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1

Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.  

PubMed

Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

2013-06-01

2

Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate  

PubMed Central

Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

2013-01-01

3

Preservation of Cocoa Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, Flavan3-ols, and Procyanidin Content in Foods Prepared with Cocoa Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activ- ity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxi- dant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in

L. Stahl; K. B. Miller; J. Apgar; D. S. Sweigart; D. A. Stuart; N. McHale; B. Ou; M. Kondo; W. J. Hurst

2009-01-01

4

Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder  

PubMed Central

We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) as a result of alkalizing, while fungi (4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.7 to 2.8 log CFU/g) were inactivated to levels below the detection limit, remaining undetectable throughout processing. Roasting further decreased the levels of TAM and TS, but they increased slightly during subsequent processing. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities based on enriched cocoa samples revealed a predominance of members of the Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Enterococcaceae. Eleven species of ThrS were found, but Bacillus licheniformis and the Bacillus subtilis complex were prominent and revealed great genetic heterogeneity. We concluded that the microbiota of cocoa powder resulted from microorganisms that could have been initially present in the nibs, as well as microorganisms that originated during processing. B. subtilis complex members, particularly B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, formed the most heat-resistant spores. Their occurrence in cocoa powder needs to be considered to ensure the stability of derived products, such as ultrahigh-temperature-treated chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

2012-01-01

5

Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions\\u000a (100–150?°C; 30–120?min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their\\u000a contents of free L-and D-amino acids.\\u000a \\u000a Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino

R. Pätzold; H. Brückner

2006-01-01

6

Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index L^* (brightness) and total color difference (? E^* ).

Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

2014-04-01

7

Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. PMID:19723182

Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

2009-08-01

8

Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.  

PubMed

An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%. PMID:24000740

Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

2013-01-01

9

Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

PubMed

An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts. PMID:22970585

Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

2012-01-01

10

Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.  

PubMed

Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder. PMID:20222713

Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

2010-04-28

11

Phase behavior and extended phase scheme of static cocoa butter investigated with real-time X-ray powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete isothermal phase-transition scheme of cocoa butter under static conditions is presented, based on time-resolved\\u000a X-ray powder diffraction experiments. In contrast to what is known from literature, not only ? V, but also ? VI can be obtained\\u000a directly through transformation from ??. Another remarkable result is that ?? exists as a phase range rather than as two separate

Kees van Malssen; Arjen van Langevelde; René Peschar; Henk Schenk

1999-01-01

12

The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration\\u000a of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of\\u000a the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in\\u000a brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected

Gerardo Barragán Mejía; David Calderón Guzmán; Hugo Juárez Olguín; Nancy Hernández Martínez; Edna García Cruz; Aline Morales Ramírez; Norma Labra Ruiz; Gabriela Esquivel Jiménez; Norma Osnaya Brizuela; Raquel García Álvarez; Esperanza Ontiveros Mendoza

13

Cocoa Powder Triggers Neuroprotective and Preventive Effects in a Human Alzheimer's Disease Model by Modulating BDNF Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms linking A? to the onset of neurotoxicity are still largely unknown, but several lines of evidence point to reactive oxygen species, which are produced even under the effect of nanomolar concentrations of soluble A?-oligomers. The consequent oxidative stress is considered as the mediator of a cascade of degenerative events in many neurological disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary habits and antioxidants from diet can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In the recent years, a number of reviews have reported on neuroprotective effects of polyphenols in cell and animal models. However, the majority of these studies have focused only on the anti-oxidant properties of these compounds and less on the mechanism/s of action at cellular level. In this work we investigated the effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract on a human AD in vitro model. The results obtained, other than confirming the anti-oxidant properties of cocoa, demonstrate that cocoa polyphenols triggers neuroprotection by activating BDNF survival pathway, both on A? plaque treated cells and on A? oligomers treated cells, resulting in the counteraction of neurite dystrophy. On the light of the results obtained the use of cocoa powder as preventive agent for neurodegeneration is further supported. PMID:23554028

Cimini, Annamaria; Gentile, Roberta; D'Angelo, Barbara; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Cristiano, Loredana; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Giordano, Antonio; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

2014-01-01

14

Milk Does Not Affect the Bioavailability of Cocoa Powder Flavonoid in Healthy Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols depend on the amount consumed, their bioavailability and the biological activities of the formed conjugates. The food matrix is one the factors than can affect their bioavailability, but previous studies have concluded rather contradictory results about the effect of milk on the bioavailability of polyphenols. Aim: The objective was to evaluate the possible

Elena Roura; Cristina Andrés-Lacueva; Ramon Estruch; M. Lourdes Mata-Bilbao; Maria Izquierdo-Pulido; Andrew L. Waterhouse; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós

2007-01-01

15

Improved analysis of theobromine and caffeine in chocolate food products formulated with cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of methylxanthines (i.e. caffeine, theobromine) in food products continues to be of interest to the public. To provide such data, an improved analytical method for their determination in cocoa-based food products was developed. An aqueous extraction followed by analysis using the method of known additions was found to give a higher degree of accuracy and precision in comparison

Austin G Caudle; Yifang Gu; Leonard N Bell

2001-01-01

16

Cocoa particles for food emulsion stabilisation.  

PubMed

Emulsifying properties of cocoa particles have been investigated in systems containing purified sunflower oil (PSO) and water at varying pH, concentration and source of cocoa particles including cocoa powders (CP), cocoa fibre (CF) and cocoa mass (CM). The effect of cocoa particle source, pH and cocoa particle concentration on emulsion stability was evaluated by following changes in characteristic droplet diameter. Size distributions acquired on the emulsions and aqueous cocoa particle suspensions overlapped. Based on cryo-SEM imaging of the emulsions, isolation of cocoa particle fines and a process of washing the cocoa particles to remove any water soluble molecules, it was concluded that the cocoa particle fines not captured by the small angle laser diffraction method employed for sizing, act as Pickering particles. This research has demonstrated a universal nature of a natural food particle to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions not requiring particle modification or adjusting of the solution properties of the emulsion phases. PMID:23851644

Gould, Joanne; Vieira, Josélio; Wolf, Bettina

2013-09-01

17

Oxalate content in commercially produced cocoa and dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa and dark chocolate have been promoted as health foods due to the high levels of antioxidants found in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) and their products but they also contain moderate to high levels of oxalates which can cause some health concerns. Fifteen samples of commercially available cocoa powder were collected from four different countries and the total and

Theresa Schroder; Leo Vanhanen; Geoffrey P. Savage

2011-01-01

18

Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

19

6.NS Making Hot Cocoa, Variation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One mug of hot chocolate uses $\\frac23$ cup of cocoa powder. How many mugs can Nelli make with 3 cups of cocoa powder? Solve the problem by drawing a p...

20

Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. PMID:21925035

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

2011-12-01

21

A Comparative Study of Iron Bioavailability from Cocoa Supplemented with Ferric Pyrophosphate or Ferrous Fumarate in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Food iron fortification can be a good strategy to prevent iron deficiency. Iron bioavailability from cocoa powder enriched with ferric pyrophosphate encapsulated in liposomes or ferrous fumarate was assessed in rats. Methods: Three groups of rats consumed during 28 days either a control diet or two diets prepared with ferric pyrophosphate- or ferrous fumarate-enriched cocoa powder as the unique

S. Navas-Carretero; B. Sarriá; A. M. Pérez-Granados; S. Schoppen; M. Izquierdo-Pulido; M. P. Vaquero

2007-01-01

22

Semiquantitative determination of mesophilic, aerobic microorganisms in cocoa products using the Soleris NF-TVC method.  

PubMed

The Soleris Non-fermenting Total Viable Count method was previously validated for a wide variety of food products, including cocoa powder. A matrix extension study was conducted to validate the method for use with cocoa butter and cocoa liquor. Test samples included naturally contaminated cocoa liquor and cocoa butter inoculated with natural microbial flora derived from cocoa liquor. A probability of detection statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with aerobic plate counts determined using the AOAC Official Method 966.23 dilution plating method. Results of the two methods were not statistically different at any dilution level in any of the three trials conducted. The Soleris method offers the advantage of results within 24 h, compared to the 48 h required by standard dilution plating methods. PMID:24672871

Montei, Carolyn; McDougal, Susan; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

2014-01-01

23

Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.  

PubMed

Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa. PMID:23564311

Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

2013-08-01

24

77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach...in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2012-08-20

25

Relationship between Crystallization Behavior and Structure in Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was crystallized statically from the melt to various temperatures in the range of -20 to 26 °C and annealed for up to 45 days. During this period, the polymorphism of the solid state was monitored using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the microstructure of the materials was imaged using polarized light microscopy. Below -15 °C,

Alejandro G. Marangoni; Sara E. McGauley

2003-01-01

26

Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g?1) were 75–84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93–94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07–0.08 ng g?1), accurate (recovery = 75–94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g?1; in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g?1, the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g?1; one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g?1). PMID:21623500

Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P.M.

2011-01-01

27

Polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely by x-ray diffraction six crystalline states, I–VI, in order of increasing melting point, have been identified for\\u000a cocoa butter. Of these states II, IV, V and VI are pure and identifiable with previously (or presently) identified polymorphs\\u000a of 2-oleoylpalmitoyl stearin (POS), namely?-2,??-2,?-3 (“V”) and?-3 (“VI”); V and VI representing distinct but very closely related crystalline structures. State I is

R. L. Wille; E. S. Lutton

1966-01-01

28

label name %cocoa cocoa source Pralus Cuba 75 Despite being called Cuba, the blurb on the back talks  

E-print Network

label name %cocoa cocoa source Pralus Cuba 75 Despite being called Cuba, the blurb on the back plantation in Madagascar on the island of Nosy Be (?)cocoa, sugar, pure cocoa butter, GMO-free soya lecithintrinitarioclear, clean fruit taste that is quite rich with molasses und cocoa, sugar, pure cocoa butter, GMO

Reitsma, Femke E.

29

Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.  

PubMed

Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. PMID:24667314

Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

2014-05-16

30

Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT. PMID:23494741

Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

2013-01-01

31

Financial analysis of shaded cocoa in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of cocoa has been an important driver of tropical deforestation globally. Efforts to reverse this trend are\\u000a focusing on the reintroduction of shade trees to cocoa plantations. Shade trees are valuable in enhancing biophysical conditions\\u000a on cocoa (Theobroma cacao) fields and contribute to biodiversity and product diversification for smallholder producers. Participatory trials of cocoa\\u000a agroforests planted with indigenous

Beatrice Darko Obiri; Geoff A. Bright; Morag A. McDonald; Luke C. N. Anglaaere; Joseph Cobbina

2007-01-01

32

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has

Sarah E. Guthrie; Gianfranco Mazzanti; Alejandro Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2004-01-01

33

Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.  

PubMed

This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of chocolate products. Hot cocoa provides 62 mg/serving of theobromine and 4 mg/serving of caffeine when prepared from commercial instant mixes. Instant cold chocolate milk mixes supply an average of 58 mg/serving of theobromine and 5 mg/serving of caffeine. The methylxanthine content of chocolate foods has received only slight attention in the literature. The methylxanthine content of sweet chocolate ranges from 0.359 to 0.628% for theobromine and 0.017 to 0.125% for caffeine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6396642

Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

1984-01-01

34

Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.  

PubMed

In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-?B. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

2014-04-01

35

COCOA - Tracking in Aerial Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefleld settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At flrst stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving

Saad Ali; Mubarak Shah

2005-01-01

36

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

37

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. I. Kinetics of solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of seeding of fat crystals on the crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter and dark chocolate were examined with a\\u000a rotational viscometer. The seed crystals employed were cocoa butter, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS), 1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol\\u000a (BOB) and 1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol (SSS). The seed powders were prepared by pulverization below —50?C, the dimensions being\\u000a in a range from 20–70 ?m. Particular attention was paid to the

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

38

Cocoa Consumption, Cocoa Flavonoids, and Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in the health effects of cocoa products. Cocoa flavonoids have especially been associated\\u000a with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We summarize the effects of total flavonoid and cocoa flavonoid consumption\\u000a on CVD endpoints in observational studies and intermediate risk factors in experimental designs. From an evidence-based review,\\u000a there is strong evidence that high cocoa intake

Scott R. Bauer; Eric L. Ding; Liesbeth A. Smit

2011-01-01

39

Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.  

PubMed

Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect. PMID:23561077

Calatayud, Marta; López-de-Dicastillo, Carolina; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vélez, Dinoraz; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

2013-08-15

40

COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

2006-05-01

41

Selective removal of the violet color produced by anthocyanins in procyanidin-rich unfermented cocoa extracts.  

PubMed

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is rich in procyanidins, a large portion of which degrades during the natural fermentation process of producing cocoa powder. Recent advances in technology have enabled scientists to produce unfermented cocoa powder, preserving the original profile of procyanidins present in cocoa and allowing for the development of highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts. During this process, the anthocyanins naturally present in unfermented cocoa remain intact, producing a violet color in the final extract. The objective of this study was to selectively remove the violet color in procyanidin-rich extracts produced from unfermented cocoa powder, while maintaining the stability and composition of procyanidins present in the matrix. Several processing parameters, including pH fluctuations, enzymatic treatments, and the addition of potassium meta-bisulfite, were explored to influence the color of procyanidin-rich extracts throughout a 60-d shelf life study. The addition of potassium meta-bisulfite (500 ppm) was found to be the most effective means of removing the violet color present in the treated extracts (L*= 71.39, a*= 8.44, b*= 9.61, chroma = 12.79, and hue = 48.8?) as compared to the control (L*= 52.84, a*= 11.08, b*= 2.24, chroma = 11.28, and hue = 11.4?). The use of potassium meta-bisulfite at all treatment levels (200, 500, and 1000 ppm) did not show any significant detrimental effects on the stability, composition, or amount of procyanidins present in the extracts over the shelf life period as monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-MS. This research will enable the food industry to incorporate highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts in food products without influencing the color of the final product. PMID:22417537

Wallace, Taylor C; Giusti, M Monica

2011-09-01

42

The effects of particle size, fermentation and roasting of cocoa nibs on supercritical fluid extraction of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particle size, fermentation, roasting time and roasting temperature of cocoa nibs on cocoa butter extraction using supercritical fluid technology were studied. The effect of particle size was studied using cocoa liquor (D=0.074mm), ground cocoa nib (D=0.25–0.50mm and 1.0–1.2mm) and whole cocoa nibs at 35MPa, 60°C and flow rate of 2ml\\/min using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The effect

E. K. Asep; S. Jinap; T. J. Tan; A. R. Russly; S. Harcharan; S. A. H. Nazimah

2008-01-01

43

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

PubMed Central

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products. PMID:16203244

Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

2005-01-01

44

Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

2013-01-01

45

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS ...definition and standard of identity, and is subject...Nomenclature. The name of the food is “cocoa” or “medium fat...

2013-04-01

46

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS ...definition and standard of identity, and is subject...Nomenclature. The name of the food is “cocoa” or “medium fat...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS ...definition and standard of identity, and is subject...Nomenclature. The name of the food is “cocoa” or “medium fat...

2012-04-01

48

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS ...definition and standard of identity, and is subject...Nomenclature. The name of the food is “cocoa” or “medium fat...

2014-04-01

49

Screening Antioxidants Using LC-MS: A Case Study with Cocoa  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Since rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts. This assay is based on the comparison of electrospray LC-MS profiles of sample extracts before and after treatment with reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide or DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Using this assay, methanolic extracts of cocoa powder were analyzed, and procyanidins were found to be the most potent antioxidant species. These species were identified using LC-MS, LC-MS-MS, accurate mass measurement, and comparison with reference standards. Furthermore, LC-MS was used to determine the levels of these species in cocoa samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant antioxidants followed by their dimers and trimers. The most potent antioxidants in cocoa were trimers and dimers of catechin and epicatechin, such as procyanidin B2, followed by catechin and epicatechin. This new LC-MS assay facilitates the rapid identification and then the determination of the relative antioxidant activities of individual antioxidant species in complex natural product samples and food products such as cocoa. PMID:19489609

Calderon, Angela I.; Wright, Brian J.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

2009-01-01

50

The CoCoA Project The CoCoA project comprises a small group of researchers studying  

E-print Network

in Commutative Algebra Alongside the usual academic publications, the group also produces the program CoCoA which new CoCoA 5 library became available as an alpha release. Compared to CoCoA 4.6 this new library to resolve some limitations inherent in the current design would be to start afresh. CoCoA 5 is a completely

Robbiano, Lorenzo

51

Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science  

PubMed Central

The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America?ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

2013-01-01

52

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

53

The healing power of dogs: Cocoa's story.  

PubMed

Animals bring a sense of "at homeness" and even normalcy to people who are hospitalized or live in health care facilities. Illnesses, separation from family, fear, loneliness, and even depression may be lessened for those who receive a therapy dog visit by providing a welcome change in routine and something to look forward to. Individuals are often more active and responsive during and after a visit. Just stroking and petting a dog requires the use of hands and arms, as well as the motions of stretching and turning. Dogs are also unconcerned with age or physical ability; they accept people as they are. This alone causes many to reach out and interact with dogs. Animals provide a focus for conversation and a common interest. As Cocoa's human partner can attest, a pet also makes it easier for strangers to talk. Cocoa is known by so many people at the facilities she visits that residents' family members often stop to talk with "Cocoa's mom" when they meet her in the community, asking questions about how Cocoa is doing. When Cocoa is no longer able to perform her services, many in her community will mourn. Cocoa's story, as well as the limited research literature, supports the positive physical and psychological effects of animals, but continued research on the effect of therapy animals on health outcomes is needed. As advocates for clients, nurses are in key positions to facilitate the inclusion of animals in clients' care. Although not for everyone, including those who react negatively to animals or who are allergic, pet therapy offers important possibilities for providing holistic care that extends not only to clients, but also to family members and staff, and to the pets themselves. PMID:16475440

Cangelosi, Pamela R; Embrey, Carolyn N

2006-01-01

54

The effects of cocoa on the immune system  

PubMed Central

Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions. PMID:23759861

Perez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

2013-01-01

55

Cocoa-tracking in aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving

M Shah

2006-01-01

56

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Sarah E. Guthrie; Eric B. Sirota; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2004-01-01

57

Amyl alcohols as compounds indicative of raw cocoa bean quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyl alcohols were isolated from raw cocoa beans by steam distillation and quantified by means of gas chromatography. Concentration\\u000a ratios between primary and secondary amyl alcohols and between alcohols, aldehydes and acetates were calculated. These ratios\\u000a indicate the fermentation degree and possible staling of cocoa beans. Hence, flavour quality of raw cocoa beans may be measured\\u000a and the method used

Sabine Oberparleiter; Gottfried Ziegleder

1997-01-01

58

Rapid MS method for analysis of cocoa butter TAG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia negative ion CI-MS was applied to analyze the M.W. distribution and regioisomeric structure of TAG in cocoa butter\\u000a and in cocoa butter equivalents. The M.W. distribution results obtained for a reference cocoa butter were consistent with\\u000a corresponding results obtained in an intercomparison study by chromatographic methods. Minor but statistically significant\\u000a differences were observed when proportions of the three major

J.-P. Kurvinen; O. Sjövall; R. Tahvonen; E. Anklam; H. Kallio

2002-01-01

59

Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.  

PubMed

The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

Pucciarelli, Deanna L

2013-10-01

60

Method for the determination of catechin and epicatechin enantiomers in cocoa-based ingredients and products by high-performance liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A single-laboratory validation study was performed for an HPLC method to identify and quantify the flavanol enantiomers (+)- and (-)-epicatechin and (+)- and (-)-catechin in cocoa-based ingredients and products. These compounds were eluted isocratically with an ammonium acetate-methanol mobile phase applied to a modified beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase and detected using fluorescence. Spike recovery experiments using appropriate matrix blanks, along with cocoa extract, cocoa powder, and dark chocolate, were used to evaluate accuracy, repeatability, specificity, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method as performed by a single analyst on multiple days. In all samples analyzed, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant flavanol and represented 68-91% of the total monomeric flavanols detected. For the cocoa-based products, within-day (intraday) precision for (-)-epicatechin was between 1.46-3.22%, for (+)-catechin between 3.66-6.90%, and for (-)-catechin between 1.69-6.89%; (+)-epicatechin was not detected in these samples. Recoveries for the three sample types investigated ranged from 82.2 to 102.1% at the 50% spiking level, 83.7 to 102.0% at the 100% spiking level, and 80.4 to 101.1% at the 200% spiking level. Based on performance results, this method may be suitable for routine laboratory use in analysis of cocoa-based ingredients and products. PMID:22649938

Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Schaneberg, Brian T; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L

2012-01-01

61

Child labour and cocoa: whose voices prevail?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide ethnographic data on the lives of children working in cocoa-producing communities in Ghana and to illustrate the importance of contextualisation in understanding the phenomenon of child labour. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in Ghana using participant observation and child-focused participatory research methods. It also

Amanda Berlan

2009-01-01

62

Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-?B. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. PMID:21470061

Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

2011-11-15

63

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sulawesi. The antioxidant capacity of water and ethanolic extracts prepared from cocoa beans was measured by three different assays. To estimate the total phenolic content, the assay using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used. The water extract showed the higher

Azizah Othman; Amin Ismail; Nawalyah Abdul Ghani; Ilham Adenan

2007-01-01

64

Property rights, production technology, and deforestation: cocoa in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use a vintage-capital model with risk of eviction to assess cocoa farmers' response to changes in their tenure security and to the introduction of a new, faster-maturing cocoa variety. The model is calibrated with data from Cameroon in calendar year 2000, and then used to simulate the effects of institutional and technical change on farmer welfare

Harounan Kazianga; William A. Masters

65

OTA-producing fungi isolated from stored cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of this study was to identify fungal populations in unroasted cocoa beans stored in Spain in order to evaluate the ochratoxin A (OTA)-pro- duction ability of certain Aspergillus isolates. Methods and Results: Twenty batches of cocoa beans from different origins and with different OTA content were selected for this study. Three Aspergillus carbonarius and 13 Aspergillus niger

S. Amézqueta; E. González-Peñas; C. Dachoupakan; M. Murillo-Arbizu; A. López de Cerain; J. P. Guiraud

2008-01-01

66

Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism and phase transitions of cocoa butter (CB) have been reexamined separately by differential scanning calorimetry\\u000a (DSC) and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT) at scanning rates between 0.1 to 5C\\/min and 0.1 to 2C\\/min,\\u000a respectively. A new instrument, which allowed simultaneous DSC and XRDT recordings from the same sample by taking advantage\\u000a of the high-energy flux

C. Loisel; G. Keller; G. Lecq; C. Bourgaux; M. Ollivon

1998-01-01

67

Chemopreventive effects of cocoa polyphenols on chronic diseases.  

PubMed

We have explored the causes of the major chronic diseases prevailing in the world and the relevant mechanisms as a sound basis for recommendations for their prevention. Research shows that the cocoa bean, and tasty products derived from the cocoa bean such as chocolate, and the beverage cocoa, popular with many people worldwide, is rich in specific antioxidants, with the basic structure of catechins and epicatechin, and especially the polymers procyanidins, polyphenols similar to those found in vegetables and tea. Metabolic epidemiological studies indicate that regular intake of such products increases the plasma level of antioxidants, a desirable attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidants in cocoa can prevent the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol, related to the mechanism of protection in heart disease. Likewise, a few studies show that ROS associated with the carcinogenic processes is also inhibited, although there have not been many studies on a possible lower risk of various types of cancer either in humans or in animal models consuming cocoa butter or chocolates. Based on the knowledge acquired thus far, it would seem reasonable to suggest inhibition of the several phases of the complex processes leading to cancer, as a function of quantitative intake of antioxidants, including those from cocoa and chocolates. Cocoa and chocolate also contain fats from cocoa butter. These are mainly stearic triglycerides (C18:0) that are less well absorbed than other fats, and are excreted in the feces. Thus, cocoa butter is less bioavailable and has minimal effect on serum cholesterol. PMID:11682694

Weisburger, J H

2001-11-01

68

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

69

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products.” Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official...

2010-01-01

70

Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Claims About Cocoa Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You? Many of us ... Ringing in Your Ears? Wise Choices Links Eating Chocolate If you don’t eat chocolate now, the ...

71

Near Infra-red Characterization of Changes in Flavan-3-ol Derivatives in Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a Function of Fermentation Temperature.  

PubMed

Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch. PMID:25259956

Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

2014-10-15

72

Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a crop grown largely by smallholder farmers in the lowland tropics, including parts of Latin America, West Africa,\\u000a and Indonesia. Research suggests that it has the potential to provide biodiversity benefits when grown under certain shade\\u000a conditions, especially when compared with alternative land uses. The primary literature on cocoa production reveals a range\\u000a of objectives for improvement of

Margaret Franzen; Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2007-01-01

73

Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.  

PubMed

The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. PMID:24401377

Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

2014-02-01

74

Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples.  

PubMed

The quantitative parameters and method performance for a normal-phase HPLC separation of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing food products were optimized and assessed. Single laboratory method performance was examined over three months using three separate secondary standards. RSD(r) ranged from 1.9%, 4.5% to 9.0% for cocoa powder, liquor and chocolate samples containing 74.39, 15.47 and 1.87 mg/g flavanols and procyanidins, respectively. Accuracy was determined by comparison to the NIST Standard Reference Material 2384. Inter-lab assessment indicated that variability was quite low for seven different cocoa-containing samples, with a RSD(R) of less than 10% for the range of samples analyzed. PMID:19426987

Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Johnson, J Christopher; Li, Julia; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Prior, Ronald L; Gu, Liwei

2009-06-12

75

Flavanols, the Kuna, Cocoa Consumption, and Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

The Kuna Indians who reside in an archipelago on the Caribbean Coast of Panama have very low blood pressure levels, live longer than other Panamanians, and have a reduced frequency of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer -- at least on their death certificates. One outstanding feature of their diet includes a very high intake of flavanol-rich cocoa. Flavonoids in cocoa activate nitric oxide synthesis in healthy humans. The possibility that the high flavanol intake protects the Kuna against high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer is sufficiently intriguing and sufficiently important that large, randomized controlled clinical trials should be pursued. PMID:20409950

Hollenberg, Norman K.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

76

Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health  

PubMed Central

This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

Andujar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Rios, J. L.

2012-01-01

77

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first

Made M. Ardhana; Graham H. Fleet

2003-01-01

78

Influence of Chemical Composition on the Isothermal Cocoa Butter Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of chemical composition on the isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was investigated quantitatively. Apart from the fatty acid and triacylglycerol profile, the amounts of some minor components (diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids, soap, unsaponifiable matter, iron, and primary oxidation products) were determined. With the forward model selection technique, a multiple linear regression model was established, showing the influence of

I. Foubert; P. A. Vanrolleghem; O. Thas; K. Dewettinck

2006-01-01

79

Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.  

PubMed

Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:? This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix. PMID:22384959

Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

2012-03-01

80

[Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].  

PubMed

The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well PMID:24020255

López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

2012-12-01

81

Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.  

PubMed

The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-08-01

82

Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.  

PubMed

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste, and flavor, and has to be fermented, dried, and roasted to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavor and taste. In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the changes in the cocoa beans during fermentation and investigate the possibility of future development of objective methods for assessing the degree of fermentation, a novel combination of methods including cut test, colorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and GC-MS evaluated by chemometric methods was used to examine cocoa beans sampled at different durations of fermentation and samples representing fully fermented and dried beans from all cocoa growing regions of Ghana. Using colorimetry it was found that samples moved towards higher a* and b* values as fermentation progressed. Furthermore, the degree of fermentation could, in general, be well described by the spectroscopic methods used. In addition, it was possible to link analysis of volatile compounds with predictions of fermentation time. Fermented and dried cocoa beans from the Volta and the Western regions clustered separately in the score plots based on colorimetric, fluorescence, NIR, and GC-MS indicating regional differences in the composition of Ghanaian cocoa beans. The study demonstrates the potential of colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as valuable tools for determining the fermentation degree of cocoa beans. Using GC-MS it was possible to demonstrate the formation of several important aroma compounds such 2-phenylethyl acetate, propionic acid, and acetoin and the breakdown of others like diacetyl during fermentation. Practical Application: The present study demonstrates the potential of using colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality along the processing chain. Development of objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality will be of great importance for quality insurance within the fields of cocoa processing and raw material control in chocolate producing companies. PMID:20722952

Aculey, Patrick C; Snitkjaer, Pia; Owusu, Margaret; Bassompiere, Marc; Takrama, Jemmy; Nørgaard, Lars; Petersen, Mikael A; Nielsen, Dennis S

2010-08-01

83

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2010-04-01

84

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

85

Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.  

PubMed

Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent. PMID:24326448

Larsson, Susanna C

2014-01-01

86

Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

87

The effect of shear on the crystallization of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of shear on the crystallization of cocoa butter using a combination of three different experimental\\u000a techniques and a single crystallization temperature of 20C. Rheological measurements were carried out to study the effect\\u000a of a shear step on the crystallization kinetics of the fat. Without a shear step, little rheological change was observed at\\u000a 20C; however,

S. Sonwai; M. R. Mackley

2006-01-01

88

Genetic transformation of cocoa leaf cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf strips from cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.) clones ICS-16 and SIC-5 were cocultivated with the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A281-Kan. A281-Kan contains a wild-type Ti plasmid and an additional plasmid, pGPTV-Kan, which confers kanamycin resistance to transformed plant cells after integration and expression of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene. Transformed cells were selected on callusing medium containing 100

Stephen L. Sain; Kwabena K. Oduro; Douglas B. Furtek

1994-01-01

89

Reconsideration of polymorphic transformations in cocoa butter using the DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was crystallized in the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the presence and the absence of sorbitan monostearate\\u000a at different cooling rates. The solidification and fusion curves were recorded. It was found that cooling rate affects enthalpies\\u000a and temperatures of phase transitions. The very slow cooling rate causes a significant decrease in crystallization enthalpy,\\u000a suggesting that fractionation of glycerides

Judith Schlichter Aronhime; Sara Sarig; Nissim Garti

1988-01-01

90

Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under  

SciTech Connect

Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G

2009-01-01

91

76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2011-05-10

92

77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2012-03-14

93

Farmer management of cocoa agroforests in Cameroon: Impacts of decision scenarios on structure and biodiversity of indigenous tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa agroforests are dominant agricultural systems on the forest margins of Cameroon. Their management remains complex involving close interplay and trade-offs in social, ecological, economic and policy questions. To protect the cocoa crop and increase the net livelihood worth of cocoa agroforests, farmers maintain and or integrate diverse indigenous tree species in them. In a broadening context of environmental management

P. Mbile; P. Ngaunkam; M. Besingi; C. Nfoumou; A. Degrande; A. Tsobeng; T. Sado; T. Menimo

2009-01-01

94

Cocoa Has More Phenolic Phytochemicals and a Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red

Ki Won Lee; Young Jun Kim; Hyong Joo Lee; Chang Yong Lee

2003-01-01

95

Effects of cocoa products\\/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate\\/cocoa

O A Tokede; J M Gaziano; L Djoussé

2011-01-01

96

COCOA: A New Validated Instrument to Assess Medical Students' Attitudes towards Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the reliability and validity of the Carolina Opinions on Care of Older Adults (COCOA) survey compared with the Geriatric Assessment Survey (GAS). Participants were first year medical students (n = 160). A Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) measurement model for COCOA had a moderately strong fit that was significantly better…

Hollar, David; Roberts, Ellen; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

2011-01-01

97

Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes by Cocoa Extracts 1 and Procyanidins  

PubMed Central

We determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2 to 10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL and PLA2. Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 8.5 – 47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between Log IC50 and DP (R2 > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer non-competitively inhibited PLA2 activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA2 competitively. Our study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro, and may, in conjunction with a low calorie diet, play a role in body weight management. PMID:21495725

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J.; Stuart, David A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

98

Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 °C

Teresa Oliviero; Edoardo Capuano; Bettina Ca?mmerer; Vincenzo Fogliano

2009-01-01

99

Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.  

PubMed

Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

2014-04-01

100

Cocoa bioactive compounds: significance and potential for the maintenance of skin health.  

PubMed

Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F; Gonzalez, Salvador

2014-08-01

101

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.  

PubMed

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

2014-02-01

102

Energetic powder  

DOEpatents

Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-12-23

103

Molecular Composition Dynamics and Structure of Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thepresentstudyendeavorstounderstandhowsmallchangesinthecompositionofcocoabutteraffectitscrystal habit, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Such compositional variations were attained by blending cocoabutterwith 1and5%1,2,3-tristearoyl-glycerol(SSS) or1,2,3-trilinoleoyl-glycerol (LLL). Structuralparameters such as crystallization kinetics, crystal structure, microstructure, and mechanical strength were obtained via differential scanningcalorimetry(DSC),pulsednuclearmagneticresonance(pNMR),X-raydiffraction(XRD),polarizedlightmicroscopy (PLM), and texture analysis. Changes in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of cocoa butter affected its crystal structure and therefore its functionality. The high melting saturated

Rodrigo Campos; Michel Ollivon; Alejandro G. Marangoni

2010-01-01

104

Impact of industrial treatments on ochratoxin A content in artificially contaminated cocoa beans.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by mould species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which grow on a variety of agricultural products. OTA-contaminated foodstuffs pose a major health hazard to consumers, including human and animal. In Cote d'Ivoire, numerous studies are being carried out to find the best way of preventing OTA contamination of cocoa raw material. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the impact of industrial treatment on OTA content in cocoa-derived products. Samples of cocoa pods were prepared under specific conditions promoting fungal proliferation on cocoa beans before processing. The beans underwent the usual industrial treatments - roasting, shelling, crushing, pressing and additive addition - and samples were taken at each stage. OTA was extracted with a methanol/3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and purified using an immunoaffinity column prior to HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in artificially contaminated cocoa beans at levels ranging from 3.4 to 44.7 microg kg(-1) with a mean value of 22.9 +/- 3.6 microg kg(-1). OTA was mainly concentrated in the shell (93%). Roasting, shelling and additive addition significantly decreased levels of OTA by 24-40, 76 and 52%, respectively, with an overall reduction of approximately 91%. These results indicate that industrial processing of cocoa has a real impact on the reduction of OTA in final cocoa products. PMID:19680983

Manda, Pierre; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Kouadio, James Halbin; Diakité, Aïssata; Sangaré-Tigori, Béatrice; Ezoulin, Miezan Jean Marc; Soumahoro, Awa; Dembele, Ardjouma; Fourny, Gérard

2009-07-01

105

Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M?+?Na](+) and [M?+?NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile. PMID:25230186

Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

2014-09-01

106

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-10-01

107

On the determination of trace elements in cocoa and coffee by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

E-print Network

Elemnts in Nib, Shel', and Who"e B an of Commercial Cocoa. 22 VI 'iib to Si. ell and Nib . - Whole Bear Fatios of' Untreated, reated, and, Comm rcial Cocoa VIZ Conc ntrat' on of race; laments i. , Ni 'o Shell Ta'zen Tog, t'ner and Rat io of Nib... elements or sent in the nib, shell, and who e bean for all three categories c cocoa. Eor example most of the elements are present i. , hi=her concentration in the shell then 'n the ni'o. 'has 1s confirmed in 1'abl VI where the nib to shel: ratio is con...

Adanuvor, Prosper Kwasi

2012-06-07

108

Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

C?nar, Miyase; Yalc?nkaya, Ilkay; Atmaca, Nurgul; Guncum, Enes

2014-01-01

109

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean  

PubMed Central

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

2014-01-01

110

Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult. PMID:23912326

Martin, Maria Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-01-01

111

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

112

21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...of the food additive is “cocoa...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing” to which is...When the food additive is used in a...phrase “for manufacturing” may...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 172.520 Section 172.520 Food and Drugs FOOD...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming...

2013-04-01

114

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

...sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 172.520 Section 172.520 Food and Drugs FOOD...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming...

2014-04-01

115

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 172.520 Section 172.520 Food and Drugs FOOD...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming...

2012-04-01

116

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. 172.520 Section 172.520 Food and Drugs FOOD...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with...sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming...

2011-04-01

117

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

1988-01-01

118

The efficiency of bulk and fine/flavor cocoa markets: the case of Trinidad and Tobago  

E-print Network

, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, and flowers. Imports amounted to $3 billion (fo. b. , 2000 est. ) for commodities related to machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, and live animals. The country's main..., steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, and flowers. Imports amounted to $3 billion (fo. b. , 2000 est. ) for commodities related to machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, and live animals. The country's main...

Kalloo, Margaret Surujdai

2012-06-07

119

Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: Cocoa instead of ambrosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is\\u000a of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich\\u000a cocoa have beneficial acute and shortterm effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults\\u000a with cardiovascular

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Nikolaos Alexopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

120

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s¹ and under static conditions. From

Gianfranco Mazzanti; Sarah E. Guthrie; Alejandro G. Marangoni; Stefan H. J. Idziak

2007-01-01

121

Analysis of the glyceride structure of cocoa butter by thermal gradient crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter was separated into 43 fractions by crystallization in a thermal gradient. Similar fractions were pooled and converted\\u000a into methyl esters which were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The amount of cocoa butter separated into a pure glyceride\\u000a type was 85%. No significant difference was found in the ratio of palmitic to stearic acid in the GSU2 and GS2U. In

Gary V. Jones; Earl G. Hammond

1961-01-01

122

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. IV. Cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cocoa butter has been fractionated by countercurrent distribution between pentane-hexane and furfural-uitroethane solvent\\u000a phases with the application of 1,100 transfer stages. Except for a small percentage of trisaturates and linoleic acid-containing\\u000a triglycerides, oleic acid occurs at least once in each glyceride molecule. Cocoa butter is composed principally of mono-oleins:\\u000a oleodistearin, 22%; oleopalmitostearin, 41%; and oleodipalmitin, 12%. Whereas the latter glyceride

C. R. Scholfield; H. J. Dutton

1959-01-01

123

Implication of Bacillus sp. in the production of pectinolytic enzymes during cocoa fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of bacilli in cocoa fermentation is not well known. Their potential of production of pectinolytic enzymes during\\u000a this process was evaluated. Bacillus growth was monitored and pectinolytic strains were screened for their use of pectin as sole carbon source. Effects of cocoa\\u000a fermentation parameters susceptible to influence on enzyme production were analysed. Among 98 strains isolated, 90 were

Honoré G. Ouattara; Ban L. Koffi; Germain T. Karou; Abdourahamane Sangaré; Sebastien L. Niamke; Jacques K. Diopoh

2008-01-01

124

Lipid composition of high-melting seed crystals formed during cocoa butter solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-melting seed crystals which form during the early stages of cocoa butter solidification possess a lipid composition different\\u000a than the cocoa butter from which the seed crystals were grown. Significantly large quantities of glycolipids, 11.1%, and phospholipids,\\u000a 6.6–8.1%, were found in the high-melting seed crystals along with a dramatic decrease in the simple lipid class. The fatty\\u000a acids comprising the

Thomas R. Davis; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

125

Cocoa butter and confectionery fats. Studies using programmed temperature X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior and thermal properties of cocoa butter have been investigated by means of programmed temperature\\u000a x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship of this polymorphism to the technical problems of\\u000a “tempering” and “bloom” development is discussed. Cocoa butter containing, respectively, milk fat and a bloom inhibitor, and\\u000a some alternatives to cocoa butter have been studied. These results

G. M. Chapman; E. E. Akehurst; W. B. Wright

1971-01-01

126

CD Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greet well-wishers following a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Center Director Roy Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. greet well-wishers at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

127

Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. PMID:25190869

Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

2014-09-01

128

Weissella fabaria sp. nov., from a Ghanaian cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

Two lactic acid bacteria, strains 257(T) and 252, were isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of these strains allocated them to the genus Weissella, showing 99.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards Weissella ghanensis LMG 24286(T). Whole-cell protein electrophoresis, fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of whole genomes and biochemical tests confirmed their unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments towards their nearest phylogenetic neighbour demonstrated that the two strains represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Weissella fabaria sp. nov., with strain 257(T) (=LMG 24289(T) =DSM 21416(T)) as the type strain. Additional sequence analysis using pheS gene sequences proved useful for identification of all Weissella-Leuconostoc-Oenococcus species and for the recognition of the novel species. PMID:19801391

De Bruyne, Katrien; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2010-09-01

129

Preparation of titanium diboride powder  

DOEpatents

Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

130

Shade Tree Diversity, Cocoa Pest Damage, Yield Compensating Inputs and Farmers' Net Returns in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers) and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes. PMID:23520451

Daghela Bisseleua, Herve Bertin; Fotio, Daniel; Yede; Missoup, Alain Didier; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

131

Theobroma cacao L., “The food of the gods”: Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of the fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices and the post-harvest processing. Among these, cocoa beans fermentation is still the most relevant, since it is the process whereby precursors of the cocoa flavour arise. The formation of these precursors

Lídia J. Rebelo-Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

132

Theobroma cacao L., “The Food of the Gods”: Quality Determinants of Commercial Cocoa Beans, with Particular Reference to the Impact of Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The

Lídia J. R. Lima; M. Helena Almeida; M. J. Rob Nout; Marcel H. Zwietering

2011-01-01

133

Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenol and Procyanidin Contents of Selected Commercially Available Cocoa-Containing and Chocolate Products in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity

Kenneth B. Miller; David A. Stuart; Nancy L. Smith; Chang Y. Lee; Nancy L. McHale; Judith A. Flanagan; Boxin Ou; W. Jeffrey Hurst

2006-01-01

134

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through

Timothy Lefeber; William Gobert; Gino Vrancken; Nicholas Camu; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

135

Malaria, Production and Income of the Producers of Coffee and Cocoa: an Analysis from Survey Data in Côte d'Ivoire. Malaria, coffee and cocoa production and income  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sectors of coffee and cocoa represented in Côte d'Ivoire, before the political crisis, approximately 15% of the GDP and 40% of exports. The zones of production of these two cultures are in the forest area which is infected with malaria. The culture of these products is less constraining than that of the food crops such as rice or yam

Jacky MATHONNAT; Jean-François BRUN; Martine AUDIBERT

2006-01-01

136

Malaria, Production and Income of the Producers of Coffee and Cocoa: an Analysis from Survey Data in Côte d'Ivoire. Malaria, coffee and cocoa production and income  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sectors of coffee and cocoa represented in Côte d'Ivoire, before the political crisis, approximately 15% of the GDP and 40% of exports. The zones of production of these two cultures are in the forest area which is infected with malaria. The culture of these products is less constraining than that of the food crops such as rice or yam

Martine Audibert; Jean-François Brun; Jacky Mathonnat; M.-C. Henry

2011-01-01

137

Effect of powder and target properties on wrap around effect during coating.  

PubMed

Tapioca starch, NaCl (28, 135, and 378 ?m), corn starch, cocoa powder, soy protein isolate, cheese powder, wheat protein, modified starch, nacho cheese, and sugar were coated at 0 kV for nonelectrostatic and at 25 kV for electrostatic coating onto metal, wood, unoiled paper, oiled paper, unoiled plastic, oiled plastic, fresh bread, and dry bread. Powders and targets were allowed to naturally tribocharge, or all charge was removed before coating. Powder particle size, flowability, resistivity, and target resistivity were reported. Electrostatic coating produced the same or better wrap around, or percent side coverage as nonelectrostatic coating for every powder and target. The greatest electrostatic improvement was found when using powders that had the worst nonelectrostatic side coverage: large particle size (>135 ?m), low resistivity, and low cohesiveness, especially on targets that had high-surface resistivity (2 × 10(5) ?m). Tribocharging had a similar effect as electrostatic coating. In both nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder particle size decreased, cohesiveness increased, or target resistivity decreased. In electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder resistivity increased; however, in nonelectrostatic coating, as powder resistivity increased, percent side coverage increased on only oiled plastic and dry bread. Practical Application: The evenness of powder coating on food is very important for consumer acceptability, since consumers judge food from its appearance before they have a chance to taste it. If thick food targets, such as cakes, donuts, and marshmallows need to be coated, the side coverage, due to the wrap around effect, is important. Choosing powders with small particle size, high cohesiveness and high-powder resistivity, and using electrostatic coating can produce food targets coated on all sides. PMID:21535493

Sumonsiri, Nutsuda; Barringer, Sheryl A

2010-10-01

138

Monitoring and quantifying of oil migration in cocoa butter using a flatbed scanner and fluorescence light microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil migration from a nile red stained phase composed of a mixture of peanut oil and chemically interesterified hydrogenated palm oil into a cocoa butter matrix was quantified by the use of a flatbed scanner and epifluorescence light microscopy. A concentration gradient of linoleic acid (C18:2) in the cocoa butter phase confirmed that nile red migrated with the oil from

Stéphanie Marty; Ken Baker; Elena Dibildox-Alvarado; Juliana Neves Rodrigues; Alejandro G. Marangoni

2005-01-01

139

Chemometric study and optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction parameters for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in processed cocoa from Nigeria using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solventless sample preparation method that combines sample preparation, isolation, concentration, and enrichment into one step. A simple and effective method coupling headspace-SPME to GC/MS was developed for the analysis of chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, endosulfan I, and endosulfan II pesticide residues in cocoa powder. In this study, multivariate strategy was used to determine the significance of the factors affecting the SPME of the pesticides using a Plackett-Burman design, and the significant factors were optimized using central composite design. The analytes were extracted with 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibers according to the factorial design matrix and desorbed into a GC/MS instrument. The developed method was applied for the analysis of a cocoa powder sample, and it exhibited good figures of merit for the analytical methodology. Using the optimized conditions, the linearity ranged from 2.5 to 500 microg/kg (R2> 0.99) using an internal standard calibration method, and the average recoveries were between 75 and 95%, with RSD values between 3.8 and 9.7%. PMID:25145130

Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Tan, Guan Huat

2014-01-01

140

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

141

Behavioural responses of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to volatiles identified from dry cocoa beans.  

PubMed

New hybrid types of cocoa beans are attractive to insects in storage, however some of the insects feed little, if at all, on these beans compared to those of the traditional type (mixed genotypes). Based on a sniffing test using GCMS, differences in flavour volatiles in these types of beans have been determined and from these, six major volatiles of cocoa beans were selected for olfactometric analysis using a Pettersson olfactometer to determine which of them contributed to the attraction of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to the cocoa beans. The behaviour of Tribolium was affected by dose of 2-phenyl ethanol, acetophenone, 3-methyl butyraldehyde, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and butyl 2-methacrylate. Compared to beans of the new hybrid varieties, beans of the traditional type cocoa contained less 3-methylbutyraldehyde but more ethyl butyrate and acetophenone. In future breeding programmes, reducing the amount of acetophenone and ethyl butyrate but increasing the amount of 3-methylbutyraldehyde in cocoa beans may deter Tribolium from feeding on beans in storage. PMID:19093461

Jonfia-Essien, W A; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G; Linforth, R; West, G

2007-10-15

142

Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols.  

PubMed

Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential dietary strategy to reduce glucose intolerance and inflammation is consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa-like cocoa or their by-products. In vitro as well as in vivo data indicate that cocoa polyphenols (CPs) may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in cocoa have been reported to regulate lipid metabolism via inducing metabolic gene expression or activating transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes, many of which play an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor Kappa B, activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, and adiponectin gene) have been identified, which may explain potential beneficial obesity-associated diseases effects of CPs. Further studies have been performed regarding the protective effects of CPs against metabolic diseases by suppressing transcription factors that antagonize lipid accumulation. Thus, polyphenols-rich cocoa products may diminish obesity-mediated metabolic diseases by multiple mechanisms, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation. PMID:24259381

Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Kersten, Sander

2014-01-01

143

Characterization of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars of Theobroma cacao L.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter is the most important fat used in the confectionery and chocolate industries. The main objective of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars belonging to the germplasm bank of the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National Foundation for Agricultural Research). AOAC methods were used for the assessment of the proximal composition of the beans, physical and chemical characteristics as well as for the fatty acid profile of the fat. It was found that there were statistical differences in the proximate composition of the cocoa beans among the cultivars studied as well as the iodine and saponification indices of the butter. Saturated fatty acids were present in higher proportions than unsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acid as the main fractions. Oleic acid content was higher than linoleic acid. The fatty acid profile found is the main factor that influences the hard texture of the cocoa butter from Venezuelan cocoa hybrids cultivars. PMID:11048595

Padilla, F C; Liendo, R; Quintana, A

2000-06-01

144

Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.  

PubMed

The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (? and ?') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (?) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

2014-11-26

145

Physicochemical properties of acidified skim milk gels containing cocoa flavanols.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties of acidified milk gels after the addition of cocoa flavanols were studied. As the flavanol level increased (from 0 to 2.5 mg/g), syneresis and gel elasticity (tan ?) were found to significantly increase and decrease, respectively. Flavanol addition reduced the stress at fracture, with no changes in fracture strain, suggesting that the bond type (i.e., covalent vs noncovalent) was the underlying factor explaining the ease of fracture. Gels made from recombined milks containing the casein fraction of heated milk and the serum of heated flavanol/milk mixtures showed the lowest values of G' and fracture stress. It was concluded that whey proteins/flavanol interactions were responsible for the poor mechanical properties of flavanol-added acidified milk gels. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of milk sera showed that 60% of the total available monomeric flavanols was found in the serum phase from which 75% was non-associated to whey proteins. Concomitantly, >70% of flavanols with degree of polymerization >3 were found to be associated with the casein fraction. PMID:21561068

Vega, César; Grover, Mollie K

2011-06-22

146

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first 2-3 days of fermentation were characterised by the successional growth of various species of filamentous fungi, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The principal species found were Penicillium citrinum, an unidentified basidiomycete, Kloeckera apis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The later stages of fermentation were dominated by the presence of Bacillus species, mostly, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid of the bean pulp were utilised during fermentation, with the production of ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid that diffused into the beans. The filamentous fungi were notable for their production of polygalacturonase activity and probably contributed to the degradation of bean pulp. PMID:12892924

Ardhana, Made M; Fleet, Graham H

2003-09-01

147

Composite powder particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

148

Precision powder feeder  

DOEpatents

A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

2001-07-10

149

The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent unpleasant taste and a spontaneous fermentation is the first step in a process leading to cocoa beans with the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Samples were collected at 12 hour intervals during 96-144 hour tray and traditional heap fermentations. Yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) and Bacillus spp. were enumerated on suitable substrates and identified using phenotypic and molecular methods. The yeast and bacterial micro-populations involved in the cocoa fermentation were further investigated using the culture-independent method Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophopresis (DGGE). A microbiological succession was observed during the fermentations. At the onset of fermentation yeasts were the dominating microorganisms. Lactic Acid Bacteria became dominant after 12-24 h of fermentation and remained predominant throughout the fermentations with AAB reaching high counts in the mid phase of fermentation. Bacillus spp. were only detected during heap fermentations where they reached high numbers during the later stages of fermentation. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii was the predominant yeast during the initial phase and Pichia membranifaciens during the later phases of fermentation. A number of other yeast species including three putatively undescribed species were isolated during the fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant LAB in most samples. Several other LAB including Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudoficulneum, Pediocococcus acidilactici and a putatively undescribed LAB species were detected during the fermentations. Acetobacter syzygii, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter tropicalis were the predominant AAB in all investigated fermentations. During the later stages of heap fermentation Bacillus licheniformis and occasionally other Bacillus spp. were detected in high numbers. In general the culture-based findings were confirmed using DGGE. However, DGGE indicated that Lc. pseudoficulneum plays a more important role during the fermentation of cocoa than expected from the culture-based findings as it yielded a strong band in most DGGE fingerprints. Cluster analysis of the DGGE fingerprints revealed that the DGGE fingerprints clustered according to fermentation site. Within each fermentation site the profiles clustered according to fermentation time. The DGGE method seems to offer a relatively fast and reliable tool for studying yeast and bacterial dynamics during cocoa fermentations. PMID:17161485

Nielsen, D S; Teniola, O D; Ban-Koffi, L; Owusu, M; Andersson, T S; Holzapfel, W H

2007-03-10

150

Quantitation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH4) in Cocoa and Chocolate Samples by an HPLC-FD Method.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall. PMID:25307999

Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

2014-11-01

151

A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.  

PubMed

Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms. PMID:23014569

Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

2012-10-15

152

Tropical commodity chains, forward integration strategies and international inequality: coffee, cocoa and tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative analysis of three tropical commodity chains, for a set of commodities often grouped together as the tropical beverages: coffee, cocoa and tea. The analysis demonstrates the ways in which the structures of these chains reinforce the north-south dimension of international inequality and help to explain its persistence over time. It focuses on attempts by actors

John M. Talbot

2002-01-01

153

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

154

The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flavanols modulate platelet function in vitro, but less is known of their in vivo effects and how they compare to pharmacological platelet inhibitors. We investigated the effect of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage (897 mg\\/ml) in combination with and in comparison to aspirin on platelet function and activation in healthy subjects. Methods and results: On separate test days in a

Debra A Pearson; Teresa G Paglieroni; Dietrich Rein; Ted Wun; Derek D Schramm; Janice F Wang; Roberta R Holt; Robert Gosselin; Harold H Schmitz; Carl L Keen

2002-01-01

155

A differential scanning calorimetry method to determine the isothermal crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed to reduce the variability on the data obtained from differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the isothermal crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter.To enable transformation of the DSC crystallization peak to a sigmoid crystallization curve, the DSC peak area has to be integrated. Usually, the start and end points of the crystallization peak are determined visually. The result

Imogen Foubert; Peter A. Vanrolleghem; Koen Dewettinck

2003-01-01

156

Capsid control for organic cocoa in Ghana : results of participatory learning and action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, compared to Ivory Coast and Malaysia, two other major producing countries, yields are extremely low. The causes of low yields are many. They inc!ude low producer price offered until recently by the government costs of labour, poor tree husbandry practices, and pest and diseases. The recent increase in producer price

G. K. Ayenor

2006-01-01

157

Cancer Protective Properties of Cocoa: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their high concentration of catechins and procyanidins, bioactive compounds with distinct properties, cocoa and chocolate products may have beneficial health effects against oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, risk factors for cancer and other chronic diseases. This review focuses on the epidemiologic evidence for protective effects against cancer and overall mortality. The very small number of observational epidemiologic studies

Gertraud Maskarinec

2009-01-01

158

Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.  

PubMed

Cocoa products and chocolate have recently been recognized as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly flavanols, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with established benefits for cardiovascular health but largely unproven effects on neurocognition and behavior. In this review, we focus on neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions of cocoa flavanols in humans. The absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in the brain regions involved in learning and memory, especially the hippocampus. The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: (i) via direct interactions with cellular cascades yielding expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and (ii) via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Protective effects of long-term flavanol consumption on neurocognition and behavior, including age- and disease-related cognitive decline, were shown in animal models of normal aging, dementia, and stroke. A few human observational and intervention studies appear to corroborate these findings. Evidence on more immediate action of cocoa flavanols remains limited and inconclusive, but warrants further research. As an outline for future research on cocoa flavanol impact on human cognition, mood, and behavior, we underscore combination of functional neuroimaging with cognitive and behavioral measures of performance. PMID:23810791

Sokolov, Alexander N; Pavlova, Marina A; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

2013-12-01

159

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

160

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

PubMed

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

161

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.  

PubMed

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-01-01

162

Which Powder is It?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners identify an unknown white powder by comparing it with common household powders. Learners first explore what happens when baking soda, baking powder, and washing soda are mixed with water, vinegar, and PHTH (the indicator phenolphthalein mixed with alcohol and water). Learners then work to identify the unknown based on how it reacts with the known solutions. This is a simplified form of "qualitative analysis," which was historically an important approach chemists used for identifying unknown samples.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

163

Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. Objective: This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults (mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg\\/m2): 30). In phase 1, subjects were

Zubaida Faridi; Valentine Yanchou Njike; Suparna Dutta; Ather Ali; David L Katz

164

In-line measurement of tempered cocoa butter and chocolate by means of near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work cocoa butter and chocolate were precrystallized by means of a newly developed shear crystallizer. The\\u000a shear crystallizer was integrated into a circular loop. The handling of precrystallized cocoa butter showed a high dependency\\u000a on the timing of applied analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry, calorimetry, rheometry, and in-line near-infrared (NIR)\\u000a were all directly influenced by the fat crystal

Stefan Bolliger; Yuantong Zeng; Erich J. Windhab

1999-01-01

165

Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.  

PubMed

The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2013-01-01

166

Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.  

PubMed

Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. PMID:25053037

Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

2015-01-01

167

Cocoa, Hazelnuts, Sterols and Soluble Fiber Cream Reduces Lipids and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa, mixed with other food ingredients, intake can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. We compared the effects of 4 cocoa cream products on some of these biomarkers. Methods and Findings In this multi-centered, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial, volunteers (n?=?113; age range: 43–65 years) who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic received one of 4 cocoa cream products (13 g/unit; 1 g cocoa/unit, 6 units/d; 465 Kcal/d) added to a low saturated fat diet for 4 weeks. The groups were: A) (n?=?28), cocoa cream considered as control; B) (n?=?28), cocoa+hazelnut cream (30 g/d hazelnuts); C) (n?=?30), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols (2 g/d); and D) (n?=?27), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols+soluble fiber (20 g/d) the patented “LMN product”. Primary outcome measures were BP, LDL-c, apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B), ApoB/ApoA ratio, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determined at baseline and post-cocoa cream product intake. Statistical analysis used was ANCOVA or mixed models (in case of repeated measurements), with baseline observation included as a covariate. After 4 weeks, compared to product A, product C reduced LDL-c by 11.2%, Apo B by 8.1% and ApoB/ApoA ratio by 7.8% (P?=?0.01). LMN decreased LDL-c by 9.2%, Apo B-100 by 8.5%, ApoB/ApoA ratio by 10.5%, hsCRP by 33.4% and oxLDL by 5.9% (P?=?0.01). Surprisingly, even “control” product A reduced systolic BP (?7.89 mmHg; 95%CI: ?11.45 to ?4.3) and diastolic BP (?5.54 mmHg; 95%CI: ?7.79 to ?3.29). The BP reductions were similar with the other 3 products. Limitations of the study are that the trial period was relatively short and that a better “BP control” product would have been preferable. Conclusion The creams (particularly the LMN) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in addition to lowering LDL-c, Apo B and ApoB/ApoA ratio. Thus, the soluble fiber effects amplified with sterols (as contained in the cocoa creams) provide new dietary therapeutic perspectives. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420 PMID:22383996

Sola, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Godas, Gemma; Perez-Busquets, Gloria; Ribalta, Josep; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Cabre, Anna; Castro, Antoni; Domenech, Gema; Torres, Ferran; Masana, Lluis; Angles, Neus; Reguant, Jordi; Ramirez, Bartolome; Barriach, Joaquim M.

2012-01-01

168

Ceramic powder compaction  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, F.M. [Norton Co., Worcester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

169

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought by flatbed truck to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

170

Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis  

PubMed Central

Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa. PMID:22605986

Babin, Regis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

171

Adding value to cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm information with domestication history and admixture mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sound understanding of crop history can provide the basis for deriving novel genetic information through admixture mapping.\\u000a We confirmed this, by using characterization data from an international collection of cocoa, collected 25 years ago, and from\\u000a a contemporary plantation. We focus on the trees derived from three centuries of admixture between Meso-American Criollo and\\u000a South American Forastero genomes. In both

Maria Marcano; Tatiana Pugh; Emile Cros; Sonia Morales; Elvis A. Portillo Páez; Brigitte Courtois; Jean Christophe Glaszmann; Jan M. M. Engels; Wilbert Phillips; Carlos Astorga; Ange Marie Risterucci; Olivier Fouet; Ventura González; Kai Rosenberg; Isabelle Vallat; Manuel Dagert; Claire Lanaud

2007-01-01

172

Mixtures of palm kernel oil with cocoa butter and milk fat in compound coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal behavior of binary mixtures of palm kernel oil (PKO), cocoa butter (CB), and anhydrous milk fat was used to study\\u000a mixed-lipid crystallization. This study was related to the physical properties of compound coatings made with these fats.\\u000a Phase behavior was studied by evaluating changes in melting behavior with composition and time, by creating isosolid diagrams,\\u000a and by monitoring polymorphic

Sara D. Williams; Kelly L. Ransom-Painter; Richard W. Hartel

1997-01-01

173

A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and ?-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human A?1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P?0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after A?1–42 peptide induction (P?0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of A? deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce A? deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals. PMID:23675471

Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Nuria; Alvarez, Beatriz; Monton, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramon, Daniel; Genoves, Salvador

2013-01-01

174

Phospholipid concentration in cocoa butter and its relationship to viscosity in dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fats extracted from chocolate liquor with a polar solvent, chloroform-methanol, was found to be 0.65% phospholipid. The evidence\\u000a indicates that the phospholipids are associated primarily with the nonfat solids since concentrations were much lower in fat\\u000a recovered with nonpolar solvents, hydraulic pressing and centrifugation. Seven of the 11 commercial cocoa butters analyzed\\u000a had phospholipid concentrations between 0.05% and 0.13%. The

J. G. Parsons; P. G. Keeney

1969-01-01

175

A study of the polygalacturonase activity of several yeast strains isolated from cocoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the traditional fermentation of cocoa, yeasts with pectinolytic activity are involved in the degradation of the pulp. Saccharomyces chevalieri, Torulopsis candila, and Candida norvegensis, as well as Kluyveromyces fragilis included in this study as a control strain all have a pectinolytic activity (endopolygalacturonase E.C. 3.2.1.15). The enzymes studied have the same optimal pH of activity [5] but are different

J. Sanchez; J. P. Guiraud; P. Galzy

1984-01-01

176

Oxidation of metabolites highlights the microbial interactions and role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848(T), Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244(T), and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation. PMID:24413595

Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy; De Vuyst, Luc

2014-03-01

177

The difference between cocoa butter and salatrim® lies in the microstructure of the fat crystal network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid fat content of Salatrim at 22C is 9% higher than that of cocoa butter; however, its storage modulus, G? (1 Hz),\\u000a or solid-like character, is one order of magnitude lower (2.5 MPa vs. 52 MPa). This difference may be explained by structural\\u000a differences in the microstructure of the fat crystal network of the respective fat systems. Polarized light

Suresh S. Narine; Alejandro G. Marangoni

1999-01-01

178

Neurovascular coupling, cerebral white matter integrity, and response to cocoa in older people  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the relationship between neurovascular coupling and cognitive function in elderly individuals with vascular risk factors and to determine whether neurovascular coupling could be modified by cocoa consumption. Methods: Sixty older people (aged 72.9 ± 5.4 years) were studied in a parallel-arm, double-blind clinical trial of neurovascular coupling and cognition in response to 24 hours and 30 days of cocoa consumption. Cognitive measures included Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A and B. Neurovascular coupling was measured from the beat-to-beat blood flow velocity responses in the middle cerebral arteries to the N-Back Task. In a subset of MRI-eligible participants, cerebral white matter structural integrity was also measured. Results: Neurovascular coupling was associated with Trails B scores (p = 0.002) and performance on the 2-Back Task. Higher neurovascular coupling was also associated with significantly higher fractional anisotropy in cerebral white matter hyperintensities (p = 0.02). Finally, 30 days of cocoa consumption was associated with increased neurovascular coupling (5.6% ± 7.2% vs ?2.4% ± 4.8%; p = 0.001) and improved Trails B times (116 ± 78 seconds vs 167 ± 110 seconds; p = 0.007) in those with impaired neurovascular coupling at baseline. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between neurovascular coupling and cognitive function, and both can be improved by regular cocoa consumption in individuals with baseline impairments. Better neurovascular coupling is also associated with greater white matter structural integrity. PMID:23925758

Hurwitz, Shelley; Salat, David H.; Greve, Douglas N.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.

2013-01-01

179

Triglyceride interesterification by lipases. 1. Cocoa butter equivalents from a fraction of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve commercially available triacylglycerol lipase preparations were screened for their suitability as catalysts in the\\u000a interesterification of palm oil mid fraction and ethyl stearate to form a cocoa butter equivalent. Five fungal lipase preparations\\u000a were found to be suitable. The hydrolytic activity of the commercial lipase preparations was tested with sunflower seed oil\\u000a and was independent of their interesterification activity.

Scott Bloomer; Patrick Adlercreutz; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

180

Plant biodiversity and vegetation structure in traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon under different management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic surveys were performed in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens under different management regimes in the humid forest\\u000a area of southern Cameroon, to assess the impact of intensification on plant biodiversity. This impact was evaluated by analyzing\\u000a species richness, vegetation structure, carbon sequestration and above ground biomass. We hypothesize that: (a) plant (tree\\u000a and herbs) species richness is negatively correlated

Stefan Vidal

2008-01-01

181

Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and cocoa by isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate and precise method for the quantification of acrylamide using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography–tandem\\u000a mass spectrometry was developed and used to measure acrylamide in coffee and cocoa samples. The sample preparation involved\\u000a extraction of the analyte and its internal standard, 13C3-acrylamide, into water and subsequent defatting of the aqueous extract with dichloromethane. An aliquot of the resulting\\u000a aqueous

Patricia C. Aguas; Matthew J. Fitzhenry; Georgina Giannikopoulos; Peter Varelis

2006-01-01

182

Influence of fermentation and drying materials on the contamination of cocoa beans by ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D'Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Kouassi Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Ze Maria Sika, Charles Bruno

2013-12-01

183

Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Côte d’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sebastien Djedje; Manda, Pierre; Dembele, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

2013-01-01

184

Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa polyphenols on cognition and mood. In a randomized, double-blind study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. Participants consumed their assigned treatment once daily for 30 days. Cognition was measured with the Cognitive Drug Research system and self-rated mood with the Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scale. Participants were tested at baseline, at 1, 2.5 and 4 h after a single acute dose and again after receiving 30 days of treatment. In total, 72 participants completed the trial. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. Mood was unchanged by treatment acutely while cognition was unaffected by treatment at all time points. This randomized controlled trial is perhaps the first to demonstrate the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants. This provides a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression. PMID:23364814

Pase, Matthew P; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Kras, Marni; Nolidin, Karen; Gibbs, Amy; Wesnes, Keith; Stough, Con

2013-05-01

185

[Otologic diagnosis: powder technique].  

PubMed

The otologic diagnostic powder test with grape - sugar simple will be performed with a powder - blower. It permits a good differentiation between dry squamous epithelium and wet mucosa. In our opinion this test therefore is unrenouncable in microscopic differentiation between mucosa in central perforations on one hand and atrophic scars, retraction pockets or adhesive epithelium of the drum or complete atelectasis of the tympanic cavity on the other hand. PMID:21626473

Tolsdorff, P

2011-06-01

186

Shear consolidation of powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacture of bulk parts from metastable powder materials requires new approaches to cold consolidation. One potential technique is equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE), a simple shear process. This thesis describes an investigation into the effects of confining pressure (back-pressure) on single-pass, right-angled ECAE consolidation of copper and aluminum 6061 powders below 250°C, using an extrusion machine designed and constructed for this purpose. Empirical relationships for punch pressure requirements as a function of back-pressure and billet length are determined experimentally and compared with published theory. Powder particle boundaries are examined in extruded billets, revealing pores and regions of localized shear formed under low back-pressure conditions. This shear localization is considered with a visualization experiment involving wax spheres in a transparent die, and a linear stability analysis of simple shear of a thin strip of material described by a generalized powder yield function and flow rule. The back-pressures required to obtain homogeneous, pore-free microstructures are determined, and related to the response of the powders during the initial compaction stage of ECAE. Interparticle bond formation in cold powder processing is briefly discussed in the context of multi-pass extrusions.

Hanna, James A.

187

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and

Zoi Papalexandratou; Gino Vrancken; Katrien De Bruyne; Peter Vandamme; Luc De Vuyst

2011-01-01

188

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

189

Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study.  

PubMed

Flavanol consumption is favorably associated with cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that dietary flavanols might improve cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We conducted a double-blind, parallel arm study in 90 elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment randomized to consume once daily for 8 weeks a drink containing ?990 mg (high flavanols), ?520 mg (intermediate flavanols), or ?45 mg (low flavanols) of cocoa flavanols per day. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A and B, and verbal fluency test. At the end of the follow-up period, Mini Mental State Examination was similar in the 3 treatment groups (P=0.13). The time required to complete Trail Making Test A and Trail Making Test B was significantly (P<0.05) lower in subjects assigned to high flavanols (38.10±10.94 and 104.10±28.73 seconds, respectively) and intermediate flavanols (40.20±11.35 and 115.97±28.35 seconds, respectively) in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (52.60±17.97 and 139.23±43.02 seconds, respectively). Similarly, verbal fluency test score was significantly (P<0.05) better in subjects assigned to high flavanols in comparison with those assigned to low flavanols (27.50±6.75 versus 22.30±8.09 words per 60 seconds). Insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation also decreased among subjects in the high-flavanol and intermediate-flavanol groups. Changes of insulin resistance explained ?40% of composite z score variability through the study period (partial r(2)=0.4013; P<0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first dietary intervention study demonstrating that the regular consumption of cocoa flavanols might be effective in improving cognitive function in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This effect appears mediated in part by an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22892813

Desideri, Giovambattista; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Raffaele, Angelo; Ferri, Livia; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio

2012-09-01

190

Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d) for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001). Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420 and NCT00502047 PMID:23840361

Crescenti, Anna; Sola, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Anguera, Anna; Angles, Neus; Arola, Lluis

2013-01-01

191

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01

192

The effect of cocoa supplementation on hepatic steatosis, reactive oxygen species and LFABP in a rat model of NASH  

PubMed Central

Background Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is hypothesised to develop via a mechanism involving fat accumulation and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to investigate if an increase in oxidative stress was associated with changes in the expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in a rat model of non alcoholic steatohepatitis and whether cocoa supplementation attenuated those changes. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat control diet, a high fat methionine choline deficient diet, or one of four 12.5% cocoa supplementation regimes in combination with the high fat methionine choline deficient diet. Results Liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the liver of animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. Increased hepatic fat content was accompanied by higher levels of oxidative stress in animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. An inverse association was found between the levels of hepatic liver fatty acid binding protein and the level of hepatic oxidative stress in fatty liver disease. Elevated NADPH oxidase protein levels were detected in the liver of animals with increased severity in inflammation and fibrosis. Cocoa supplementation was associated with partial attenuation of these pathological changes, although the severity of liver disease induced by the methionine choline deficient diet prevented complete reversal of any disease associated changes. Red blood cell glutathione was increased by cocoa supplementation, whereas liver glutathione was reduced by cocoa compared to methionine choline deficient diet fed animals. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential role for liver fatty acid binding protein and NADPH oxidase in the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, cocoa supplementation may have be of therapeutic benefit in less sever forms of NASH. PMID:22081873

2011-01-01

193

Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.  

PubMed

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-11-01

194

Seeding effects on solidification behavior of cocoa butter and dark chocolate. II. Physical properties of dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demolding property just after solidification, we examined the polymorphism of cocoa butter in seed-solidified dark chocolate\\u000a and fat-bloom stability through two thermocycle tests between 38 and 20°C (38\\/20) and between 32 and 20°C (32\\/20). The seed\\u000a crystals employed are Form VI of cocoa butter,?\\u000a 1 of SOS (1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol), pseudo-?’ and?\\u000a 2 of BOB (1,3-dibehenoyl-2-oleoylglycerol) and ? of SSS (1,2,3-tristearoylglycerol). The

Iwao Hachiya; Tetsuo Koyano; Kiyotaka Sato

1989-01-01

195

High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.  

PubMed

Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery. PMID:23799607

Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

2013-09-01

196

Dielectric Constant of Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEASUREMENTS have been made at 9,200 Mc\\/s to determine the dependence of dielectric constant of powder samples' packing densities. The net polarization P produced in a substance in an electric field consists of the contributions of electronic, atomic and dipolar polarizations. It is related to the dielectric constant by Clausius-Masotti relation: where K = (? - l)\\/(? + 2), M

Prem Swarup; R. P. Arora

1964-01-01

197

Spiral Powder Overlays  

E-print Network

Whether you encounter electron powder diffraction patterns everyday, or run across them only rarely, interpreting them may require a bit of preparation. But it's easy to lose track of the numbers for your microscope's camera constant, not to mention the bewildering array of lattice parameters and symmetries that one may encounter in the microscope. In that context, we describe

P. Fraundorf; Shuhan Lin

198

Sintering of Tin Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST powdered metals will sinter together appreciably when heated to a temperature which, in the absence of extraneous factors, is about three-quarters of their absolute melting point; metals of low melting point tend to be exceptions, however, to this generalization in that they can be heated nearly to their melting point before sintering takes place. There is no evidence, in

R. F. Smart; E. C. Ellwood

1958-01-01

199

Demystifying Mystery Powders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

Kotar, Michael

1989-01-01

200

Laser powder deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the art of laser powder deposition (LPD), a solid freeform fabrication technique capable of fabricating fully dense functional items from a wide range of common engineering materials, such as aluminum alloys, steels, titanium alloys, nickel superalloys and refractory materials. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The main R&D efforts and the

Lino Costa; Rui Vilar

2009-01-01

201

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

202

Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

Nganhou, J.

203

Method to blend separator powders  

DOEpatents

A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM); Andazola, Arthur H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Frederick W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-12-04

204

Powdering or spraying.  

PubMed

Application--especially in combination with the new camera--is so easy and advantageous that it has advanced to become the standard procedure in our practice. Potential for improvement still exists in the stiffness of the cannula, in a release mechanism located separately from the cannula and in the impudent demand to completely do away with powder and spray. Despite announcements to the contrary by alternative systems, the fulfilment of this desire appears to be a long way off. PMID:19213361

Reiss, B

2009-01-01

205

Effect of Animal Manure Amended Spent Grain and Cocoa Husk on Nutrient Status, Growth and Yied of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Combined use of crop and animal wastes is necessary in order to obtain adequate amount of organic manure for use in crop production. Hence field experiments were conducted at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to compare effect of NPK (15-5-15) fertilizer (200 kg ha ? ) and each of Spent Grain (SG) and ground 1 Cocoa Husk

S. O. Ojeniyi; S. A. Odedina

206

Structure–fat migration relationships during storage of cocoa butter model bars: Bloom development and possible mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloom development and associated fat migration were analyzed from a microstructural viewpoint. To do so, chocolate model bars were prepared by tempering a mixture made of sand particles (mean sizes of 120, 55 and 5?m) and cocoa butter (68% and 32% by mass, respectively). Model bars initial microstructure was characterized by means of confocal and electron microscopy, along with image

Pablo Altimiras; Leo Pyle; Pedro Bouchon

2007-01-01

207

78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic...east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series...International Productions, Inc. will host the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a...

2013-05-02

208

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at ?18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

2013-01-01

209

A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter  

SciTech Connect

We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

2007-01-01

210

Preventing Ralstonia solanacearum adhesion with glycans from cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seed extract.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum wilts many plants, causing heavy agricultural losses. Its pathogenic strain ATCC 11696 produces 2 hemagglutinating lectins: RSL and RS-IIL. These lectins may bind to terminal l-fucose-, d-arabinose-, and d-mannose-bearing seedling xylem cell wall glycans, thus enabling pathogen adhesion to them, with devastating infection establishment. Blocking the active sites of these lectins with seed embryo-surrounding oligo- and poly-saccharides hampers binding of the lectins to the embryos. The current study shows that seeds of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato contain low and high molecular mass glycans that block RSL and RS-IIL (like its homologous Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-IIL lectin). The blocking of the pathogen lectins, which is attributable to the documented composition of the oligo- and poly-saccharides of these seeds, is similar to that observed with animal glycoproteins of avian egg whites (protecting their embryos from infections) and of milk and royal jelly, which likewise protect mammal and bee neonates, respectively. RSL was most strongly inhibited by cashew seed glycans, and RS-IIL by coffee seed glycans. Western blot analyses with these lectins instead of antibodies revealed the hitherto undescribed presence of lectin-binding glycoproteins in the coffee, pumpkin, tomato, and cashew (but not cocoa) seeds. The use of these lectins for unveiling potent embryo-protecting seed glycans might be helpful for seedling-bioprotection projects similar to those planned for animal protection against antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:22712584

Rachmaninov, Ofra; Zinger-Yosovich, Keren D; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama

2012-07-01

211

Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB. PMID:25328175

Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

2014-10-01

212

[Diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to know the diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders in a plantation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) of 6 ha in the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The study was carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 by means biweekly samples of the insects captured on the spiders webs. The total of 3,041 webs of 54 species of spiders belonging to seven families (Araneidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae, Pholcidae, Dyctinidae and Linyphiidae) were revised. We found 1,749 specimens belonging to 10 orders of insects, represented by 93 families, the majority of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera that constituted 74% of the identified families. The biggest number of specimens of all orders was captured by Araneidae, except of Isoptera, whose specimens were captured mainly by the family Theridiidae. The index of diversity (H'), evenness (J') and similarity (Is), applied to know the diversity of families of insects captured among families of spiders, varied from 0.00 to 3.24, 0.00 to 0.81, and 0.04 to 0.522, respectively. We conclude that there is a wide diversity of insects predated by the weaver spiders in the cocoa agroecosystem, and that there are species that can be promising for the biological control of pests. PMID:17420866

Pérez-de La Cruz, Manuel; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Ortíz-García, Carlos F; Zapata-Mata, Raúl; Cruz-Pérez, Aracely de la

2007-01-01

213

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. Overseeing the recovery and protection of the piece is KSC criminal investigator Jan Seinkner, facing camera at center, of EG&G Florida Inc., base operations contractor. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

214

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

News media representatives and other onlookers get a close-up view of the piece of Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger debris which washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. A Cocoa Beach front-end loader picks up the debris which will be carried by flatbed truck to Kennedy Space Center. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

215

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO)

1998-01-01

216

Sintering of powder mixtures and the growth of ferrous powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the understanding of sintering of powder mixtures contributed significantly to the growth of ferrous powder metallurgy industry. Solid-state sintering and liquid-phase activated sintering play an important role in the sintering of powder mixtures. In this paper, sintering of iron powder with graphite; iron powder with copper and graphite; iron powder with nickel and graphite; iron powder with phosphorus;

K. S Narasimhan

2001-01-01

217

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

218

Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.  

PubMed

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain. PMID:21838556

Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

2011-09-01

219

Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

Throne, James L.

1988-01-01

220

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger washes up on Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar almost 11 years after Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff from KSC's Launch Pad 39B. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. The previously retrieved remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination, documentation and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

221

Ultrafast Powder Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of the use of powder synchrotron-X-ray and neutron diffraction to study very fast physical or chemical processes that require time resolution of 500 ms or less. The experimental requirements to obtain data of good quality are considered, including the incident flux, detector characteristics, and the different strategies possible for irreversible and reversible processes. The latter are accessible via a stroboscopic approach whereas the former require the maximum rates of data acquisition. Some recent studies are described, drawn from the areas of combustion synthesis, metallurgy and catalysis. The exploitation of the bunch structure of a synchrotron ring to obtain time resolution in the sub-ns range with the pump-probe stroboscopic approach is also illustrated.

Fitch, Andy; Curfs, Caroline

222

Powdered resin for condensate polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered resin systems have a lot to offer in the deionization of low TDS waters, as can be seen in the wide use of this process for the treatment of condensate in the electric power industry. I believe that as new ion-exchange resins are developed, we will see the powdered ion-exchange resin process adopted in other industries. At this time,

Richard Hetherington

1997-01-01

223

Baking powder pica mimicking preeclampsia.  

PubMed

We report a case of baking powder pica during pregnancy that was associated with maternal hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of baking powder ingestion and correction of electrolyte abnormalities, the blood pressure and the liver function tests normalized. PMID:1442966

Barton, J R; Riely, C A; Sibai, B M

1992-07-01

224

HPLC method for the quantification of procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate samples and correlation to total antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chromatography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The purity of each oligomeric fraction was assessed using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. A composite standard was then prepared, and calibration curves were generated for each oligomeric class using a quadratic fit of area sum versus concentration. Results obtained by each of the laboratories were in close agreement, which suggests this method is reliable and reproducible for quantification of procyanidins. Furthermore, the procyanidin content of the samples was correlated to the antioxidant capacity measured using the ORAC assay as an indicator for potential biological activity. PMID:10552788

Adamson, G E; Lazarus, S A; Mitchell, A E; Prior, R L; Cao, G; Jacobs, P H; Kremers, B G; Hammerstone, J F; Rucker, R B; Ritter, K A; Schmitz, H H

1999-10-01

225

Acetobacter ghanensis sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three acetic acid bacteria, isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolates were catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods. They oxidized ethanol to acetic acid and were unable to produce 2-ketogluconic acid, 5-ketogluconic acid and 2,5-diketogluconic acid from glucose; therefore, they were tentatively identified as Acetobacter species. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and

Ilse Cleenwerck; Nicholas Camu; Katrien Engelbeen; Tom De Winter; Katrien Vandemeulebroecke; Paul De Vos; Luc De Vuyst

2007-01-01

226

Glyceride structure of vegetable oils by countercurrent distribution. V. Comparison of natural, interesterified, and synthetic cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glyceride structure of cocoa butter is of considerable practical importance and of particular theoretical interest Countereurrent\\u000a distribution, gas chromatography, and isotopic dilution methods are employed in its study. The observed fractionation of glycerides\\u000a is acounted for by assuming that palmitie and stearic acids are randomly esterified on the 1 and 3 positions of glycerol and\\u000a that oleic is on

H. J. Dutton; C. R. Scholfield; T. L. Mounts

1961-01-01

227

Levels of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot in cocoa accessions selected on-farm in Côte d’Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr) is becoming an increasingly important criterion for selection of new cocoa cultivars in Côte d’Ivoire. The predominant species of the pathogen, Phytophthora palmivora, causes pod losses of 10–15% but the more aggressive Phytophthora megakarya present in the eastern part of the country causes losses of 40–60%. The latter species is expected to continue its

N. D. Pokou; J. A. K. N’Goran; I. Kebea; A. Eskes; M. Tahi; A. Sangarea

2008-01-01

228

Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla) Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups (n = 10) of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1) normal chow (N); (2) high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt) (HF); (3) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG); (4) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG); (5) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC); and (6) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC). From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a) body weight, (b) fat pad mass, (c) liver weight, (d) total liver lipid, (e) liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f) plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol). These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:23935682

Yang, Xiao Rong; Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yan Ping; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Siu, Wing Sum; Gao, Si; Cheung, David Wing Shing; Lau, Clara Bik San; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung

2013-01-01

229

Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla) Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups (n = 10) of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1) normal chow (N); (2) high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt) (HF); (3) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG); (4) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG); (5) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC); and (6) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC). From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a) body weight, (b) fat pad mass, (c) liver weight, (d) total liver lipid, (e) liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f) plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol). These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:23935682

Yang, Xiao Rong; Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yan Ping; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Siu, Wing Sum; Gao, Si; Cheung, David Wing Shing; Lau, Clara Bik San; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung

2013-01-01

230

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in...

2012-04-01

231

21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely...

2012-04-01

232

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a...

2014-07-01

233

powder in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped ?-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and ?-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped ?-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of ?-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The ?-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

2014-09-01

234

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

Bhattacharya, R.

1998-08-04

235

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

236

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

237

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

238

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

1983-01-01

239

Pharmaceutical Powder Diffraction: Structure Solution from PXRD  

E-print Network

Pharmaceutical Powder Diffraction: Structure Solution from PXRD How reliable are our structures? Pharmaceutical Powder Diffraction: Structure Solution from PXRD How reliable are our structures? Maryjane

240

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g\\/cm³ and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m²\\/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate

M. T. Harris; O. A. Basaran; T. G. Kollie; F. J. Weaver

1996-01-01

241

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g\\/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2\\/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl

Michael T. Harris; Osman A. Basaran; Thomas G. Kollie; Fred J. Weaver

1996-01-01

242

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g\\/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2\\/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl

Michael T. Harris; Osman A. Basaran; Thomas G. Kollie; Fred J. Weaver

1995-01-01

243

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g\\/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 \\/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl

Michael T. Harris; Osman A. Basaran; Thomas G. Kollie; Fred J. Weaver

1994-01-01

244

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. PMID:21839382

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-10-01

245

Ceramic powder for sintering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

1984-01-01

246

Rotary powder feed through apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

247

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:21092175

2010-01-01

248

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

DOEpatents

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

249

Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

1974-01-01

250

Cocoa protective effects against abnormal fat storage and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet involve PPAR? signalling activation.  

PubMed

A high-fat (HF) diet increases lipid storage and oxidative stress in mouse liver and this process seems to be mediated by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of cocoa against hepatic steatosis induced by a HF diet. The HF diet down-regulated PPAR? expression and turned off PPAR?-signalling, deregulated the ?-oxidation (?-Ox) system and catalase (CAT) activity, increased fat storage, reduced expression of enzymatic activity involved in oxidative defence in the liver and doubled the weight gain per calorie consumed compared to animals under the normal diet. In contrast, cocoa improved hepatic ?-Ox, activated PPAR?-signalling and up-regulated both gene and protein expression of SOD1. Moreover, when co-administered with the HF diet, cocoa treatment counteracted lipid storage in the liver, improved the lipid-metabolizing activity and oxidative stress defences and normalized the weight gain per calorie consumed. PMID:25214316

Fidaleo, Marco; Fracassi, Anna; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Moreno, Sandra; Sartori, Claudia

2014-10-22

251

Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof  

DOEpatents

Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

1993-12-07

252

Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof  

DOEpatents

Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Hung, Cheng-Hung (Baltimore, MD)

1993-01-01

253

Ground-water hydrology of the Cocoa well-field area, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Cocoa, Brevard County, Florida, supplies water for much of central Brevard County including Cape Kennedy and Patrick Air Force Base. The water supply is obtained from a well field in east Orange County. Many of the easternmost wells in that well field yield salty water (chloride concentration greater than 250 milligrams per liter). The interface between the fresh and salty water in the west part of the well field occurs at a depth of about 1,400 feet. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the the lower (salty) zones and the upper, or pumped zones of the Floridan aquifer in the west part of the well field. Secondary artesian aquifers in the well-field area are relatively high-yielding but are of limited areal extent. However, they are suitable as a source of water for supplemental supply or for artificially recharging the Floridan aquifer. Fresh water was transferred by siphon from a secondary artesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer at 90 gallons per minute. Artificial recharge and recovery experiments show that it is feasible to retrieve fresh water stored in salty zones of the Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Tibbals, C. H.; Frazee, J. M.

1976-01-01

254

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

255

Comparison of HPLC and GLC techniques for the determination of the triglyceride profile of cocoa butter.  

PubMed

Current methods for the authentication of cocoa butter (CB) are mainly based on a knowledge of its triglyceride (TG) composition. The performances of capillary GLC and nonaqueous HPLC with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) for the quantification of TG of CB of different geographical origins were compared. Use of capillary columns coated with a polarizable stationary phase or two reversed-phase HPLC columns coupled in series efficiently separated the major TG species contained in CB. The velocity of the GLC carrier gas influenced the FID response factors of TG standard compounds, which were linearly related to the retention times of the analytes studied. Within a certain mass range the ELSD response of standard TG solutions did not deviate from unity to a greater extent, independent of the molecular structure of the TG species. The quantities of individual TG as obtained by both methods were in close agreement, and the precisions of the methods were also of comparable magnitude, so that either method can be applied to assess the purity of CB. Capillary GLC has the advantage of higher sample throughput due to a shorter run time and because the consumption of chemicals is negligible. PMID:10956116

Buchgraber, M; Ulberth, F; Anklam, E

2000-08-01

256

Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts, sorbents and instrumental conditions. Analyte extraction with NaCl and MgSO4 in acidified acetonitrile followed by cleanup with primary secondary amine (PSA) presented the optimum conditions for extraction. Quantification was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Validation of the procedure showed average recoveries ranging from 72.0 to 104.8% for all analytes at all fortification levels with relative standard deviation (RSD)?15.0. Limits of quantitation were<10?gkg(-1) for all neonicotinoids studied. The results obtained from the analysis of 52 samples from cocoa farms revealed imidacloprid as the predominant neonicotinoid with concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 251.4?gkg(-1) in>50% of samples analyzed. PMID:25194905

Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick; Fomsgaard, Inge S

2014-11-15

257

Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.  

PubMed

Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. PMID:23664257

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2013-09-01

258

Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

259

TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.  

PubMed

In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem. PMID:25299077

Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

2014-01-01

260

SHOCK COMPRESSION PROCESSING OF POWDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock compression processing is emerging as a novel technique for fabrication of esoteric materials. Not only can metal and ceramic powders be dynamically consolidated, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium structures can be synthesized under the high pressure regime during the passage of shock waves of sufficient magnitude and duration. The shock waves can be generated by impact from a plate

N. N. Thadhani

1988-01-01

261

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly.

Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F

2003-12-15

262

Pharmaceutically Engineering Powders Using FHMG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized hot melt granulation (FHMG) is an innovative granulation process that has distinct advantages over techniques that are typically used in the pharmaceutical industry for powder agglomeration and mixing. The aim of this research was to investigate process and formulation parameters that affect FHMG, in a pharmaceutical context, using Lutrol® F68 (copolymer of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene) as a meltable binder with inert

G. Walker; S. Bell; M. Vann; H. Zhai; D. Jones; G. Andrews

2007-01-01

263

Triboelectric charging of polymer powders in fluidization and transport processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady flow of powder at a desired rate is a necessity for controlling thickness and uniformity of the deposited powder layer in electrostatic spray painting. In most powder coating applications, the polymer powder is fluidized to transport the powder to the spray gun using a powder pump. The powder delivery tube is often long; sometimes in excess of 10 m.

J. R. Mountaint; D. L. Wankum; M. K. Mazumder; T. Chasser; P. Pettit

1997-01-01

264

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOEpatents

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01

265

Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa.  

PubMed

(-)-Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol in cacao stimulates mitochondrial volume and cristae density and protein markers of skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and heart failure (HF) are diseases associated with defects in SkM mitochondrial structure/function. A study was implemented to assess perturbations and to determine the effects of Epi-rich cocoa in SkM mitochondrial structure and mediators of biogenesis. Five patients with DM2 and stage II/III HF consumed dark chocolate and a beverage containing approximately 100 mg of Epi per day for 3 months. We assessed changes in protein and/or activity levels of oxidative phosphorylation proteins, porin, mitofilin, nNOS, nitric oxide, cGMP, SIRT1, PGC1?, Tfam, and mitochondria volume and cristae abundance by electron microscopy from SkM. Apparent major losses in normal mitochondria structure were observed before treatment. Epi-rich cocoa increased protein and/or activity of mediators of biogenesis and cristae abundance while not changing mitochondrial volume density. Epi-rich cocoa treatment improves SkM mitochondrial structure and in an orchestrated manner, increases molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in enhanced cristae density. Future controlled studies are warranted using Epi-rich cocoa (or pure Epi) to translate improved mitochondrial structure into enhanced cardiac and/or SkM muscle function. PMID:22376256

Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Perkins, Guy; Murphy, Anne N; Naviaux, Robert; Hogan, Michael; Maisel, Alan S; Henry, Robert R; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

2012-02-01

266

Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.  

PubMed

The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

2008-01-01

267

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda

2012-01-01

268

An industry consensus study on an HPLC fluorescence method for the determination of (?)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products  

PubMed Central

Background This manuscript describes the results of an HPLC study for the determination of the flavan-3-ol monomers, (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin, in cocoa and plain dark and milk chocolate products. The study was performed under the auspices of the National Confectioners Association (NCA) and involved the analysis of a series of samples by laboratories of five member companies using a common method. Methodology The method reported in this paper uses reversed phase HPLC with fluorescence detection to analyze (±)-epicatechin and (±)-catechin extracted with an acidic solvent from defatted cocoa and chocolate. In addition to a variety of cocoa and chocolate products, the sample set included a blind duplicate used to assess method reproducibility. All data were subjected to statistical analysis with outliers eliminated from the data set. Results The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) of the sample set ranged from approximately 7 to 15%. Conclusions Further experimental details are described in the body of the manuscript and the results indicate the method is suitable for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products and represents the first collaborative study of this HPLC method for these compounds in these matrices. PMID:21729298

2011-01-01

269

Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.  

PubMed

Cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application. PMID:24354624

Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

2014-01-15

270

Accumulation of a cocoa-butter-like lipid by Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on agro-industrial residues.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica was cultivated on mixtures of saturated free fatty acids (an industrial derivative of animal fat called stearin), technical glycerol (the main by-product of bio-diesel production facilities), and glucose. The utilization of technical glycerol and stearin as co-substrates resulted in higher lipid synthesis and increased citric acid production than the combination of glucose and stearin. The lipids produced contained significant amounts of stearic acid (50-70%, wt/wt) and lower ones of palmitic (15-20%, wt/wt), oleic (7-20%, wt/wt), and linoleic (2-7%, wt/wt) acid. Single-cell oil having a composition similar to cocoa-butter up to 3.4 g/L was produced, whereas in some cases relatively increased citric acid quantities (up to 14 g/L) were excreted into the growth medium. The microorganism presented a high specificity for lauric, myristic, and palmitic acid, while a discrimination for the stearic acid was observed. As a conclusion, microbial metabolism could be directed by using mixtures of inexpensive saturated fats, glycerol, and glucose as co-substrates, in order to accumulate lipids with predetermined composition, e.g., cocoa-butter equivalents. PMID:12520368

Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Muniglia, Lionel; Chevalot, Isabelle; Aggelis, George; Marc, Ivan

2003-02-01

271

Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

2012-01-01

272

THE NITRATION OF POWDERED URANIUM BY NITROGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitration of powdered uranium by nitrogen was studied by- ; thermograviimetry- between 300 and 700 deg C. The results obtained show the ; complexity of a powdered soidgas reaction and chiefly the effect of granulometry. ; (trauth);

C. Moreau; J. Philippot

1961-01-01

273

Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

Mike, R. A.

1986-01-01

274

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

275

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a...

2014-07-01

276

[Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].  

PubMed

To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets. PMID:24754170

Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

2014-01-01

277

Composition of reactive powder concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an ultra-high strength ductile concrete designated RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete), was made possible by the application of a certain number of basic principles relating to the composition, mixing and post-set heat curing of the concrete.RPC 200, which can be used under job site conditions similar to those for conventional high performance concretes, can be used in the construction

Pierre Richard; Marcel Cheyrezy

1995-01-01

278

Powder Coatings Technology Update. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the current status of powder-coating technology. Because powder coatings are applied as dry, finely divided particles, there are no volatile organic compounds (VOC's) released during application, and only minute quantities are released during the curing process. Therefore, the increased use of powder coatings, as an alternative to liquid solvent-based coatings, represents a significant reduction in emissions of VOC's. The report describes current powder-coating materials and equipment, end uses, and economic advantages of the use of powder coatings. Included in the report are discussions of the disadvantages and potential problems identified early in the powder-coating-development process. The report addresses the resolutions of many of these problems. The report is intended to be of use to State and local agencies in their evaluation of powder coatings as an alternative to coatings containing VOC's.

Hester, C.I.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cassidy, M.A.

1989-09-01

279

New technology for separating resin powder and fiberglass powder from fiberglass-resin powder of waste printed circuit boards.  

PubMed

New recycling technologies have been developed lately to enhance the value of the fiberglass powder-resin powder fraction (FRP) from waste printed circuit boards. The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use the image forces for the separation of the resin powder and fiberglass powder generated from FRP during the corona electrostatic separating process. The particle shape charactization and particle trajectory simulation were performed on samples of mixed non-metallic particles. The simulation results pointed out that particles of resin powder and particles of fiberglass powder had different detach trajectories at the conditions of the same size and certain device parameters. An experiment carried out using a corona electrostatic separator validated the possibility of sorting these particles based on the differences in their shape characteristics. The differences in the physical properties of the different types of particles provided the technical basis for the development of electrostatic separation technologies for the recycling industry. PMID:24678800

Li, Jia; Gao, Bei; Xu, Zhenming

2014-05-01

280

Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340°C-1350°C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

2007-04-01

281

Characterization of tribocharging properties of powder paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge-to-mass ratio (q\\/m) of individual particles plays a vital role in the powder coating process. Simultaneous measurements of particle size and electrostatic charge were performed on triboelectrically charged powder paint and other powders in the particle size range 1.0 to 65.0 ?m in diameter. An electrical single particle aerodynamic relaxation time (ESPART) analyzer was used to measure electrostatic charge

M. K. Mazumder; S. Banerjee; R. E. Ware; C. Mu; N. Kaya; C. C. Huang

1994-01-01

282

Characterization of tribocharging properties of powder paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of particle size and electrostatic charge was performed on charged powder paint and other powders in the particle size range from 1.0 to 65.0 ?m in diameter. An electrical single-particle aerodynamic relaxation time analyzer was used to measure electrostatic charge and aerodynamic size distributions on a single particle basis and in a noninvasive manner. The powders were triboelectrically

M. K. Mazumder; S. Banerjee; R. E. Ware; N. Kaya; C. C. Huang

1992-01-01

283

Selective laser sintering of amorphous metal powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, selective sintering of amorphous PtCuNiP powder with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been studied. Upon pulsed interaction, the grains melt only superficially to build necks between the grains. Depending on the laser parameters, the sintered material can be crystallized or retained amorphous. By contrast with crystalline powder, laser sintering of amorphous powder is achieved at substantially

P. Fischer; A. Blatter; V. Romano; H. P. Weber

2005-01-01

284

Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

2003-09-01

285

Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity.

Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A. [and others

1997-08-01

286

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encom- passing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (dena- turing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic

Nicholas Camu; Tom De Winter; Kristof Verbrugghe; Ilse Cleenwerck; Peter Vandamme; Jemmy S. Takrama; Marc Vancanneyt; Luc De Vuyst

2007-01-01

287

Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B) with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively) on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p < 0.001) with respect to the non-cocoa stage. No changes in body weight were observed in either of the 4 week interventions. With cocoa product B, the number of daily bowel movements increased (p = 0.002), the frequency of having a bowel movement once a day increased (p = 0.009), the time to have a bowel movement was lower (p = 0.016) as well as the feeling of constipation (p = 0.046) without inducing adverse gastrointestinal symptoms, only flatulence increased (p = 0.019). Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended. PMID:22512838

2012-01-01

288

The effects of cocoa supplementation, caloric restriction, and regular exercise, on oxidative stress markers of brain and memory in the rat model.  

PubMed

The effects of treadmill running (8 weeks, 5 times/week, 1h/day at 27 m/min), caloric restriction, and cocoa supplementation on brain function and oxidative stress markers were tested. The Morris maze test was used to appraise rat memory. Regular exercise significantly improved spatial learning performance. The level of oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of carbonylated proteins. The free radical concentration increased in brain of the training groups but not the controls. The content of reactive carbonyl derivates did not change with exercise, suggesting that the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were well tolerated in this experimental model. Caloric restriction (CR) decreased the accumulation of free radicals in the frontal lobe. The protein content of brain-derived neutrophic factors (BDNFs) was evaluated and changes did not occur either with exercise or cocoa supplementation treatments. These data did not show significant effects of the administration of cocoa (2% w/w) on the concentration of ROS, BDNF or on spatial memory. Conversely, exercise and CR can play a role in ROS generation and brain function. PMID:23419390

Radák, Zsolt; Silye, Gabriella; Bartha, Csaba; Jakus, Judit; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Atalay, Mustafa; Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika

2013-11-01

289

Thermoplastic dry polymer powder prepregging  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic resin systems have shown potential for reducing the manufacturing costs and improving the damage tolerance of composite structures. Current methods for thermoplastic resin impregnation of fiber bundles are limited by various difficulties and thus produce poor quality prepregs. The emerging technology of fiber is one of the most promising options, producing excellent matrix drape, and feasibility for a wide variety of matrix systems. An electrostatic dry polymer powder prepregging system was developed at the NSF Science and Technology Center at Virginia Tech, and has been used to produce high quality thermoplastic towpreg from a wide variety o polymer matrices. Additionally, a modification of the system allows for the production of towpreg from 15 gram polymer samples. This is ideal for the production of composites from resin systems under development, allowing early feedback concerning processing and composite mechanical performance.

Bucher, R.A.; Loos, A.C.; Meyer, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

290

Air permeability of powder: A potential tool for Dry Powder Inhaler formulation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry Powder Inhalers have drawn great attention from pharmaceutical scientists in recent years in particular those consisting of low-dose micronized drug particles associated with larger carrier particles and called interactive mixtures. However, there is little understanding of the relation between bulk powder properties such as powder structure and its aerodynamic dispersion performance. The aim of this work was to develop

V. N. P. Le; E. Robins; M. P. Flament

2010-01-01

291

Radio frequency (rf) plasma spheroidized HA powders: powder characterization and spark plasma sintering behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the synthesis of spheroidized hydroxyapatite (HA) powders using a radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. The spheroidized powders were consolidated through a spark plasma sintering (SPS) system. The microstructure and crystallographic phases in the synthesized powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. Results

J. L. Xu; K. A. Khor; Y. W. Gu; R. Kumar; P. Cheang

2005-01-01

292

A General Powder X-Ray Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the outset of calculation, no assumption whatever is made as to the symmetry and dimensions of the unit cell. The powder photograph is simply treated as that of a triclinic crystal without special relationship between its constants. The reflexion hkl in the powder photograph, then, may be expressed in terms of its reciprocal lattice1, thus: where theta is the

T. Ito

1949-01-01

293

April 11, 2013 Powder Consolidation under Pressure  

E-print Network

Science and Technology. 2011;25:483-499 4. Alderborn G, Nystrom C. Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction generally formed by compression, is the most common pharmaceutical solid dosage form because of its economic Technology. 1996 5. Antikainen O, Yliruusi J. Determining the compression behavior of pharmaceutical powders

Thomas, David D.

294

Reaction Kinetics of Powdered Uranium and Deuteroammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rate law for the nitridation of pyrophoric uranium with deuteroammonia was established for the entire course of the reaction. The rate of reaction between powdered uranium and deuteroammonia was determined to be a linear function of the initial Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area and the fraction of unreacted uranium. Sintering of powdered uranium to a stable surface

R. M. Alire; J. H. McCrary

1966-01-01

295

Dense silica coatings on ceramic powder particles  

SciTech Connect

Dense silica coatings on the surface of inorganic powders particles are prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alcoholic suspensions. In a first reaction step, the TEOS is pre-hydrolysed in acidic solution and afterwards, a suspension of powder particles in this reaction solution is treated with ammonia which results in a dense silica coating of typically 10 - 100 nm thickness. Different luminescent powders which are used in the manufacture of cathode-ray tubes or fluorescent lamps have been coated by this procedure. The silica coating forms a transparent layer and the suspension properties of the coated powders are determined by the silica layer. The silica coating also protects sulfidic luminescent powders from being attacked by oxidizing agents like dichromate ions which are used in the suspension formulations for TV tube fabrication.

Opitz, J.F.A.; Mayr, W. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Aachen (Germany)

1995-09-01

296

Dynamic fragmentation of powders in spherical geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises of "particles" or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Photographic evidence shows jets or fingers behind these expanding fragments. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants; this is the main driver for our research. Other examples of areas where these features are observed include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring when an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of powder in spherical geometry. Results from explosive experiments designed to investigate the effects of powder grain size and powder fill-to-burster charge mass ratio (/) are presented and compared with results from numerical modelling to explore what determines the primary fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and when this process begins. The evidence clearly shows that the process starts during the first wave transit period of the powder material and, despite the surrounding material initially being a loose powder, shows the characteristics of a brittle fracture mechanism. Later time video evidence shows the same number of jets or fingers as are identified by X-rays of the early, primary fragmentation process. The number of fragments is only a very weak function of the initial grain size of the powder.

Milne, A. M.; Floyd, E.; Longbottom, A. W.; Taylor, P.

2014-09-01

297

Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders  

PubMed Central

Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3–37.9% and 0.1–31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

2013-01-01

298

Formulation considerations for dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

The market for inhalable dry powder medication has consistently grown over past years. Targeting the lungs has been recognized to offer several advantages compared with oral application of drugs. The successive development of inhalation products has led to advances in local treatment of different respiratory diseases, but has also demonstrated the possibility to utilize the lungs for systemic drug delivery. Since a dry powder inhalation product is always a combination of drug formulation and inhalation device, the requirements for the development of such a system may be particularly complex. Therefore, this review aims to give an overview of the necessary considerations for a successful dry powder inhaler development. PMID:25090281

Cordts, Eike; Steckel, Hartwig

2014-06-01

299

Glass powder blended cement hydration modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of waste materials in construction is among the most attractive options to consume these materials without affecting the environment. Glass is among these types of potential waste materials. In this research, waste glass in powder form, i.e. glass powder (GP) is examined for potential use in enhancing the characteristics of concrete on the basis that it is a pozzolanic material. The experimental and the theoretical components of the work are carried out primarily to prove that glass powder belongs to the "family" of the pozzolanic materials. The chemical and physical properties of the hydrated activated glass powder and the hydrated glass powder cement on the microstructure level have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The work presented in this thesis consists of two main phases. The first phase contains experimental investigations of the reaction of glass powder with calcium hydroxide (CH) and water. In addition, it includes experiments that are aimed at determining the consumption of water and CH with time. The reactivity, degree of hydration, and nature of the pore solution of the glass powder-blended cement pastes and the effect of adding different ratios of glass powder on cement hydration is also investigated. The experiments proved that glass powder has a pozzolanic effect on cement hydration; hence it enhances the chemical and physical properties of cement paste. Based on the experimental test results, it is recommended to use a glass powder-to-cement ratio (GP/C) of 10% as an optimum ratio to achieve the best hydration and best properties of the paste. Two different chemical formulas for the produced GP C-S-H gel due to the pure GP and GP-CH pozzolanic reaction hydration are proposed. For the pure GP hydration, the produced GP C-S-H gel has a calcium-to-silica ratio (C/S) of 0.164, water-to-silica ratio (H/S) of 1.3 and sodium/silica ratio (N/S) of 0.18. However, for the GP-CH hydration, the produced GP C-S-H gel has a C/S ratio of 1.17, H/S ratio of 2.5 and N/S ratio of 0.18. In the second phase of this research, theoretical models are built using a modified version of an existing cement hydration modelling code, "CEMHYD3D", to simulate the chemical reaction of the activated glass powder hydration and glass powder in cement. The modified model, which is referred to as the "MOD-model" is further used to predict the types, compositions and quantities of reaction products. Furthermore, the glass powder hydration data, which is obtained experimentally, is incorporated into the MOD-model to determine the effect of adding glass powder to the paste on the process of cement hydration and resulting paste properties. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are made to evaluate the developed models. The MOD-model predictions have been validated using the experimental results, and were further used to investigate various properties of the hydrated glass powder cement paste. These properties include, for example, CH content of the paste, porosity, hydration degree of the glass powder and conventional C-S-H and GP CS-H contents. The results show that the MOD-model is capable of accurately simulating the hydration process of glass powder-blended cement paste and can be used to predict various properties of the hydrating paste.

Saeed, Huda

300

Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)). PMID:24517011

Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

2013-12-15

301

Electrosintering of iron powder compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of a nominal external electric fieldE=3 to 10 kV/cm on the sintering of iron powder compacts for 30 minutes at 1140°C in a vacuum of ˜10-6 torr was investigated. It was found that the field reduced the porosity by as much as 29 to 73 pct compared to sintering without a field, the magnitude depending on the procedure employed to measure the density of the specimen. Optical microscopy revealed that the specimen electrosintered withE=10 kV/cm had a skin of ˜0.2 mm in thickness, where the porosity was significantly less than in the interior. This was also the depth of carburization that was obtained upon carburizing the electrosintered specimens. It is proposed that the decrease in porosity produced by the field results from a decrease in the chemical potential of vacancies at or just below the charged external surface. Vacancy flux equations employed to calculate the porosity as a function of distance below the external surface showed that the porosity becomes approximately zero at a distance ofx c=0.4 to 0.5 mm below the surface, which is in reasonable accord with the microscopy measurements. Similar values ofx c were obtained by assuming that the entire porosity decrease given by the density measurements occurred in a ring of thickness ofx c below the external surface. The difference in the density measured by two Archimedes-principle procedures and microscopy observations suggests that the cavities open to the external surface of the electrosintered specimens are smaller or narrower than those for specimens sintered without a field.

Fahmy, Yusef; Conrad, Hans

2001-03-01

302

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

303

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

304

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

305

Metal powder production by gas atomization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

1986-01-01

306

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

307

Hot Isostatic Pressing of Ceramic Powder Compacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of temperature, pressure and time on the rate of densification of submicron alumina powder during hot isostatic pressing has been determined using a dilatometer to continuously monitor volumetric changes. A Fortran computer program is used to m...

J. K. McCoy, R. R. Wills

1984-01-01

308

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

310

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2013-04-01

311

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2013-04-01

312

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

313

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

314

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

315

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-print Network

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01

316

Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same  

DOEpatents

A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

1999-08-10

317

Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same  

DOEpatents

A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

1999-01-01

318

Energy approach to considering multicomponent powder systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of formation of the structure of a dispersed multicomponent powder mixture in mixing are considered from an energy standpoint. The homogeneous state of a powder mixture is shown to be energetically more favorable than the state of its separation, since it has a lower free energy margin and a higher configurational entropy. Depending on external conditions, a mixture of homogeneous regions with different component concentrations can have a more stable state.

Minaev, A. M.; Mordasov, D. M.; Tyalina, L. N.

2013-11-01

319

Adjustable Powder Injector For Vacuum Plasma Sprayer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attachment for plasma spray gun provides four degrees of freedom for adjustment of position and orientation at which powder injected externally into plasma flame. Manipulator provides for adjustment of pitch angle of injection tube: set to inject powder at any angle ranging from perpendicular to parallel to cylindrical axis. Scribed lines on extension bar and manipulator indicate pitch angle of extension tube. Collar changed to adapt injector to different gun.

Burns, D. H.; Woodford, W. H.; Mckechnie, T. N.; Mcferrin, D. C.; Davis, W. M.; Beason, G. P., Jr.

1993-01-01

320

Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

1982-01-01

321

Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 ?C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to

Sudathip Inchuen; Woatthichai Narkrugsa; Pimpen Pornchaloempong

322

Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. Grinding was found to be inefficient and introduced impurities into the fuel. Cryogenic milling of machine chips in a steel vial was found to have similar shortcomings. The hydride-dehydride process has historically been used to produce very fine powder that may not be suitable for fuel fabrication. Uranium is made to form its hydride by heating in a hydrogen atmosphere. Subsequent heating under vacuum drives off hydrogen gas and returns the hydride to a metallic state. The volume change on hydride formation results in a fine powder upon dehydriding. The effects of alloying elements, partial hydriding, and subsequent milling treatments on particle size distribution are being explored. Inert gas atomization is used on an industrial scale to produce metal powder. Current designs are not suitable for use with uranium. A system was specifically designed for uranium atomization. A prototype was built and tested using gold as a surrogate for uranium. The system operates efficiently and can produce powder in a variety of size ranges by changing the atomization nozzle.

Clark, C. R.

1998-10-23

323

Ti Multicomponent Alloy Bulks by Powder Metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CrCuFeMnMo0.5Ti multicomponent alloy bulks were prepared by powder metallurgy of mechanical alloying and sintering. A simple body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution was prepared after 40 h ball milling of the raw CrCuFeMnMo0.5Ti metallic powder. Particles of the alloyed powder are in microsized structures, which are actually a soft agglomeration of lamellar grains with thicknesses less than 1 ?m. Meanwhile, the lamellar granules are consisted of nanosized grains under rigid cold welding. The 80-h ball-milled powder was consolidated by cold pressing and subsequent sintering at 800°C. The observed main phase in the consolidated sample after milling for 80 h is still a bcc solid solution. The solidified sample of 80-h ball-milled powder exhibits a Vickers hardness of 468 HV, which is much higher than 171 HV of the counterpart prepared from the raw metallic powder.

Zhang, Kuibao; Wen, Guanjun; Dai, Hongchuan; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang

2014-10-01

324

The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. (Mechanical Technology Inc., Latham, NY (United States))

1993-04-01

325

Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, a strain well-adapted to the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, an acetic acid bacterium originating from a spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation, proved to be an ideal functional starter culture for coca bean fermentations. It is able to dominate the fermentation process, thereby resisting high acetic acid concentrations and temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its metabolic capabilities and niche adaptations are unknown. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis was used to investigate this strain’s mechanisms to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Results The genome sequence of A. pasteurianus 386B is composed of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and seven plasmids. The annotation of 2875 protein-coding sequences revealed important characteristics, including several metabolic pathways, the occurrence of strain-specific genes such as an endopolygalacturonase, and the presence of mechanisms involved in tolerance towards various stress conditions. Furthermore, the low number of transposases in the genome and the absence of complete phage genomes indicate that this strain might be more genetically stable compared with other A. pasteurianus strains, which is an important advantage for the use of this strain as a functional starter culture. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the Acetobacteraceae confirmed the functional properties of A. pasteurianus 386B, such as its thermotolerant nature and unique genetic composition. Conclusions Genome analysis of A. pasteurianus 386B provided detailed insights into the underlying mechanisms of its metabolic features, niche adaptations, and tolerance towards stress conditions. Combination of these data with previous experimental knowledge enabled an integrated, global overview of the functional characteristics of this strain. This knowledge will enable improved fermentation strategies and selection of appropriate acetic acid bacteria strains as functional starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:23902333

2013-01-01

326

Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.  

PubMed

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter ghanaensis" (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-03-01

327

Lactose\\/?-Lactoglobulin Interaction During Storage of Model Whey Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the pres- ence or absence of interaction between lactose and ?- lactoglobulin during storage of model whey powders at different water activities (aw). Model whey powders were prepared by colyophilization of lactose with in- creasing quantities of ?-lactoglobulin. These colyophi- lized ?-lactoglobulin:lactose powders, assigned as BL powders, were stored from 0.11 to

M. E. C. Thomas; J. Scher; S. Desobry

2004-01-01

328

Dispersion of alkoxide-hydrolysed zirconia powders in aqueous suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is always desirable to control the agglomeration of ceramic powders in ceramic processing, as this strongly affects the sintering behaviour [1, 2] of the powders. A recent wet chemical process deserves attention because of the possibility of achieving ultrafine, high-purity monodispersed ceramic powders [3, 4] and the possibility of the powders obtained to yield ultrastructure [5]. During wet chemical

Kwang-Lung Lin; Huey-Chang Wang

1989-01-01

329

Tungsten Powder as an accelerator target & InBeam Testing  

E-print Network

: tungsten powder jet High speed image: tungsten powder flow in a pipe Dense-phase delivery Lean-phase lift - Reliability in harsh environment? - High static stress levels require much larger beam sigma than baseline) ­ Containment / erosion ­ Heat transfer and cooling of powder Unstable tungsten powder jet High speed image

McDonald, Kirk

330

Frontal Dynamics of Powder Snow Avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the dynamics of the head of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by a massive frontal blow-out, arising as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. Such material eruption just behind the front acts as a source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform ambient air flow at high Reynolds number. In such "eruption current", fluidization depth is inversely proportional to a bulk Richardson number representing avalanche height. By excluding situations in which the snow cover is not fluidized up to its free surface, we derive a criterion combining snow pack friction and density indicating which avalanches can produce a sustainable powder cloud. A mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud sets avalanche height and mean density. By determining which solution of the mass balance is stable, we find that avalanches reach constant growth and acceleration rates for fixed slope and avalanche width. Under these conditions, we calculate the fraction of the fluidized cover that is actually scoured and blown-out into the cloud, and deduce from a momentum balance on the head that the avalanche accelerates at a rate only 14% of the gravitational component along the flow. We also calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its mean density becomes constant. Finally, we show that the dynamics of powder snow avalanches are crucially affected by the rate of change of their width, for example by reaching an apparent steady speed as their channel widens. If such widening is rapid, or if slope inclination vanishes, we calculate where and how powder clouds collapse. Predictions agree well with observations of powder snow avalanches carried out at the Vallee de la Sionne (Switzerland).

Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.

2012-04-01

331

Fundamentals of Powder Compression. I. The Compactibility and Compressibility of Pharmaceutical Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the widespread use of tablets, the theoretical understanding of the tableting process has been limited. During the last decades considerable research has been done in the field of powder technology and compaction. A survey of the literature and compression equations reveals many studies on the characterization of powder properties, most of which relate to volume reduction under

Hans Leuenberger; Bhagwan Dass Rohera

1986-01-01

332

Viability and resistance of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation to simulated gastrointestinal digestive steps in soy yogurt.  

PubMed

To study the potential probiotic characteristics such as decrease of pH, microbial viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps of fermented soy beverage ("soy yogurt") produced with lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum TcUESC01 and Lactobacillus plantarum TcUESC02) during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The sensory acceptance of the yogurts was also tested. Samples of soy yogurt produced with L. fermentum TcUESC01 or L. plantarum TcUESC02 were collected during fermentation (0, 4, 8, and 12 h) and refrigerated storage (1, 9, 18, and 27 d), and submitted to pH and bacterial viability determinations. Tolerance to simulated digestion steps was done with refrigerated storage samples at 9 °C. Simulated digestion was performed in 3 successive steps: exposure to pepsin-HCl solution, bile shock, and simulated small intestinal juice. During storage, a decrease in pH and lactobacillus viability was observed. L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed to be more resistant than L. plantarum TcUESC02 to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. All soy yogurts showed acceptable hedonic scores (greater than 5 in a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely") in sensory evaluation for flavor, aroma, color, consistency, and overall impression. L. plantarum TcUESC02 and, especially, L. fermentum TcUESC01 showed potential probiotic characteristics when considering pH, cell viability, and tolerance to simulated digestive steps and did not affect the sensory characteristics when supplemented to soy yogurt during storage. PMID:24547696

Saito, V S T; Dos Santos, T F; Vinderola, C G; Romano, C; Nicoli, J R; Araújo, L S; Costa, M M; Andrioli, J L; Uetanabaro, A P T

2014-02-01

333

Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations.  

PubMed

During an investigation of the microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations, a number of yeast isolates with unusual pheno- and genotypic properties representing three possible novel species were isolated. Members of Group A divided by multilateral budding and ascospores were not produced. Group B strains produced true hyphae and ascospores were not produced. Group C representatives divided by budding and formed chains and star-like aggregates. Ascospores were not produced. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) revealed that the Group A isolates were phylogenetically most closely related to Saturnispora mendoncae (gene sequence similarity 92.4 %), Saturnispora besseyi (88.8 %), Saturnispora saitoi (88.8 %) and Saturnispora ahearnii (88.3 %). Members of Group B were most closely related to representatives of the genera Dipodascus and Galactomyces and the asporogenous genus Geotrichum, but in all cases with 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) similarities below 87 %. For Group C, the most closely related species were Candida rugopelliculosa (92.4 %), Pichia occidentalis (91.6 %) and Pichia exigua (91.9 %). The very low gene sequence similarities obtained for the three groups of isolates clearly indicated that they represented novel species. Repetitive Palindromic PCR (Rep-PCR) of the isolates and their closest phylogenetic relatives confirmed that the new isolates belonged to previously undescribed species. In conclusion, based on the genetic and phenotypic results, the new isolates were considered to represent three novel species, for which the names Candida halmiae (group A, type strain G3(T)=CBS 11009(T)=CCUG 56721(T)); Geotrichum ghanense (group B, type strain G6(T)=CBS 11010(T)=CCUG 56722(T)) and Candida awuaii (group C, type strain G15(T)=CBS 11011(T)=CCUG 56723(T)) are proposed. PMID:19671722

Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

2010-06-01

334

Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation  

DOEpatents

A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

1985-06-27

335

Geohydrology and potential for upward movement of saline water in the Cocoa well field, East Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system, an approximately 2,000-foot thick sequence of Eocene-age limestone and dolomite, is the main source of water supply in central Florida. Hydraulic conductivity is different in strata of different lithology and is the basis for separating the aquifer system into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semi- confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The coastal city of Cocoa withdraws about 26 million gallons of water per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer from a well field in east Orange County, about 25 miles inland. About 60 million gallons per day are withdrawn from the Upper Floridan aquifer and 56 million gallons per day from the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Orlando area, about 15 miles west of the Cocoa well field. Wells drilled in the Cocoa well field from 1955-61 yielded water with chloride concentrations ranging from 25-55 milligrams per liter. Soon after the wells were put in service, chloride concentrations increased; therefore, new wells were drilled further inland. Chloride concen- trations in water from many of the new wells also have increased. Possible sources of saline water are lateral movement of relict seawater in the Upper Floridan aquifer from the east, regional upconing of saline water from the Lower Floridan aquifer or underlying older rocks, or localized upward movement of saline water through fractures. Several test wells were drilled to provide information about chloride concentration changes with depth and to monitor changes with time, including a multi-zone well drilled in 1965 (well C) and two wells drilled in the 1990's (wells R and S). Chloride concentrations have increased in the zone pumped by the supply wells (the upper 500 feet of the aquifer) and in the 1,351-1,357-foot deep zone of well C, but not in the two intervening zones. This indicates that the source of saline water is located laterally, rather than vertically, from the pumped zone in the area of well C. The potential for upward movement of saline water depends on the direction of the vertical hydraulic gradient and on the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. A series of aquifer tests was run in 1993-94 and existing water-level and water-quality data were analyzed to evaluate the potential for upward movement of saline water in the well field. The transmissivity of the upper 500 feet of the aquifer is about 100,000 feet squared per day (the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about 200 feet per day) and the storage coefficient is about 2x10 -4. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities determined from slug tests of the three deepest zones of well C ranged from 20-50 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities probably do not exceed 0.05 feet per day. The vertical hydraulic gradient is determined by comparing water levels in the various zones, but because of density differences, unadjusted water levels in the deepest zone investigated cannot be directly compared to water levels in the overlying freshwater zones. The difference between environmental-water heads (adjusted for density differences) in the saline-water zone of well C and the overlying freshwater zone were calculated from measured water levels for the period 1966 to 1994. During most of this time period, the gradient was downward, indicating that saline water did not move upward. Upconing of saline water probably is not taking place in the center and western part of the well field, based on the low vertical hydraulic conductivity values estimated for the middle semi-confining unit, the generally downward vertical hydraulic gradient, and the constant chloride concentrations in the intermediate zones of well C. However, there is no information about the extent of the zone of low vertical hydraulic conductivity gradient in the eastern part of the well field. Thus, increased chloride concentrations in supply wells in the eastern part of the well field could be caused either by lateral movement of saline water from the east, or by upwar

Phelps, G. G.; Schiffer, D. M.

1996-01-01

336

Dry powder coating of pharmaceuticals: a review.  

PubMed

Over the last half century, film coating technology has evolved significantly in terms of compositions and manufacturing processes, allowing for greater functionality, flexibility and efficiency. Driven by a combination of cost considerations and functionality, a range of dry powder coating technologies have been developed in both academic and industrial settings. These technologies can be generally classified into three major types based on the layer formation process: liquid assisted, thermal adhesion and electrostatic. In addition to specific manufacturing processes that must be implemented to achieve the desired product attributes, many of these techniques also require the use of novel excipients and specific formulations to provide acceptable manufacturability. This review summarizes the current dry powder coating technologies and highlights their industrial applicability with publicly disclosed case studies. Commentary on the future directions of dry powder coating is also provided. PMID:23428881

Sauer, Dorothea; Cerea, Matteo; DiNunzio, James; McGinity, James

2013-12-01

337

Reactive plasma atomization of aluminum nitride powder  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to synthesize AlN powders by reacting Al with N using a conventional dc arc plasma as heat source. Feeding Al powder into Ar/N plasma open to atmosphere produced mainly Al oxide. Experiments using a chamber backfilled with nitrogen suppressed the Al oxide, but little AlN was formed. A furnace and crucible assembly was designed to feed molten Al directly into a DeLaval nozzle attached to the face of the dc arc plasma gun. Resulting submicron powders show a significant increase in AlN formation. This was dependent on chamber pressure, plasma velocity, and molten liquid feed rate. Experimental parameters, equipment design, effects of atomization/vaporization/condensation are discussed.

Prichard, P.; Besser, M.; Sordelet, D.; Anderson, I.

1997-02-01

338

Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

2011-08-01

339

Alternative carriers in dry powder inhaler formulations.  

PubMed

The aerosolization efficiency of a powder is highly dependent on carrier characteristics, such as particle size distribution, shape and surface properties. The main objective in the inhalation field is to achieve a high and reproducible pulmonary deposition. This can be provided by successful carrier selection and careful process optimization for carrier modification. Lactose is the most common and frequently used carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. But lactose shows some limitations in formulation with certain drugs and peptides that prohibit its usage as a carrier in DPI formulations. Here, we criticality review the most important alternative carriers to lactose with merits, demerits and applications in DPI formulations. PMID:24269834

Rahimpour, Yahya; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hamed

2014-05-01

340

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

1987-04-24

341

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01

342

Removing Undesired Fine Powder From Silicon Reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluidized-bed reactor produces highly pure polycrystalline silicon particles with diameters approximately greater than 400 micrometers. Operates by pyrolysis of silane in reaction zone, which is bed of silicon seed particles fluidized by flow of silane and carrier gas. Above reaction zone, gas mixture flows rapidly enough to entrain silicon powders, but not larger seed and product particles. Entrained particles swept out of reactor. Applicable to other processes such as production of fine metal and ceramic powders where control of sizes of product needed.

Flagella, Robert N.

1992-01-01

343

Magnetic Properties of Amorphous Fe-Si-B Powder Cores Mixed with Pure Iron Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous Fe-Si-B alloy was prepared by melt-spinning, and then the ribbons were pulverized and ball-milled to make the amorphous powder of ˜25 µm in size. Subsequently those were mixed with pure iron powders with an average particle size of 3 µm, and 1.5 wt % water glass diluted by distilled water at the ratio of 1:2. The powder mixtures were cold compacted at 650 MPa in toroid die, and heat treated at 430-440 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h and 30 min, respectively. The soft magnetic properties of powder core were investigated using a B-H analyzer and a flux meter at the frequency range of ˜100 kHz. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the density of the core was measured using the principle of Archimedes. Based on the experimental results, the amorphous powder mixed with pure iron powder showed the improved powder compactability, which resulted in the increased permeability and the reduced core loss.

Kim, Hyeon-Jun; Nam, Seul Ki; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Sung Chun; Sohn, Keun-Yong; Kim, Mi-Rae; Sul Song, Yong; Park, Won-Wook

2012-10-01

344

Macromolecular powder diffraction : structure solution via molecular.  

SciTech Connect

Macromolecular powder diffraction is a burgeoning technique for protein structure solution - ideally suited for cases where no suitable single crystals are available. Over the past seven years, pioneering work by Von Dreele et al. [1,2] and Margiolaki et al. [3,4] has demonstrated the viability of this approach for several protein structures. Among these initial powder studies, molecular replacement solutions of insulin and turkey lysozyme into alternate space groups were accomplished. Pressing the technique further, Margiolaki et al. [5] executed the first molecular replacement of an unknown protein structure: the SH3 domain of ponsin, using data from a multianalyzer diffractometer. To demonstrate that cross-species molecular replacement using image plate data is also possible, we present the solution of hen egg white lysozyme using the 60% identical human lysozyme (PDB code: 1LZ1) as the search model. Due to the high incidence of overlaps in powder patterns, especially in more complex structures, we have used extracted intensities from five data sets taken at different salt concentrations in a multi-pattern Pawley refinement. The use of image plates severely increases the overlap problem due to lower detector resolution, but radiation damage effects are minimized with shorter exposure times and the fact that the entire pattern is obtained in a single exposure. This image plate solution establishes the robustness of powder molecular replacement resulting from different data collection techniques.

Doebbler, J.; Von Dreele, R.; X-Ray Science Division

2009-01-01

345

Ripples in Tapped or Blown Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe ripples forming on the surface of a granular powder in a container submitted from below to a series of brief and distinct shocks. After a few taps, the pattern turns out to be stable against any further shock of the same amplitude. We find that the wavelength of the pattern is proportional to the amplitude of the shocks.

Jacques Duran; M. Curie

2000-01-01

346

Frontal dynamics of powder snow avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze frontal dynamics of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by rapid blow-out behind the front. Such material injection arises as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradient that the particle cloud induces within the snowpack. We model cloud fluid mechanics as a potential flow consisting of a traveling source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform airflow. Stability analysis of a mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud yields relations among scouring depth, frontal height, speed, mixed-mean density, and impact pressure when the frontal region achieves a stable growth rate. We compare predictions with field measurements, show that powder clouds cannot reach steady frontal speed on a uniform snowpack with constant cloud width and derive a criterion for cloud ignition. Because static pressure is continuous across the mean air-cloud interface and deviatoric stresses are negligible, frontal acceleration is insensitive to local slope, but instead arises from a deficit of flow-induced suction in the wake. We calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its frontal mixed-mean density becomes stable, and show how topographic spread can hasten its collapse.

Carroll, C. S.; Louge, M. Y.; Turnbull, B.

2013-06-01

347

USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

348

High-Performance Polyimide Powder Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have developed advanced powder coatings for longer-lasting, improved corrosion control. The results of preliminary tests of the coatings and their resistance to salt spray corrosion are very encouraging, and commercial partners are sought for further development.

Leahy, Jonathan J.

2014-01-01

349

Powder metal matrix composites: selection and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing interest in the last decade in the development of metal matrix composites (MMCs) for the aerospace industry because of their attractive physical and mechanical properties and enhanced elevated temperature capabilities. However, some of the fabrication techniques (e.g. using powder metallurgy) for this new class of MMCs are hampered by (i) the poor distribution of the reinforcements,

M. J Tan; X Zhang

1998-01-01

350

Magnetic properties of dispersed magnetite powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of coercive force, susceptibility, isothermal remanence, thermoremanence and thermal and alternating field demagnetization of annealed magnetite powders in nine size ranges from 1·5 ? to 120 ?. The samples were dispersed in plaster to occupy a few per cent by volume of the specimens and thus to simulate the magnetic properties of rocks. The results are

L. G. Parry

1965-01-01

351

Pourability Enhancement of PETN Explosive Powders  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture of precision detonators requires the pelletizing of very fine, organic, crystalline explosive powders. Production of pellets in automatic machines within critical dimensional and weight tolerances requires that the powders pour uniformly into die cavities. The pellets must be able to be initiated with low energy and have a predictable energy output. Modifications to needle-like crystalline PETN explosive powders to make them pourable were introduced by the application of about 80 A thick polymeric coatings to the individual crystals, followed by a controlled agglomeration into a spherical prill. Microencapsulation techniques provided the key to achieving the result using less than 0.5 wt. % coating (an order of magnitude less coating than in usual PBX systems). These coatings did not appreciably alter the energy required to initiate and significantly increased the strength of the pellets. A key point demonstrated, which may be translated to other applications, was that powders that exhibit performance based on physical characteristics could have their handling and strength properties tailored with little change in their primary function.

Vannet, M.D.; Ball, G.L.

1987-01-01

352

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete

C. Pereira; V. N. Zyryanov; M. A. Lewis; J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

353

Low density fragile states in cohesive powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the difference between cohesive and non-cohesive granular media in the context of dry quicksand, recently proposed as a new fragile state of sand. We demonstrate that weak low density configurations with properties like dry quicksand are readily formed in many common household powders. In contrast, such states cannot be formed in non-cohesive granular media such as ordinary sand.

Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Goldman, Daniel I.

2006-08-01

354

Low density fragile states in cohesive powders  

E-print Network

We discuss the difference between cohesive and non-cohesive granular media in the context of a recent report of "dry quicksand." Weak low density states with properties like dry quicksand are readily formed in common household powders. In contrast, such states cannot be formed in cohesionless granular media such as ordinary sand.

Paul B. Umbanhowar; Daniel I. Goldman

2005-12-24

355

MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

356

Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

Paris, Henry G.

1988-01-01

357

Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

1993-01-01

358

The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.  

PubMed

In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B. PMID:10518242

Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

1999-09-01

359

In vitro bioactivity of a biocomposite fabricated from HA and Ti powders by powder metallurgy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, hydroxyapatite was used as a coating material on titanium substrate by various techniques. In the present work, a biocomposite was successfully fabricated from hydroxyapatite and titanium powders by powder metallurgy method. Bioactivity of the composite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. Main crystal phases of the as-fabricated composite are found to be Ti2O, CaTiO3, CaO, ?-Ti and

C. Q. Ning; Y. Zhou

2002-01-01

360

21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. (a...Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 115.4...

2010-04-01

361

Photocatalysis of phenol and salicyclic acid by nanostructured titania powders  

SciTech Connect

The photocatalytic destruction of phenol and salicylic acid was studied in aqueous suspensions of titania powders made in flame reactors. These powders were made in six hydrocarbon diffusion flames by hydrolysis and oxidation of TiCl{sub 4} that resulted in powders of high specific surface area and high anatase content. The photoactivity of the flame-made titania powders was compared with that of commercially available powders. Doping the titania with SiO{sub 2} was detrimental to the photoactivity of the powders in aerated solutions in contrast to non-aerated solutions. Titania powders in the range of 20-40 nm containing small amounts of rutile were more active than pure anatase powders. The phenol degradation reaction followed a first-order law while the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was found to most accurately represent the photodegradation of salicylic acid.

Fotou, G.P.; Pratsinis, S.E. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

362

Consolidation of aluminum 6061 powder by equal channel angular extrusion  

E-print Network

Equal channel angular extrusion is a promising approach to obtaining full density in powder metallurgy applications. This method can impose large effective deformations through uniform shear strain. Aluminum alloy 6061 powder is used as a test...

Pearson, John Montgomery

2012-06-07

363

Study of Velocity and Materials on Tribocharging of Polymer Powders for Powder Coating Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic powder deposition is widely used in a plethora of industrial-applications ranging from the pharmaceutical and food.industries, to farm equipment and automotive applications. The disadvantages of this technique are possible back corona (pin-like formations) onset and the Faraday penetration limitation (when the powder does not penetrate in some recessed areas). A possible solution to overcome these problems is to use tribochargers to electrostatically charge the powder. Tribocharging, or contact charging while two materials are in contact, is related to the work function difference between the contacting materials and generates bipolarly charged particles. The generation of an ion-free powder cloud by tribocharging with high bipolar charge and an overall charge density of almost zero, provides a better coverage of the recessed areas. In this study, acrylic and epoxy powders were fluidized and charged by passing through stainless steel, copper, aluminum, and polycarbonate static mixers, respectively. The particle velocity was varied to determine its effect on the net charge-to-mass ratio (QIM) acquired by the powders. In general, the Q/M increases rapidly when the velocity was increased from 1.5 to 2.5 m/s, remaining almost constant for higher velocities. Charge separation experiments showed bipolar charging for all chargers.

Biris, Alex S.; Trigwell, Steve; Sims, Robert A.; Mazumder, Malay K.

2005-01-01

364

Electrical Conductivity of Metal Powders under Shock Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical conductivity of a series of metal powders under shock compression is measured by an electrocontact technique. Initially, the metal particles are covered by an oxide film, and the powder is non-conducting. Under shock compression, the powder acquires macroscopic conductivity. The electrical conductivity of the shock-compressed powder depends substantially on the metal, porosity, particle size, and shock-wave pressure. The

S. D. Gilev

2005-01-01

365

Crystallization of Amorphous Components in Spray-Dried Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray-dried powders are typically produced as amorphous particles. Long storage of the particles tends to crystallize the powders, a reaction affected by moisture, time, and temperature. This work has examined partial crystallization from amorphous spray-dried powders by moisture sorption. Powders of citrus fiber with hibiscus extract, maltodextrin, coffee, tea, skim milk, and sucrose were produced with a laboratory-scale spray dryer.

D. Chiou; T. A. G. Langrish

2007-01-01

366

Powder segregation during the filling of a simple die  

E-print Network

POWDER SEGREGATION DURING THE FILLING OF A SIMPLE DIE A study of powder segregation during die filling with two component mixes of lead particles has shown that: I. Segregation occurs by fines filtering down through the moving powder mass. This effect... and density in the mixtures studied have little effect upon segrege. tion, 4. Increasing the rate of die filling decreases opportu- nity for segregation. 5. Increasing the height from which the powder falls into the die causes mixing and decreases...

Lawrence, Larry Raymond

2012-06-07

367

Chemical Preparation of Carbonated Calcium Hydroxyapatite Powders at 37  

E-print Network

Chemical Preparation of Carbonated Calcium Hydroxyapatite Powders at 37 C in Urea-phase ceramic powder. Carbonated HA powders were formed from calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di- ammonium properties. They were usually observed1 to be carbonate-substituted and calcium-de®cient. Synthetic body

Tas, A. Cuneyt

368

Fines Loadings in Milk Powder Plants with Washable Baghouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washable baghouses are increasingly used to filter the small size fractions of milk powder, known as fines, which become entrained with spray dryer outlet air streams in milk powder plants. Surprisingly, very little is known about the quantity of powder that becomes fines, an important parameter for both the control of agglomeration rates and washable bag-house design. A convenient method

J. R. Gabites; J. Abrahamson; J. A. Winchester

2007-01-01

369

Synthesis of titanium carbide nano-powders by thermal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis for predicting the conditions for the plasma synthesis of TiC powders. The paper also investigates the effects of feeding rate and molar ratio. The experimental results show that TiC powders are synthesized by thermal plasma and the average size of the TiC powders is less than 100nm.

Lirong Tong; Ramana G. Reddy

2005-01-01

370

Comparison of Water Vapor Sorption by Milk Powder Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor is absorbed by milk powder at sites dependent upon the relative pres- sure, P\\/Po, of the atmosphere to which the powder is exposed. Comparison of the water sorption isotherms for the protein, sugar, and mixed salts comparable with that found in milk powder indicated that at low P\\/Po water is bound primarily by the casein fraction in the

B. A. Anderson; M. J. Pallansch

1968-01-01

371

Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders

G. Brankovi?; Z. Brankovi?; M. S. Góes; C. O. Paiva-Santos; M. Cilense; J. A. Varela; E. Longo

2005-01-01

372

Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide powders with controllable morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline zinc oxide powders with various morphologies have been prepared by hydrothermal treatment of zinc acetate in pure water, KOH or ammonia aqueous solution. It was found that the selected solvents play a different role in controlling the morphologies of the obtained powders. The variation of morphology of the obtained ZnO powder with solvents mainly depends on the different zinc

HaiYan Xu; Hao Wang; YongCai Zhang; WenLiang He; ManKang Zhu; Bo Wang; Hui Yan

2004-01-01

373

49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.  

... 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been...

2014-10-01

374

IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE DURABILITY BY COMPLEX MINERAL SUPERFINE POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green concrete capable for sustainable development is characterized by application of industrial wastes to reduce consumption of natural resources and energy and pollution of the environment. KG powder is a complex mineral superfine powder made by grinding the mix of calcined coal gangue and slag in certain proportion. Through reaction with the concrete admixture, KG powder improved pozzolanic reaction,

Chen Han-bin; Chen Jian-xiong; Xiao Fei; Cui Hong-ta

375

Low temperature carburization of high surface area tungsten powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductive decomposition of WO3 precursor powder gives high surface area ?-W at temperatures above 650 °C, ?-W at temperatures below 575 °C, and mixtures of ?-W and ?-W (in various ratios) at intermediate temperatures. The carburization behavior of these powders in flowing CO over the temperature range 350 °–700 °C is sensitive to the initial crystalline state of the powder.

L. Gao; B. H. Kear

1995-01-01

376

New Ferro Powder for Selective Laser Sintering of Dense Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a new powder composition specially developed for selective laser sintering (SLS). The aim is to obtain a ferro powder that can be sintered without need for a (sacrificial) polymer binder and that results in quasi dense parts that do not need any post-processing like furnace sintering, infiltration or HIP. The powder is a mixture of different types

J. P. Kruth; L. Froyen; M. Rombouts; J. Van Vaerenbergh; P. Mercells

2003-01-01

377

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

378

Shock compaction of molybdenum nitride powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum nitride has a potential application in multi layer capacitors. Since this material is not readily available in bulk form, molybdenum nitride powder, consisting of a mixture of the nitrides Mo2N and MoN has been compacted to 12 mm circular, 1-2 mm thick discs utilizing shock-compression technique. Powders were packed to 55-67 percent of the crystal density and shock compacted using a plate impact shock recovery system at 1.35 to 1.81 km/s impact velocity. The recovered compacts were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate its electrochemical stability in sulphuric acid. This paper presents the optimization technique used for compaction and the characteristics of the recovered compacts.

Roberson, S.; Davis, R. F.; Joshi, V. S.; Fienello, D.

1998-07-01

379

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOEpatents

Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

1997-01-01

380

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-10-19

381

Electrophoretic deposition of nanosized ceramic powders  

SciTech Connect

For nanosized powders the forming of compacts by electrophoretic deposition is an interesting method. In aqueous suspensions high deposition rates can be achieved at low electric fields. The problems with the gas bubble formation at the electrodes which are caused by the decomposition of water can be solved by depositing the compact on a microporous membrane in front of the electrode. Thus, with nanosized zirconia powders made by the flame hydrolysis (BET-surface area approx. 50 M{sup 2}/g) the deposition rate was measured as a function of deposition time and electrolyte concentration. Furthermore, the deposition rate depends on the effective electric field inside the suspension, which is much lower in zirconia suspensions than in comparable silica suspensions. In spite of this, deposition rates up to 0.5 g/min {center_dot} CM{sup 2} were achieved. The deposited compacts showed a small pore size distribution (max. 25 nm) and a relative green density of 40%.

Clasen, R.; Janes, S.; Oswald, C.; Ranker, D. [Institut fuer Neue Materialien gem GmbH, Saarbruechek (Germany)

1995-09-01

382

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01

383

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01

384

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01

385

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1992-01-01

386

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01

387

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOEpatents

Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

1997-06-10

388

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18

389

Shock compression response of magnetic nanocomposite powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shock compression response of magnetic Pr2Fe14B\\/?-Fe nanocomposite powders, pressed at different packing densities, was studied in the range of 11–23 GPa shock pressure, using a single-stage gas gun. Bulk compacts (97.5–99% dense) recovered in the form of 12 mm diameter by 4 mm thick disks, were analyzed to determine the structural changes occurring within the particles and at particle

Z. Q. Jin; K. H. Chen; J. Lia; H. Zeng; S.-F. Cheng; J. P. Liu; Z. L. Wang; N. N. Thadhani

2004-01-01

390

Tunable visible photoluminescence of powdered silica glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense photoluminescence in the visible region was observed at room temperature in standard soda-lime-silica glass powder, mechanically milled in a high-energy attrition mill. The emission band maximum shows an interesting dependence on the exciting wavelength, suggesting the possibility to tune the PL emission. These findings indicate that the photoluminescence may be directly related to unsatisfied chemical bonds correlated with the

P. S. Pizani; M. R. Joya; F. M. Pontes; L. P. S. Santos; M GODINHOJR; E. R. Leite; E. Longo

2008-01-01

391

Porous materials from electrolytic chromium powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fractions of electrolytic chromium powder, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 ram, were chosen for investigation. The designations of these fractions are highly arbitrary, because, for example, a thin lamellar particle up to 1 mm long can pass through a seive with 0.4-ram apertures. Metallographie examination (Fig. 1) and visual inspection revealed that, while the particles of the 0.2-ram fraction in

S. M. Solonin; V. B. Akimenko

1971-01-01

392

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA\\/CEREM. Fully dense material without

Ch. Dellis; G. Le Marois; J. M. Gentzbittel; G. Robert; F. Moret

1996-01-01

393

Fabricating sports equipment components via powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metallurgy (P\\/M) offers a viable, cost-effective approach to fabricating sports and leisure equipment components. Both\\u000a complex, monolithic parts and parts produced from materials of quite different densities can be manufactured by this technique.\\u000a In the latter category, lightweight titanium and heavyweight tungsten can be used in combination to optimally distribute mass,\\u000a such as in golf club heads. Examples of

V. S. Moxson

2001-01-01

394

(Ln = Eu, Tb, and Dy) Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaWO4:Ln3+ powders were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The BaWO4:Ln3+ samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and luminescence spectroscopy. The XRD patterns reveal that the BaWO4:Ln3+ samples present pure tetragonal scheelite structure. The SEM observations demonstrate that the BaWO4:Ln3+ powders are irregular particles with size in the range of micrometers. The excitation spectra of the BaWO4:Ln3+ samples show the broad absorption band originating from charge transfer between oxygen ligands and the central tungstate ions inside WO{4/2-} groups in the metal tungstate. The emission spectra of the BaWO4:Ln3+ samples display the bands associated to the anion molecular complex (WO{4/2-}) and the f- f transitions of Ln3+. According to the emission spectra and the chromaticity coordinates (Commission internationale de l'éclairage, CIE), one can see that the BaWO4:Eu3+, BaWO4:Tb3+, and BaWO4:Dy3+ samples show emission in the red, green, and yellow region, respectively. The results show that the luminescence color can be altered by changing the Ln3+ doping in BaWO4 material.

Sun, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaodan; Li, Xingang; He, Jian; Wang, Binsheng

2014-09-01

395

Whole Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Plantation Crops Coconut, Cocoa and Arecanut  

PubMed Central

Coconut, cocoa and arecanut are commercial plantation crops that play a vital role in the Indian economy while sustaining the livelihood of more than 10 million Indians. According to 2012 Food and Agricultural organization's report, India is the third largest producer of coconut and it dominates the production of arecanut worldwide. In this study, three Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from coconut (CPCRI-1), cocoa (CPCRI-2) and arecanut (CPCRI-3) characterized for the PGP activities have been sequenced. The draft genome sizes were 4.7 Mb (56% GC), 5.9 Mb (63.6% GC) and 5.1 Mb (54.8% GB) for CPCRI-1, CPCRI-2, CPCRI-3, respectively. These genomes encoded 4056 (CPCRI-1), 4637 (CPCRI-2) and 4286 (CPCRI-3) protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both CPCRI-1 and CPCRI-3 belonged to Enterobacteriaceae family, while, CPCRI-2 was a Pseudomonadaceae family member. Functional annotation of the genes predicted that all three bacteria encoded genes needed for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, phenazine, 4-hydroxybenzoate, trehalose and quorum sensing molecules supportive of the plant growth promoting traits observed in the course of their isolation and characterization. Additionally, in all the three CPCRI PGPRs, we identified genes involved in synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which recently has been proposed to aid plant growth. The PGPRs also carried genes for central carbohydrate metabolism indicating that the bacteria can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as energy source. Genes for production of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance and glycine-betaine production that enable bacteria to survive abiotic stress were also identified. PMID:25162593

Thomas, George V.; Manikandan, Vinu; Gajewski, John; Thomas, George; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Schuster, Stephan C.

2014-01-01

396

Whole genome sequencing and analysis of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plantation crops coconut, cocoa and arecanut.  

PubMed

Coconut, cocoa and arecanut are commercial plantation crops that play a vital role in the Indian economy while sustaining the livelihood of more than 10 million Indians. According to 2012 Food and Agricultural organization's report, India is the third largest producer of coconut and it dominates the production of arecanut worldwide. In this study, three Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from coconut (CPCRI-1), cocoa (CPCRI-2) and arecanut (CPCRI-3) characterized for the PGP activities have been sequenced. The draft genome sizes were 4.7 Mb (56% GC), 5.9 Mb (63.6% GC) and 5.1 Mb (54.8% GB) for CPCRI-1, CPCRI-2, CPCRI-3, respectively. These genomes encoded 4056 (CPCRI-1), 4637 (CPCRI-2) and 4286 (CPCRI-3) protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both CPCRI-1 and CPCRI-3 belonged to Enterobacteriaceae family, while, CPCRI-2 was a Pseudomonadaceae family member. Functional annotation of the genes predicted that all three bacteria encoded genes needed for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, phenazine, 4-hydroxybenzoate, trehalose and quorum sensing molecules supportive of the plant growth promoting traits observed in the course of their isolation and characterization. Additionally, in all the three CPCRI PGPRs, we identified genes involved in synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which recently has been proposed to aid plant growth. The PGPRs also carried genes for central carbohydrate metabolism indicating that the bacteria can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as energy source. Genes for production of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance and glycine-betaine production that enable bacteria to survive abiotic stress were also identified. PMID:25162593

Gupta, Alka; Gopal, Murali; Thomas, George V; Manikandan, Vinu; Gajewski, John; Thomas, George; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Schuster, Stephan C; Rajesh, Preeti; Gupta, Ravi

2014-01-01

397

The Manufacture of Spherical Titanium Alloy Powder in Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the preparation technology of spherical titanium alloy powder (tc4) was studied by using continuous induction plasma powder synthesis system. The flow-ability, particle size and impurity content of the powder before and after plasma treatment were measured and compared. The result showed that, by applying induction plasma preparation technology, the powder's flow-ability was improved by 20% while oxygen and carbon content were decreased significantly. The powder's sphericization rate and recovery rate were above 95% and 90% respectively with plasma spherical treatment.

Wei, Huang; Ziming, Chen; Yong, Liu; Fujun, Shang; Weiming, Huang

2014-08-01

398

Properties of Hot Pressed Titanium Alloy Powders for Cryogenic Applications.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of strength and toughness of hot-pressed titanium alloy powders at room and at cryogenic temperatures. The purpose was to determine how the mechanical properties of solid bodies formed from powder would compare with wrought specimens of the same size and with the same chemical analysis. It was found that of five titanium powder-making processes investigated, only the Rotating Electrode Process (REP) was capable of producing ELI-grade titanium alloy powder. Blocks hot-pressed from spherical REP powders had tensile properties equivalent to or better than those obtained from wrought bar.

Friedman, G. I.; Kazaroff, J. M.

1970-01-01

399

Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders  

DOEpatents

Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

Katz, Joseph L. (Baltimore, MD); Miquel, Philippe F. (Towson, MD)

1997-01-01

400

77 FR 28252 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Change of Sponsor; Griseofulvin Powder; Levamisole Hydrochloride Powder; Oxytetracycline...ANADAs) for griseofulvin powder, levamisole hydrochloride soluble powder, and oxytetracycline...and ANADAs 200-313 and 200-386 for Levamisole Hydrochloride Soluble Pig Wormer...

2012-05-14

401

High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination  

SciTech Connect

It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis are familiar to laboratory diffractionists. This is reflected in the fact that there are already dedicated instruments for powder diffraction at a number of synchrotrons sources, including the NSLS, the Synchrotrons Radiation Source, Daresbury, the Photon Factory, Tsukuba and HASYLAB. In addition, most general purpose beamlines can be adapted for powder diffraction experiments fairly easily. Dedicated beamlines are also planned or under consideration at the next generation of synchrotrons sources, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, and the SPring-8 machine at Harima. These will be high brilliance sources with a much harder radiation spectrum that will offer many new possibilities for powder diffraction experiments, especially at energies above 10 keV.

Cox, D. E.

1999-04-23

402

[Making tablets of powdered milk and the physical properties].  

PubMed

Compressed baby milk powder has proven to be very convenient for parents due to the ease with which it can be handled, and the fact that use of a measuring scoop is not necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a compressed baby milk powder and analyze the resulting physical properties. The basic production process consisted of the following steps: 1) molding milk powder by low compression pressure, 2) humidification at 25°C·97%RH and 3) drying with use of a desiccant. No chemical additives were used for solidification; therefore the chemical composition of the compressed milk powder is identical to the base milk powder. The important properties of the compressed milk powder are both ready solubility and the strength of the solid. The compressed milk powder obtained at low pressure was too brittle for practical use, but the strength was increased by humidification followed by drying. During the humidification process, the powder particles located close to the surface of the compressed milk powder partially dissolve resulting in bridging structures between the particles, leading to an increase in strength. Both specific surface area and the volume ratio of the compressed milk powder decreased. Testing showed that caking between the particles occurred following humidification, and that the volume of caking affected the ease with which the compressed milk powder dissolves in water. PMID:21963978

Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Nakane, Shota; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

2011-01-01

403

Evaluation of Raney-nickel cathodes prepared with aluminum powder and titanium hydride powder  

SciTech Connect

Raney-nickel (Ni) cathodes were prepared on nickel wire from aluminum powder and titanium hydride powder by heat-treatment. The influence of the addition of titanium to the Raney-Ni electrode on the polarization characteristics of the hydrogen evolution reaction was studied in 1 M NaOH at 303 K. Although the coated layer was composed of nickel with a small amount of aluminum and titanium, the titanium was enriched the most. The relative surface area of the Raney-Ni cathodes was about 3500 independent of the presence of titanium, but titanium could decrease the hydrogen overpotential.

Tanaka, Shinichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst. (Japan)] [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst. (Japan); [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Hirose, Norimitsu; Tanaki, Toshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Eastern District Small and Medium-Sized Business Promotion Center (Japan)] [Tokyo Metropolitan Eastern District Small and Medium-Sized Business Promotion Center (Japan)

1999-07-01

404

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test to start. The study relied on a process, ... After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers compared the scans looking ...

405

Validation of the (GTG)(5)-rep-PCR fingerprinting technique for rapid classification and identification of acetic acid bacteria, with a focus on isolates from Ghanaian fermented cocoa beans.  

PubMed

Amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements through the polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR fingerprinting) using the (GTG)(5) primer, referred to as (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting, was found a promising genotypic tool for rapid and reliable speciation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). The method was evaluated with 64 AAB reference strains, including 31 type strains, and 132 isolates from Ghanaian, fermented cocoa beans, and was validated with DNA:DNA hybridization data. Most reference strains, except for example all Acetobacter indonesiensis strains and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens LMG 1509, grouped according to their species designation, indicating the usefulness of this technique for identification to the species level. Moreover, exclusive patterns were obtained for most strains, suggesting that the technique can also be used for characterization below species level or typing of AAB strains. The (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting allowed us to differentiate four major clusters among the fermented cocoa bean isolates, namely A. pasteurianus (cluster I, 100 isolates), A. syzygii- or A. lovaniensis-like (cluster II, 23 isolates), and A. tropicalis-like (clusters III and IV containing 4 and 5 isolates, respectively). A. syzygii-like and A. tropicalis-like strains from cocoa bean fermentations were reported for the first time. Validation of the method and indications for reclassifications of AAB species and existence of new Acetobacter species were obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analyses and DNA:DNA hybridizations. Reclassifications refer to A. aceti LMG 1531, Ga. xylinus LMG 1518, and Ga. xylinus subsp. sucrofermentans LMG 18788(T). PMID:17920717

De Vuyst, Luc; Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Van de Perre, Vincent; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vos, Paul; Cleenwerck, Ilse

2008-06-30

406

Laser production of articles from powders  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

1998-01-01

407

Laser production of articles from powders  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

1998-11-17

408

Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

Harf, F. H.

1986-01-01

409

Ampicillin Trihydrate from Synchrotron Powder Diffraction Data  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of ampicillin trihydrate {l_brace}systematic name: 6-[D(-)-{alpha}-aminophenylacetamido]penicillanic acid trihydrate{r_brace}, C{sub 16}H{sub 19}N{sub 3}O{sub 4}S{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, a broad-spectrum {beta}-lactam antibiotic of the aminopenicillin type, has been determined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The three water molecules form an infinite hydrogen-bonded chain through the crystal structure, with hydrogen bonds to the NH{sub 3}{sup +}, COO{sup -}, C{double_bond}O and NH groups of the ampicillin molecules.

Burley,J.; van de Streek, J.; Stephens, P.

2006-01-01

410

Effective temperature of an aging powder.  

PubMed

The aging dynamics and the fluctuation-dissipation relation between the spontaneous diffusion induced by a random noise and the drift motion induced by a small stirring force are numerically investigated in a 3D schematic model of compacting powder: a gravity-driven lattice-gas with purely kinetic constraints. The compaction dynamics is characterized by a super-aging behavior and, in analogy with glasses, exhibits a purely dynamical time-scale-dependent effective temperature. A simple experiment to measure this quantity is suggested. PMID:11415060

Sellitto, M

2001-06-01

411

Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

Grant, N. J.

1982-01-01

412

The preference of protein powders among adult male and females: A protein powder taste study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein is essential in one's diet because it is an important component in many organs and tissues throughout the body. Athletes ingest protein in order to stimulate protein synthesis and increase lean muscle mass. In order to assist with obtaining adequate amounts of protein, athletes and bodybuilders purchase supplemental protein in the form of protein powders. Protein metabolism and digestion

Joshua Manter

2010-01-01

413

Numerical investigation of coarse powder and air flow in an electrostatic powder coating process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here reports on the numerical simulation of an electrostatic powder coating process that uses a commercial computational fluid dynamic code, FLUENT v6.1. The purpose of this study was to understand the gas and particle flow fields inside a coating booth under given operating conditions and the effect of particle sizes on its trajectories and the final coating

U. Shah; J. Zhu; C. Zhang; J NOTHERSENIOR

2006-01-01

414

Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel  

DOEpatents

A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

2011-11-29

415

NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

2012-07-25

416

Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying.  

PubMed

The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 ?m, respectively. PMID:24966433

Koç, Banu; Sakin-Y?lmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balk?r, P?nar

2014-07-01

417

Amorphous powders of Al-Hf prepared by mechanical alloying  

SciTech Connect

We synthesized amorphous Al/sub 50/Hf/sub 50/ alloy powder by mechanically alloying an equimolar mixture of crystalline powders of Al and Hf using hexane as a dispersant. We characterized the powder as a function of mechanical-alloying time by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Amorphous Al/sub 50/Hf/sub 50/ powder heated at 10 K s/sup /minus/1/ crystallizes polymorphously at 1003 K into orthorhombic AlHf (CrB-type structure). During mechanical alloying, some hexane decomposes and hydrogen and carbon are incorporated into the amorphous alloy powder. The hydrogen can be removed by annealing the powder by hot pressing at a temperature approximately 30 K below the crystallization temperature. The amorphous compacts have a diamond pyramidal hardness of 1025 DPH. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Schwarz, R.B.; Hannigan, J.W.; Sheinberg, H.; Tiainen, T.

1988-01-01

418

Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the characterisation of printed circuit boards (PCB) metal powder filters and their influence on the effective electron temperature which is as low as 22 mK for a quantum dot in a silicon MOSFET structure in a dilution refrigerator. We investigate the attenuation behaviour (10 MHz-20 GHz) of filter made of four metal powders with a grain size below 50 ?m. The room-temperature attenuation of a stainless steel powder filter is more than 80 dB at frequencies above 1.5 GHz. In all metal powder filters, the attenuation increases with temperature. Compared to classical powder filters, the design presented here is much less laborious to fabricate and specifically the copper powder PCB-filters deliver an equal or even better performance than their classical counterparts.

Mueller, Filipp; Schouten, Raymond N.; Brauns, Matthias; Gang, Tian; Lim, Wee Han; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

2013-04-01

419

Epoxy powder coatings containing polyaniline for enhanced corrosion protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of polyaniline (PANI) in epoxy type powder coating formulations has not been attempted earlier. Using specific grade of PANI with low doping, it can be incorporated in epoxy powder coating formulations by twin screw extrusion process. The powder formulations were deposited on steel substrates by electrostatic spray coating at ?60kV and baked at 140°C for 20min. These were extensively

S. Radhakrishnan; Narendra Sonawane; C. R. Siju

2009-01-01

420

The prediction of moisture sorption isotherms for dairy powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption isotherms were measured for whey protein isolate, high micellar casein and a milk protein concentrate powder. No temperature dependence was observed over the temperature range of 4–37°C. At 50°C the powders absorbed less moisture than observed at the lower temperatures. These isotherms were used to predict the isotherms for freeze-dried amorphous lactose\\/casein\\/whey protein powders. An isotherm for micellar

Kylie D. Foster; John E. Bronlund

2005-01-01

421

Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders  

DOEpatents

A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

Baker, Ian

2013-05-21

422

Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with AM. Alternative powders can be made by blending or re-spheroidizing HDH and CPTi powders. Machine modifications were performed to allow the testing and manufacturing with these low cost alternative powders. A comparison was made between alternative powders and gas atomized powders. Powders were compared in terms of morphology and at the microstructural level. Flowability of different powder blends was also measured. Finally, a comparison of parts fabricated from the multiple powder blends and gas atomized powder was made. It has been demonstrated that powder blending can produce fully dense parts in the Arcam system by utilizing the double melt technique or HIPing the built pars. The double melt technique increased the density of the sample part and modified the microstructure into finer martensitic grains. The HIP process can make a part fully dense regardless of what percentage of HDH powder blending is used. The HIP process yielded the same microstructure, regardless of the grain structure it started with. This research allows for the reduction of costs using titanium powders in the EBM system, but can also be implemented with more costly elements and alloys using other metal AM technologies. This includes niobium, tantalum, and nickel-based superalloys for use in various industries.

Medina, Fransisco

423

Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for Neutron Generator Applications: Powder Fractionation Study of Production-Scale Powders  

SciTech Connect

The Materials Chemistry Department 1846 has developed a lab-scale chem-prep process for the synthesis of PNZT 95/5, referred to as the ''SP'' process (Sandia Process). This process (TSP) has been successfully transferred to and scaled-up by Department 14192 (Ceramics and Glass Department), producing the larger quantities of PZT powder required to meet the future supply needs of Sandia for neutron generator production. The particle size distributions of TSP powders routinely have been found to contain a large particle size fraction that was absent in development (SP) powders. This SAND report documents experimental studies focused on characterizing these particles and assessing their potential impact on material performance. To characterize these larger particles, fractionation of several TSP powders was performed. The ''large particle size fractions'' obtained were characterized by particle size analysis, SEM, and ICP analysis and incorporated into compacts and sintered. Large particles were found to be very similar in structure and composition as the bulk of the powder. Studies showed that the large-size fractions of the powders behave similarly to the non-fractionated powder with respect to the types of microstructural features once sintered. Powders were also compared that were prepared using different post-synthesis processing (i.e. differences in precipitate drying). Results showed that these powders contained different amounts and sizes of porous inclusions when sintered. How this affects the functional performance of the PZT 95/5 material is the subject of future investigations.

MOORE, DIANA L.; VOIGT, JAMES A.; WATSON, CHAD S.; MCKENZIE, BONNIE B.; MOORE, ROGER H.; HUTCHINSON, MICHAEL A.; LOCKWOOD, STEVEN J.; RODMAN-GONZALES, EMILY D.

2003-06-01

424

Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO? powder.  

PubMed

The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds. PMID:24797905

Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

2014-06-15

425

Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1989-01-01

426

Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.  

PubMed

Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders. PMID:22822539

Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

2012-06-01

427

Process for preparing titanium nitride powder  

DOEpatents

A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide. The process of this invention may comprise mixing one or more phosphates of Ti with a cyanide salt in the absence of oxygen and heating to a temperature sufficient to cause reaction to occur. In the preferred embodiment the ratio of cyanide salt to Ti should be at least 2 which results in the major Ti-containing product being TiN rather than sodium titanium phosphate byproducts. The process is an improvement over prior processes since the byproducts are water soluble salts of sodium which can easily be removed from the preferred TiN product by washing. 2 tabs.

Bamberger, C.E.

1988-06-17

428

Powder diffraction with spin polarized neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarized neutron diffraction (PND) and spherical neutron polarimetry (SNP) techniques are very powerful tools and provide arguably the most sensitive methods for determining magnetization distributions at all the positions of the chemical. However, they can only apply to single crystals. Because of the difficulties encountered in growing sufficiently large samples of molecular magnets, and the inability to measure efficiently powder samples and more specifically nanoscale systems, the PND and SNP techniques are inadequate for a number of highly interesting subjects. We present a new technique taking advantage of the recent progress of the polarized 3He neutron spin filters that should overcome these limitations and which we propose to call the 'flipping difference method'. We describe the measurement strategy, the data analysis technique and preliminary analysis of the results of the first measurements.

Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Wills, A. S.; Bourgeat-Lami, E.; Dee, A.; Hansen, T.; Henry, P. F.; Poole, A.; Thomas, M.; Tonon, X.; Torregrossa, J.; Andersen, K. H.; Bordenave, F.; Jullien, D.; Mouveau, P.; Guérard, B.; Manzin, G.

2010-05-01

429

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA/CEREM. Fully dense material without any porosity is obtained when appropriate HIP parameters are applied. Microstructural examination and mechanical properties are confirmed that the HIPed 316LN material is equivalent to a very good fine-grain, isotropic and uniformly forged 316LN. Moreover, ultrasonic inspection showed that this fine and uniform microstructure produced a remarkably low noise, which allow the use of transverse waves at very high frequencies (4 MHz). Defects undetectable in forged material will be easily detected in HIPed material.

Dellis, Ch.; Le Marois, G.; Gentzbittel, J. M.; Robert, G.; Moret, F.

1996-10-01

430

Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy of powder samples  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy, SMS, is an emerging technique that allows fast and accurate determination of hyperfine field parameters similar to conventional Mossbauer spectroscopy with radioactive sources. This new technique, however, is qualitatively different from Mossbauer spectroscopy in terms of equipment, methodology, and analysis to warrant a new name. In this paper, the authors report on isomer shift and quadrupole splitting measurements of Mohr`s salt, Fe(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O for demonstration purposes. Theoretical calculations were performed and compared to experiments both in energy and time domain to demonstrate the influence of thickness distribution and preferential alignment of powder samples. Such measurements may prove to be useful when the data collection times are reduced to few seconds in the third generation, undulator based synchrotron radiation sources.

Alp, E.E.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T.

1994-08-01

431

Adsorption of arsenate on untreated dolomite powder.  

PubMed

Raw dolomite powder was evaluated for its efficiency in adsorbing As(V) from water. An experimental setup comprised of a fluidized dolomite powder bed was used to assess the impact of various test variables on the efficiency of removal of As(V). Test influents including distilled water (DW), synthetic groundwater (SGW) and filtered sewage effluent (FSE) were employed to assess the effect of influent parameters on the adsorption process and the quality of the effluent generated. Dolomite exhibited good As(V) removal levels for distilled water (>92%) and synthetic ground water (>84%) influents at all initial As(V) concentrations tested (0.055-0.600 ppm). Breakthrough of dolomite bed occurred after 45 bed volumes for DW and 20 bed volumes for SGW influents with complete breakthrough taking place at more than 300 bed volumes. As(V) removal from FSE influents was relatively unsuccessful as compared to the DW and SGW influents. Partial removal in the order of 32% from filtered sewage effluent at initial concentration of 0.6 mg/L started at 75 bed volumes and gradually stopped at 165 bed volumes. Varying degrees of As(V) adsorption capacities were observed by the different test influents employed, which indicate that the adsorption of As(V) is adversely affected by competing species, mainly sulfates and phosphates present in the influent. The adsorptive behavior of dolomite was described by fitting data generated from the study into the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both models described well the adsorption of dolomite. The average isotherm adsorptive capacity was determined at 5.02 mug/g. Regeneration of the dolomite bed can be achieved with the use of caustic soda solution at a pH of 10.5. PMID:17399893

Ayoub, G M; Mehawej, M

2007-09-01

432

Erosion dynamics of powder snow avalanches - Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder snow avalanches (PSA) entrain massive amounts of material from the underlying snow cover by erosion mechanisms that are not fully understood. Despite their inherent diversity, PSAs have recognizable flow features: they are fast, reaching velocity up to 80 m/s, they develop a tall, low density powder cloud and, at the same time, they can exert impact pressure with similar magnitudes of high density flow. In this talk, we report observations that underscore the interplay between entrainment and flow dynamics qualitatively shared by several PSAs at the Vallée de la Sionne test site in Switzerland. Measurements include time-histories of snow pack thickness with buried FMCW radar and time-histories of particle velocity using optical sensors, cloud density and cluster size using capacitance probes, and impact pressure measured at several elevations on a pylon. Measurements show that, at the avalanche front, a layer of light, cold and cohesionless snow is rapidly entrained, creating a turbulent and stratified head region with intermittent snow clusters. Fast and localized entrainment of deeper and warmer snow layers may also occur well behind the front, up to a distance of hundreds of meters, where pronounced stratification appears and snow clusters grow larger. In the avalanche head, impact pressure strongly fluctuates and is larger near the ground. Velocity profiles change throughout the avalanche head, with more abrupt changes localized where rapid entrainment occurs. A basal, continuous dense layer forms as deeper, warmer and denser snow cover is entrained and as suspended material starts to deposit. The thickness of the basal layer progressively increases toward the avalanche tail where, finally, deposition occurs en masse. Toward the avalanche tail, velocity profiles tend to become uniform, impact pressures are lower and nearly constant, while entrainment processes are negligible. These observations underscore the relevance of entrainment location and the nature of the erodible material on avalanche dynamics and contrast the sharply different behaviors observed at the head of PSAs and well behind it.

Sovilla, Betty; Louge, Michel

2013-04-01

433

Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

2010-11-01

434

Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities in Thin Films of Tapped Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe powder ``droplets'' forming when tapping repeatedly a horizontal flat plate initially covered with a monolayer of fine powder particles. Starting from a simple model involving both the air flow through the porous cake and avalanche properties, we set up an analytical model which satisfactorily fits the experimental results. We observe a close analogy between the governing equations of

Jacques Duran; M. Curie

2001-01-01

435

Sinterable powders from laser driven reactions : final report  

E-print Network

Extremely fine, uniform ceramic powders have been synthesized from Sil4 NH3 and C2H4 gas phase reactants that are heated by absorbing optical energy emitted from a C02 laser. Resulting Si, Si3N4 and SiC powders have been ...

Haggerty, John Scarseth

1981-01-01

436

YBCO superconducting powder generation by an aerosol process  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) powders were successfully generated by aerosol processes. Two effects of processing parameters on final superconducting-powder characteristics were investigated. The aerosol YBCO powders were characterized according to their oxygen stoichiometry, particle-size distribution, morphology, magnetization, transition temperature, and lattice-cell dimensions. These properties were examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction, aerosol instruments, and a magnetometer. A series of aerosol YBCO powder-sintering experiments including oxygen loading and desorption were performed. Several quantitative relationships were determined from the results of X-ray diffraction, TGA, and magnetization measurements. Magnetization and Moessbauer spectrometry of the aerosol powders were conducted. Iron doping of aerosol YBCO powders led to a random replacement of Cu for Fe in the chain and planes of the host structure. A cascade impactor was used to classify the powders into different size regimes. Two length scales (penetration depth, and coherence length) characterizing superconductivity in aerosol YBCO powders were established for the first time from magnetization measurements.

Zhou Derong.

1991-01-01

437

Evaluation of reaction kinetics for gas-powder systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic models for the reaction between a gas and powder are presented and discussed. Rates from the progressive conversion model are dependent on the amount of material present. This model is described by an equation that yields both the rate constant and the reaction order. The phase boundary model produces rates for topochemical reactions which are dependent on the powder

J. L. Stakebake; G. E. Bixby

1979-01-01

438

Recovery of Blood Group Antibodies from Erythrocyte Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN A PREVIOUS PAPER,' experiments on the application of erythrocyte powder in serologic laboratories were described. It was shown that erythrocyte powder may be successfully used for (1) absorption of useless and disturbing antibodies from test sera, (2) complement fixation test with strong group antibodies, and (3) preparation of \\

FELIX MILGROM; CARLOS ORELLANA; MIGUEL LAYRISSE

1959-01-01

439

NOTES AND COMMENTS Revisiting powdered sugar for varroa control on  

E-print Network

.) Jennifer A Berry1 , Ohad Afik1,2 , Maxcy P Nolan IV1 and Keith S Delaplane1* 1 Department of Entomology) in Florida. These authors dusted the top bars of brood combs with powdered sugar every two weeks from April 3 days apart) or (b) treatment applied one day at an interval of every 2 weeks, and; 3. powdered

Delaplane, Keith S.

440

Investigation on pozzolanic effect of perlite powder in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pozzolanic effect of perlite powder (PP) added to concrete can be determined quantitatively with strength indices: specific strength ratio (R), index of specific strength (K), and contribution percentage of pozzolanic effect to strength (P). Besides compressive strength, these indices indicate that perlite powder has a high pozzolanic effect and is an active mineral admixture (MA) for concrete.

L.-H Yu; H Ou; L.-L Lee

2003-01-01

441

PHYSICS DEPARTMENT Heat Transport in Evacuated Perlite Powder  

E-print Network

PHYSICS DEPARTMENT Heat Transport in Evacuated Perlite Powder Insulations and Its TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÃ?T MÃ?NCHEN #12;#12;Heat Transport in Evacuated Perlite Powder Insulations and Its) with expanded perlite has been used for cryogenic applications, especially the storage of liquid gases at temper

Gross, Rudolf

442

ELASTOMERIC COATING OF FILLER POWDERS BY SLURRY PRECIPITATION  

E-print Network

size distribution. Introduction Prior to the processing of energetic formulations, filler powders density and use of surfactants all affected the size distribution and the integrity of the molding powder with air pressure regulated at 60 psi. An on- line filter is provided to remove moisture and the oil

443

ORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder  

E-print Network

of milk powder in a sorption box at different temperatures and water activities to assess and amorphous lactose in a sorption box (packed bed) ranged from several hours to a week (Jouppila et al. 1997ORIGINAL PAPER Fast crystallization of lactose and milk powder in fluidized bed dryer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Producing titanium powder by continuous vapor-phase reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center is to reduce the cost of titanium parts by developing a continuous titanium process. In this work, titanium powder was produced by feeding liquid TiCl4, with argon as a carrier gas, and magnesium wire into a shaft reactor at 1,000°C. The magnesium and TiCl4 vaporized and reacted to produce a mixture of titanium, MgCl2, and magnesium powder. Ti/Mg/MgCl2 powder was removed from the argon gas stream by an electrostatic precipitator, and the titanium powder was separated from the magnesium and MgCl2 by either vacuum distillation or leaching. Vacuum distillation produced sintered titanium powder with lower oxygen levels, but unacceptably high levels of magnesium and chlorine. Leached powder was spherical and free-flowing with low levels of magnesium and chlorine, but the oxygen content was no lower than 0.82%. The high oxygen content of the leached powder is caused by surface oxidation of the submicrometer titanium powder.

Hansen, Dennis A.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

1998-11-01

445

Selective laser melting of iron-based powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective laser melting (SLM) is driven by the need to process near full density objects with mechanical properties comparable to those of bulk materials. During the process the powder particles are completely molten by the laser beam. The resulting high density allows avoiding lengthy post-processing as required with selective laser sintering (SLS) of metal powders. Unlike SLS, SLM is more

J. P. Kruth; L. Froyen; J. Van Vaerenbergh; P. Mercelis; M. Rombouts; B. Lauwers

2004-01-01

446

Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

Jin, F.

1995-11-01

447

Mathematical modeling of powder paint particle trajectories in electrostatic painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trajectories of charged powder particles in an electrostatic powder coating system were modeled considering electrical and fluid forces. The mathematical model employed an iterative technique wherein the charge simulation method was used to compute the electric field strength and the method of characteristics was used to compute the charge density in the gun-to-target region. The fluid flow between the

F. Sharmene Ali; Terence E. Base; Ion I. Inculet

2000-01-01

448

Mathematical modelling of powder paint particle trajectories in electrostatic painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trajectories of charged powder particles in an electrostatic powder coating system were modelled considering electrical and fluid forces. The mathematical model employed an iterative technique wherein the charge simulation method was used to compute the electric field strength and the method of characteristics was used to compute the charge density in the gun-to-target region. The fluid flow between the

F. S. Ali; T. E. Base; I. I. Inculet

1994-01-01

449

Dispersing WC–Co powders in aqueous media with polyethylenimine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aqueous WC–Co suspensions for powder metallurgical processing of hard metal powders is expected to have environmental as well as economic advantages over the currently used systems with organic solvents. Without a suitable dispersing agent, however, poor mixing and aggregation of the different particulate constituents will occur in water and requirements on homogeneity and colloidal stability of the

Eric Laarz; Lennart Bergström

2000-01-01

450

Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

1973-01-01

451

Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE) program initiated by NASA are presented. Mechanical properties comparisons are made for superalloy parts produced by as-HIP powder consolidation and by forging of HIP consolidated billets. The effect of various defects on the mechanical properties of powder parts are shown.

Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

1980-01-01

452

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

453

Temperature distribution in powder beds during 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this paper is to report about the temperature distribution in metal and ceramic powder beds during 3D printing. The differing powders are thoroughly characterized in terms of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, emissivity spectra and density. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The temperature distribution was measured in a 3D printing appliance (Prometal R1) with the help of thin thermocouples

M. Dressler; M. Röllig; M. Schmidt; A. Maturilli; J. Helbert

2010-01-01

454

Coefficient of external friction in the pressing of metal powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the external friction in the pressing of copper and iron powders have been processed graphicoanalytically, using Deryagin's binomial law, and the mechanical and adhesional components of the coefficients of friction in the pressing of these powders have been determined. A rise in pressing pressure decreases the static coefficient of friction by reducing its adhesional component.

N. A. Chainikov

1979-01-01

455

Numerical simulation of cohesive powder behavior in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical simulation model was developed for wet powder fluidization in the scope of investigation on cohesive powder behavior. The model was developed based on the discrete element method (DEM) with the inter-particle cohesive interaction due to liquid bridging. To take into account the liquid bridge force between particles and between a particle and a wall, a regression expression for

Takafumi Mikami; Hidehiro Kamiya; Masayuki Horio

1998-01-01

456

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CAPPING MECHANISMS DURING PHARMACEUTICAL POWDER COMPACTION  

E-print Network

Institute for Pharmaceutical Materials Science, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, UniversityFINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CAPPING MECHANISMS DURING PHARMACEUTICAL POWDER COMPACTION Chuan-Yu. Wu1 In this paper, the compaction of lactose powder, a typical pharmaceutical excipient, is modelled using finite

de Gispert, Adrià

457

Numerical Simulation on Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction Lianghao Han1,a  

E-print Network

Numerical Simulation on Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction Lianghao Han1,a , James Elliott1,b Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, CB2 3QZ,UK 2 Pfizer Global R elasticity law developed to describe the compaction behavior of pharmaceutical powders. The model

Elliott, James

458

Ribbonizing of electrostatic powder spray impregnated thermoplastic tows by pultrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process models have been developed for thermoset pultrusion and thermoplastic pultrusion using melt impregnated prepregs. Thermoplastic towpregs are manufactured using new innovative methods such as those using dry powder impregnation. The morphology of dry powder impregnated ‘towpregs’ consists of a dry fibre bundle surrounded by a layer of polymer. In this study a two-dimensional finite element model using non-Newtonian fluid

Narasinha C. Parasnis; Karthik Ramani; Harshad M. Borgaonkar

1996-01-01

459

Barium strontium titanate powder obtained by polymeric precursor method  

SciTech Connect

Pure barium strontium titanate powder, with Ba/Sr ratio of 80/20 was prepared by the polymeric precursor method (also called Pechini process). The powder was obtained after a calcination at 800 deg. C for 8 h and characterized by XRD, IR, BET and SEM. The requirements to avoid barium carbonate as a secondary phase are presented and discussed in detail.

Ries, A.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A

2003-03-15

460

Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating materia