoa Prices, Budget Deficits, and Migrant Remittances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We verify whether cocoa prices could be a source of inflation in five countries of the West African region within a framework that includes other variables such as migrant remittances to the region and a fiscal policy variable represented by the government budget deficit. Unlike earlier studies that explicitly use money supply variables, the inclusion of migrant remittances enables us

Adusei Jumah; Robert M. Kunst

2007-01-01

211

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

212

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

PubMed

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

213

The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre- and post-natal psychological stress, and the child’s neurodevelopment, nutritional status, and development of allergic and respiratory illnesses. The child’s microbiome, genes, epigenetics, plasma cytokine levels, and neuropsychological status, the microbiome of the residence, and the levels of indoor and outdoor pollutants are measured by standard procedures. Discussion The COCOA study will improve our understanding of how individual genetic or environmental risk factors influence susceptibility to allergic disease and how these variables interact to shape the phenotype of allergic diseases. PMID:24990471

2014-01-01

214

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.  

PubMed

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-01-01

215

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children  

PubMed Central

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-01-01

216

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

217

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01

218

Investigation of Soap Powders  

E-print Network

pound , Price 5 cents. Analysis• Moisture 13.36$ Soap 38.96$ NaaCOa 45.44$ Total 97.76$ C Q H C L U S I O B . To facilitate comparison, the following table has been compiled, showing at a glance the relative compositions of the powders... Price 5 cents. Analysis. Moisture 13.69$ Soap 30.86$ N« aC0 3 .. 55.41$ Total 99.96$ Wizard Washing Powder. Manufactured by Floor Clean Company, Chicago. Wt. 1 pound Price 5 cents. Analysis. Moisture 16.54$ Soap 13.24$ Na 2C0 3 68.38$ Total...

Bragg, G.A.

1913-01-01

219

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

ScienceCinema

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2013-03-01

220

Production of cocoa butter-like fats by the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and hydrogenated soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fats were prepared from refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) and fully hydrogenated soybean\\u000a oil (HSO) by enzymatic interesterification at various weight ratios of substrates. The cocoa butter-like fats were isolated\\u000a from the crude interesterification mixture by fractional crystallization from acetone. Analysis of these fat products by RP-HPLC\\u000a in combination with ELSD or MS detection showed that

Roland D. Abigor; William N. Marmer; Thomas A. Foglia; Kerby C. Jones; Robert J. DiCiccio; Richard Ashby; Patrick O. Uadia

2003-01-01

221

Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. Objective: This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults (mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg\\/m2): 30). In phase 1, subjects were

Zubaida Faridi; Valentine Yanchou Njike; Suparna Dutta; Ather Ali; David L Katz

222

The effect of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription and secretion of interleukin 1? in peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data has demonstrated that cacao liquor polyphenols (procyanidins) have antioxidant activity, inhibit mRNA expression of interleukin-2 and are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation. Given the widespread ingestion of cocoa in many cultures, we investigated whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1?. Both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood

Tin K. Mao; Jonathan Powell; Judy Van de Water; Carl L. Keen; Harold H. Schmitz; John F. Hammerstone; M. Eric Gershwin

2000-01-01

223

HPLC Method for the Quantification of Procyanidins in Cocoa and Chocolate Samples and Correlation to Total Antioxidant Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatog- raphy (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chroma- tography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The purity of each

Gary E. Adamson; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Ronald L. Prior; Guohua Cao; Pieter H. Jacobs; Bart G. Kremers; John F. Hammerstone; Robert B. Rucker; Karl A. Ritter; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

224

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation\\u000a on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors\\u000a as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for\\u000a their chemical composition (moisture, crude

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa; Jennifer Quao; Jemmy Takrama; Agnes Simpson Budu; Firibu Kwesi Saalia

225

FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AMONG COCOA FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawal J. O. and Oluyole K. A. 2008. Factors Influencing Adoption of Research Results and Agricultural Technologies among Cocoa Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 3(5):10-12 Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) is mandated to develop, improve and translate appropriate research results and post-harvest agricultural technologies to farmers (end users) and the general public on

J. O. LAWAL; K. A. OLUYOLE

226

Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.  

PubMed

This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level. PMID:24679756

Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

2014-08-15

227

Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.  

PubMed

The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2013-01-01

228

Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.  

PubMed

Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. PMID:25053037

Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

2015-01-01

229

Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations Reveals a Core and Variable Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a “core” and a “variable” part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations (“core” yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations (“variable” yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

230

Demystifying Mystery Powders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

Kotar, Michael

1989-01-01

231

Electrically conductive ceramic powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically conductive ceramic powders were investigated in this project. There are three ways to produce those materials. The first is doping alkali metal into the titanium dioxides in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The second is reducing un-doped titanium dioxide, forming a non-stoichiometric composition in a hydrogen atmosphere. The third is to coat a conductive layer, reduced titanium dioxide, on an insulating core such as alumina. Highly conductive powders have been produced by all these processes. The conductivity of powder compacts ranged between 10-2 and 10° S/cm. A novel doping process was developed. All samples were doped by a solid-vapor reaction instead of a solid state reaction. Titanium dioxide was doped with alkali metals such as Na or Li in this study. The alkali metal atom contributes an electron to the host material (TiO2), which then creates Ti 3+ ion. The conductivity was enhanced by creating the donor level due to the presence of these Ti3+ ions. The conductivity of those alkali doped titanium oxides was dependent on the doping level and charge mobility. Non-stoichiometric titanium oxides were produced by reduction of titanium dioxide in a hydrogen atmosphere at 800°C to 1000°C for 2 to 6 hours. The reduced titanium oxides showed better stability with respect to conductivity at ambient condition when compared with the Na or Li doped samples. Conductive coatings were prepared by coating titanium precursors on insulating core materials like SiO2, Al2O3 or mica. The titania coating was made by hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4) followed by a reduction procedure to form reduced titanium oxide. The reduced titanium oxides are highly conductive. A uniform coating of titanium oxides on alumina cores was successfully produced. The conductivity of coated powder composites was a function of coating quantity and hydrolysis reaction temperature. The conductivity of the powder as a function of structure, composition, temperature, frequency and moisture was studied. Three classifications of structure were identified for alkali-doped titanium oxides: (1) Pure titanium dioxide phase with alkali ions located in interstitial positions. (2) The titanium bronze phases. (3) Alkali-doped titanium oxides. Highly conductive powders were obtained in the first and second classifications with conductivity of 10-2 to 10° S/cm. Materials in the third classification had poor conductivity below 10-3 S/cm. The conductivity of a powder was determined mainly by the grain conductivity and the grain contact conductivity. The present results of impedance spectroscopy suggested that the grain contact resistance was a major factor of the electrical resistance of the samples. The aging effect at different moisture conditions was also caused by an increase of the contact resistance. Both sodium-doped and reduced titanium oxides showed re-oxidation at elevated temperature (above 140°C) in air, which is most probably caused by oxidizing the Ti3+ ions under those conditions. Lithium doped titanium oxides did not show this re-oxidation at temperatures up to 200°C. Theoretical models were applied to describe the effects of porosity, contact configuration and grain surface on conductivity of powder compacts. Percolation theory was used in the present study to demonstrate the effect of mixtures of conductive and non-conductive powders, which is one of applications for conductive ceramic powders when they are used as filler materials in paper, paints or plastics.

Lu, Yanxia

1999-11-01

232

Method to blend separator powders  

DOEpatents

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04

233

Method for synthesizing powder materials  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

1988-01-21

234

Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV  

E-print Network

Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV Program April 22-25, 2013 Photo credit ©2000 Robert Rathe #12;2 3 Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV Program April 22-25, 2013 Day 1 | 22nd April Time Activity Chair 08 Introduction to program (Madsen, Cline) James Cline Ian Madsen 09:45 - 10:30 Accuracy in Powder Diffraction

Magee, Joseph W.

235

Modern developments in powder metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on metal powders. Topics considered at the conference included sintering fundamentals, liquid phase and activated sintering, stainless steels, copper-base powder metallurgy, aluminium alloys, refractory metals, carbides, cutting tools, friction, wear, and powder production.

Aqua, E.N.; Whitman, C.I.

1984-01-01

236

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought by flatbed truck to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

237

Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis  

PubMed Central

Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa. PMID:22605986

Babin, Régis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

238

Triglyceride interesterification by lipases. 1. Cocoa butter equivalents from a fraction of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve commercially available triacylglycerol lipase preparations were screened for their suitability as catalysts in the\\u000a interesterification of palm oil mid fraction and ethyl stearate to form a cocoa butter equivalent. Five fungal lipase preparations\\u000a were found to be suitable. The hydrolytic activity of the commercial lipase preparations was tested with sunflower seed oil\\u000a and was independent of their interesterification activity.

Scott Bloomer; Patrick Adlercreutz; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

239

Occurrence and diversity of yeasts involved in fermentation of West African cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of cocoa beans were taken on two separate occasions during heap and tray fermentations in Ghana, West Africa. In total 496 yeast isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by amplification of their ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 regions. For important species the identifications were confirmed by sequencing of the D1\\/D2 domain of the 5? end of the large subunit (26S)

Lene Jespersen; Dennis S. Nielsen; Susanne Hønholt; Mogens Jakobsen

2005-01-01

240

Survey of the trans Resveratrol and trans -Piceid Content of Cocoa-Containing and Chocolate Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated

W. Jeffrey Hurst; Jan A. Glinski; Kenneth B. Miller; Joan Apgar; Matthew H. Davey; David A. Stuart

2008-01-01

241

Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise.  

PubMed

Impaired endothelial vasodilatation may contribute to the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise in individuals who are overweight/obese. The present study investigated whether consumption of cocoa flavanols, which improve endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), can modify BP responsiveness to exercise. Twenty-one volunteers (eight females and thirteen males, 54.9 (se 2.2) years, BMI 31.6 (se 0.8) kg/m2, systolic BP 134 (se 2) mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) 87 (se 2) mmHg) were randomised to consume single servings of either a high-flavanol (HF, 701 mg) or a low-flavanol (LF, 22 mg) cocoa beverage in a double-blind, cross-over design with 3-7-d washout between treatments. Two hours after cocoa consumption, FMD was measured, followed by continuous beat-to-beat assessment (Finapres) of BP before and during 10 min of cycling at 75 % of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Averaged data from two assessments on each type of beverage were compared by analysis of covariance using pre-exercise BP as the covariate. Pre-exercise BP was similar after taking LF and HF (153 (se 3)/88 (se 3) v. 153 (se 4)/87 (se 2) mmHg, respectively, P>0.05). However, the BP response to exercise (area under BP curve) was attenuated by HF compared with LF. BP increases were 68 % lower for DBP (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower for mean BP (P = 0.05). FMD measurements were higher after taking HF than after taking LF (6.1 (se 0.6) % v. 3.4 (se 0.5) %, P < 0.001). By facilitating vasodilation and attenuating exercise-induced increases in BP, cocoa flavanols may decrease cardiovascular risk and enhance the cardiovascular benefits of moderate intensity exercise in at-risk individuals. PMID:20082737

Berry, Narelle M; Davison, Kade; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

2010-05-01

242

Effect of Cocoa Bran on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Fecal Bulking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low- density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fe- cal bulk. Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic sub- jects (13 men and 12 women) (mean±SEM age, 37±2 years; mean

David J. A. Jenkins; Cyril W. C. Kendall; Vladimir Vuksan; Edward Vidgen; Evelyn Wong; Livia S. A. Augustin; Victor Fulgoni

2000-01-01

243

Chocolate at heart: The anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flavanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic and acute inflammation underlies the molecular basis of atherosclerosis. Cocoa-based prod- ucts are among the richest functional foods based upon flavanols and their influence on the inflamma- tory pathway, as demonstrated by several in vitro or ex vivo studies. Indeed, flavanols modify the pro- duction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the synthesis of eicosanoids, the activation of platelets, and nitric oxide-mediated

Carlo Selmi; Claudio A. Cocchi; Mario Lanfredini; Carl L. Keen; M. Eric Gershwin

2008-01-01

244

A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human A?1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P?0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after A?1–42 peptide induction (P?0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of A? deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce A? deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals. PMID:23675471

Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Núria; Álvarez, Beatriz; Montón, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

2013-01-01

245

Original article Elaboration of a fruit wine from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objectives of this study were the selection of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the elaboration of a fermentative process using cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) fruit pulp, and the assessment of the acceptance of the elaborated beverage. Three S. cerevisiae strains (CA116, CA1162 and CA1183) were assessed while growing in a fruit pulp medium at different temperatures. The ethanol:biomass

Disney Ribeiro Dias; Rosane Freitas Schwan; Evandro Sena Freire; Rogerio dos Santos Serodio

2007-01-01

246

Oxidation of Metabolites Highlights the Microbial Interactions and Role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during Cocoa Bean Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848T, Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244T, and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848T oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848T and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation. PMID:24413595

Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy

2014-01-01

247

Oxidation of metabolites highlights the microbial interactions and role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848(T), Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244(T), and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation. PMID:24413595

Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy; De Vuyst, Luc

2014-03-01

248

Processing polymeric powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

Throne, James L.

1989-01-01

249

Estimating cocoa bean parameters by FT-NIRS and chemometrics analysis.  

PubMed

Rapid analysis of cocoa beans is an important activity for quality assurance and control investigations. In this study, Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and chemometric techniques were attempted to estimate cocoa bean quality categories, pH and fermentation index (FI). The performances of the models were optimised by cross-validation and examined by identification rate (%), correlation coefficient (Rpre) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the prediction set. The optimal identification model by back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) was 99.73% at 5 principal components. The efficient variable selection model derived by synergy interval back propagation artificial neural network regression (Si-BPANNR) was superior for pH and FI estimation. Si-BPANNR model for pH was Rpre=0.98 and RMSEP=0.06, while for FI was Rpre=0.98 and RMSEP=0.05. The results demonstrated that FT-NIRS together with BPANN and Si-BPANNR model could successfully be used for cocoa beans examination. PMID:25624249

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Sam-Amoah, Livingstone K; Takrama, Jemmy; Boison, Daniel; Botchway, Francis; Kumi, Francis

2015-06-01

250

Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans.  

PubMed

Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17 g, 43.8 mg and 168.6 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3.74 g, 45.3 mg and 109.8 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) on cardiovascular health were assessed in two controlled, cross-over studies in free-living normocholesterolemic and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Both products increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations, whereas only DFCP decreased glucose and IL-1? levels in all subjects. Flavanols appeared to be responsible for the increase in HDL-cholesterol, whereas insoluble-dietary-fibre and theobromine in DFCP were associated with the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects observed. PMID:25529672

Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Garcia-Diz, Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

2015-05-01

251

Cocoa Enriched Diets Enhance Expression of Phosphatases and Decrease Expression of Inflammatory Molecules in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons  

PubMed Central

Activation of trigeminal nerves and release of neuropeptides that promote inflammation are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The overall response of trigeminal nerves to peripheral inflammatory stimuli involves a balance between enzymes that promote inflammation, kinases, and those that restore homeostasis, phosphatases. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions. Rats were fed a control diet or an isocaloric diet enriched in cocoa for 14 days prior to an injection of noxious stimuli to cause acute or chronic excitation of trigeminal neurons. In animals fed a cocoa-enriched diet, basal levels of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAP) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 were elevated in neurons. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of acute or chronic peripheral inflammation on neuronal expression of the MAPK p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were significantly repressed in response to cocoa. Similarly, dietary cocoa significantly suppressed basal neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as stimulated levels of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proteins implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and TMJ disorders. To our knowledge, this is first evidence that a dietary supplement can cause upregulation of MKP, and that cocoa can prevent inflammatory responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that cocoa contains biologically active compounds that would be beneficial in the treatment of migraine and TMJ disorders. PMID:20138852

Cady, Ryan J.; Durham, Paul L.

2010-01-01

252

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

1998-01-01

253

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and

Zoi Papalexandratou; Gino Vrancken; Katrien De Bruyne; Peter Vandamme; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

254

Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. Cocoa is mainly produced on small holdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and cocoa quality improvement are two impo...

255

The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people.  

PubMed

Flavanols are the main flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate, and can be especially abundant in certain cocoas. Research over the past decade has identified flavanols as showing diverse beneficial physiologic and antioxidant effects, particularly in context of vascular function. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to explore the effect of flavanols on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure BOLD responses to a cognitive task in 16 healthy young subjects. The data presented show an increase in the BOLD signal intensity in response to a cognitive task following ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa (5 days of 150 mg of cocoa flavanols). This may arise either as a result of altered neuronal activity, or a change in vascular responsiveness, or both--the net effect then being dependent on which of the two effects is dominant. No significant effects were evident in behavioral reaction times, switch cost, and heart rate after consumption of this moderate dose of cocoa flavanols. A pilot study evaluated the relationship between cerebral blood flow and a single acute dose (450 mg flavanols) of flavanol-rich cocoa and showed that flavanol-rich cocoa can increase the cerebral blood flow to gray matter, suggesting the potential of cocoa flavanols for treatment of vascular impairment, including dementia and strokes, and thus for maintaining cardiovascular health. PMID:16794461

Francis, S T; Head, K; Morris, P G; Macdonald, I A

2006-01-01

256

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

257

Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study.  

PubMed

Flavanol consumption is favorably associated with cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that dietary flavanols might improve cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We conducted a double-blind, parallel arm study in 90 elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment randomized to consume once daily for 8 weeks a drink containing ?990 mg (high flavanols), ?520 mg (intermediate flavanols), or ?45 mg (low flavanols) of cocoa flavanols per day. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A and B, and verbal fluency test. At the end of the follow-up period, Mini Mental State Examination was similar in the 3 treatment groups (P=0.13). The time required to complete Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B was significantly (P<0.05) lower in subjects assigned to high flavanols (38.10±10.94 and 104.10±28.73 seconds, respectively) and intermediate flavanols (40.20±11.35 and 115.97±28.35 seconds, respectively) in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (52.60±17.97 and 139.23±43.02 seconds, respectively). Similarly, verbal fluency test score was significantly (P<0.05) better in subjects assigned to high flavanols in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (27.50±6.75 versus 22.30±8.09 words per 60 seconds). Insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation also decreased among subjects in the high-flavanol and intermediate-flavanol groups. Changes of insulin resistance explained ?40% of composite z score variability through the study period (partial r(2)=0.4013; P<0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first dietary intervention study demonstrating that the regular consumption of cocoa flavanols might be effective in improving cognitive function in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This effect appears mediated in part by an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22892813

Desideri, Giovambattista; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Raffaele, Angelo; Ferri, Livia; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio

2012-09-01

258

Comminution of stainless steel powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Atmospheric milling in barrel type mixers at a powder-to-ball weight ratio of 1::2 is an effective means of comminuting stainless steel powders produced by the coreduction process. In the work described, milling for 27 h was found to increase the amount of the -0.063-mm fraction from ~15 to ~75% for a Kh18N15 steel powder and from ~24.6 to ~70%for a

B. A. Borok; R. P. Schchegoleva; L. S. Golubeva; F. S. Sariadi; E. M. Rabinovich

1974-01-01

259

Quantification of triacylglycerol molecular species in cocoa butter using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with nano quantity analyte detector.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a nano quantity analyte detector (NQAD). TAG standard compounds, i.e., 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-POP), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol (?-POS), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (?-SOS), and natural cocoa butter were used for analyses. NQAD gave the first order equation passing through the origin for all TAG standard compounds. TAG molecular species in cocoa butter were quantified using the calibration curves and the obtained values were almost the same as the reported ones of conventional cocoa butter. Furthermore, a recovery test was also carried out and the values were almost 100. Therefore, HPLC-NQAD can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils. PMID:24088516

Beppu, Fumiaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

2013-01-01

260

Development, validation and determination of multiclass pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 ?g/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 ?g/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. PMID:25442595

Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah

2015-04-01

261

Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

Throne, James L.

1988-01-01

262

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

PubMed Central

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

263

Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.  

PubMed

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-11-01

264

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. II. Physical properties of dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demolding property just after solidification, we examined the polymorphism of cocoa butter in seed-solidified dark chocolate\\u000a and fat-bloom stability through two thermocycle tests between 38 and 20°C (38\\/20) and between 32 and 20°C (32\\/20). The seed\\u000a crystals employed are Form VI of cocoa butter,?\\u000a 1 of SOS (1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol), pseudo-?’ and?\\u000a 2 of BOB (1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol) and ? of SSS (1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol). The

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

265

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

266

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

267

Compressed iron powder core for electric motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of compressed powder cores made of iron powder with high compressibility were investigated with the goal of making them practical in electric motors. An electrolytic iron powder and an atomized iron powder with a finely powdered resin were compacted under a pressure of 6 tons\\/cm2. The influence of iron particle size on magnetic properties was more marked

K. Fukui; I. Watanabe; M. Morita

1972-01-01

268

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2012-04-01

269

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2010-04-01

270

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2011-04-01

271

Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics.

Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C. [Department Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materiaalkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baikov Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 49, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Department Natuurkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2005-07-01

272

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity...

2010-04-01

273

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a...

2010-07-01

274

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2010-04-01

276

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2013-04-01

277

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2011-04-01

278

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2014-04-01

279

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2012-04-01

280

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2014-04-01

281

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2010-04-01

282

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2012-04-01

283

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2011-04-01

284

Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (p<0.01) with the following order of effectiveness: CPh>CAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod. PMID:25656198

Laconi, Erika B.; Jayanegara, Anuraga

2015-01-01

285

Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.  

PubMed

Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (p<0.01) with the following order of effectiveness: CPh>CAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod. PMID:25656198

Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

2015-03-01

286

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

Bhattacharya, R.

1998-08-04

287

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01

288

'Clash of the Titans': Structure, Diversity & Farmer Decision-making in cocoa Agroforest Development on forest margins, Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

With support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) the World Agroforestry Centre, (ICRAF), Africa humid tropics has been testing hypotheses since 2003, that, multi-strata, diverse cocoa agroforests, managed according to farmer's decisions and with options for deliberately incorporating high value indigenous trees can help fight Poverty and meet Environmental objectives; thus mitigation this 'clash of the titans' of

P. Mbile; Z. Tchoundjeu; E. Degrande; P. Ngaunkam; M. Besingi; A. Tsobeng; T. Sado; E. Asaah; H. Roy-Macauley; T. Simons

289

Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

290

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA STROMATICUM, A MYCO-PARASITE OF THE COCOA WITCHES' BROOM PATHOGEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Witches’ broom, caused by Crinipellis perniciosa, inflicts severe damage in cocoa plantations in Central and South America. In Brazil, a commercial formulation of Trichoderma stromaticum is being used in the field. However, performance has been inconsistent. One strategy to improve biocontrol is ...

291

powder in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped ?-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and ?-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped ?-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of ?-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The ?-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

2014-09-01

292

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

2007-01-01

293

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.  

PubMed

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

2013-01-01

294

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

News media representatives and other onlookers get a close-up view of the piece of Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger debris which washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. A Cocoa Beach front-end loader picks up the debris which will be carried by flatbed truck to Kennedy Space Center. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

295

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. Overseeing the recovery and protection of the piece is KSC criminal investigator Jan Seinkner, facing camera at center, of EG&G Florida Inc., base operations contractor. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

296

Fast and neat - Determination of biochemical quality parameters in cocoa using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The qualitative heterogeneity and increasing consumption of cocoa products require fast and efficient methods for quality assessment of fermented cocoa with regard to fermentation quality and flavor potential. To date, quality control is achieved by visual inspection (e.g., "cut test") and sensory testing. Chromatographic methods for quantification of flavor relevant substances are limited in their applicability in standard quality control due to laborious isolation and purification steps. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) method for routine analytical prediction of biochemical quality parameters. Different compound classes like phenolic substances (R(2)=0.93) or organic acids (R(2)=0.88) as well as individual substances like epicatechin (R(2)=0.93) or lactic acid (R(2)=0.87) could be precisely determined just as fermentation time (R(2)=0.92) and pH value (R(2)=0.94) presenting NIRS as fast and reliable alternative in routine quality assessment. PMID:25794734

Krähmer, Andrea; Engel, Annika; Kadow, Daniel; Ali, Naailah; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Kroh, Lothar W; Schulz, Hartwig

2015-08-15

297

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

298

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

1996-01-02

299

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

300

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

301

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

302

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

Janney, M.A.

1990-01-16

303

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

1983-01-01

304

Ceramic powder for sintering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

1984-01-01

305

Rotary powder feed through apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

306

Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

1974-01-01

307

Method for Production of Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

1997-01-01

308

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

309

Zirconia ceramics from coprecipitated powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility was explored of making dense and strong partly stabilized zirconia (PSZ)-based ceramic materials from coprecipitated\\u000a zirconium and yttrium hydroxide powders of both factory and laboratory preparation. The effect of dry and wet grinding, powder\\u000a burning, cold isostatic pressure (CIP) at?0.8 GPa, and sintering at ?1600?C on the physicochemical properties of the material\\u000a was investigated. It was found that

I. Yu. Prokhorov

1997-01-01

310

Powder collection apparatus/method  

DOEpatents

Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

1994-01-11

311

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42–48°C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate

Zoi Papalexandratou; Nicholas Camu; Gwen Falony; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

312

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2012-07-01

313

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2012-07-01

314

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2013-07-01

315

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2013-07-01

316

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2014-07-01

317

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2011-07-01

318

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2011-07-01

319

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2014-07-01

320

Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof  

DOEpatents

Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

1993-12-07

321

FABRICATION BEHAVIOR OF SOME URANIUM DIOXIDE POWDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of uranium dioxide powders depend not only ; upon how they are prepared, but also upon the treatment of the powders prior to ; fabrication. Preliminary attempts to produce high-density sintered UOâ ; bodies demonstrated a wide range of sinterability among UOâ powders having ; different physical characteristics. Sintered densities of various UOâ ; powders varied from

D. R. Stenquist; R. J. Anicetti

1957-01-01

322

Powder lubrication of faults by powder rolls in gouge zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder-lubrication by fault gouge can be an effective mechanism of dynamic weakening of faults (Reches & Lockner, 2010); however, the physical mechanisms of this lubrication are poorly understood. While the flow of coarse-grained (> 100 ?m) materials, e.g. glass beads or quartz sand, was extensively studied, the flow of fine-grained (< 1 ?m) powders, e.g., fault-gouge and nano-powders, have remained enigmatic. We report here experimental results of a new efficient mechanism for powder lubrication. We conducted friction tests on high-velocity rotary shear apparatus (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Two types of experimental faults were tested: (1) faults made of solid, igneous rocks (granite, tonalite and diorite); and (2) fault-zones made of 2-3 mm thick layer of granular materials (oolites, calcite or gypsum) sheared in a confined cell. We performed 21 runs with total slip of 0.14-13 m, normal stress of 1.2-14.5 MPa, slip velocity of 0.012-0.97 m/s. The ultra-microscopic (SEM and AFM) analysis of the experimental slip surfaces revealed two outstanding features in 17 out of the 21 experiments: (1) localized fault-slip along Principal Slip Zones (PSZs) that are composed of a dense, shiny, cohesive crust, 0.5-1 micron thick, that overlaid a porous substrate, and (2) elongated rolls composed of gouge-powder into three-dimensional structures of closely-packed powder grains, (20-50 nm in size). The rolls are cylindrical, 0.75-1.4 micron wide, and 1.7-30 micron long, with smooth outer surface, and laminated, concentric layers of compacted grains. The rolls were exclusively found on the PSZs. Many rolls were destroyed fracturing and smearing on the PSZ, suggesting that the rolls underwent a life cycle of formation and destruction. Significant macroscopic friction reduction was measured in experiments with observed rolls, and no (or minor) friction reduction in the four experiments without rolls. The final, reduced friction coefficients have a general reciprocal relation to the rolls surface coverage, suggesting that increased development of rolls (= increasing surface coverage) enhanced fault weakening. We applied the Eldredge and Tabor (1955) model for rolling friction to the AFM observed morphology of the rolls and PSZs, and found good agreement between measured and modeled friction coefficients. We conclude that the measured friction reduction reflects a transition from sliding-dominated slip to rolling-dominated slip due to the presence and density of powder rolls. We further argue that powder rolling is an effective mechanism of powder lubrication, and that spontaneous growth of such rolls along crustal faults is likely to control earthquake weakening.

Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Reches, Z.

2013-12-01

323

Effect of the addition of a cocoa butter-like fat enzymatically produced from olive pomace oil on the oxidative stability of cocoa butter.  

PubMed

A cocoa butter (CB)-like fat was produced in a packed bed enzyme reactor using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and its blends with CB were prepared at different ratios (CB: CB-like fat; 100: 0, 90: 10, 80: 20, 70: 30, 60: 40, 50: 50, 0: 100). The oxidation kinetics of CB: CB-like fat blends was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Samples were heated in DSC at different temperatures (130, 140, 150, 160 degrees C) under 100 mL/min oxygen. From DSC exotherms, oxidation induction times (OIT) were determined and used for the assessment of the oxidative stabilities of the blends. Oxidation kinetics parameters (activation energy, E(a); preexponential factor, Z; and oxidation rate constant, k) were calculated. In general, it has been observed that above 110 degrees C increasing the ratio of CB-like fat in the blend increased the k value with increasing temperature. It has been observed that for all blends the increase in k value with temperature was significant (P < 0.05). Increasing CB-like fat ratio in the blend decreased the content of major TAGs (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POP]; 1[3]-palmitoyl-3[1]stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POS]; 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [SOS]), and decreased the oxidative stability of the blends. PMID:19490323

Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Kowalski, Boles?aw; Gö?ü?, Fahrettin; Fadilo?lu, Sibel

2009-01-01

324

Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.  

PubMed

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain. PMID:21838556

Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

2011-09-01

325

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

326

Flake tantalum powder for manufacturing electrolytic capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FTP200 flake tantalum powder was introduced. The microstructures of the powder with leaf-like primary particles having an average flakiness of 2 to 20 and porous agglomerated particles were observed. The chemical composition, physical properties, and electrical properties of the FTP200 powder were compared with those of the FTW300 nodular powder. The FTP200 powder is more sinter-resistant, and the surface

Jilin HE; Guoqi YANG; Luntao PAN; Hongdong LIU; Xifang BAO

2008-01-01

327

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger washes up on Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar almost 11 years after Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff from KSC's Launch Pad 39B. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. The previously retrieved remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination, documentation and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

328

Optimized preparation and characterization of CLEA-lipase from cocoa pod husk.  

PubMed

Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) is easily prepared from crude enzyme and has many advantages to the environment and it is considered as an economic method in the context of industrial biocatalysis compared to free enzyme. In this work, a highly active and stable CLEA-lipase from cocoa pod husk (CPH) which is a by-product after removal of cocoa beans, were assayed for their hydrolytic activity and characterized under the optimum condition successfully. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to get the optimal conditions of the three significant factors (concentration of ammonium sulfate, concentration of glutaraldehyde and concentration of additive) to achieve higher enzyme activity of CLEA. From 20 runs, the highest activity recorded was around 9.407U (83% recovered activity) under the condition of using 20% saturated ammonium sulfate, 60mM glutaraldehyde as cross-linker and 0.17mM bovine serum albumin as feeder. Moreover, the optimal reaction temperature and pH value in enzymatic reaction for both crude enzyme and immobilized were found to be 45°C at pH 8 and 60°C at pH 8.2, respectively. A systematic study of the stability of CLEA and crude enzyme was taken with regards to temperature (25-60°C) and pH (5-10) value and in both factors, CLEA-lipase showed more stability than free lipase. The Km value of CLEA was higher compared to free enzyme (0.55mM vs. 0.08mM). The CLEA retained more than 60% of the initial activity after six cycles of reuse compared to free enzyme. The high stability and recyclability of CLEA-lipase from CPH make it efficient for different industrial applications. PMID:25481099

Khanahmadi, Soofia; Yusof, Faridah; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan; Mahat, Mohd Khairizal

2015-05-20

329

Synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite powders.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite powder was mechanochemically synthesized from calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) using a solid-state reaction. The two powders were mixed in distilled water, milled for 8 hours, dried and calcined at 1100 degrees C for 1 hour. The phase(s) formed was analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that hydroxyapatite was not the only one formed. This result will be used as the starting point to produce a single-phase hydroxyapatite in terms of excess hydroxyl group in a mechanochemical reaction. PMID:15468867

Zarina, O; Radzali, O

2004-05-01

330

Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.  

PubMed

The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

2015-05-01

331

Identification of Procyanidins in Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) and Chocolate Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa and chocolate were separated and identified using a modified normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with on-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis using an atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray chamber. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a silica stationary phase in combination with a gradient ascending in polarity. This qualitative report confirms the presence

John F. Hammerstone; Sheryl A. Lazarus; Alyson E. Mitchell; Robert Rucker; Harold H. Schmitz

1999-01-01

332

The control of black pod, canker and seedling blight of cocoa, caused by Phytophthora palmivora , with potassium phosphonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trunk injected potassium phosphonate (8 or 16 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) controls black pod and stem canker of cocoa:\\u000a Foliar sprays of potassium phosphonate (20 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) or Ridomil Plus 72WP (0.72 g a.i. per tree every\\u000a 6 weeks during the wet season) do not control black pod. Trunk injection is less

R. D. Anderson; D. I. Guest

1990-01-01

333

Triboelectric charging of polymer powders in fluidization and transport processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady flow of powder at a desired rate is a necessity for controlling thickness and uniformity of the deposited powder layer in electrostatic spray painting. In most powder coating applications, the polymer powder is fluidized to transport the powder to the spray gun using a powder pump. The powder delivery tube is often long; sometimes in excess of 10 m.

J. R. Mountaint; D. L. Wankum; M. K. Mazumder; T. Chasser; P. Pettit

1997-01-01

334

Isolation of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using countercurrent chromatography.  

PubMed

The main procyanidins, including dimeric B2 and B5, trimeric C1, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins, were isolated from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using various techniques of countercurrent chromatography, such as high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and spiral-coil LSRCCC. Furthermore, dimeric procyanidins B1 and B7, which are not present naturally in the analysed cocoa beans, were obtained after semisynthesis of cocoa bean polymers with (+)-catechin as nucleophile and separated by countercurrent chromatography. In this way, the isolation of dimeric procyanidin B1 in considerable amounts (500mg, purity>97%) was possible in a single run. This is the first report concerning the isolation and semisynthesis of dimeric to pentameric procyanidins from T. cacao by countercurrent chromatography. Additionally, the chemical structures of tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) and pentameric procyanidins (cinnamtannin A3) were elucidated on the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Interflavanoid linkage was determined by NOE-correlations, for the first time. PMID:25722166

Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

2015-07-15

335

Genetic Diversity and Structure of Managed and Semi-natural Populations of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Huallaga and Ucayali Valleys of Peru  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America, and it is well known that the Peruvian Amazon harbours a large number of diverse cocoa populations. A small fraction of the diversity has been collected and maintained as an ex-situ germplasm repository in Peru. However, incorrect labelling of accessions and lack of information on genetic diversity have hindered efficient conservation and use of this germplasm. This study targeted assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in a managed and a semi-natural population. •Methods Using a capillary electrophoresis genotyping system, 105 cocoa accessions collected from the Huallaga and Ucayali valleys of Peru were fingerprinted. Based on 15 loci SSR profiles, genetic identity was examined for each accession and duplicates identified, population structure assessed and genetic diversity analysed in these two populations. •Key Results Ten synonymous mislabelled groups were identified among the 105 accessions. The germplasm group in the Huallaga valley was clearly separated from the group in Ucayali valley by the Bayesian assignment test. The Huallaga group has lower genetic diversity, both in terms of allelic richness and of gene diversity, than the Ucayali group. Analysis of molecular variance suggested genetic substructure in the Ucayali group. Significant spatial correlation between genetic distance and geographical distances was detected in the Ucayali group by Mantel tests. •Conclusions These results substantiate the hypothesis that the Peruvian Amazon hosts a high level of cocoa genetic diversity, and the diversity has a spatial structure. The introduction of exotic seed populations into the Peruvian Amazon is changing the cocoa germplasm spectrum in this region. The spatial structure of cocoa diversity recorded here highlights the need for additional collecting and conservation measures for natural and semi-natural cocoa populations. PMID:16845139

ZHANG, DAPENG; AREVALO-GARDINI, ENRIQUE; MISCHKE, SUE; ZÚÑIGA-CERNADES, LUIS; BARRETO-CHAVEZ, ALEJANDRO; AGUILA, JORGE ADRIAZOLA DEL

2006-01-01

336

POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

337

Pharmaceutically Engineering Powders Using FHMG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized hot melt granulation (FHMG) is an innovative granulation process that has distinct advantages over techniques that are typically used in the pharmaceutical industry for powder agglomeration and mixing. The aim of this research was to investigate process and formulation parameters that affect FHMG, in a pharmaceutical context, using Lutrol® F68 (copolymer of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene) as a meltable binder with inert

G. Walker; S. Bell; M. Vann; H. Zhai; D. Jones; G. Andrews

2007-01-01

338

Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. Design: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). Results: The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (?8.6 ± 0.4 and ?16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (?6.7 ± 0.5 and ?14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P < 0.0001) differed from that after consumption of the LF drinks (?0.8 ± 1.6 and ?1.1 ± 0.7 s, respectively). Similarly, VFT scores significantly improved among all treatment groups, but the magnitude of improvement in the VFT score was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater in the HF group (7.7 ± 1.1 words/60 s) than in the IF (3.6 ± 1.2 words/60 s) and LF (1.3 ± 0.5 words/60 s) groups. Significantly different improvements in insulin resistance (P < 0.0001), blood pressure (P < 0.0001), and lipid peroxidation (P = 0.001) were also observed for the HF and IF groups in comparison with the LF group. Changes in insulin resistance explained ?17% of changes in composite z score (partial r2 = 0.1703, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This dietary intervention study provides evidence that regular CF consumption can reduce some measures of age-related cognitive dysfunction, possibly through an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that the habitual intake of flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN68970511. PMID:25733639

Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

2015-01-01

339

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOEpatents

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01

340

Advanced composites take a powder  

SciTech Connect

To a professional chemist with more than 25 years of industrial experience, the world of advanced composites is a fascinating new venue. Here resins and fibers come together in a completely synergistic partnership, achieving marvels of strength and light weight that make advanced composite materials virtually the only solution for challenging applications. In the late 1980s, Professor John Muzzy of the Georgia Institute of Technology, was intrigued by the physical properties of thermoplastics, and he developed a new way to bring the thermoplastic resins together with high-performance fibers. As part of the work Muzzy did with Lockheed and NASA he demonstrated that electrostatic powder coating was an attractive new method for combining thermoplastic resins with reinforcing fibers. Presentation of this work by Lockheed at a government-industry conference led to a new project for Muzzy, sponsored by NASA Langley. Powder prepregging proved to be the attractive alternative that NASA was looking for. While working on powder prepregging with LaRC-TPI, Muzzy and his colleagues developed methods for exposing all of the fibers to the powder to improve the distribution of the resin on the tow, a continuous bundle of filaments. Optimal resin distribution was achieved by spreading the moving tow. A very flexible towpreg was produced by maintaining the spread tow through the powder coating chamber and into the oven, where the resin particles were fused to the individual filaments. Muzzy's invention has enabled Custom Composite Materials, Inc. to offer resin/fiber combinations based on thermoplastic resins such as nylon and polypropylene. Beyond the expected advantages over epoxy thermoset systems, they are beginning to exploit a fundamental property of thermoplastic resins: viscoelasticity, which can be defined as the resistance to flow as a function of applied stress. Thermoplastics have a much higher viscoelasticity than thermosets.

Holty, D.W. (Custom Composite Materials, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-06-01

341

ER Physician Raises Concerns about Powdered Caffeine  

MedlinePLUS

... experts. The main difference between powdered and liquid alcohol is its packaging. The powder may be more convenient to pack and carry, but it's not a concentrated form of alcohol. Critics warn however, young people may be tempted ...

342

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity...Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2011-04-01

343

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity...Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2010-04-01

344

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity...Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2014-04-01

345

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity...Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2013-04-01

346

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity...Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2013-04-01

347

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity...Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye,...

2014-04-01

348

Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

2012-01-01

349

Review: aqueous tape casting of ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry formulations and processing parameters of the water-based tape casting of ceramic powders are reviewed. Additives include binders, like cellulose ethers, vinyl or acrylic-type polymers; plasticizers, like glycols; and dispersants, like ammonium salts of poly(acrylic acids). Mostly alumina powders have been employed. Hydrophobing of ceramic powders permits the aqueous processing even of water-reactive powders, like aluminium nitride. Non-toxicity and non-inflammability

D. Hotza; P. Greil

1995-01-01

350

Processing and characterization of carob powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of processing roasted carob powder using different time–temperature combinations has been studied. The physical and chemical characteristics of the prepared carob powders were also examined. The most acceptable roasted carob powder was obtained by roasting kibbled carob at 150°C for 60 min. The roasted carob powder contained 9.00, 5.82, 2.84 and 0.74% moisture, protein, ash and fat, respectively.

Ali K. Yousif; H. M. Alghzawi

2000-01-01

351

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

352

Electrodeposition of Fe powder from acid electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization characteristics of the electrodeposition processes of Fe powders from sulfate and chloride electrolytes and the morphology of the ob- tained powders were investigated. The morphology depended on the anion pre- sence in the electrolyte but not on the current density in the investigated range. A characteristic feature of the dendritic powder with cauliflower endings ob- tained from sulfate electrolyte

VESNA M. MAKSIMOVI?; LJUBICA J. PAVLOVI?; BORKA M. JOVI?; MIOMIR G. PAVLOVI?

2008-01-01

353

21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647...FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing...

2010-04-01

354

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a...

2010-07-01

355

Energy aspects of iron powder production  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is given of the energy consumption in the manufacture of iron powder by the Quebec Metal Powders Limited process. Some comparisons are made with earlier data for alternative processes. Finally some comments are made on energy conservation projects in the manufacture of iron powder. (MOW)

Capus, J.M.

1980-01-01

356

April 11, 2013 Powder Consolidation under Pressure  

E-print Network

April 11, 2013 Powder Consolidation under Pressure Wei-Jhe Sun Tablet, a consolidated powder structure, by considering the evolution of powder structure under compaction pressure.1 The mechanical, relative volume, and density to compaction pressure. A widely used equation is Heckel equation, which does

Thomas, David D.

357

CoCoA, a nuclear receptor coactivator which acts through an N-terminal activation domain of p160 coactivators.  

PubMed

The p160 coactivators bind to and potentiate transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors by recruiting secondary coactivators such as the histone acetyltransferases p300 and CBP and the protein methyltransferase CARM1. The function of the highly conserved N-terminal basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) domain of p160 coactivators is unknown. This region is required for coactivator synergy among p160, p300, and CARM1 coactivators. We identified a coactivator, coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA), which binds to this domain and thereby enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor and other nuclear receptors. Endogenous CoCoA was found simultaneously with p160 coactivators on the promoter of an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene. Reduction of endogenous cellular CoCoA levels inhibited the estrogen-stimulated expression of transiently transfected and endogenous genes. Moreover, CoCoA cooperated synergistically with GRIP1, CARM1, and p300 to enhance ER-mediated transcription. Thus, the N-terminal region of p160 coactivators contains an additional activation domain which contributes to coactivator function by recruitment of CoCoA. PMID:14690606

Kim, Jeong Hoon; Li, Hongwei; Stallcup, Michael R

2003-12-01

358

CCAR1/CoCoA pair-mediated recruitment of the Mediator defines a novel pathway for GATA1 function.  

PubMed

The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex coactivates GATA1 and induces erythropoiesis. Here, we show the dual mechanism of GATA1- and MED1-mediated transcription. MED1 expression levels in K562 erythroleukemia cells paralleled the levels of GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation. An N-terminal fragment of MED1, MED1(1-602), which is incapable of interacting with GATA1, enhanced GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation, and introduction of MED1(1-602) into Med1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) partially rescued GATA1-mediated transcription. The C-terminal zinc-finger domain of GATA1 interacts with the MED1(1-602)-interacting coactivator CCAR1, CoCoA and MED1(681-715). CCAR1 and CoCoA synergistically enhanced GATA1-mediated transcription from the ?-globin promoter in MEFs. Recombinant GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA and MED1(1-602) formed a complex in vitro, and GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA and MED1 were recruited to the ?-globin promoter in K562 cells during erythroid differentiation. Therefore, in addition to the direct interaction between GATA1 and MED1, CoCoA and CCAR1 appear to relay the GATA1 signal to MED1, and multiple modes of the GATA1-MED1 axis may help to fine-tune GATA1 function during GATA1-mediated homeostasis events. PMID:24245781

Mizuta, Shumpei; Minami, Tomoya; Fujita, Haruka; Kaminaga, Chihiro; Matsui, Keiji; Ishino, Ruri; Fujita, Azusa; Oda, Kasumi; Kawai, Asami; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Urahama, Norinaga; Roeder, Robert G; Ito, Mitsuhiro

2014-01-01

359

CCAR1/CoCoA pair-mediated recruitment of the Mediator defines a novel pathway for GATA1 function  

PubMed Central

The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex coactivates GATA1 and induces erythropoiesis. Here, we show the dual mechanism of GATA1- and MED1-mediated transcription. MED1 expression levels in K562 erythroleukemia cells paralleled the levels of GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation. An N-terminal fragment of MED1, MED1(1–602), which is incapable of interacting with GATA1, enhanced GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation, and introduction of MED1(1–602) into Med1?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) partially rescued GATA1-mediated transcription. The C-terminal zinc-finger domain of GATA1 interacts with the MED1(1–602)-interacting coactivator CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1(681–715). CCAR1 and CoCoA synergistically enhanced GATA1-mediated transcription from the ?-globin promoter in MEFs. Recombinant GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1(1–602) formed a complex in vitro, and GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1 were recruited to the ?-globin promoter in K562 cells during erythroid differentiation. Therefore, in addition to the direct interaction between GATA1 and MED1, CoCoA and CCAR1 appear to relay the GATA1 signal to MED1, and multiple modes of the GATA1-MED1 axis may help to fine-tune GATA1 function during GATA1-mediated homeostasis events. PMID:24245781

Mizuta, Shumpei; Minami, Tomoya; Fujita, Haruka; Kaminaga, Chihiro; Matsui, Keiji; Ishino, Ruri; Fujita, Azusa; Oda, Kasumi; Kawai, Asami; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Urahama, Norinaga; Roeder, Robert G.; Ito, Mitsuhiro

2015-01-01

360

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. PMID:21839382

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-10-01

361

The toxicology of cocoa and methylxanthines: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The critical review of the literature cited on pharmacology, toxicology, metabolism, and safety assessment clearly demonstrates that cocoa per se has not attracted a great deal of scientific interest because of its long-term usage with no reported adverse effects that would be injurious to man. On the other hand, a great deal of research has been directed towards understanding the pharmacological properties of the methylxanthines--caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. Much of the emphasis on metabolism, toxicology, teratogenic potential, and safety assessment has been on the evaluation of caffeine. In light of the serious health concerns ascribed to the effects of caffeine and the lack of basic information on theobromine and theophylline, it is imperative that a major research program be undertaken to evaluate these methylxanthines and, of course, cocoa, coffee, and tea. It only will be through elucidating their mechanism of action that we will be in a position to assess their safety. Before committing research efforts to evaluating the long-term effects of these methylxanthines and their respective foodstuffs, which serve as our primary source of exposure, it is critical to initiate more basic research on the metabolism of caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine in several animal species and man. While published reports do appear in this area, it is essential to understand fully the similarities and differences between various animals and man. The influence of dietary factors and drug interactions must also be determined. Before establishing dosage levels for a chronic toxicity study, the pharmacokinetics of the dose must be determined in the species that will be used in long-term studies. This is necessary if there is a dose-dependency in the animal above which saturation may occur and the plasma half-life kinetics change, or shifts occur either in the metabolic pathways of degradation and/or in the route of excretion from the body. The area of teratology must also be thoroughly evaluated. Studies undertaken should include identification and quantitation of the metabolites of caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine in the pregnant animal, the respective pharmacokinetics of each compound, dose-dependency (if this is the case), and their potential teratogenicity. In addition, the influence of other drugs or dietary variables must be included. In addition to teratology, a great deal of research is needed to assess and quantitate fetal and neonatal metabolism of these compounds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6765610

Tarka, S M

1982-01-01

362

Baby Powder Use in Infant Skin CareParental Knowledge and Determinants of Powder Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred parents of infants aged 2 weeks to 6 months were surveyed at the time of routine well-child visits to assess parental knowledge about baby powder and to determine whether hospital policy of providing a free powder sample to newly delivered mothers was unwittingly promoting powder usage. Most parents (69%) reported regular baby powder use as part of routine

Gregory F. Hayden; George T. Sproul

1984-01-01

363

Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

2009-12-01

364

MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION  

SciTech Connect

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

2009-12-28

365

Pinwheel patterns and powder diffraction  

E-print Network

Pinwheel patterns and their higher dimensional generalisations display continuous circular or spherical symmetries in spite of being perfectly ordered. The same symmetries show up in the corresponding diffraction images. Interestingly, they also arise from amorphous systems, and also from regular crystals when investigated by powder diffraction. We present first steps and results towards a general frame to investigate such systems, with emphasis on statistical properties that are helpful to understand and compare the diffraction images. We concentrate on properties that are accessible via an alternative substitution rule for the pinwheel tiling, based on two different prototiles. Due to striking similarities, we compare our results with the toy model for the powder diffraction of the square lattice.

Michael Baake; Dirk Frettlöh; Uwe Grimm

2006-10-06

366

Composition of reactive powder concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an ultra-high strength ductile concrete designated RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete), was made possible by the application of a certain number of basic principles relating to the composition, mixing and post-set heat curing of the concrete.RPC 200, which can be used under job site conditions similar to those for conventional high performance concretes, can be used in the construction

Pierre Richard; Marcel Cheyrezy

1995-01-01

367

Mesoscale simulations of powder compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to experimental match compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show evidence of hard-to-explain reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line, which have also been observed in the experiments. We found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations, since 2D results tend to underpredict stress levels for high-porosity powders regardless of material properties. We developed a process to extract macroscale information for the simulation which can be directly used in calibration of continuum model for heterogeneous media.

Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

2009-06-01

368

Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.  

PubMed

The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries. PMID:24518349

Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

2014-07-01

369

Ground-water hydrology of the Cocoa well-field area, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Cocoa, Brevard County, Florida, supplies water for much of central Brevard County including Cape Kennedy and Patrick Air Force Base. The water supply is obtained from a well field in east Orange County. Many of the easternmost wells in that well field yield salty water (chloride concentration greater than 250 milligrams per liter). The interface between the fresh and salty water in the west part of the well field occurs at a depth of about 1,400 feet. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the the lower (salty) zones and the upper, or pumped zones of the Floridan aquifer in the west part of the well field. Secondary artesian aquifers in the well-field area are relatively high-yielding but are of limited areal extent. However, they are suitable as a source of water for supplemental supply or for artificially recharging the Floridan aquifer. Fresh water was transferred by siphon from a secondary artesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer at 90 gallons per minute. Artificial recharge and recovery experiments show that it is feasible to retrieve fresh water stored in salty zones of the Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Tibbals, C.H.; Frazee, J.M.

1976-01-01

370

Identification of QTLs related to cocoa resistance to three species of Phytophthora.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the genetic control of cacao resistance to three species of Phytophthora: Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora capsici. The study was conducted on 151 hybrid progenies created in Côte d'Ivoire and grown in a green-house in Montpellier. Phytophthora resistance was screened by leaf-test inoculation with two different strains per species. Selection of the best individuals for resistance to P. palmivora at a 10% selection rate, would lead to a genetic progress of 47% in the disease evaluation for this species and a genetic progress of 42% and 21% for the two other species. A genetic map with a total length of 682 cM was built with 213 markers, 190 AFLPs and 23 microsatellites. QTLs were identified using composite interval mapping. QTLs were found located in six genomic regions. One of these was detected with five strains belonging to the three Phytophthora species. Two other regions were detected with two or three strains of two different species. Three additional QTLs were detected for only one species of Phytophthora. Each QTL explained between 8 to 12% of the phenotypic variation. For each strain, between 11.5% to 27.5% of the total phenotypic variation could be explained by the QTLs identified. The identification of multiple QTLs involved in resistance to Phytophthora offers the possibility to improve durability of resistance in cocoa by a possible cumulation of many different resistance genes located in different chromosome regions using marker-aided selection. PMID:13679987

Risterucci, A M; Paulin, D; Ducamp, M; N'Goran, J A K; Lanaud, C

2003-12-01

371

Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.  

PubMed

Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with ?' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase. PMID:25766934

Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

2015-04-01

372

Headspace volatile markers for sensitivity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos to cryopreservation.  

PubMed

The mechanisms that reduce the viability of plant somatic embryos following cryopreservation are not known. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos at different stages of an encapsulation-dehydration protocol using stress-related volatile hydrocarbons as markers of injury and recovery. The plant stress hormone ethylene and volatile hydrocarbons derived from hydroxyl radicals (methane) and lipid peroxidation (ethane) were determined using gas chromatography headspace analysis. Ethylene and methane were the only volatiles detected, with both being produced after each step of the cryogenic protocol. Ethylene production was significantly reduced following exposure to liquid nitrogen, but then increased in parallel with embryo recovery. In contrast, the production of methane was cyclic during recovery, with the first cycle occurring earlier for embryos recovered from liquid nitrogen and desiccation than those recovered from earlier steps in the protocol. These results suggest that loss of somatic embryo viability during cryopreservation may be related to the oxidative status of the tissue, and its capacity to produce ethylene. This study has demonstrated that headspace volatile analysis provides a robust non-destructive analytical approach for assessing the survival and recovery of plant somatic embryos following cryopreservation. PMID:18043891

Fang, Jong-Yi; Wetten, Andrew; Johnston, Jason

2008-03-01

373

Cocoa protective effects against abnormal fat storage and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet involve PPAR? signalling activation.  

PubMed

A high-fat (HF) diet increases lipid storage and oxidative stress in mouse liver and this process seems to be mediated by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of cocoa against hepatic steatosis induced by a HF diet. The HF diet down-regulated PPAR? expression and turned off PPAR?-signalling, deregulated the ?-oxidation (?-Ox) system and catalase (CAT) activity, increased fat storage, reduced expression of enzymatic activity involved in oxidative defence in the liver and doubled the weight gain per calorie consumed compared to animals under the normal diet. In contrast, cocoa improved hepatic ?-Ox, activated PPAR?-signalling and up-regulated both gene and protein expression of SOD1. Moreover, when co-administered with the HF diet, cocoa treatment counteracted lipid storage in the liver, improved the lipid-metabolizing activity and oxidative stress defences and normalized the weight gain per calorie consumed. PMID:25214316

Fidaleo, Marco; Fracassi, Anna; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Moreno, Sandra; Sartori, Claudia

2014-11-01

374

Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.  

PubMed

Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. PMID:23664257

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2013-09-01

375

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity  

PubMed Central

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

376

Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.  

PubMed

Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance. PMID:21699218

Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

2011-08-10

377

Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

378

FBE powder and coating tests evaluated  

SciTech Connect

Properties of a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) external pipeline coating can be significantly affected by the conditions under which the FBE powder has been stored. Nova, An Alberta Corporation, and 3M Co. undertook a program of evaluating easily run tests to determine the suitability of FBE powder. These tests are less time consuming than the most commonly used series of tests which involve evaluating laboratory-coated specimens or testing rings taken from production-coated pipe. Detailed here is that study of powder aging, coating application, and laboratory testing of aged powders and the subsequent coatings obtained from these powders. The results indicate that gel-time test was the only powder-test method which was both speedy and accurate.

Coulson, K.E.W.; Temple, D.G.; Kehr, J.A.

1987-08-10

379

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

1983-01-01

380

Magnetic properties of polymer bonded nanocrystalline powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this paper was to develop a dielectromagnetic based on nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 powder bonded with organo-silicon polymer and to investigate the powder particle size and content of polymer response of the magnetic properties. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The dynamic magnetic properties at the frequency range from 50 Hz up to 100 kHz of nanocrystalline iron based powder cores were measured

P. Gramatyka; R. Nowosielski; P. Sakiewicz

381

Volume 7. Copper base powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on a series of lectures on copper and copper base P\\/M materials sponsored by the Metal Powder Industries Federation. It covers recent developments in the fields of copper powder metallurgy and offers a comprehensive survey of copper and copper-base P\\/M materials. It begins with a chapter on the production of copper and copper alloy powders followed

Taubenblat

1980-01-01

382

Characterization of tribocharging properties of powder paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of particle size and electrostatic charge was performed on charged powder paint and other powders in the particle size range from 1.0 to 65.0 ?m in diameter. An electrical single-particle aerodynamic relaxation time analyzer was used to measure electrostatic charge and aerodynamic size distributions on a single particle basis and in a noninvasive manner. The powders were triboelectrically

M. K. Mazumder; S. Banerjee; R. E. Ware; N. Kaya; C. C. Huang

1992-01-01

383

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Not Available

1982-03-06

384

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

Welbon, W.W.

1983-11-08

385

Characterization of tribocharging properties of powder paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge-to-mass ratio (q\\/m) of individual particles plays a vital role in the powder coating process. Simultaneous measurements of particle size and electrostatic charge were performed on triboelectrically charged powder paint and other powders in the particle size range 1.0 to 65.0 ?m in diameter. An electrical single particle aerodynamic relaxation time (ESPART) analyzer was used to measure electrostatic charge

M. K. Mazumder; S. Banerjee; R. E. Ware; C. Mu; N. Kaya; C. C. Huang

1994-01-01

386

Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

1986-01-01

387

Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity.

Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A. [and others

1997-08-01

388

Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

2008-01-01

389

The effects of acute post exercise consumption of two cocoa-based beverages with varying flavanol content on indices of muscle recovery following downhill treadmill running.  

PubMed

Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4±7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p=0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3±160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5±148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p=0.31), or muscle soreness (p=0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

2014-01-01

390

Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T. cacao is mainly produced on smallholdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and T. cacao quality improvement are two important challenges for all actors of cocoa and chocolate production. T.

Xavier Argout; Olivier Fouet; Patrick Wincker; Karina Gramacho; Thierry Legavre; Xavier Sabau; Ange Marie Risterucci; Corinne Da Silva; Julio Cascardo; Mathilde Allegre; David Kuhn; Joseph Verica; Brigitte Courtois; Gaston Loor; Regis Babin; Olivier Sounigo; Michel Ducamp; Mark J Guiltinan; Manuel Ruiz; Laurence Alemanno; Regina Machado; Wilberth Phillips; Ray Schnell; Martin Gilmour; Eric Rosenquist; David Butler; Siela Maximova; Claire Lanaud

2008-01-01

391

English Edge Full Range English Edge Red English Edge Autumn English Edge Rose English Edge Cocoa Full Range English Edge Dark Accent English Edge Ironspot  

E-print Network

English Edge® Full Range English Edge® Red English Edge® Autumn English Edge® Rose English Edge® Cocoa Full Range English Edge® Dark Accent English Edge® Ironspot Tradi onal Series Square hicular. Pathway Full Range Pathway Red Pathway Full Range English Edge® Series

Duchowski, Andrew T.

392

The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

393

Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase HPLC/FLD method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The quantitative parameters and method performance for a normal-phase HPLC separation of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing food products were optimized and assessed. The chromatographic separation based on degree of polymerization (DP) was achieved on a diol stationary ph...

394

Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

395

Effect of cocoa and green tea on biomarkers of glucose regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and hemostasis in obese adults at risk for insulin resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flavanols may provide protection against insulin resistance, but little is known about the amounts and types of flavanols that may be efficacious. This study was designed to determine whether cocoa flavanols, over a range of intakes, improve biomarkers of glucose regulation, inflammation and hemost...

396

Induction and accumulation of caffeine in young, actively growing leaves of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) by wounding or infection with Crinipellis perniciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease, attacks young actively growing shoots, flowers and developing fruits of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Infected shoots become fasciated and a profusion of hypertrophic shoots with small leaves develop from the lateral buds. This is followed by desiccation and death of the infected stem and leaves. Infected stem tissue contains significant amounts

Madhu Aneja; Thomas Gianfagna

2001-01-01

397

FFS for Estate Crops: Ecological, Organizational and Methodological Constraints for carrying out FFS training in Cashew, Cocoa, Coffee, Pepper and Tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmer Field Schools have been developed in Indonesia for Cashew, Cocoa, Coffee, Pepper and Tea. This adaptation to perennial tree crops has required adaptation of methods of Agro- Ecosystem Analysis and inclusion of several physical and cultural practices within the FFS. Chief among ecological differences is the lack of any ecological crash like a rice harvest. Other differences must be

Margaret S. Mangan

398

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda

2012-01-01

399

Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.  

PubMed

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2012-08-01

400

Biochemical changes during the development of witches' broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.  

PubMed

Witches' broom disease (WBD) is caused by the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa, which is one of the most important diseases of cocoa in the western hemisphere. In this study, the contents of soluble sugars, amino acids, alkaloids, ethylene, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), glycerol, and fatty acids were analysed in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shoots during the infection and development of WBD. Alterations were observed in the content of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), asparagine and alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine), ethylene, and tannins. Ethylene and tannins increased prior to symptom development and declined with the death of the infected tissues. Furthermore, MDA and glycerol concentrations were higher in infected tissue than in the controls, while fatty acid composition changed in the infected tissues. Chlorophylls a and b were lower throughout the development of the disease while carotenoids and xanthophylls dropped in the infected tissue by the time of symptom development. These results show co-ordinated biochemical alterations in the infected tissues, indicating major stress responses with the production of ethylene. Ethylene levels are hypothesized to play a key role in broom development. Some of the other biochemical alterations are directly associated with ethylene synthesis and may be important for the modification of its effect on the infected tissues. PMID:15642708

Scarpari, L M; Meinhardt, L W; Mazzafera, P; Pomella, A W V; Schiavinato, M A; Cascardo, J C M; Pereira, G A G

2005-03-01

401

TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.  

PubMed

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC. PMID:14584598

Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

2003-09-01

402

Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents.  

PubMed

Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6molL(-1) HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25°C are 63.47 and 74.81mgg(-1), respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations. PMID:25702636

Saucier, Caroline; Adebayo, Matthew A; Lima, Eder C; Cataluña, Renato; Thue, Pascal S; Prola, Lizie D T; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Machado, Fernando M; Pavan, Flavio A; Dotto, G L

2015-05-30

403

Accumulation of a cocoa-butter-like lipid by Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on agro-industrial residues.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica was cultivated on mixtures of saturated free fatty acids (an industrial derivative of animal fat called stearin), technical glycerol (the main by-product of bio-diesel production facilities), and glucose. The utilization of technical glycerol and stearin as co-substrates resulted in higher lipid synthesis and increased citric acid production than the combination of glucose and stearin. The lipids produced contained significant amounts of stearic acid (50-70%, wt/wt) and lower ones of palmitic (15-20%, wt/wt), oleic (7-20%, wt/wt), and linoleic (2-7%, wt/wt) acid. Single-cell oil having a composition similar to cocoa-butter up to 3.4 g/L was produced, whereas in some cases relatively increased citric acid quantities (up to 14 g/L) were excreted into the growth medium. The microorganism presented a high specificity for lauric, myristic, and palmitic acid, while a discrimination for the stearic acid was observed. As a conclusion, microbial metabolism could be directed by using mixtures of inexpensive saturated fats, glycerol, and glucose as co-substrates, in order to accumulate lipids with predetermined composition, e.g., cocoa-butter equivalents. PMID:12520368

Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Muniglia, Lionel; Chevalot, Isabelle; Aggelis, George; Marc, Ivan

2003-02-01

404

Powdered coal air dispersion nozzle  

SciTech Connect

An improved coal/air dispersion nozzle introduces fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine as a finely atomized, dispersed spray for a uniform combustion. The nozzle has an inlet that receives finely powdered coal from a coal transport or coal/air fluidizer system and a scroll swirl generator is included within the nozzle to swirl a fluidized coal/air mixture supplied to the inlet of the nozzle. The scroll is in the form of a thin, flat metal sheet insert, twisted along its length, and configured to prevent build-up of coal particles within the nozzle prior to ejection from its outlet. Airblast air jets are included along the length of the nozzle body to assist in the discharge of the fluidized coal from the nozzle outlet and an angular pintle tip overlies the outlet to redirect coal/air mixture through a desired fluidized coal spray angle.

Kosek, T.P.; Steinhilper, E.A.

1981-10-27

405

FBE powder and coating tests evaluated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) external pipeline coating can be significantly affected by the conditions under which the FBE powder has been stored. Nova, An Alberta Corporation, and 3M Co. undertook a program of evaluating easily run tests to determine the suitability of FBE powder. These tests are less time consuming than the most commonly used series of tests

K. E. W. Coulson; D. G. Temple; J. A. Kehr

1987-01-01

406

Physical and dielectric properties of pharmaceutical powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited availability of published physical and dielectric property data for pharmaceutical powders hinders the design of processing systems, particularly dryers. In this study, the physical properties (solubility and boiling point) and dielectric properties, in terms of temperature rise, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss factor, of selected pharmaceutical powders were measured. The pharmaceutical actives, paracetamol and aspirin, and selected common

C. M McLoughlin; W. A. M McMinn; T. R. A Magee

2003-01-01

407

Caking phenomena in amorphous food powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caking of free-flowing powders during storage is a deleterious phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the feed, fertilizer and pharmaceutical industries, and of economical importance for low-moisture foods. Among other subjects related to caking of amorphous powders, the following aspects are reviewed in this article: (1) physical and morphological changes, and quantitative procedures to assess caking; (2) proposed mechanisms of caking

José M. Aguilera; José M. del Valle; Marcus Karel

1995-01-01

408

Tungsten Powder Jet Update Ottone Caretta  

E-print Network

Tungsten Powder Jet Update Ottone Caretta STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK 2nd Princeton-Oxford High Power Target Meeting 6-7 November-2008 #12;Tungsten Powder Jet 2cm Thank you to EIP at RAL tungsten pellets Helium cooling #12;NF-IDS and EUROnu Targets Work Program (30 months) NF-IDS primarily

McDonald, Kirk

409

Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

Seiko, Y.

1985-01-01

410

Hot-gas ignition of powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of a study of the ignition of pyroxylin No. 1 and nitroglycerine powder (N powder) containing 1% carbon black by a hot gas. The gas was heated by a piece of tungsten foil (50 # thick, area 10  45 ram) parallel to the surface of the sample (Fig. 1). The foil was

V. E. Zarko; V. F. Mikheev; A. I. Sukhinin; S. S. Khlevnoi

1971-01-01

411

Tribocharging of Three-Component Powder Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of charged toner particles used in electrophotography is dominated by electrostatic forces. In this paper we discuss a model which describes the process by which toner particles acquire their electrostatic charge, tribocharging.In previous papers, we have presented a model of tribocharging of two-component mixtures of powders based on the assumptions that: 1. The surface of each powder is populated

J. H. Anderson; Elizabeth Fox

1995-01-01

412

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOEpatents

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

1982-01-01

413

Effect of detergent on powder triboelectrification.  

PubMed

Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders during processing and manufacture may cause adhesion/cohesion effects, reduce fill and dose uniformity, affect powder flow and packing behaviour and even obstruct the manufacturing of the product. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the triboelectrification of microcrystalline cellulose in contact with stainless steel pipes washed with several different detergents. Detergents and their concentrations were chosen to be similar to typical industrial manufacturing stages. The adhesion of powder to the surface had a considerable effect on the triboelectrification process. Therefore, polystyrene spheres were also charged in a similar way and the results were compared with the powder charging results. The results clearly indicate that detergent contamination on the pipe surface has a considerable effect on the generated charge. The detergents and powders used could be arranged in a triboelectric series with only one exception. PMID:12453608

Murtomaa, Matti; Ojanen, Kalle; Laine, Ensio; Poutanen, Jutta

2002-12-01

414

Interactions between cocoa flavanols and inorganic nitrate: Additive effects on endothelial function at achievable dietary amounts.  

PubMed

Dietary intervention studies have shown that flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve vascular function, suggesting that these two bioactives may be responsible for beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to study interactions between cocoa flavanols (CF) and nitrate, focusing on absorption, bioavailability, excretion, and efficacy to increase endothelial function. In a double-blind randomized, dose-response crossover study, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 15 healthy subjects before and at 1, 2, 3, and 4h after consumption of CF (1.4-10.9mg/kg bw) or nitrate (0.1-10mg/kg bw). To study flavanol-nitrate interactions, an additional intervention trial was performed with nitrate and CF taken in sequence at low and high amounts. FMD was measured before (0h) and at 1h after ingestion of nitrate (3 or 8.5mg/kg bw) or water. Then subjects received a CF drink (2.7 or 10.9mg/kg bw) or a micro- and macronutrient-matched CF-free drink. FMD was measured at 1, 2, and 4h thereafter. Blood and urine samples were collected and assessed for CF and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites with HPLC and gas-phase reductive chemiluminescence. Finally, intragastric formation of NO after CF and nitrate consumption was investigated. Both CF and nitrate induced similar intake-dependent increases in FMD. Maximal values were achieved at 1h postingestion and gradually decreased to reach baseline values at 4h. These effects were additive at low intake levels, whereas CF did not further increase FMD after high nitrate intake. Nitrate did not affect flavanol absorption, bioavailability, or excretion, but CF enhanced nitrate-related gastric NO formation and attenuated the increase in plasma nitrite after nitrate intake. Both flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve endothelial function in healthy subjects at intake amounts that are achievable with a normal diet. Even low dietary intake of these bioactives may exert relevant effects on endothelial function when ingested together. PMID:25530151

Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Hezel, Michael; Aydin, Hilal; Kelm, Malte; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Heiss, Christian

2015-03-01

415

21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to...

2013-04-01

416

21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to...

2014-04-01

417

Preparation and characterization of uranyl oxalate powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranyl oxalate powders are prepared by adding 0.5 M oxalic acid solution to the uranyl nitrate (UNH) solutions purified with TBP extraction from dissolution of the Canada originated U 3O 8 commercial concentrate. Uranyl oxalate powders are identified by chemical analysis, TGA/DTG analysis, IR analysis and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The effects of the precipitation conditions on the powder properties are determined. A broad particle size distribution is obtained for all precipitation variants. These powders including very fine particles are difficult to filter and are not free flowing. The reactor and mixing type have a considerable effect on the powder properties of the uranyl oxalate powders. It was possible to ameliorate the filtration and the flowability to a certain degree using a conical air agitated reactor. The flowability of these powders is 0.4 g/s with a specific surface area 6.64 m 2/g and an average particle size of 11 ?m.

Tel, H.; Bülbül, M.; Eral, M.; Alta?, Y.

1999-10-01

418

Dry powder formulation of simvastatin.  

PubMed

Objectives: This study focuses on the development of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of simvastatin (SV), and the effects of SV on the respiratory epithelium. Methods: Micronised SV samples were prepared by dry jet-milling. The long-term chemical stability and physicochemical properties of the formulations were characterised in terms of particles size, morphology, thermal and moisture responses. Furthermore, in vitro aerosol depositions were performed. The formulation was evaluated for cell viability and its effect on cilia beat activity, using ciliated nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The formulation transport across an established air interface Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells and its ability to reduce mucus secretion was also investigated. Results: The particle size of the SV formulation and its aerosol performance were appropriate for inhalation therapy. Moreover, the formulation was found to be non-toxic to pulmonary epithelia cells and cilia beat activity up to a concentration of 10(-6) M. Transport studies revealed that SV has the ability to penetrate into airway epithelial cells and is converted into its active SV hydroxy acid metabolite. Single dose of SV DPI also decreased mucus production after 4 days of dosing. Conclusion: This therapy could potentially be used for the local treatment of diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis given its anti-inflammatory effects and ability to reduce mucus production. PMID:25244365

Tulbah, Alaa S; Ong, Hui Xin; Morgan, Lucy; Colombo, Paolo; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

2014-09-22

419

Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders  

PubMed Central

Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3–37.9% and 0.1–31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

2013-01-01

420

Dustiness of fine and nanoscale powders.  

PubMed

Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3-37.9% and 0.1-31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300 nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100 nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100 nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

Evans, Douglas E; Turkevich, Leonid A; Roettgers, Cynthia T; Deye, Gregory J; Baron, Paul A

2013-03-01

421

Baby powder use in infant skin care. Parental knowledge and determinants of powder usage.  

PubMed

One hundred parents of infants aged 2 weeks to 6 months were surveyed at the time of routine well-child visits to assess parental knowledge about baby powder and to determine whether hospital policy of providing a free powder sample to newly delivered mothers was unwittingly promoting powder usage. Most parents (69%) reported regular baby powder use as part of routine infant skin care. Powder-users were significantly more likely than nonusers to attribute to baby powder the ability to kill bacteria and yeast and to prevent diaper rash (p less than 0.01). Even among nonusers, fewer than half were aware that aspiration/ingestion of baby powder was a potential health hazard. Almost all parents reported receiving a free sample of baby powder while in the hospital as part of a complimentary gift pack provided by the manufacturers. Most powder-users were currently using a brand they had received as a sample, and eight parents cited the receipt of a sample as the major determinant for selecting a particular brand of powder. The short- and long-term effects of distributing sample packs to newly delivered parents deserve further study. PMID:6697622

Hayden, G F; Sproul, G T

1984-03-01

422

Powder metallurgy design manual, 2nd edition  

SciTech Connect

This book is the most concise and comprehensive book of its kind on powder metallurgy (P/M) technology for both component design and application. Completely updated from the previous edition, this valuable reference gives an entirely new coverage on metal injection molding (MIM) and powder forging (P/F) with applicable case histories. There is revised information on P/M compared with other technologies, prototyping, and properties and characteristics of alloys, powders and P/M materials. In addition there`s expanded data on sintering including liquid phase processing and hardening.

NONE

1995-12-31

423

Production of powders of maraging steels  

SciTech Connect

Maraging steels have attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years due to their favorable combination of high strength and ductility properties, resistance to heat, cold, and brittle fracture, and dimensional stability during heat treatment. Unfortunately, maraging steels in powder form have not yet been studied to the extent merited. The main problem is that such powders are obtained by mechanical mixing of the components - an operation that does not ensure homogeneity the alloy after sintering. The present study was undertaken with the goal of obtaining powdered maraging steels by synthesizing and reducing complex oxides.

Agbalyan, S.G.; Badeyan, B.F.; Samvelyan, R.G. [Armenian State Engineering Institute, Erevan (Armenia)] [and others

1995-03-01

424

Synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) has been obtained from bulk WO3 by in situ reduction and carbonization reactions at low temperature (˜ 600 °C) by taking Mg as reductant and acetone C3H6O as carbon source. It was aimed to elucidate carburization behavior of WO3 powder and to establish optimal conditions for the synthesis of nanocrystalline WC. The role of reaction time on the synthesis of WC has been investigated and discussed. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analyzer (DTA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Singla, Gourav; Singh, K.; Pandey, O. P.

2013-06-01

425

Flavonoid-rich cocoa consumption affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a meta-analysis of short-term studies.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic compounds, particularly cocoa, may have cardioprotective effects. No review, however, has yet examined the effect of flavonoid-rich cocoa (FRC) on all major cardiovascular risk factors or has examined potential dose-response relationships for these effects. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials was performed to evaluate the effect of FRC on cardiovascular risk factors and to assess a dose-response relationship. Inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as dependent and independent variables were determined a priori. Data were collected for: blood pressure, pulse, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TG, BMI, C-reactive protein, flow-mediated vascular dilation (FMD), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, serum isoprostane, and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices. Twenty-four papers, with 1106 participants, met the criteria for final analysis. In response to FRC consumption, systolic blood pressure decreased by 1.63 mm Hg (P = 0.033), LDL cholesterol decreased by 0.077 mmol/L (P = 0.038), and HDL cholesterol increased by 0.046 mmol/L (P = 0.037), whereas total cholesterol, TG, and C-reactive protein remained the same. Moreover, insulin resistance decreased (HOMA-IR: -0.94 points; P < 0.001), whereas FMD increased (1.53%; P < 0.001). A nonlinear dose-response relationship was found between FRC and FMD (P = 0.004), with maximum effect observed at a flavonoid dose of 500 mg/d; a similar relationship may exist with HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.06). FRC consumption significantly improves blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and FMD. These short-term benefits warrant larger long-term investigations into the cardioprotective role of FRC. PMID:21956956

Shrime, Mark G; Bauer, Scott R; McDonald, Anna C; Chowdhury, Nubaha H; Coltart, Cordelia E M; Ding, Eric L

2011-11-01

426

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

427

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

428

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

429

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2012-04-01

430

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2014-04-01

432

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2011-04-01

433

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2013-04-01

434

Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma.  

PubMed

An updated literature search was performed to evaluate the efficacy of rapid-acting ?2-agonists delivered via dry powder inhalers in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute asthma. Databases were searched from 1985 up to December 2012. A total of 23 randomized, double-blind or open clinical studies in acute asthma comparing the efficacy of a dry powder inhaler with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler or a nebulizer, and performed under controlled hospital conditions, were identified. This review found that administration of ?2-agonist bronchodilators via dry powder inhalers (formoterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and budesonide/formoterol) was effective during severe asthma worsening and acute asthma attacks, and was as effective as established therapies with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, or nebulization. These results ensure that patients can rely upon dry powder inhalers equally well as other inhaler devices during episodes of asthma worsening. PMID:24341818

Selroos, Olof

2014-01-01

435

An application of powder metallurgy to dentistry.  

PubMed

Generally, the dental casting method is used to fabricate dental prostheses made with metal. The method of fabricating dental prostheses from sintered titanium alloy has certain advantages: the elimination of casting defects, a sintering temperature that is lower than the melting point, and a shorter processing time. By examining (1) the properties of green, sintered compacts of titanium powder, (2) the effects of adding aluminum powder on the properties of green, sintered compacts of Ti-Al compound, and (3) the effects of adding copper powder on the properties of green, sintered compacts of Ti-Al-Cu compound, the authors developed a sintered titanium alloy on a trial basis. Because the properties satisfied the requirements of dental restorations, a powder metallurgical method of making dental restorations from this sintered titanium alloy was devised. Applications of such sintered titanium alloys for the metal coping of metal-ceramic crowns and denture base plates were discussed. PMID:8689755

Oda, Y; Ueno, S; Kudoh, Y

1995-11-01

436

Screening and classification of ceramic powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

Miwa, S.

1983-01-01

437

LaRC dry powder towpreg process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dry powder towpreg process overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution and slurry prepregging of advanced composite materials. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. Bench scale design and operating data have been correlated for use in process scale up to commercial operation. Powdered towpreg has been woven and molded into preform material of good quality. Cost estimates suggest that processing costs are comparable to those of conventional hot melt prepreg. In the future, from a part fabrication point of view, powder coated prepreg tape, woven broad goods and woven and braided preforms may be considered as options to similar materials made by other methods.

Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.

1991-01-01

438

Making Pure Fine-Grained Inorganic Powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sustained arc plasma chemical reactor fabricates very-fine-grained inorganic solids having low thermal conductivity. Powder fabrication method, based on plasma tube technique produces pure solids without contamination commonly produced by grinding.

Wood, C.

1985-01-01

439

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-print Network

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01

440

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

441

Feedstock development for micro powder injection molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder injection molding of microstructured parts with high aspect ratios requires feedstocks, which have a high mechanical\\u000a stability for demolding. The binders of the feedstocks have to allow pressure free and complete debinding and sintering without\\u000a deformation in the submillimeter range. For complete molding of especially small and complex detailed microstructures, powders\\u000a with a small particle size have to be

L. Merz; S. Rath; V. Piotter; R. Ruprecht; J. Ritzhaupt-Kleissl; J. Hausselt

2002-01-01

442

Method and Apparatus for Production of Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

Storltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

1998-01-01

443

Method and apparatus for production of powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

Stolzfus, Joel M. (inventor.); Sircar, Subhasish (inventor.)

1995-01-01

444

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

445

Does electrostatic charge affect powder aerosolisation?  

PubMed

To study if electrostatic charge initially present in mannitol powder plays a role in the generation of aerosols, mannitol was unipolarly charged to varying magnitudes by tumbling the powder inside containers of different materials. The resulting charge in the powder was consistent with predictions from the triboelectric charging theories, based on the work function values from literature and electron transfer tendencies from measurement of contact angle. The latter generated a parameter, gamma(-)/gamma+, which is a measure of the electron-donating capacity relative to the electron-accepting tendency of material. Lowering the work function value or increasing the gamma(-)/gamma+ ratio of the container material resulted in mannitol being more negatively charged, and vice versa. After charging, the powder was dispersed from an Aerolizer(R), at 30 and 60 L/min, to study the aerosol performance. Irrespective of the charge level, the powder showed similar fine particle fraction, emitted dose and device retention at a given flow rate, indicating that charge induced by different containers during tumbling does not play a significant role in mannitol powder aerosolisation. PMID:19941330

Adi, Handoko; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Crapper, John; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Chan, Hak-Kim

2010-05-01

446

Electrostatic charge interactions in ordered powder mixes.  

PubMed

A method is described for measuring the electrostatic charge generated in powders following contact with a plane substrate. The method uses a Faraday well connected to an electrometer and allows the specific charge of powders to be determined. Of the various drugs and excipients studied, most charged electronegatively following contact with glass surfaces, but became electropositive after contact with polyethylene surfaces. The charge interactions of drug and excipient powders modified the behaviour of ordered mixes formed in similar conditions to those of charge measurement. Powders with like charges formed less stable ordered mixes than those in which drug and excipient particles carried opposite charges. Following triboelectrification in an air cyclone constructed of brass, powders had charges at least 100 times greater than those formed after contact with glass surfaces. Optimization of the triboelectric charging conditions allowed ordered mixes to be prepared in which a maximum electronegative charge was applied to the excipient whilst the drug was given a maximum electropositive charge. Studies of segregation/stability showed that ordered mixes subjected to triboelectrification were less prone to segregation than uncharged powders. PMID:6121883

Staniforth, J N; Rees, J E

1982-02-01

447

January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For  

E-print Network

January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For Varroa Control On Honey Bees (Apis dust bees with powder sugar as a means of removing mites. Dusting with powder sugar was also gaining conducted a study which examined the efficacy of powder sugar and found it did not help in controlling

Delaplane, Keith S.

448

Effect of powder loading on metal injection molding stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder loading is one of the most critical factors which has important influence on metal injection molding processes. Using the gas atomized spherical 17-4 PH stainless steel powder and the binder of 65% PW+30% EVA+5% SA, four kinds of feedstocks were prepared at the powder loading of 60, 64, 68 and 72%, respectively. The effects of the powder loading on

Yimin Li; Liujun Li; K. A. Khalil

2007-01-01

449

An industry consensus study on an HPLC fluorescence method for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This manuscript describes the results of an HPLC study for the determination of the flavan-3-ol monomers, (±)-catechin and\\u000a (±)-epicatechin, in cocoa and plain dark and milk chocolate products. The study was performed under the auspices of the National\\u000a Confectioners Association (NCA) and involved the analysis of a series of samples by laboratories of five member companies\\u000a using a common method.

Laura Shumow; Alison Bodor

2011-01-01

450

Effect of Milk Fat, Cocoa Butter, and Whey Protein Fat Replacers on the Sensory Properties of Lowfat and Nonfat Chocolate Ice Cream1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Po- lydextrose was added as required so that all formula- tions contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of -30°C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate

E. A. Prindiville; R. T. Marshall; H. Heymann

2000-01-01

451

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.  

PubMed

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. PMID:23279821

de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2013-02-01

452

Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics  

DOEpatents

A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

2011-04-12

453

Hysteresis and creep in powdersHysteresis and creep in powders and grainsand grains  

E-print Network

Hysteresis and creep in powdersHysteresis and creep in powders and grainsand grains Ciprian David. Model usedDiscrete element methods. Model used Micromechanical investigation of granular soilsMicromechanical investigation of granular soils under cyclic loadingunder cyclic loading ConclusionsConclusions #12;Motivation

Harting, Jens

454

Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.  

SciTech Connect

The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

2005-04-01

455

X-ray resonant powder diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray resonant diffraction can be applied in structural chemistry studies on powder samples. It enables an important limitation of powder diffraction to be overcome. This limitation is related to the low ability of powder diffraction to differentiate elements with close atomic numbers when they occupy the same or close crystallographic sites (mixed occupancy case) and also to discriminate cations with different valence states in different sites. However the resonant effect usually has a second order influence on the measured intensity. As a consequence, the efficiency of this method directly implies the need for excellent quality data collection and has generally been better assessed on elements present in single phase powder samples. In recent years, instrumental developments have been made in synchrotron radiation facilities which allow easier use of resonant powder diffraction for site-specific contrast and valence i.e. oxidation state analyses. Moreover, resonant contrast diffraction tools also have been proposed for better visualization of the anomalous effect both in direct and reciprocal space by using differences between electron density maps or diffraction patterns. Finally the potentialities of this technique for de novo structure solution on macromolecular systems are mentioned.

Palancher, H.; Bos, S.; Bérar, J. F.; Margiolaki, I.; Hodeau, J. L.

2012-06-01

456

Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation  

DOEpatents

A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Korth, Gary E. (Blackfoot, ID)

1986-01-01

457

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

2003-10-21

458

Reactive plasma atomization of aluminum nitride powder  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to synthesize AlN powders by reacting Al with N using a conventional dc arc plasma as heat source. Feeding Al powder into Ar/N plasma open to atmosphere produced mainly Al oxide. Experiments using a chamber backfilled with nitrogen suppressed the Al oxide, but little AlN was formed. A furnace and crucible assembly was designed to feed molten Al directly into a DeLaval nozzle attached to the face of the dc arc plasma gun. Resulting submicron powders show a significant increase in AlN formation. This was dependent on chamber pressure, plasma velocity, and molten liquid feed rate. Experimental parameters, equipment design, effects of atomization/vaporization/condensation are discussed.

Prichard, P.; Besser, M.; Sordelet, D.; Anderson, I.

1997-02-01

459

Preparation of nickel powders in nonaqueous media.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation of nickel powder is usually carried out in aqueous media. Nonaqueous solvents such as ethanolamines offer several advantages. The effective temperature range extends to the higher temperatures needed for the reduction of nickel at atmospheric pressure, a reaction that is also facilitated by the basicity of the medium. Tests were carried out for the preparation of submicrometre nickel powders by the reduction of metal salts using various ethanolamines (monoethanolamine - MEA, diethanolamine - DEA, and triethanolamine - TEA) as solvents. Hydrazine (N2H4) was used as the reducing agent. The basicity, polarity, viscosity and boiling point of the reaction medium all affect the reactions. By changing the reaction conditions and the anionic component of the precursor salt, it was possible to alter the purity and morphology of the nickel powders obtained and the average particle size, except in the case of MEA where no reduction occured. The products were subsequently characterised by chemical analysis and by scanning electron microscopy.

Macek, Jadran; Degen, Andrej

460

Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes can produce highly complex and customized parts without the need for dedicated tooling and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet several challenges are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Among these challenges are metrology issues associated with the measurement and characterization of the metal powders used for AM systems. This article will describe the technical challenges and needs for characterizing metal AM powders, recent research efforts to address those needs, and current work to standardize characterization methods in ASTM and ISO, such as the recently released ASTM F3049, Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes.

Slotwinski, John A.; Garboczi, Edward J.

2015-03-01

461

Nitridation of chromium powder in ammonia atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CrN powder was synthesized by nitriding Cr metal in ammonia gas flow, and its chemical reaction mechanism and nitridation process were studied. Through thermodynamic calculations, the Cr-N-O predominance diagrams were constructed for different temperatures. Chromium nitride formed at 7002-1200°C under relatively higher nitrogen and lower oxygen partial pressures. Phases in the products were then investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Cr2N content varied with reaction temperature and holding time. The results indicate that the Cr metal powder nitridation process can be explained by a diffusion model. Further, Cr2N formed as an intermediate product because of an incomplete reaction, which was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). After nitriding at 1000°C for 20 h, CrN powder with an average grain size of 63 nm was obtained, and the obtained sample was analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Li, Ling; Zhen, Qiang; Li, Rong

2015-03-01

462

Volume 7. Copper base powder metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on a series of lectures on copper and copper base P/M materials sponsored by the Metal Powder Industries Federation. It covers recent developments in the fields of copper powder metallurgy and offers a comprehensive survey of copper and copper-base P/M materials. It begins with a chapter on the production of copper and copper alloy powders followed by discussions of specific applications of P/M materials in bronzes and bearings, in brasses and nickel silvers, and in electrically conductive parts. Also discussed are iron composition containing copper, copper-based alloys for infiltration of iron and other special copper-base alloys. It concludes with chapters on consolidation, sintering and review of specifications.

Taubenblat, P.W. (ed.)

1980-01-01

463

Atomization methods for forming magnet powders  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

Sellers, Charles H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hyde, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

464

Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

2003-05-01

465

Cleaning process for contaminated superalloy powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cleaning process for removing interstitial contaminants from superalloy powders after wet grinding is described. Typical analyses of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in ball-milled WAZ-20 superalloy samples after hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning are presented. The hydrogen cleaning step involves heating retorts containing superalloy powder twice under flowing hydrogen with a 24-hour hold at each temperature. The vacuum step involves heating cold-pressed billets two hours at an elevated temperature at a pressure of 10 microPa. It is suggested that the hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning procedure can be applied to superalloys contaminated by other substances in other industrial processes.

Anglin, A. E.

1978-01-01

466

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06

467

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

1987-04-24

468

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

469

A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.

2013-06-01

470

The Powder Diffraction File: present and future.  

PubMed

The International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) produces the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This paper discusses some of the seminal events in the history of producing this primary reference for powder diffraction. Recent key events that center on collaborative initiatives have led to an enormous jump in entry population for the PDF. Collective efforts to editorialize the PDF are ongoing and provide enormous added value to the file. Recently, the ICDD has created a new series of the PDF, designated PDF-4. These relational database structures are being used to house the PDF of the future. The design and benefits of the PDF-4 are described. PMID:12037351

Faber, John; Fawcett, Tim

2002-06-01

471

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26

472

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1995-01-01

473

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01

474

The development of an alternative thermoplastic powder prepregging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed is a novel powder prepregging technique that is based on the deposition of the powder onto fibers that have been moistened using an ultrasonic humidifier. The moisture acts as an initial binding agent for the powder until the powder can be melted onto the fiber in a subsequent heating step. LaRC-TPI powder, produced by Mitsui Toastsu, and Hercules AS-4 fiber served as the process development material system. The influence of powder particle size on this process, and the quality of the resulting composite are discussed.

Ogden, A. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Muellerleile, J. T.; Wilkes, G. L.; Loos, A. C.

1990-01-01

475

Powder River 0 20 40 KILOMETERS  

E-print Network

WYOMING MONTANA Powder River Basin 0 20 40 KILOMETERS 0 20 40 MILES 44° 45° 46° 43° 107° 106° 105° Gillette Miles City Birney Sheridan Buffalo Glenrock Glenrock Douglas Moorcroft Decker Colstrip Ashland Forsyth Lame Deer Broadus MONTANA WYOMING MONTANA WYOMING TREASURE COUNTY ROSEBUD COUNTY CARTER COUNTY

476

Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

Evans, D. J.

1975-01-01

477

Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique involving superplastic processing and high pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m at 480 C were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high temperature tensile and stress rupture strengths were also devised.

Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

1977-01-01

478