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1

Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate  

PubMed Central

Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

2013-01-01

2

Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

2014-12-01

3

Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index L^* (brightness) and total color difference (? E^* ).

Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

2014-04-01

4

Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. PMID:19723182

Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

2009-08-01

5

Flavanol and flavonol contents of cocoa powder products: influence of the manufacturing process.  

PubMed

Major brands of cocoa powder products present in the Spanish market were analyzed for monomeric flavanols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and flavonols [quercetin-3-glucuronide, quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin), quercetin-3-arabinoside, and quercetin]. In addition, the influence of the manufacturing process of cocoa powder products, in particular, the alkalinization treatment ( Dutching), on the original content of these flavonoids has been studied. (-)-Epicatechin was in the range of 116.02-730.26 microg/g, whereas (+)-catechin was in the range of 81.40-447.62 microg/g in the commercial cocoa products studied. Among flavonols, quercetin-3-arabinoside and isoquercitrin were the major flavonols in the cocoa powder products studied, ranging from 2.10 to 40.33 microg/g and from 3.97 to 42.74 microg/g, respectively, followed by quercetin-3-glucuronide (0.13-9.88 microg/g) and quercetin aglycone (0.28-3.25 microg/g). To our knowledge, these results are the first quantitative data in relation to the content of individualized flavonol derivatives in commercial cocoa powder products. The alkalinization treatment resulted in 60% loss of the mean total flavonoid content. Among flavanols, (-)-epicatechin presented a larger decline (67%, as a mean percentage difference) than (+)-catechin (38%), probably because of its epimerization into (-)-catechin, a less bioavailable form of catechin. A decline was also confirmed for di-, tri-, and tetrameric procyanidins. In the case of flavonols, quercetin presented the highest loss (86%), whereas quercetin-3-glucuronide, quercetin-3-arabinoside, and isoquercitrin showed a similar decrease (58, 62, and 61%, respectively). It is concluded that the large decrease found in the flavonoid content of natural cocoa powder, together with the observed change in the monomeric flavanol profile that results from the alkalinization treatment, could affect the antioxidant properties and the polyphenol biovailability of cocoa powder products. PMID:18412367

Andres-Lacueva, C; Monagas, M; Khan, N; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Urpi-Sarda, M; Permanyer, J; Lamuela-Raventós, R M

2008-05-14

6

Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg\\/kg per d between

Jean-François Bisson; Amine Nejdi; Pascale Rozan; Sophie Hidalgo; Robert Lalonde; Michaël Messaoudi

2008-01-01

7

Cocoa powder triggers neuroprotective and preventive effects in a human Alzheimer's disease model by modulating BDNF signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms linking A? to the onset of neurotoxicity are still largely unknown, but several lines of evidence point to reactive oxygen species, which are produced even under the effect of nanomolar concentrations of soluble A?-oligomers. The consequent oxidative stress is considered as the mediator of a cascade of degenerative events in many neurological disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary habits and antioxidants from diet can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In the recent years, a number of reviews have reported on neuroprotective effects of polyphenols in cell and animal models. However, the majority of these studies have focused only on the anti-oxidant properties of these compounds and less on the mechanism/s of action at cellular level. In this work we investigated the effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract on a human AD in vitro model. The results obtained, other than confirming the anti-oxidant properties of cocoa, demonstrate that cocoa polyphenols triggers neuroprotection by activating BDNF survival pathway, both on A? plaque treated cells and on A? oligomers treated cells, resulting in the counteraction of neurite dystrophy. On the light of the results obtained the use of cocoa powder as preventive agent for neurodegeneration is further supported. PMID:23554028

Cimini, Annamaria; Gentile, Roberta; D'Angelo, Barbara; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Cristiano, Loredana; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Giordano, Antonio; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

2013-10-01

8

Cocoa particles for food emulsion stabilisation.  

PubMed

Emulsifying properties of cocoa particles have been investigated in systems containing purified sunflower oil (PSO) and water at varying pH, concentration and source of cocoa particles including cocoa powders (CP), cocoa fibre (CF) and cocoa mass (CM). The effect of cocoa particle source, pH and cocoa particle concentration on emulsion stability was evaluated by following changes in characteristic droplet diameter. Size distributions acquired on the emulsions and aqueous cocoa particle suspensions overlapped. Based on cryo-SEM imaging of the emulsions, isolation of cocoa particle fines and a process of washing the cocoa particles to remove any water soluble molecules, it was concluded that the cocoa particle fines not captured by the small angle laser diffraction method employed for sizing, act as Pickering particles. This research has demonstrated a universal nature of a natural food particle to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions not requiring particle modification or adjusting of the solution properties of the emulsion phases. PMID:23851644

Gould, Joanne; Vieira, Josélio; Wolf, Bettina

2013-09-01

9

Cocoa and human health.  

PubMed

Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies. PMID:23642199

Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

2013-01-01

10

Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by sensory panelists, it did not significantly affect the overall acceptability.

Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

11

6.NS Making Hot Cocoa, Variation 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: One mug of hot chocolate uses $\\frac23$ cup of cocoa powder. How many mugs can Nelli make with 3 cups of cocoa powder? Solve the problem by drawing a p...

12

Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential.  

PubMed

Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is enriched with nutraceutical abundance of anti-asthmatic compounds theobromine and theophylline. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Anecdotal reports indicate that regular consumption of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), a common practice in Ghana, West Africa, has the potential to reduce the tendency of asthmatic episodes. In the present paper we studied the effect of regular ingestion of aqueous extract of UNCP on hematological and histopathological changes that occur in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized OVA 1 hour after ingestion of 300 mg/kg (low dose) or 600 mg/kg (high dose) of UNCP for 35 consecutive days. Histopathological and haematological changes in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. Both negative and positive controls with distilled water and prednisolone, respectively, were used. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated concentration-independent reduction in immune response to aerosolized OVA. There were no histo-architectural changes in the bronchiolar smooth muscles of the treated groups. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has potential anti-asthmatic properties when administered orally at the doses tested. PMID:25004832

Awortwe, C; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Nkansah, E; Adjei, S

2014-01-01

13

Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.  

PubMed

Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit ?-amylase activity. However, no ?-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. PMID:23107706

Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

2012-09-15

14

Reactions of peroxynitrite with cocoa procyanidin oligomers.  

PubMed

Peroxynitrite is a mediator molecule in inflammation, and its biological properties are being studied extensively. Flavonoids, which are natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and thereby could play an anti-inflammatory role. Procyanidin oligomers of different sizes (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were recently examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine and were found to be effective in attenuating these reactions. The tetramer was particularly efficient at protecting against oxidation and nitration reactions. Epicatechin oligomers found in cocoa powder and chocolate may be a potent dietary source for defense against peroxynitrite. PMID:10917929

Arteel, G E; Schroeder, P; Sies, H

2000-08-01

15

Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g?1) were 75–84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93–94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07–0.08 ng g?1), accurate (recovery = 75–94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g?1; in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g?1, the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g?1; one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g?1). PMID:21623500

Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P.M.

2011-01-01

16

Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT. PMID:23494741

Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

2013-01-01

17

21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs...Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition...

2010-04-01

18

21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and Drugs...Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the...

2010-04-01

19

Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.  

PubMed

In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-?B. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

2014-04-01

20

Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.  

PubMed

The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented. PMID:24915358

Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

2015-01-01

21

Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to CVD. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanoles and related compounds. PMID:19701098

Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

2009-01-01

22

Beneficial effects of cocoa on lipid peroxidation and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients and investigation of probable interactions of cocoa active ingredients with prostaglandin synthase-2 (PTGS-2/COX-2) using virtual analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and aim Altered glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, lipid levels and inflammatory markers are important risk factors in diabetes, cardiovascular, and many other diseases. Cocoa has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study is twofold: to assess the effect of Cocoa on the lipid profile and peroxidation in addition to the inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients, and to represent a virtual model of probable action mechanism of observed clinical effects of Cocoa consumption using in silico analysis and bioinformatics data. Methods One hundred subjects with type 2 diabetes were included in a randomized clinical control trial. Fifty treatment subjects received 10 grams cocoa powder and 10 grams milk powder dissolved in 250?ml of boiling water, and the other fifty control subjects received only 10 grams milk powder dissolved in 250?ml boiling water. Both groups were on the mentioned regimen twice daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained prior to Cocoa consumption and 6 weeks after intervention. Serum lipids and lipoproteins profile, malondialdehyde and inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. For statistical analysis two independent and paired samples t-test and linear regression were used. Bioinformatics and virtual analysis were performed using string data base and Molegro virtual software. Results Cocoa consumption lowered blood cholesterol,triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and TNF-?, hs-CRP, IL-6 significantly (P?Cocoa inhibited lipid peroxidation in treatment group than control group (P?Cocoa ingredients, (+)-Catechin and (?)-Epicatechin, can dock to the enzyme COX-2. Conclusion These data support the beneficial effect of Cocoa on the lipid peroxidation prevention and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients. Cocoa ingredients block the Cox-2 activation and reduce inflammatory prostanoids synthesis according to virtual analysis. PMID:24495354

2014-01-01

23

COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

2006-05-01

24

Effect of liquid fat on melting point and polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter and a cocoa butter fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphic behavior of cocoa butter and a high-melting fraction of cocoa butter (CBF) was investigated by differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry. The effect of liquid fat on melting point and polymorphic behavior was established for six mixtures:\\u000a 83.5% cocoa butter and 16.5% of a low-melting fraction of cocoa butter (CBF-LM), 90% cocoa butter and 10% olive oil, and four\\u000a mixtures of

N. V. Lovegren; M. S. Gray; R. O. Feuge

1976-01-01

25

Cocoa flavanols - measurement, bioavailability and bioactivity.  

PubMed

There has been growing interest in the potential cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa consumption. As a result of accurate analytical methodologies, there is evidence to support that the flavanols in cocoa can be absorbed, are bioactive, and may be responsible for the cardiovascular benefits associated with regular cocoa consumption. The flavanols in cocoa exist in a multitude of different stereochemical configurations, thus giving rise to a unique and complex mixture of compounds. Given this complexity, the quantitative analysis of cocoa flavanols in foods can be challenging. While there are published methods suitable for the analysis of these compounds, these methods require sophisticated instrumentation and can be challenging to set up. As such, simpler techniques that measure such things as total phenolic content or antioxidant potential have been used as indicators of flavanol content. However, as these simpler assays are prone to interferences and are not specific for flavanols, these methods are not appropriate for use in studies that aim to examine the physiological effects of cocoa flavanols. It is only through the use of methods that can accurately quantify these flavanols that it will be possible to make meaningful dietary recommendations regarding the consumption of cocoa flavanol containing foods. PMID:18296356

Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Bektash, Roger M

2008-01-01

26

Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

2013-01-01

27

Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination  

PubMed Central

In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ? 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products. PMID:16203244

Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

2005-01-01

28

Screening Antioxidants Using LC-MS: A Case Study with Cocoa  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Since rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts. This assay is based on the comparison of electrospray LC-MS profiles of sample extracts before and after treatment with reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide or DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Using this assay, methanolic extracts of cocoa powder were analyzed, and procyanidins were found to be the most potent antioxidant species. These species were identified using LC-MS, LC-MS-MS, accurate mass measurement, and comparison with reference standards. Furthermore, LC-MS was used to determine the levels of these species in cocoa samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant antioxidants followed by their dimers and trimers. The most potent antioxidants in cocoa were trimers and dimers of catechin and epicatechin, such as procyanidin B2, followed by catechin and epicatechin. This new LC-MS assay facilitates the rapid identification and then the determination of the relative antioxidant activities of individual antioxidant species in complex natural product samples and food products such as cocoa. PMID:19489609

Calderón, Angela I.; Wright, Brian J.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

2009-01-01

29

Special Cocoa Drink May Improve Age-Related Memory Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Memory Loss Findings don't apply to regular chocolate or hot cocoa, however (*this news item will ... boost their powers of recall with commercially available chocolate or cocoa products, the researchers cautioned. And a ...

30

Acoustic properties of organic powders as ultrasonic contrast agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experiments on measuring attenuation and the effective acoustic nonlinear parameter of the second order are given for a suspension of cocoa-powder in water at different concentrations of the suspension. In the process of evaluating the value of the nonlinear parameter the attenuation in the suspension and generation of the second harmonic not only in the suspension but also in water are taken into account. The obtained results are evidence of the possibility of using a suspension of cocoa-powder in water as a technical substitute for ultrasonic contrast agents. The values of attenuation (up to 60 m-1 at the concentration of 1 g of the powder per 1 l of water) and the nonlinear parameter (up to 120 m-1 at the same concentration) mean that the suspension of cocoa-powder in water has smaller attenuation and the nonlinear parameter than ultrasonic contrast agents at the same concentration. However, these values for the suspension differ considerably from corresponding values for water or blood and, therefore, a suspension of cocoa-powder in water is a promising "substitute" for ultrasonic contrast agents in the case of technical testing of systems for nonlinear tomography of a blood flow, but cannot replace them in medical studies.

Burov, V. A.; Loginov, S. V.; Dmitriev, K. V.

2011-11-01

31

Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

32

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

33

The effects of cocoa on the immune system  

PubMed Central

Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of T helper type 2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions. PMID:23759861

Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

2013-01-01

34

Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V.; Vian, Izabele

2014-01-01

35

Cocoa intake attenuates oxidative stress associated with rat adjuvant arthritis.  

PubMed

Cocoa contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of cocoa intake on oxidative stress associated with a model of chronic inflammation such as adjuvant arthritis. Female Wistar rats were fed with a 5% or 10% cocoa-enriched diet or were given p.o. a quercetin suspension every other day for 10 days. Arthritis was induced by a heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspension. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by macrophages, and splenic superoxide dismutase (total, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial) and catalase activities were determined. Clinically, joint swelling in arthritic rats was not reduced by antioxidants; however, the 5% cocoa diet and quercetin administration reduced ROS production. Moreover, the 5% cocoa diet normalized the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In conclusion, a cocoa diet reduces the oxidative stress associated with a chronic inflammatory pathology, although it was not enough to attenuate joint swelling. PMID:22728690

Ramos-Romero, S; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramiro-Puig, E; Franch, A; Castell, M

2012-09-01

36

Interesting Starter Culture Strains for Controlled Cocoa Bean Fermentation Revealed by Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentations of Cocoa-Specific Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol. PMID:21803901

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Moens, Frédéric; Gobert, William; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

37

The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to\\u000acigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in\\u000athe literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated\\u000apsychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin,\\u000ahistamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, octopamine\\u000aand anandamide. The general conclusion is that the level of these\\u000acompounds in added cocoa in cigarettes

Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W

2007-01-01

38

Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.  

PubMed

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23637048

Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

2013-06-01

39

Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.  

PubMed

The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate. PMID:20859797

Smit, Hendrik Jan

2011-01-01

40

Cocoa confers life span extension in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Cocoa is thought to be an excellent source of antioxidants. Here, we investigated the effects of cocoa supplementation on Drosophila melanogaster life span under different oxidative stress conditions. Our results illustrate that a moderate supplementation of cocoa under normoxia increases the average life span, whereas, at higher concentrations, average life span is normal. Under hyperoxia or in a Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-deficient background, cocoa exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, significantly increasing the average life span. Nevertheless, cocoa supplementation in a Mn-superoxide dismutase-deficient background enhanced an earlier mortality accompanied by a loss of climbing ability, indicating that cocoa may act as a pro-oxidant in mitochondria under conditions of extreme oxidative stress. Finally, we illustrate that cocoa also acts as a metal chelator in the presence of excess heavy metals, enhancing larval survival to the adult stage on copper or iron-supplemented medium. Taken together, our results document the antioxidative, pro-oxidative, and metal-chelating effects of cocoa on Drosophila melanogaster life span. PMID:19083435

Bahadorani, Sepehr; Hilliker, Arthur J

2008-06-01

41

Cocoa Flavanols, Cerebral Blood Flow, Cognition, and Health: Going Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

he articles in the issue provide important evidence for the acute effects of cocoa flavanols on the peripheral vascular response in humans. As Hollenberg and Luscher point out, ''not only does flavanol-rich cocoa-induced nitric oxide production show a dramatic influence on blood vessels in healthy individuals, preliminary information available indicates that the influence on nitric oxide synthesis is evident in

David F. Dinges

2006-01-01

42

The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

1994-01-01

43

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

44

Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.  

PubMed

Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch. PMID:25259956

Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

2014-10-15

45

7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products.” Requirements for Finished Products Bearing USDA Official...

2010-01-01

46

The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Cocoa powder and chocolate contain numerous substances among which there is a quite large percentage of antioxidant molecules, mainly flavonoids, most abundantly found in the form of epicatechin. These substances display several beneficial actions on the brain. They enter the brain and induce widespread stimulation of brain perfusion. They also provoke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and changes in neuron morphology, mainly in regions involved in learning and memory. Epicatechin improves various aspects of cognition in animals and humans. Chocolate also induces positive effects on mood and is often consumed under emotional stress. In addition, flavonoids preserve cognitive abilities during ageing in rats, lower the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and decrease the risk of stroke in humans. In addition to their beneficial effects on the vascular system and on cerebral blood flow, flavonoids interact with signalization cascades involving protein and lipid kinases that lead to the inhibition of neuronal death by apoptosis induced by neurotoxicants such as oxygen radicals, and promote neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. The present review intends to review the data available on the effects of cocoa and chocolate on brain health and cognitive abilities. PMID:22775434

Nehlig, Astrid

2013-01-01

47

Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa is a crop grown largely by smallholder farmers in the lowland tropics, including parts of Latin America, West Africa,\\u000a and Indonesia. Research suggests that it has the potential to provide biodiversity benefits when grown under certain shade\\u000a conditions, especially when compared with alternative land uses. The primary literature on cocoa production reveals a range\\u000a of objectives for improvement of

Margaret Franzen; Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2007-01-01

48

76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is...Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011....

2011-05-13

49

On the determination of trace elements in cocoa and coffee by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

E-print Network

Ccmmittee: Dr. E. A. Schwelkert Three kinds o; cocoa samp'es (commercial cocoa, chemically treated cocoa, and untreatec, cocoa) and a total analyze'1 by activation sr'tn thermal reactor neutrons gamma ? ray spec . rometry . The ana' ysis o-. cccc- in... Analysis Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Peak Area Computation Peak Energy Determination Computation of Element Concentration EXPERINENTAL 8 14 17 19 20 21 Sampling Samples and Standards Preparation Counting System Irradiation Facility Data Ana...

Adanuvor, Prosper Kwasi

2012-06-07

50

77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic...descriptor of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic...

2012-04-11

51

76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional...procedures developed at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL. Airspace reconfiguration is...

2011-05-25

52

77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error...

2012-05-14

53

Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

54

Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.  

PubMed

Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential. PMID:23250409

Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

2012-01-01

55

Solving Cocoa Pod Sigmoid Growth Model with Newton Raphson Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocoa pod growth modelling are useful in crop management, pest and disease management and yield forecasting. Recently, the Beta Growth Function has been used to determine the pod growth model due to its unique for the plant organ growth which is zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Specific pod size (7cm to 10cm in length) is useful in cocoa pod borer (CPB) management for pod sleeving or pesticide spraying. The Beta Growth Function is well-fitted to the pods growth data of four different cocoa clones under non-linear function with time (t) as its independent variable which measured pod length and diameter weekly started at 8 weeks after fertilization occur until pods ripen. However, the same pod length among the clones did not indicate the same pod age since the morphological characteristics for cocoa pods vary among the clones. Depending on pod size for all the clones as guideline in CPB management did not give information on pod age, therefore it is important to study the pod age at specific pod sizes on different clones. Hence, Newton Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equation of the Beta Growth Function of four different group of cocoa pod at specific pod size.

Chang, Albert Ling Sheng; Maisin, Navies

56

Mystery Powders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 2 of the PDF, learners conduct chemical tests on certain powders used in cooking. After completing the tests, learners try to figure out the identity of a mystery powder. Learners record their observations on a chart. Note: you will need an adult helper for this activity.

American Chemical Society

2000-01-01

57

Cocoa Flavanols, Cerebral Blood Flow, Cognition, and Health: Going Forward  

E-print Network

by Francis et al4 in this issue provides some of the first evidence that flavanol-rich cocoa can affect CBF and reduced sensitivity to subject motion.8 Figure 3 in Francis et al4 illustrates the usefulness of arterial of cognitive neuroscience. Why then, were Francis et al4 able to measure greater changes from the high

Pennsylvania, University of

58

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.  

PubMed

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells. PMID:14575948

Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

2003-12-01

59

Characterization of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses: implications for vegetable fat quantification in chocolate.  

PubMed

The fatty acids from cocoa butters of different origins, varieties, and suppliers and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (Illexao 30-61, Illexao 30-71, Illexao 30-96, Choclin, Coberine, Chocosine-Illipé, Chocosine-Shea, Shokao, Akomax, Akonord, and Ertina) were investigated by bulk stable carbon isotope analysis and compound specific isotope analysis. The interpretation is based on principal component analysis combining the fatty acid concentrations and the bulk and molecular isotopic data. The scatterplot of the two first principal components allowed detection of the addition of vegetable fats to cocoa butters. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk cocoa butter and of the individual fatty acids is related to mixing with other vegetable fats and possibly to thermally or oxidatively induced degradation during processing (e.g., drying and roasting of the cocoa beans or deodorization of the pressed fat) or storage. The feasibility of the analytical approach for authenticity assessment is discussed. PMID:11559122

Spangenberg, J E; Dionisi, F

2001-09-01

60

STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to spectators from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

61

STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to a dense crowd of well-wishers from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

62

The STS-95 crew participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (in front), along with the other crew members behind him, waves to the crowd as he leads a parade of 1999 C-5 Corvette convertibles down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

63

STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greets baseball legend Williams following a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (left) greets baseball legend Ted Williams at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

64

STS-95 Payload Specialist Mukai participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is perched on the back of a red 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

65

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2010-04-01

66

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2011-04-01

67

Production of cocoa butter-like fat from interesterification of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter-like fat was prepared from completely hydrogenated cottonseed and olive oils by enzymatic interesterification.\\u000a The optimum reaction time to produce the major-component of cocoa butter, 1(3)-palmitoyl-3(1)-stearoyl-2-monoolein (POS),\\u000a was 4 hr. The cocoa butter-like fat was isolated from the reaction mixture by two filtration steps. The yield of cocoa butter-like\\u000a fat was 19%, based on the weight of the original

M.-K. Chang; G. Abraham; V. T. John

1990-01-01

68

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2012-04-01

69

21 CFR 172.520 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. The food additive “cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing,” conforming to §...

2013-04-01

70

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

...intended for use as follows: (1) As coating material for sugar, table salt, vitamins, citric acid, succinic acid, and spices; and (2) In compound coatings, cocoa creams, cocoa-based sweets, toffees, caramel masses, and chewing sweets...

2014-04-01

71

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intended for use as follows: (1) As coating material for sugar, table salt, vitamins, citric acid, succinic acid, and spices; and (2) In compound coatings, cocoa creams, cocoa-based sweets, toffees, caramel masses, and chewing sweets...

2012-04-01

72

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intended for use as follows: (1) As coating material for sugar, table salt, vitamins, citric acid, succinic acid, and spices; and (2) In compound coatings, cocoa creams, cocoa-based sweets, toffees, caramel masses, and chewing sweets...

2010-04-01

73

Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption. PMID:23462053

Latif, R

2013-03-01

74

Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

75

Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under  

SciTech Connect

Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G

2009-01-01

76

Effect of Cocoa and Green Tea Consumption on Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vivo and in vitro research has shown that tea and cocoa consumption may have an impact on the glucoregulatory system. This pilot study investigated if there was a dose-response effect of cocoa procyanidins (CP) on glucoregulatory biomarkers and compared the effect of cocoa and tea polyphenols on ...

77

Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.  

PubMed

Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

2014-04-01

78

Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

79

MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION OF ENDOPHYTIC MORPHO-SPECIES ISOLATED FROM COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy stems and pods of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) trees in natural forest ecosystems and agroecosystems in Latin America and West Africa. These fungi were collected for screening as a potential source of biocontrol agents for the basidiomycetous pathogens of cocoa...

80

Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

81

Cocoa Has More Phenolic Phytochemicals and a Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red

Ki Won Lee; Young Jun Kim; Hyong Joo Lee; Chang Yong Lee

2003-01-01

82

Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health  

PubMed Central

Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health. PMID:25116848

Scapagnini, Giovanni; Davinelli, Sergio; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Olarte, Hector Hugo; Micali, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F.; Gonzalez, Salvador

2014-01-01

83

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.  

PubMed

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

2014-02-01

84

Energetic powder  

DOEpatents

Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Danen, Wayne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-12-23

85

Interplanetary scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (interplanetary scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.

Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.

1976-01-01

86

STS-95 Commander Brown participates in a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. examines the heads up display in the 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible in which he will be riding during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach as Dan Adovasio, a parade coordinator, looks on. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

87

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean  

PubMed Central

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

2014-01-01

88

In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of ?-Amylase, ?-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.  

PubMed

Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited ?-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22?mg/mL), ?-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17?mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06?mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08?mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34?mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886?mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26?mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06?mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

2014-01-01

89

Exploring Baking Powder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine baking powder, a combination of three powders: baking soda, cream of tartar, and cornstarch. Learners use their data from the previous activity (see related resource) to identify these three powders as possible ingredients. Then, they test combinations of these powders to determine the active ingredients in baking powder.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

90

In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.  

PubMed

Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), ?-amylase inhibition activity, cholesterol and sodium cholate binding capacity, but less significant (>0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level. PMID:22735710

Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

2012-10-01

91

Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

Ç?nar, Miyase; Yalç?nkaya, ?lkay; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

2014-01-01

92

Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 ?g/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 ?M t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult. PMID:23912326

Martín, María Ángeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

2013-01-01

93

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

1988-01-01

94

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

Weyand, J.D.

1988-02-09

95

Iron absorption from a malted cocoa drink fortified with ferric orthophosphate using the stable isotope 58Fe as an extrinsic label.  

PubMed

The potential use of an extrinsic label to measure iron absorption from a ferric orthophosphate-fortified malted cocoa drink was examined by measuring the solubility of the FePO4 in 0.1 M-hydrochloric acid. The validity of using the stable isotope 58Fe as an extrinsic label was tested by comparing Fe absorption by rats from wheat flour extrinsically-labelled with 58Fe or 59Fe. Fe absorption from a malted cocoa drink (20 g powder made up with hot water) fortified with FePO4 (0.5 mg Fe/g powder) was measured in human subjects using 58Fe as an extrinsic label. Absorption was calculated by measuring unabsorbed 58Fe in faeces. Absorptions of Fe from the drink fortified with either FePO4 or ferrous sulphate were compared. The effect of the addition of ascorbic acid to the drink (1 mg/g powder) on Fe availability was also examined. The effect of fasting on Fe absorption from the drink was determined in rats by giving the drink to fasting animals or shortly after they had consumed a small meal. The FePO4 was totally soluble in 0.1 M-HCl and there were no differences in absorption between 58Fe- and 59Fe-labelled wheat flour. In the human experiment the proportion of Fe absorbed from the drink plus FePO4 and ascorbic acid was (mean with SE) 0.25 (0.02), from the drink plus FePO4 0.24 (0.02) and from the drink plus FeSO4 0.23 (0.03). Fasting had a significant effect on Fe availability; rats given the drink shortly after a small meal absorbed less than half as much Fe as those given the drink on a fasted stomach. It was concluded that the FePO4 used to fortify the malted cocoa drink was as well absorbed as FeSO4 but that the high levels of absorption were a reflection of the fasting condition of the subjects. The level of ascorbic acid was not great enough to enhance the availability of the FePO4 any further. PMID:6882732

Fairweather-Tait, S J; Minski, M J; Richardson, D P

1983-07-01

96

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2012-04-01

97

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2013-04-01

98

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2011-04-01

99

21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.  

...Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other...or usual name of the vegetable derived fat ingredient...sweet cocoa and ___ oil coating”, the blank...name of the specific vegetable fat...

2014-04-01

100

Isolation and thermal characterization of high-melting seed crystals formed during cocoa butter solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed crystals which formed during early stages of cocoa butter solidification have been isolated and determined to have extremely\\u000a high melting points. The melting points of the seed crystals generally exceeded 60C, in contrast to cocoa butter, which melts\\u000a between 30–35C. In addition, the melting point of the seed crystals decreased as a function of crystal growth time. Evidence\\u000a suggests

Thomas R. Davis; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

101

Lipid composition of high-melting seed crystals formed during cocoa butter solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-melting seed crystals which form during the early stages of cocoa butter solidification possess a lipid composition different\\u000a than the cocoa butter from which the seed crystals were grown. Significantly large quantities of glycolipids, 11.1%, and phospholipids,\\u000a 6.6–8.1%, were found in the high-melting seed crystals along with a dramatic decrease in the simple lipid class. The fatty\\u000a acids comprising the

Thomas R. Davis; Paul S. Dimick

1989-01-01

102

Effect of a cocoa flavonoid-enriched diet on experimental autoimmune arthritis.  

PubMed

Previously we established that a cocoa-enriched diet in young rats reduces specific antibody production and the T helper (Th) lymphocyte proportion in lymphoid tissues. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the modulatory ability of a cocoa flavonoid-enriched diet on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is mediated by anti-collagen autoantibody response and Th lymphocyte activation. Female Louvain (LOU) rats were fed with a cocoa-enriched diet, beginning 2 weeks before CIA induction. Hind-paw swelling and serum cytokine and anti-collagen antibody concentrations were determined. Anti-collagen antibody-secreting cell counts and lymphocyte subset proportions were established in inguinal lymph nodes (ILN). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and TNF? produced by peritoneal macrophages were determined. Although arthritic cocoa-fed rats showed a similar hind-paw swelling time course as the arthritic animals fed a standard diet, the cocoa intake was able to decrease specific IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c titres. Moreover, cocoa intake in CIA rats reduced ROS production, TNF? and NO release from peritoneal macrophages, and decreased the Th:cytotoxic T cell ratio in ILN. In conclusion, a cocoa flavonoid-enriched diet in LOU rats with CIA produced no effect on hind-paw swelling but was able to modulate the specific antibody response and also the Th lymphocyte proportion, as well as the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators from peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, a cocoa-enriched diet could be a good adjuvant therapy in disorders with oxidative stress or autoimmune pathogenesis. PMID:21771382

Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

2012-02-01

103

CD Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greet well-wishers following a parade in Cocoa Beach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Center Director Roy Bridges and STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. greet well-wishers at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

1998-01-01

104

Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. PMID:25190869

Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

2014-09-01

105

Weissella fabaria sp. nov., from a Ghanaian cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

Two lactic acid bacteria, strains 257(T) and 252, were isolated from traditional heap fermentations of Ghanaian cocoa beans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of these strains allocated them to the genus Weissella, showing 99.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards Weissella ghanensis LMG 24286(T). Whole-cell protein electrophoresis, fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of whole genomes and biochemical tests confirmed their unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments towards their nearest phylogenetic neighbour demonstrated that the two strains represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Weissella fabaria sp. nov., with strain 257(T) (=LMG 24289(T) =DSM 21416(T)) as the type strain. Additional sequence analysis using pheS gene sequences proved useful for identification of all Weissella-Leuconostoc-Oenococcus species and for the recognition of the novel species. PMID:19801391

De Bruyne, Katrien; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2010-09-01

106

Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with benefits for human health. Those effects have been partially ascribed to their content in flavonoids, compounds that are present in many edible plants and its derived foods. In humans, a significant number of studies has been developed analyzing the effect of foods and beverages rich in flavonoids on the presence and progression of risk factors associated to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Cocoa derived products, rich in flavanols, have been thoroughly studied and demonstrated to be efficient improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure in humans and animals. However, the final chemical species and the mechanism/s responsible for these effects have not been completely defined. In this paper we present data supporting the hypothesis that flavanols could define superoxide anion production and then, establish optimal nitric oxide levels and blood pressure. PMID:21297914

Fraga, César G.; Litterio, María C.; Prince, Paula D.; Calabró, Valeria; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Galleano, Mónica

2011-01-01

107

Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure.  

PubMed

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with benefits for human health. Those effects have been partially ascribed to their content in flavonoids, compounds that are present in many edible plants and its derived foods. In humans, a significant number of studies has been developed analyzing the effect of foods and beverages rich in flavonoids on the presence and progression of risk factors associated to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Cocoa derived products, rich in flavanols, have been thoroughly studied and demonstrated to be efficient improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure in humans and animals. However, the final chemical species and the mechanism/s responsible for these effects have not been completely defined. In this paper we present data supporting the hypothesis that flavanols could define superoxide anion production and then, establish optimal nitric oxide levels and blood pressure. PMID:21297914

Fraga, César G; Litterio, María C; Prince, Paula D; Calabró, Valeria; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Galleano, Mónica

2011-01-01

108

Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. I. characterization of simple lipids in rapid- and slow-nucleating cocoa butters and their seed crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six cocoa butters with different crystallization induction times and their seed crystals were analyzed for simple lipid composition.\\u000a The rapid-nucleating cocoa butter samples had higher concentrations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoylglycerol and 1,3-stearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol\\u000a (SOS), and lower concentrations of the diunsaturated triacylglycerols, 1-palmitoyl-2,3-oleoylglycerol and 1-stearoyl-2,3-oleoylglycerol,\\u000a as well as higher stearic acid concentrations within their diacylglycerol fractions when compared to the slow-nucleating samples.\\u000a At the

Siree Chaiseri; Paul S. Dimick

1995-01-01

109

Resin-Powder Dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

Standfield, Clarence E.

1994-01-01

110

Preparation of titanium diboride powder  

DOEpatents

Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

111

Role of the N-terminal activation domain of coactivator CoCoA in mediating transcriptional activation by ?-catenin*  

PubMed Central

The coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA) is involved in transcriptional activation of target genes by nuclear receptors and the xenobiotic aryl hydrocarbon receptor, as well as target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, which is mediated by the lymphocyte enhancer factor (LEF)/T cell factor transcription factors and the coactivator ?-catenin. The recruitment of CoCoA by nuclear receptors is accomplished by the interaction of the central coiled-coiled domain of CoCoA with p160 coactivators; the C-terminal activation domain (AD) of CoCoA is used for downstream signaling, while the function of the N-terminal region was undefined. Here we report that the N-terminus of CoCoA contains another AD, which is necessary and sufficient for synergistic activation of LEF1-mediated transcription by CoCoA and ?-catenin. The N-terminal AD contains a p300 binding motif, which is important for synergistic cooperation of CoCoA and p300 as coactivators for LEF1 and ?-catenin. p300 contributes to the function of the CoCoA N-terminal AD primarily through its histone acetyltransferase activity. Moreover, in cultured cells endogenous p300 is recruited to the promoter of an integrated reporter gene by the N-terminus of CoCoA. Thus, the coactivator function of CoCoA for nuclear receptors and LEF1/?-catenin involves differential utilization of two different CoCoA ADs. PMID:16931570

Yang, Catherine K.; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Stallcup, Michael R.

2006-01-01

112

Effect of cocoa-enriched diets on lymphocytes involved in adjuvant arthritis in rats.  

PubMed

Cocoa and its flavonoids have potential anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in acute inflammation models in vivo. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the effects of two cocoa-enriched diets on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats, considering not only clinical and biochemical inflammatory indices, but also antibody response and lymphocyte composition. Female Wistar rats were fed with a 5 or 10 % cocoa-enriched diet beginning 2 weeks before arthritis induction and until the end of the study. AA was induced by an intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum suspension. The hind-paw swelling (plethysmometry), serum anti-mycobacterial antibody concentration (ELISA), blood and inguinal lymph node lymphocyte subset percentage (flow cytometry), and IL-2, interferon ? and PGE? released from splenocytes (ELISA) were assessed. Although the cocoa diets had no significant effect on hind-paw swelling, a tendency to reduce it was observed at the end of the study. Cocoa-enriched diets were able to decrease the serum anti-mycobacterial antibody concentration and the splenocyte PGE2 production, as well as the proportion of T-helper (Th) lymphocytes in blood and regional lymph nodes, which probably includes cells responsible for the arthritic process. The cocoa diets prevented a decrease in the proportion of regulatory T-cells in blood and a disequilibrium between inguinal lymph node natural killer (NK) CD8? and NK CD8? subsets. In conclusion, the cocoa-enriched diets during AA were not able to significantly decrease joint inflammation but modified Th-cell proportions and prevented specific antibody synthesis. PMID:21762542

Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Franch, Àngels

2012-02-01

113

Polyphenol-enriched cocoa protects the diabetic retina from glial reaction through the sirtuin pathway.  

PubMed

Cocoa is rich in flavonoids, which are potent antioxidants with established benefits for cardiovascular health but unproven effects on neurodegeneration. Sirtuins (SIRTs), which make up a family of deacetylases, are thought to be sensitive to oxidation. In this study, the possible protective effects of cocoa in the diabetic retina were assessed. Rat Müller cells (rMCs) exposed to normal or high glucose (HG) or H2O2 were submitted to cocoa treatment in the presence or absence of SIRT-1 inhibitor and small interfering RNA The experimental animal study was conducted in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats randomized to receive low-, intermediate-, or high-polyphenol cocoa treatments via daily gavage for 16weeks (i.e., 0.12, 2.9 or 22.9mg/kg/day of polyphenols). The rMCs exposed to HG or H2O2 exhibited increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and acetyl-RelA/p65 and decreased SIRT1 activity/expression. These effects were cancelled out by cocoa, which decreased reactive oxygen species production and PARP-1 activity, augmented the intracellular pool of NAD(+), and improved SIRT1 activity. The rat diabetic retinas displayed the early markers of retinopathy accompanied by markedly impaired electroretinogram. The presence of diabetes activated PARP-1 and lowered NAD(+) levels, resulting in SIRT1 impairment. This augmented acetyl RelA/p65 had the effect of up-regulated GFAP. Oral administration of polyphenol cocoa restored the above alterations in a dose-dependent manner. This study reveals that cocoa enriched with polyphenol improves the retinal SIRT-1 pathway, thereby protecting the retina from diabetic milieu insult. PMID:25448608

Duarte, Diego A; Rosales, Mariana Ap B; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Amancio, Vitor Hugo O; Mendonça, Jacqueline N; Lopes, Norberto P; Lopes de Faria, José B; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M

2015-01-01

114

Shade Tree Diversity, Cocoa Pest Damage, Yield Compensating Inputs and Farmers' Net Returns in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers) and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes. PMID:23520451

Daghela Bisseleua, Hervé Bertin; Fotio, Daniel; Yede; Missoup, Alain Didier; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

115

Shade tree diversity, cocoa pest damage, yield compensating inputs and farmers' net returns in West Africa.  

PubMed

Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity. We measured herbivory and predatory rates, and quantified resulting increases in cocoa yield and net returns. We found that number of spider webs and wasp nests significantly decreased with increasing density of exotic shade tree species. Greater species richness of native shade tree species was associated with a higher number of wasp nests and spider webs while species richness of understory plants did not have a strong impact on these beneficial species. Species richness of ants, wasp nests and spider webs peaked at higher levels of plant species richness. The number of herbivore species (mirid bugs and cocoa pod borers) and the rate of herbivory on cocoa pods decreased with increasing shade index. Shade index was negatively related to yield, with yield significantly higher at shade and herb covers<50%. However, higher inputs in the cocoa farms do not necessarily result in a higher net return. In conclusion, our study shows the importance of a diverse shade canopy in reducing damage caused by cocoa pests. It also highlights the importance of conservation initiatives in tropical agroforestry landscapes. PMID:23520451

Bisseleua Daghela, Hervé Bertin; Bisseleua, Hervé Bertin Daghela; Fotio, Daniel; Yede; Missoup, Alain Didier; Vidal, Stefan

2013-01-01

116

Effect of powder and target properties on wrap around effect during coating.  

PubMed

Tapioca starch, NaCl (28, 135, and 378 ?m), corn starch, cocoa powder, soy protein isolate, cheese powder, wheat protein, modified starch, nacho cheese, and sugar were coated at 0 kV for nonelectrostatic and at 25 kV for electrostatic coating onto metal, wood, unoiled paper, oiled paper, unoiled plastic, oiled plastic, fresh bread, and dry bread. Powders and targets were allowed to naturally tribocharge, or all charge was removed before coating. Powder particle size, flowability, resistivity, and target resistivity were reported. Electrostatic coating produced the same or better wrap around, or percent side coverage as nonelectrostatic coating for every powder and target. The greatest electrostatic improvement was found when using powders that had the worst nonelectrostatic side coverage: large particle size (>135 ?m), low resistivity, and low cohesiveness, especially on targets that had high-surface resistivity (2 × 10(5) ?m). Tribocharging had a similar effect as electrostatic coating. In both nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder particle size decreased, cohesiveness increased, or target resistivity decreased. In electrostatic coating, percent side coverage increased as powder resistivity increased; however, in nonelectrostatic coating, as powder resistivity increased, percent side coverage increased on only oiled plastic and dry bread. Practical Application: The evenness of powder coating on food is very important for consumer acceptability, since consumers judge food from its appearance before they have a chance to taste it. If thick food targets, such as cakes, donuts, and marshmallows need to be coated, the side coverage, due to the wrap around effect, is important. Choosing powders with small particle size, high cohesiveness and high-powder resistivity, and using electrostatic coating can produce food targets coated on all sides. PMID:21535493

Sumonsiri, Nutsuda; Barringer, Sheryl A

2010-10-01

117

Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

118

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

119

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

120

Characterization of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars of Theobroma cacao L.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter is the most important fat used in the confectionery and chocolate industries. The main objective of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars belonging to the germplasm bank of the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National Foundation for Agricultural Research). AOAC methods were used for the assessment of the proximal composition of the beans, physical and chemical characteristics as well as for the fatty acid profile of the fat. It was found that there were statistical differences in the proximate composition of the cocoa beans among the cultivars studied as well as the iodine and saponification indices of the butter. Saturated fatty acids were present in higher proportions than unsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acid as the main fractions. Oleic acid content was higher than linoleic acid. The fatty acid profile found is the main factor that influences the hard texture of the cocoa butter from Venezuelan cocoa hybrids cultivars. PMID:11048595

Padilla, F C; Liendo, R; Quintana, A

2000-06-01

121

Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols.  

PubMed

Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential dietary strategy to reduce glucose intolerance and inflammation is consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa-like cocoa or their by-products. In vitro as well as in vivo data indicate that cocoa polyphenols (CPs) may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in cocoa have been reported to regulate lipid metabolism via inducing metabolic gene expression or activating transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes, many of which play an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor Kappa B, activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, and adiponectin gene) have been identified, which may explain potential beneficial obesity-associated diseases effects of CPs. Further studies have been performed regarding the protective effects of CPs against metabolic diseases by suppressing transcription factors that antagonize lipid accumulation. Thus, polyphenols-rich cocoa products may diminish obesity-mediated metabolic diseases by multiple mechanisms, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation. PMID:24259381

Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Kersten, Sander

2014-01-01

122

Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

2013-10-01

123

Composite powder particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

124

Precision powder feeder  

DOEpatents

A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

2001-07-10

125

Gelcasting superalloy powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and

Janney

1995-01-01

126

The science of cocoa flavanols: bioavailability, emerging evidence, and proposed mechanisms.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 y, evidence derived from in vitro experiments, animal models, observational studies, and clinical interventions have suggested that cacao (cocoa) flavonoids act through a variety of mechanisms to modify a number of risk factors associated with chronic conditions, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have elucidated the synthesis of flavonoids by plants, making available for research specific flavonoids and their metabolites. The body of evidence suggesting that cocoa flavanols may play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease has been sufficient to generate several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Studies are now being directed to identify the molecular pathways underlying the effect of cocoa flavanols, and clinical trials are being planned to test their impact on disease endpoints. PMID:25469389

Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ding, Eric L; Dixon, Richard; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Villarreal, Francisco

2014-09-01

127

The science of cocoa flavanols: bioavailability, emerging evidence, and proposed mechanisms.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 y, evidence derived from in vitro experiments, animal models, observational studies, and clinical interventions have suggested that cacao (cocoa) flavonoids act through a variety of mechanisms to modify a number of risk factors associated with chronic conditions, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have elucidated the synthesis of flavonoids by plants, making available for research specific flavonoids and their metabolites. The body of evidence suggesting that cocoa flavanols may play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease has been sufficient to generate several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Studies are now being directed to identify the molecular pathways underlying the effect of cocoa flavanols, and clinical trials are being planned to test their impact on disease endpoints. PMID:25513315

Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ding, Eric L; Dixon, Richard; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Villarreal, Francisco

2014-09-01

128

Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall. PMID:25307999

Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

2014-11-01

129

Cocoa polyphenols inhibit phorbol ester-induced superoxide anion formation in cultured HL-60 cells and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and activation of NF-kappaB and MAPKs in mouse skin in vivo.  

PubMed

We investigated the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of a flavonoid-rich polyphenolic fraction of cocoa. Cocoa polyphenol (CP) was fractionated from commercial cocoa powder and contained 468 mg/g of gallic acid-equivalent phenolics and 413 mg/g epicatechin-equivalent flavonoids. CP exhibited a dose-dependent free radical-scavenging activity as determined by both 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays. CP also dose-dependently inhibited xanthine oxidase activity and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide-anion generation in cultured human promyeolcytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Oral administering of CP (4, 20, 40, and 200 mg/kg body weight) to ICR mice 1 h prior to TPA (10 nmol) inhibited ear edema at 5 h in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of COX-2 expression induced in mouse skin after 4-h treatment with topical TPA (10 nmol) was also diminished significantly by pretreating CP (40 or 200 mg/kg) for 30 min. CP at the same doses inhibited TPA-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and subsequent DNA binding of NF-kappaB at 1 h by blocking the degradation of IkappaBalpha in mouse skin. Moreover, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in ICR mouse skin, measured 4 h after TPA treatment, was suppressed by oral pretreatment of CP (40 or 200 mg/kg). Although extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 phosphorylation was unaffected, CP inhibited the catalytic activity of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. Since cellular proinflammatory and prooxidant states are closely linked to tumor promotion, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of CP may constitute the basis of possible antitumor promoting effects of this phytochemical. PMID:16614396

Lee, Ki Won; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Kim, Sue Ok; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Hyong Joo; Surh, Young-Joon

2006-05-01

130

Multiple feed powder splitter  

DOEpatents

A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

131

Multiple feed powder splitter  

DOEpatents

A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

132

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

133

ESTABLISHMENT OF FUNGAL ENTOMOPATHOGEN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AS AN ENDOPHYTE IN COCOA SEEDINGS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana became established as an endophyte in in vitro grown cocoa seedlings tested for up to two months post-inoculation with B. bassiana suspensions to the radicle. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots. B. bassiana was also detect...

134

Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior.  

PubMed

Cocoa products and chocolate have recently been recognized as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly flavanols, potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with established benefits for cardiovascular health but largely unproven effects on neurocognition and behavior. In this review, we focus on neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions of cocoa flavanols in humans. The absorbed flavonoids penetrate and accumulate in the brain regions involved in learning and memory, especially the hippocampus. The neurobiological actions of flavanols are believed to occur in two major ways: (i) via direct interactions with cellular cascades yielding expression of neuroprotective and neuromodulatory proteins that promote neurogenesis, neuronal function and brain connectivity, and (ii) via blood-flow improvement and angiogenesis in the brain and sensory systems. Protective effects of long-term flavanol consumption on neurocognition and behavior, including age- and disease-related cognitive decline, were shown in animal models of normal aging, dementia, and stroke. A few human observational and intervention studies appear to corroborate these findings. Evidence on more immediate action of cocoa flavanols remains limited and inconclusive, but warrants further research. As an outline for future research on cocoa flavanol impact on human cognition, mood, and behavior, we underscore combination of functional neuroimaging with cognitive and behavioral measures of performance. PMID:23810791

Sokolov, Alexander N; Pavlova, Marina A; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul

2013-12-01

135

Multipurpose shade trees in coffee and cocoa plantations in Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee and cocoa are the main cash crops of Côte d'Ivoire. They are mainly produced by small farmers in a rather extensive way. The shade trees used are mostly wild forest species yielding many different products. In the Baoulé region, an inventory of those trees and their, often multiple, uses was established. Of the 41 tree species, 22 are used

F. Herzog

1994-01-01

136

Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

137

Trinidad, Brazil, and Ghana: Three Melting Moments in the History of Cocoa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and…

Leiter, Jeffrey; Harding, Sandra

2004-01-01

138

Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

139

Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

140

Spray application to cocoa pods and other small targets using cone nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cone nozzles are usually considered most appropriate for applying insecticides and fungicides to complex surfaces. Smallholders in cocoa growing areas commonly buy spraying equipment fitted with variable atomisers that produce indeterminate sprays (i.e. a range of droplet size spectra). Because they are infinitely variable, the spray pattern cannot be duplicated and farmers often have difficulty deciding which setting to

R P BATEMAN

141

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

PubMed

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

142

The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre- and post-natal psychological stress, and the child’s neurodevelopment, nutritional status, and development of allergic and respiratory illnesses. The child’s microbiome, genes, epigenetics, plasma cytokine levels, and neuropsychological status, the microbiome of the residence, and the levels of indoor and outdoor pollutants are measured by standard procedures. Discussion The COCOA study will improve our understanding of how individual genetic or environmental risk factors influence susceptibility to allergic disease and how these variables interact to shape the phenotype of allergic diseases. PMID:24990471

2014-01-01

143

Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children  

PubMed Central

Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-? diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

2013-01-01

144

PRESSURELESS SINTERED BERYLLIUM POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process, termed pressureless sintering, has been established for ; the production of beryllium shapes (solid or hollow) to near theoretical density. ; It consists simply of the vacuum sintering at 1,200 deg C of loose powder of ; critical particle size distribution, without the application of pressure. ; Notable advantages are claimed over conventional powder production and ;

T. R. Barrett; G. C. Ellis; R. A. Knight

1959-01-01

145

Identification of predominant yeasts associated with artisan Mexican cocoa fermentations using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.  

PubMed

The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site. Isolation of the microorganisms was performed in situ. Molecular identification of yeast isolates was achieved by RFLP analysis and rDNA sequencing. Total DNA from the microorganisms on the cocoa beans was utilized for the DGGE analysis. Bands from the DGGE gels were excised and sequenced. Nineteen isolated yeasts were identified (al specie level), three of which had never before been associated with cocoa fermentations worldwide. The detected predominant yeast varied from one technique to another. Hanseniaspora sp. resulted dominant in DGGE however Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the principal isolated species. In conclusion, the culture-dependent and -independent techniques complement each other showing differences in the main yeasts involved in spontaneous cocoa fermentation, probably due to the physiological states of the viable but non culturable yeasts. Furthermore important differences between the species detected in the two samplings were detected. PMID:25566818

Arana-Sánchez, A; Segura-García, L E; Kirchmayr, M; Orozco-Ávila, I; Lugo-Cervantes, E; Gschaedler-Mathis, A

2015-02-01

146

Detailed Analysis of the Microbial Population in Malaysian Spontaneous Cocoa Pulp Fermentations Reveals a Core and Variable Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a “core” and a “variable” part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations (“core” yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations (“variable” yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency. PMID:24358116

Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

147

Sintering titanium powders  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

2005-09-01

148

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

SciTech Connect

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

2011-05-01

149

Compaction of Titanium Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 ?m, <75 ?m, and < 45 ?m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 ?m and < 45 ?m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Jablonski, Paul D.

2011-05-01

150

Ceramic powder compaction  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, F.M. [Norton Co., Worcester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

151

Cocoa, Hazelnuts, Sterols and Soluble Fiber Cream Reduces Lipids and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cocoa, mixed with other food ingredients, intake can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. We compared the effects of 4 cocoa cream products on some of these biomarkers. Methods and Findings In this multi-centered, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial, volunteers (n?=?113; age range: 43–65 years) who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic received one of 4 cocoa cream products (13 g/unit; 1 g cocoa/unit, 6 units/d; 465 Kcal/d) added to a low saturated fat diet for 4 weeks. The groups were: A) (n?=?28), cocoa cream considered as control; B) (n?=?28), cocoa+hazelnut cream (30 g/d hazelnuts); C) (n?=?30), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols (2 g/d); and D) (n?=?27), cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols+soluble fiber (20 g/d) the patented “LMN product”. Primary outcome measures were BP, LDL-c, apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B), ApoB/ApoA ratio, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) determined at baseline and post-cocoa cream product intake. Statistical analysis used was ANCOVA or mixed models (in case of repeated measurements), with baseline observation included as a covariate. After 4 weeks, compared to product A, product C reduced LDL-c by 11.2%, Apo B by 8.1% and ApoB/ApoA ratio by 7.8% (P?=?0.01). LMN decreased LDL-c by 9.2%, Apo B-100 by 8.5%, ApoB/ApoA ratio by 10.5%, hsCRP by 33.4% and oxLDL by 5.9% (P?=?0.01). Surprisingly, even “control” product A reduced systolic BP (?7.89 mmHg; 95%CI: ?11.45 to ?4.3) and diastolic BP (?5.54 mmHg; 95%CI: ?7.79 to ?3.29). The BP reductions were similar with the other 3 products. Limitations of the study are that the trial period was relatively short and that a better “BP control” product would have been preferable. Conclusion The creams (particularly the LMN) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in addition to lowering LDL-c, Apo B and ApoB/ApoA ratio. Thus, the soluble fiber effects amplified with sterols (as contained in the cocoa creams) provide new dietary therapeutic perspectives. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420 PMID:22383996

Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Godàs, Gemma; Perez-Busquets, Gloria; Ribalta, Josep; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Cabré, Anna; Castro, Antoni; Domenech, Gema; Torres, Ferran; Masana, Lluís; Anglés, Neus; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Barriach, Joaquim M.

2012-01-01

152

POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

153

Mystery Powder Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Rachel HallettNjuguna

2012-07-27

154

Gelcasting superalloy powders  

SciTech Connect

Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and has been used to produce ceramic parts from over a dozen different ceramic compositions ranging from alumina-based refractories to high-performance silicon nitride. Recently, gelcasting has been applied to forming superalloy powders into complex shapes. This application has posed several challenges not previously encountered in ceramics. In particular, problems were caused by the larger particle size and the higher density of the particles. Additional problems were encountered with binder removal. How these problems were overcome will be described.

Janney, M.A.

1995-12-31

155

Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic Fatty Acid mixture.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well. PMID:25342261

Mohamed, Ibrahim O

2015-01-01

156

Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis  

PubMed Central

Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa. PMID:22605986

Babin, Régis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

2012-01-01

157

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought by flatbed truck to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

158

Hafnium powder production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions for the production of hafnium nanopowders via magnesium-thermic reduction of chlorides and the effect of these conditions on the phase composition and dispersion of the powders are studied analytical chemistry, X-ray diffractin, and electron microscopy. The results of phase and structural analysis of the powders, the results of microscopic studies, the measured specific surface, and the data of atomicemission analysis are presented.

Dzidziguri, E. L.; Salangina, E. A.; Sidorova, E. N.

2010-09-01

159

Shear consolidation of powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacture of bulk parts from metastable powder materials requires new approaches to cold consolidation. One potential technique is equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE), a simple shear process. This thesis describes an investigation into the effects of confining pressure (back-pressure) on single-pass, right-angled ECAE consolidation of copper and aluminum 6061 powders below 250°C, using an extrusion machine designed and constructed for this purpose. Empirical relationships for punch pressure requirements as a function of back-pressure and billet length are determined experimentally and compared with published theory. Powder particle boundaries are examined in extruded billets, revealing pores and regions of localized shear formed under low back-pressure conditions. This shear localization is considered with a visualization experiment involving wax spheres in a transparent die, and a linear stability analysis of simple shear of a thin strip of material described by a generalized powder yield function and flow rule. The back-pressures required to obtain homogeneous, pore-free microstructures are determined, and related to the response of the powders during the initial compaction stage of ECAE. Interparticle bond formation in cold powder processing is briefly discussed in the context of multi-pass extrusions.

Hanna, James A.

160

Chemical evaluation and digestibility of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) byproducts fed to goats.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of the cocoa byproducts CPH (cocoa pod husk), CS (cocoa shell) and CD (cocoa dust), and to establish a rational use of CS and CD in the diets of growing goats. CD had a high crude protein (CP) content of 15.9%, while CS and CPH had 13.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The byproducts were high in crude fibre (CF) content. Among the byproducts, CD had the highest ether extract value (22.0%). Fifteen growing goats, 18-20 months of age, with pre-experimental body weights of 20.9 +/- 0.33 kg, were randomly allotted to three diets in growth studies. In diet 1, dried brewers' grain (DBG) served as the control, while the other two diets had CS or CD plus DBG. The dry matter intake (DMI) was 570, 530 and 486 g/head per day for the control, CS + DBG and CD + DBG diets, respectively. The growth rate differed significantly among the goats offered the diets (p < 0.05). Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) digestibility were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the goats on the control diet than in those on CS + DBG or CD + DBG. The DM, CP and OM in the CS + DBG diet were more digestible (p < 0.05) than those in the CD + DBG diet. The inclusion of DBG in the CS and CD diets improved their use by the goats. PMID:12166335

Aregheore, E M

2002-07-01

161

Phospholipid composition of lipid seed crystal isolates from ivory coast cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed crystals isolated from Ivory Coast cocoa butter were shown to differ in chemical and thermal characteristics from solidified\\u000a Ivory Coast butter. Higher concentrations of complex lipids in the seed crystals have led to speculation on the role these\\u000a polar molecules play in lipid crystallization events. Phospholipids separated from lipid seed crystal isolates were twelve-fold\\u000a more concentrated than the original

Doris H. Arruda; Paul S. Dimick

1991-01-01

162

Mixtures of palm kernel oil with cocoa butter and milk fat in compound coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal behavior of binary mixtures of palm kernel oil (PKO), cocoa butter (CB), and anhydrous milk fat was used to study\\u000a mixed-lipid crystallization. This study was related to the physical properties of compound coatings made with these fats.\\u000a Phase behavior was studied by evaluating changes in melting behavior with composition and time, by creating isosolid diagrams,\\u000a and by monitoring polymorphic

Sara D. Williams; Kelly L. Ransom-Painter; Richard W. Hartel

1997-01-01

163

The effect of shear rate, temperature, sugar and emulsifier on the tempering of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of shear rate and temperature on the tempering of different mixtures of cocoa butter, sugar and lecithin has been studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer as a shearing device and using viscosity measurement to monitor crystallization. Shear rates ranging from 1 to 50s?1 were tested at four different isothermal temperatures (13°C, 17°C, 20°C and 23°C). Three different material

D. Dhonsi; A. G. F. Stapley

2006-01-01

164

CoCoA: Coordinated Cooperative Localization for Mobile Multi-Robot Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile robot teams are particularly suited to applica- tions where infrastructure is unavailable or damaged since they can be used to quickly form an infrastructure-less mo- bile ad hoc network performing tasks in a distributed man- ner. In such deployment scenarios, localization of individ- ual robots is essential for enabling many applications. In this paper, we propose CoCoA, Coordinated Cooperative

Dimitrios Koutsonikolas; Saumitra M. Das; Y. Charlie Hu; Yung-hsiang Lu; C. S. George Lee

2006-01-01

165

Global Restructuring and Liberalization: Cote d 'Ivoire and the End of the International Cocoa Market?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of the world cocoa market has concluded with the liberal- ization of the sector in the world's leading producing country, Côte d'Ivoire, clearing the way for domination by an oligopoly of global companies. This paper describes how Côte d'Ivoire's share of world production created an illusion but not the reality of market power. In the 1990s, in the

Bruno Losch

2002-01-01

166

Triglyceride interesterification by lipases. 1. Cocoa butter equivalents from a fraction of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve commercially available triacylglycerol lipase preparations were screened for their suitability as catalysts in the\\u000a interesterification of palm oil mid fraction and ethyl stearate to form a cocoa butter equivalent. Five fungal lipase preparations\\u000a were found to be suitable. The hydrolytic activity of the commercial lipase preparations was tested with sunflower seed oil\\u000a and was independent of their interesterification activity.

Scott Bloomer; Patrick Adlercreutz; Bo Mattiasson

1990-01-01

167

Regular consumption of a cocoa product improves the cardiometabolic profile in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults.  

PubMed

Cocoa products present great health potential due to their high content of polyphenols, mainly of flavanols. However, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other health effects of regularly consuming cocoa products seem to depend on the intake and health status of the consumer, etc. and need to be further clarified. A randomised, controlled, cross-over, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n 24) and moderately hypercholesterolaemic (>2000 mg/l, n 20) subjects to assess the influence of regularly consuming (4 weeks) two servings (15 g each) of a cocoa product rich in fibre (containing 33·9 % of total dietary fibre (TDF) and 13·9 mg/g of soluble polyphenols) in milk v. consuming only milk (control) on (1) serum lipid and lipoprotein profile, (2) serum malondialdehyde levels, carbonyl groups, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and free radical-scavenging capacity, (3) IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-10, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and vascular and intracellular cell adhesion molecule levels, and (4) systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Throughout the study, the diet and physical activity of the volunteers, as well as any possible changes in weight or other anthropometric parameters, were also evaluated. The intake of TDF increased (P< 0·001) to the recommended levels. Serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased (P< 0·001), whereas glucose (P= 0·029), IL-1? (P= 0·001) and IL-10 (P= 0·001) levels were decreased. The rest of the studied cardiovascular parameters, as well as the anthropometric ones, remained similar. In conclusion, regularly consuming a cocoa product with milk improves cardiovascular health by increasing HDL-C levels and inducing hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic individuals without causing weight gain. PMID:23823716

Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; García-Diz, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

2014-01-14

168

Oxidation of Metabolites Highlights the Microbial Interactions and Role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during Cocoa Bean Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848T, Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244T, and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848T oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848T and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation. PMID:24413595

Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy

2014-01-01

169

Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ?3?mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ?3?mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa?=?149?m, forest?=?86?m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities. PMID:24668557

Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

2014-09-01

170

Analysis of steryl esters in cocoa butter by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography.  

PubMed

On-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) has been applied to the analysis of steryl esters in cocoa butter. Separation of the steryl esters was achieved after on-line transfer to capillary GC. HPLC removes the large amount of triglycerides and pre-separates the components of interest, thus avoiding time-consuming sample preparation prior to GC analysis. The identities of the compounds were confirmed by GC-MS investigation of the collected HPLC fraction and by comparison of the mass spectra (chemical ionization using ammonia as ionization gas) to those of synthesized reference compounds. Using cholesteryl laurate as internal standard, steryl esters were quantified in commercial cocoa butter samples, the detection limit being 3 mg/kg and the quantification limit 10 mg/kg, respectively. Only slight differences in percentage distributions of steryl esters depending on the geographical origin of the material were observed. The patterns were shown to remain unchanged after deodorization. The method described might be a valuable tool for authenticity assessment of cocoa butter. PMID:11407581

Kamm, W; Dionisi, F; Fay, L B; Hischenhuber, C; Schmarr, H G; Engel, K H

2001-05-25

171

Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans.  

PubMed

Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17g, 43.8mg and 168.6mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3.74g, 45.3mg and 109.8mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) on cardiovascular health were assessed in two controlled, cross-over studies in free-living normocholesterolemic and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Both products increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations, whereas only DFCP decreased glucose and IL-1? levels in all subjects. Flavanols appeared to be responsible for the increase in HDL-cholesterol, whereas insoluble-dietary-fibre and theobromine in DFCP were associated with the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects observed. PMID:25529672

Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Garcia-Diz, Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

2015-05-01

172

Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Côte d’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed. PMID:24287569

Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph Kouassi; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Sika, Charles Bruno Ze Maria

2013-01-01

173

Estimating cocoa bean parameters by FT-NIRS and chemometrics analysis.  

PubMed

Rapid analysis of cocoa beans is an important activity for quality assurance and control investigations. In this study, Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and chemometric techniques were attempted to estimate cocoa bean quality categories, pH and fermentation index (FI). The performances of the models were optimised by cross-validation and examined by identification rate (%), correlation coefficient (Rpre) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the prediction set. The optimal identification model by back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) was 99.73% at 5 principal components. The efficient variable selection model derived by synergy interval back propagation artificial neural network regression (Si-BPANNR) was superior for pH and FI estimation. Si-BPANNR model for pH was Rpre=0.98 and RMSEP=0.06, while for FI was Rpre=0.98 and RMSEP=0.05. The results demonstrated that FT-NIRS together with BPANN and Si-BPANNR model could successfully be used for cocoa beans examination. PMID:25624249

Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Sam-Amoah, Livingstone K; Takrama, Jemmy; Boison, Daniel; Botchway, Francis; Kumi, Francis

2015-06-01

174

Method for classifying ceramic powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

Takabe, K.

1983-01-01

175

Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. Cocoa is mainly produced on small holdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and cocoa quality improvement are two impo...

176

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOEpatents

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13

177

Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.  

PubMed

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4?×?2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P?cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted. PMID:24426021

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

2013-12-01

178

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

179

The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region and processing operations: A review.  

PubMed

Abstract Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24915346

Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

2013-09-25

180

Whole powder pattern modelling.  

PubMed

A new approach for the modelling of diffraction patterns without using analytical profile functions is described and tested on ball milled f.c.c. Ni powder samples. The proposed whole powder pattern modelling (WPPM) procedure allows a one-step refinement of microstructure parameters by a direct modelling of the experimental pattern. Lattice parameter and defect content, expressed as dislocation density, outer cut-off radius, contrast factor, twin and deformation fault probabilities), can be refined together with the parameters (mean and variance) of a grain-size distribution. Different models for lattice distortions and domain size and shape can be tested to simulate or model diffraction data for systems as different as plastically deformed metals or finely dispersed crystalline powders. TEM pictures support the conclusions obtained by WPPM and confirm the validity of the proposed procedure. PMID:11832590

Scardi, P; Leoni, M

2002-03-01

181

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01

182

Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d) for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001). Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00511420 and NCT00502047 PMID:23840361

Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Anguera, Anna; Anglés, Neus; Arola, Lluís

2013-01-01

183

Development, validation and determination of multiclass pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 ?g/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 ?g/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. PMID:25442595

Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah

2015-04-01

184

Demystifying Mystery Powders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

Kotar, Michael

1989-01-01

185

Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations?  

PubMed Central

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID:21926224

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-01-01

186

Method for synthesizing powder materials  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

1988-01-21

187

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

188

Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV  

E-print Network

Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV Program April 22-25, 2013 Photo credit ©2000 Robert Rathe #12;2 3 Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV Program April 22-25, 2013 Day 1 | 22nd April Time Activity Chair 08 Introduction to program (Madsen, Cline) James Cline Ian Madsen 09:45 - 10:30 Accuracy in Powder Diffraction

Magee, Joseph W.

189

Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

Nganhou, J.

190

Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders  

DOEpatents

Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Midland, MI); Weimer, Alan W. (Midland, MI); Carroll, Daniel F. (Midland, MI); Eisman, Glenn A. (Midland, MI); Cochran, Gene A. (Midland, MI); Susnitzky, David W. (Midland, MI); Beaman, Donald R. (Midland, MI); Nilsen, Kevin J. (Midland, MI)

1996-06-11

191

Household Welfare and the Pricing of Cocoa and Coffee in Cote d'Ivoire: Lessons from the Living Standards Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa and coffee are the most important crops in Cote d'Ivoire. Until recently, the difference between world and administered producer prices provided an important source of government revenue. As a result of a continued decline of world prices of both crops, however, the Ivoirien government was forced to cut producer prices in half. Because 40 percent of Ivoirien households grow

Dwayne Benjamin; Angus Deaton

1993-01-01

192

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

Kroposki, B.

1998-12-17

193

Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

Kroposki

1998-01-01

194

Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.  

PubMed

Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB. PMID:25328175

Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

2014-10-01

195

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at ?18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

2013-01-01

196

[Diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to know the diversity of insects captured by weaver spiders in a plantation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) of 6 ha in the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The study was carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 by means biweekly samples of the insects captured on the spiders webs. The total of 3,041 webs of 54 species of spiders belonging to seven families (Araneidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Uloboridae, Pholcidae, Dyctinidae and Linyphiidae) were revised. We found 1,749 specimens belonging to 10 orders of insects, represented by 93 families, the majority of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera that constituted 74% of the identified families. The biggest number of specimens of all orders was captured by Araneidae, except of Isoptera, whose specimens were captured mainly by the family Theridiidae. The index of diversity (H'), evenness (J') and similarity (Is), applied to know the diversity of families of insects captured among families of spiders, varied from 0.00 to 3.24, 0.00 to 0.81, and 0.04 to 0.522, respectively. We conclude that there is a wide diversity of insects predated by the weaver spiders in the cocoa agroecosystem, and that there are species that can be promising for the biological control of pests. PMID:17420866

Pérez-de La Cruz, Manuel; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Ortíz-García, Carlos F; Zapata-Mata, Raúl; Cruz-Pérez, Aracely de la

2007-01-01

197

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

News media representatives and other onlookers get a close-up view of the piece of Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger debris which washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. A Cocoa Beach front-end loader picks up the debris which will be carried by flatbed truck to Kennedy Space Center. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

198

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cocoa Beach front-end loader holds a large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger after it washed ashore in Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar. Overseeing the recovery and protection of the piece is KSC criminal investigator Jan Seinkner, facing camera at center, of EG&G Florida Inc., base operations contractor. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece was found several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident which destroyed the Shuttle and claimed the lives of the seven crew members; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. Those remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

199

Investigation of Soap Powders  

E-print Network

.42%* HagCOa 71.52%* Total 98T 5 Sopade. Manufactured by James Pyle & Company, Hew York, H. Y. Wt. ya£ Price 5 cents. Analysis• Moisture 26 .23$ HaaHPO* 1 8 . 1 7 * NaaCOa 5 S . 3 2 J Total 99.72% Rub Ho More* Manufactured by Summit City Soap... 98.16$ Gold Dust Washing Powder. Manufactured by N. K. Fairbanks Company. Wt. 3/4 pound Price 5 cents. Analysis. Moisture 14.79$ Soap 35.02$ Na 2C0 a 49.10$ Total 98.91$ Star Naphtha. Manufactured by Proctor & Gamble, Kansas City Wt. 1...

Bragg, G.A.

1913-01-01

200

Sintering of powder mixtures and the growth of ferrous powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the understanding of sintering of powder mixtures contributed significantly to the growth of ferrous powder metallurgy industry. Solid-state sintering and liquid-phase activated sintering play an important role in the sintering of powder mixtures. In this paper, sintering of iron powder with graphite; iron powder with copper and graphite; iron powder with nickel and graphite; iron powder with phosphorus;

K. S Narasimhan

2001-01-01

201

Parametric Powder Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapidity with which powder diffraction data may be collected, not only at neutron and X-ray synchrotron facilities but also in the laboratory, means that the collection of a single diffraction pattern is now the exception rather than the rule. Many experiments involve the collection of hundreds and perhaps many thousands of datasets where a parameter such as temperature or pressure is varied or where time is the variable and life-cycle, synthesis or decomposition processes are monitored or three-dimensional space is scanned and the three-dimensional internal structure of an object is elucidated. In this paper, the origins of parametric diffraction are discussed and the techniques and challenges of parametric powder diffraction analysis are presented. The first parametric measurements were performed around 50 years ago with the development of a modified Guinier camera but it was the automation afforded by neutron diffraction combined with increases in computer speed and memory that established parametric diffraction on a strong footing initially at the ILL, Grenoble in France. The theoretical parameterisation of quantities such as lattice constants and atomic displacement parameters will be discussed and selected examples of parametric diffraction over the past 20 years will be reviewed that highlight the power of the technique.

David, William I. F.; Evans, John S. O.

202

Cocoa procyanidins protect PC12 cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of p38 MAPK and JNK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species has been strongly associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effects of a cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin-(4?-8)-epicatechin) – a major polyphenol in cocoa – against apoptosis of PC12 rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). CPF

Eun Sun Cho; Ki Won Lee; Hyong Joo Lee

2008-01-01

203

Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.  

PubMed

The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain. PMID:21838556

Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

2011-09-01

204

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

205

A PIECE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER WASHED ASHORE AT COCOA BEACH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large piece of debris from the Space Shuttle orbiter Challenger washes up on Cocoa Beach near the Coconuts on the Beach restaurant and bar almost 11 years after Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff from KSC's Launch Pad 39B. The piece, about 15 feet by 6 feet, is believed to be part of an elevon or rudder. It is one of the biggest pieces to wash ashore to date. A smaller piece also was found Tuesday several blocks south. NASA recovered thousands of pounds of debris from the Atlantic Ocean after the Jan. 28, 1986 accident; about 50 percent of the orbiter remained in the ocean after search operations were suspended. The previously retrieved remains are stored at Cape Canaveral Air Station, mostly in two Minutemen silos. The two newly recovered pieces will be brought to KSC's Security Patrol Headquarters on Contractor Road for examination, documentation and temporary storage.

1996-01-01

206

Mound powder loader, Mod 1  

SciTech Connect

At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

Gress, A.V. Jr.

1985-08-21

207

Carboxymethylation of Tamarind kernel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarind kernel powder is a rich source of xyloglucan gum. The gum can be utilized in a number of industries. With a view to utilize the gum for broader applications, carboxymethylation of tamarind kernel powder was carried out. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to concentration of sodium hydroxide, monochloroacetic acid, solvent ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature. Carboxymethylation

Puja Goyal; Vineet Kumar; Pradeep Sharma

2007-01-01

208

Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) upon infection with Phytophthora megakarya.  

PubMed

Phytophthora megakarya, the causative agent of cacao black pod disease in West African countries causes an extensive loss of yield. In this study we have analyzed 4 libraries of ESTs derived from Phytophthora megakarya infected cocoa leaf and pod tissues. Totally 6379 redundant sequences were retrieved from ESTtik database and EST processing was performed using seqclean tool. Clustering and assembling using CAP3 generated 3333 non-redundant (907 contigs and 2426 singletons) sequences. The primary sequence analysis of 3333 non-redundant sequences showed that the GC percentage was 42.7 and the sequence length ranged from 101 - 2576 nucleotides. Further, functional analysis (Blast, Interproscan, Gene ontology and KEGG search) were executed and 1230 orthologous genes were annotated. Totally 272 enzymes corresponding to 114 metabolic pathways were identified. Functional annotation revealed that most of the sequences are related to molecular function, stress response and biological processes. The annotated enzymes are aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C: 1.2.1.3), catalase (E.C: 1.11.1.6), acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (E.C: 2.3.1.9), threonine ammonia-lyase (E.C: 4.3.1.19), acetolactate synthase (E.C: 2.2.1.6), O-methyltransferase (E.C: 2.1.1.68) which play an important role in amino acid biosynthesis and phenyl propanoid biosynthesis. All this information was stored in MySQL database management system to be used in future for reconstruction of biotic stress response pathway in cocoa. PMID:22359437

Naganeeswaran, Sudalaimuthu Asari; Subbian, Elain Apshara; Ramaswamy, Manimekalai

2012-01-01

209

Evaluation of cocoa butter as potential lubricant for coprocessing in pharmaceutical tablets.  

PubMed

The lubricant activity of cocoa butter coprocessed with magnesium stearate plus talc (CMT) was compared with magnesium stearate plus talc (MT) using flow and compressional characteristics of paracetamol granules and mechanical properties of their tablets as assessment parameters. The flow of the granules quantified as Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, and angle of repose showed that CMT has a higher ability than MT to reduce densification of granules due to vibration. Compressional characteristics analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots revealed that CMT did not facilitate the increase in the densification of the granules during the filling and at low pressures, D(b). Also, CMT reduced the plastic deformation of the granules measured by the P(y)-yield pressure at onset of plastic deformation and P(k)-yield pressure of deformation under compression. The mechanical properties determined by the tensile strength, T, and brittle fracture index, BFI, of the tablets produced were affected by CMT. The T and BFI of tablets with CMT were lower than those of MT. The results suggest that though CMT lowered the plasticity of the granules, it improved their flow rate and assisted in producing tablets with fewer tendencies to cap or laminate. This work concluded that cocoa butter, an inexpensive and easily available lipid, is an effective and viable lubricant that can be co-processed with magnesium stearate/talc mixture for an efficient lubrication of granules and may be useful in reducing lamination and capping in formulations that are susceptible to these 2 defects of tablets. PMID:18484488

Adeagbo, Adebolu Adewole; Alebiowu, Gbenga

2008-01-01

210

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2011-04-01

211

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2010-04-01

212

21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

2012-04-01

213

Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.  

PubMed

The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145°C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2g100g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135°C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145°C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

2015-05-01

214

Establishment of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an endophyte in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao).  

PubMed

The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana became established as an endophyte in in vitro-grown cocoa seedlings tested for up to 2 mo after inoculation to the radicle with B. bassiana suspensions. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots. B. bassiana also was detected as an epiphyte 1 and 2 mo postinoculation. Penicillium oxalicum and five bacterial morphospecies also were detected, indicating that these were present as endophytes in the seed. PMID:16722213

Posada, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

2005-01-01

215

Melting and solidification characteristics of confectionery fats: Anhydrous milk fat, cocoa butter and palm kernel stearin blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry measurements of crystallization and melting characteristics of commercial samples of anhydrous\\u000a milk fat (AMF), cocoa butter (CB) and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin (PKS) in ternary blends were studied. Results showed\\u000a that stabilization at 26C (either for 40 h or 7 d) did not greatly affect the melting thermogram trace of PKS. However, the\\u000a effect of stabilization became

P. S. Dimick

1994-01-01

216

Preparation of superconductor precursor powders  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

Bhattacharya, Raghunath (Littleton, CO); Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01

217

Genetic Diversity and Structure of Managed and Semi-natural Populations of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Huallaga and Ucayali Valleys of Peru  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America, and it is well known that the Peruvian Amazon harbours a large number of diverse cocoa populations. A small fraction of the diversity has been collected and maintained as an ex-situ germplasm repository in Peru. However, incorrect labelling of accessions and lack of information on genetic diversity have hindered efficient conservation and use of this germplasm. This study targeted assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in a managed and a semi-natural population. •Methods Using a capillary electrophoresis genotyping system, 105 cocoa accessions collected from the Huallaga and Ucayali valleys of Peru were fingerprinted. Based on 15 loci SSR profiles, genetic identity was examined for each accession and duplicates identified, population structure assessed and genetic diversity analysed in these two populations. •Key Results Ten synonymous mislabelled groups were identified among the 105 accessions. The germplasm group in the Huallaga valley was clearly separated from the group in Ucayali valley by the Bayesian assignment test. The Huallaga group has lower genetic diversity, both in terms of allelic richness and of gene diversity, than the Ucayali group. Analysis of molecular variance suggested genetic substructure in the Ucayali group. Significant spatial correlation between genetic distance and geographical distances was detected in the Ucayali group by Mantel tests. •Conclusions These results substantiate the hypothesis that the Peruvian Amazon hosts a high level of cocoa genetic diversity, and the diversity has a spatial structure. The introduction of exotic seed populations into the Peruvian Amazon is changing the cocoa germplasm spectrum in this region. The spatial structure of cocoa diversity recorded here highlights the need for additional collecting and conservation measures for natural and semi-natural cocoa populations. PMID:16845139

ZHANG, DAPENG; AREVALO-GARDINI, ENRIQUE; MISCHKE, SUE; ZÚÑIGA-CERNADES, LUIS; BARRETO-CHAVEZ, ALEJANDRO; AGUILA, JORGE ADRIAZOLA DEL

2006-01-01

218

powder in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped ?-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and ?-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped ?-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of ?-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The ?-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

2014-09-01

219

Characterization of cocoa liquors by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS: focus on alkylpyrazines and flavanols.  

PubMed

Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of chocolate products and is due to a complex volatile fraction, depending both on the cocoa bean genotype and the several processes occurring during chocolate production (fermentation, drying, roasting and conching). Alkylpyrazines are among the most studied volatiles, being one of the main classes of odorant compounds in cocoa products. In this work, a mass spectrometric approach was used for the comparison of cocoa liquors from different countries. A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative study of the volatile fraction; the standard addition method was then used for the quantitative determination of five pyrazines (2-methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine and tetramethylpyrazine). Satisfactory figures of merit were obtained: Limits of quantitation were in the range 0.1-2.7?ng/g; repeatability and reproducibility varied between 3% and 7% and between 8% and 14%, respectively. The total content of the pyrazines was remarkably different in the considered samples, ranging from 99 to 708?ng/g. Tetramethylpyrazine showed the highest concentration in all samples, with a maximum value of 585?ng/g. A preliminary study was also performed on the nonvolatile fraction using LC-MS/MS, identifying some flavanols such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidins. PMID:22972787

Magi, Emanuele; Bono, Luca; Di Carro, Marina

2012-09-01

220

Antimicrobial activities of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant against fungi isolated from cocoa beans and reference strains of bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the antibacterial and the antifungal activity of a polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH)-based disinfectant and to determine if it could be used as a disinfectant for the treatment of cocoa beans. The activity of PHMGH was tested in vitro for efficacy against five reference strains of pathogenic bacteria and six strains of fungi isolated from cocoa beans. All the strains tested were sensitive to the disinfectant. The MICs reported were between 0.01 and 1.9 mg/ml and equal to the MBC or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) regardless of the strains of those microorganisms. The bacteria were more sensitive to PHMGH than were the fungi. Enterobacter cloacae was the most sensitive bacterium with a MIC and MBC of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas the genus Aspergillus was the least susceptible of the microorganisms tested, with a MIC and MFC from 1.0 to 1.9 mg/ml. The time required for the activity of PHMGH varies from 2 min for Enterobacter cloacae to 12 min for Aspergillus tamarii and generally increases with the MBC or the MFC. Through this in vitro study, the PHMGH has been proved to be bactericidal and fungicidal on the strains studied. Hence, it could probably serve as a fungicidal disinfectant for the treatment of cocoa beans after harvesting. PMID:22691490

Mathurin, Yao K; Koffi-Nevry, Rose; Guéhi, Simplice T; Tano, Kablan; Oulé, Mathias K

2012-06-01

221

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

222

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

223

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Fred J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

224

Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method  

DOEpatents

A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

1996-01-02

225

Shock compaction of molybdenum powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

1983-01-01

226

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

Janney, M.A.

1990-01-16

227

Method for molding ceramic powders  

DOEpatents

A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

228

Rotary powder feed through apparatus  

DOEpatents

A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

229

Neutron detectors comprising boron powder  

SciTech Connect

High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

2013-05-21

230

Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

1974-01-01

231

Powder collection apparatus/method  

DOEpatents

Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

1994-01-11

232

Powder collection apparatus/method  

DOEpatents

Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA); Moore, Jeffery A. (Ames, IA)

1994-01-11

233

DNA-Based Differentiation of the Ecuadorian Cocoa Types CCN-51 and Arriba Based on Sequence Differences in the Chloroplast Genome.  

PubMed

Two cocoa types, Arriba and CCN-51, are being cultivated in Ecuador. With regard to the unique aroma, Arriba is considered a fine cocoa type, while CCN-51 is a bulk cocoa because of its weaker aroma. Because it is being assumed that Arriba is mixed with CCN-51, there is an interest in the analytical differentiation of the two types. Two methods to identify CCN-51 adulterations in Arriba cocoa were developed on the basis of differences in the chloroplast DNA. On the one hand, a different repeat of the sequence TAAAG in the inverted repeat region results in a different length of amplicons for the two cocoa types, which can be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary gel electrophoresis, and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. On the other hand, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the CCN-51 and Arriba sequences represent restriction sites, which can be used for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A semi-quantitative analysis based on these SNPs is feasible. A method for an exact quantitation based on these results is not realizable. These sequence variations were confirmed for a comprehensive cultivar collection of Arriba and CCN-51, for both bean and leaf samples. PMID:25404556

Herrmann, Luise; Haase, Ilka; Blauhut, Maike; Barz, Nadine; Fischer, Markus

2014-12-17

234

High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:21092175

2010-01-01

235

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2011-07-01

236

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2012-07-01

237

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2012-07-01

238

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2013-07-01

239

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2011-07-01

240

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2013-07-01

241

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2014-07-01

242

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2014-07-01

243

30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2010-07-01

244

30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for...stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking...of this section. (c) Black powder shall be transferred...damaged explosives. (f) Holes shall not be reloaded for...

2010-07-01

245

Powder lubrication of faults by powder rolls in gouge zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder-lubrication by fault gouge can be an effective mechanism of dynamic weakening of faults (Reches & Lockner, 2010); however, the physical mechanisms of this lubrication are poorly understood. While the flow of coarse-grained (> 100 ?m) materials, e.g. glass beads or quartz sand, was extensively studied, the flow of fine-grained (< 1 ?m) powders, e.g., fault-gouge and nano-powders, have remained enigmatic. We report here experimental results of a new efficient mechanism for powder lubrication. We conducted friction tests on high-velocity rotary shear apparatus (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Two types of experimental faults were tested: (1) faults made of solid, igneous rocks (granite, tonalite and diorite); and (2) fault-zones made of 2-3 mm thick layer of granular materials (oolites, calcite or gypsum) sheared in a confined cell. We performed 21 runs with total slip of 0.14-13 m, normal stress of 1.2-14.5 MPa, slip velocity of 0.012-0.97 m/s. The ultra-microscopic (SEM and AFM) analysis of the experimental slip surfaces revealed two outstanding features in 17 out of the 21 experiments: (1) localized fault-slip along Principal Slip Zones (PSZs) that are composed of a dense, shiny, cohesive crust, 0.5-1 micron thick, that overlaid a porous substrate, and (2) elongated rolls composed of gouge-powder into three-dimensional structures of closely-packed powder grains, (20-50 nm in size). The rolls are cylindrical, 0.75-1.4 micron wide, and 1.7-30 micron long, with smooth outer surface, and laminated, concentric layers of compacted grains. The rolls were exclusively found on the PSZs. Many rolls were destroyed fracturing and smearing on the PSZ, suggesting that the rolls underwent a life cycle of formation and destruction. Significant macroscopic friction reduction was measured in experiments with observed rolls, and no (or minor) friction reduction in the four experiments without rolls. The final, reduced friction coefficients have a general reciprocal relation to the rolls surface coverage, suggesting that increased development of rolls (= increasing surface coverage) enhanced fault weakening. We applied the Eldredge and Tabor (1955) model for rolling friction to the AFM observed morphology of the rolls and PSZs, and found good agreement between measured and modeled friction coefficients. We conclude that the measured friction reduction reflects a transition from sliding-dominated slip to rolling-dominated slip due to the presence and density of powder rolls. We further argue that powder rolling is an effective mechanism of powder lubrication, and that spontaneous growth of such rolls along crustal faults is likely to control earthquake weakening.

Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Reches, Z.

2013-12-01

246

Cocoa protective effects against abnormal fat storage and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet involve PPAR? signalling activation.  

PubMed

A high-fat (HF) diet increases lipid storage and oxidative stress in mouse liver and this process seems to be mediated by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?). In this study we evaluated the protective effect of cocoa against hepatic steatosis induced by a HF diet. The HF diet down-regulated PPAR? expression and turned off PPAR?-signalling, deregulated the ?-oxidation (?-Ox) system and catalase (CAT) activity, increased fat storage, reduced expression of enzymatic activity involved in oxidative defence in the liver and doubled the weight gain per calorie consumed compared to animals under the normal diet. In contrast, cocoa improved hepatic ?-Ox, activated PPAR?-signalling and up-regulated both gene and protein expression of SOD1. Moreover, when co-administered with the HF diet, cocoa treatment counteracted lipid storage in the liver, improved the lipid-metabolizing activity and oxidative stress defences and normalized the weight gain per calorie consumed. PMID:25214316

Fidaleo, Marco; Fracassi, Anna; Zuorro, Antonio; Lavecchia, Roberto; Moreno, Sandra; Sartori, Claudia

2014-11-01

247

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

248

Ground-water hydrology of the Cocoa well-field area, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of Cocoa, Brevard County, Florida, supplies water for much of central Brevard County including Cape Kennedy and Patrick Air Force Base. The water supply is obtained from a well field in east Orange County. Many of the easternmost wells in that well field yield salty water (chloride concentration greater than 250 milligrams per liter). The interface between the fresh and salty water in the west part of the well field occurs at a depth of about 1,400 feet. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the the lower (salty) zones and the upper, or pumped zones of the Floridan aquifer in the west part of the well field. Secondary artesian aquifers in the well-field area are relatively high-yielding but are of limited areal extent. However, they are suitable as a source of water for supplemental supply or for artificially recharging the Floridan aquifer. Fresh water was transferred by siphon from a secondary artesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer at 90 gallons per minute. Artificial recharge and recovery experiments show that it is feasible to retrieve fresh water stored in salty zones of the Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Tibbals, C.H.; Frazee, J.M.

1976-01-01

249

Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions. PMID:14643988

Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

2004-03-01

250

Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts, sorbents and instrumental conditions. Analyte extraction with NaCl and MgSO4 in acidified acetonitrile followed by cleanup with primary secondary amine (PSA) presented the optimum conditions for extraction. Quantification was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Validation of the procedure showed average recoveries ranging from 72.0 to 104.8% for all analytes at all fortification levels with relative standard deviation (RSD) ? 15.0. Limits of quantitation were <10 ?g kg(-1) for all neonicotinoids studied. The results obtained from the analysis of 52 samples from cocoa farms revealed imidacloprid as the predominant neonicotinoid with concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 251.4 ?g kg(-1) in >50% of samples analyzed. PMID:25194905

Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick; Fomsgaard, Inge S

2014-11-15

251

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity  

PubMed Central

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

252

TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.  

PubMed

In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem. PMID:25299077

Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

2014-01-01

253

Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus_minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

Garcia, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salmonson, J.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-09-01

254

Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

Garcia, P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Salmonson, J.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-01-01

255

Pinwheel patterns and powder diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinwheel patterns and their higher dimensional generalisations display continuous circular or spherical symmetries in spite of being perfectly ordered. The same symmetries show up in the corresponding diffraction images. Interestingly, they also arise from amorphous systems, and also from regular crystals when investigated by powder diffraction. We present first steps and results towards a general frame to investigate such systems,

Michael Baake; D. Frettlöh; Uwe Grimm

2007-01-01

256

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

SciTech Connect

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly.

Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F

2003-12-15

257

Metallography of powder metallurgy materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy\\/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the

Alan Lawley; Thomas F. Murphy

2003-01-01

258

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

259

Advanced composites take a powder  

SciTech Connect

To a professional chemist with more than 25 years of industrial experience, the world of advanced composites is a fascinating new venue. Here resins and fibers come together in a completely synergistic partnership, achieving marvels of strength and light weight that make advanced composite materials virtually the only solution for challenging applications. In the late 1980s, Professor John Muzzy of the Georgia Institute of Technology, was intrigued by the physical properties of thermoplastics, and he developed a new way to bring the thermoplastic resins together with high-performance fibers. As part of the work Muzzy did with Lockheed and NASA he demonstrated that electrostatic powder coating was an attractive new method for combining thermoplastic resins with reinforcing fibers. Presentation of this work by Lockheed at a government-industry conference led to a new project for Muzzy, sponsored by NASA Langley. Powder prepregging proved to be the attractive alternative that NASA was looking for. While working on powder prepregging with LaRC-TPI, Muzzy and his colleagues developed methods for exposing all of the fibers to the powder to improve the distribution of the resin on the tow, a continuous bundle of filaments. Optimal resin distribution was achieved by spreading the moving tow. A very flexible towpreg was produced by maintaining the spread tow through the powder coating chamber and into the oven, where the resin particles were fused to the individual filaments. Muzzy's invention has enabled Custom Composite Materials, Inc. to offer resin/fiber combinations based on thermoplastic resins such as nylon and polypropylene. Beyond the expected advantages over epoxy thermoset systems, they are beginning to exploit a fundamental property of thermoplastic resins: viscoelasticity, which can be defined as the resistance to flow as a function of applied stress. Thermoplastics have a much higher viscoelasticity than thermosets.

Holty, D.W. (Custom Composite Materials, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-06-01

260

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOEpatents

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01

261

Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P < 0.01) for the average chromosome length and the length of chromosome pairs within and between accessions. The average chromosome lengths of mutants of Cacau Rui and Cacau Jaca were not statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The karyotypic diversity observed in this study is not necessarily associated with the changing character of the accessions analyzed, but may reflect the genetic variation observed in Theobroma cacao. PMID:24222243

Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

2013-01-01

262

Review: aqueous tape casting of ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry formulations and processing parameters of the water-based tape casting of ceramic powders are reviewed. Additives include binders, like cellulose ethers, vinyl or acrylic-type polymers; plasticizers, like glycols; and dispersants, like ammonium salts of poly(acrylic acids). Mostly alumina powders have been employed. Hydrophobing of ceramic powders permits the aqueous processing even of water-reactive powders, like aluminium nitride. Non-toxicity and non-inflammability

D. Hotza; P. Greil

1995-01-01

263

Processing and characterization of carob powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of processing roasted carob powder using different time–temperature combinations has been studied. The physical and chemical characteristics of the prepared carob powders were also examined. The most acceptable roasted carob powder was obtained by roasting kibbled carob at 150°C for 60 min. The roasted carob powder contained 9.00, 5.82, 2.84 and 0.74% moisture, protein, ash and fat, respectively.

Ali K. Yousif; H. M. Alghzawi

2000-01-01

264

Induction and accumulation of caffeine in young, actively growing leaves of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) by wounding or infection with Crinipellis perniciosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease, attacks young actively growing shoots, flowers and developing fruits of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Infected shoots become fasciated and a profusion of hypertrophic shoots with small leaves develop from the lateral buds. This is followed by desiccation and death of the infected stem and leaves. Infected stem tissue contains significant amounts

Madhu Aneja; Thomas Gianfagna

2001-01-01

265

An industry consensus study on an HPLC fluorescence method for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products  

PubMed Central

Background This manuscript describes the results of an HPLC study for the determination of the flavan-3-ol monomers, (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin, in cocoa and plain dark and milk chocolate products. The study was performed under the auspices of the National Confectioners Association (NCA) and involved the analysis of a series of samples by laboratories of five member companies using a common method. Methodology The method reported in this paper uses reversed phase HPLC with fluorescence detection to analyze (±)-epicatechin and (±)-catechin extracted with an acidic solvent from defatted cocoa and chocolate. In addition to a variety of cocoa and chocolate products, the sample set included a blind duplicate used to assess method reproducibility. All data were subjected to statistical analysis with outliers eliminated from the data set. Results The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) of the sample set ranged from approximately 7 to 15%. Conclusions Further experimental details are described in the body of the manuscript and the results indicate the method is suitable for the determination of (±)-catechin and (±)-epicatechin in cocoa and chocolate products and represents the first collaborative study of this HPLC method for these compounds in these matrices. PMID:21729298

2011-01-01

266

The effects of acute post exercise consumption of two cocoa-based beverages with varying flavanol content on indices of muscle recovery following downhill treadmill running.  

PubMed

Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4±7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p=0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3±160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5±148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p=0.31), or muscle soreness (p=0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

2014-01-01

267

The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running  

PubMed Central

Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

2013-01-01

268

The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

269

Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.  

PubMed

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application. PMID:24354624

Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

2014-01-15

270

April 11, 2013 Powder Consolidation under Pressure  

E-print Network

April 11, 2013 Powder Consolidation under Pressure Wei-Jhe Sun Tablet, a consolidated powder structure, by considering the evolution of powder structure under compaction pressure.1 The mechanical, relative volume, and density to compaction pressure. A widely used equation is Heckel equation, which does

Thomas, David D.

271

MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION  

SciTech Connect

Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94551 (United States)

2009-12-28

272

Powder Diffraction in Zeolite Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tutorial discusses the fundamental principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications in zeolite science. The early sections review the physics of diffraction, crystal symmetry, and reciprocal space. We discuss how the intensity of diffracted radiation is affected both by geometric effects involving detection (the Lorentz-polarization factor) and by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal (the structure factor). The differences between powder diffraction and single-crystal diffraction are then described, and differences between X-ray and neutron diffraction are also discussed. Later sections describe the effects of symmetry, lattice substitution, crystallite size, residual strain, preferred orientation, and X-ray absorption. Special emphasis is placed on the proper application of the Scherrer analysis in reporting crystalize size. The principles of structure solution from direct methods and Patterson methods are then introduced, and a description of Rietveld analysis is given. Finally the effects of stacking disorder on a powder diffraction pattern are presented.

Burton, Allen W.

273

Pinwheel patterns and powder diffraction  

E-print Network

Pinwheel patterns and their higher dimensional generalisations display continuous circular or spherical symmetries in spite of being perfectly ordered. The same symmetries show up in the corresponding diffraction images. Interestingly, they also arise from amorphous systems, and also from regular crystals when investigated by powder diffraction. We present first steps and results towards a general frame to investigate such systems, with emphasis on statistical properties that are helpful to understand and compare the diffraction images. We concentrate on properties that are accessible via an alternative substitution rule for the pinwheel tiling, based on two different prototiles. Due to striking similarities, we compare our results with the toy model for the powder diffraction of the square lattice.

Michael Baake; Dirk Frettlöh; Uwe Grimm

2006-10-06

274

Amorphous rare earth magnet powders  

SciTech Connect

Gas atomization (GA) processing does not generally have a high enough cooling rate to produce the initial amorphous microstructure needed to obtain optimal magnetic properties in RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B alloys. Phase separation and an underquenched microstructure result from detrimental {alpha}-Fe precipitation, and the resulting magnetic domain structure is very coarse. Additionally, there is a dramatic dependence of the magnetic properties on the cooling rate (and therefore the particle size) and the powders can be sensitive to environmental degradation. Alloy compositions designed just for GA (as opposed to melt spinning) are necessary to produce an amorphous structure that can be crystallized to result in a fine structure with magnetic properties which are independent of particle size. The addition of titanium and carbon to the melt has been found to change the solidification process sufficiently to result in an ``overquenched`` state in which most of the powder size fractions have an amorphous component. Crystallization with a brief heat treatment produces a structure which has improved magnetic properties, in part due to the ability to use compositions with higher Fe contents without {alpha}-Fe precipitation. Results from magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and x-ray analyses will be used to contrast the microstructure, domain structure, and magnetic properties of this new generation of amorphous powders with their multiphase predecessors.

Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lewis, L.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Panchanathan, V. [Magnequench International, Anderson, IN (United States)

1996-08-01

275

Anti-Corrosive Powder Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks partners for a new approach in protecting embedded steel surfaces from corrosion. Corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete structures is a significant problem for NASA structures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the close proximity of the structures to salt spray from the nearby Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to minimize the damage to such structures, coatings were developed that could be applied as liquids to the external surfaces of a substrate in which the metal structures were embedded. The Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology was developed by NASA at KSC. This technology combines the metallic materials into a uniform particle. The resultant powder can be sprayed simultaneously with a liquid binder onto the surface of concrete structures with a uniform distribution of the metallic pigment for optimum cathodic protection of the underlying steel in the concrete. Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology improves upon the performance of an earlier NASA technology Liquid Galvanic Coating (U.S. Patent No. 6,627,065).

Parker, Donald; MacDowell, Louis, III

2005-01-01

276

Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tide-dominated sedimentary systems, close relationships exist between tidal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and geomorphology. Tropical coastlines contain many tide-dominated mangrove creeks, yet few studies to date have examined the detail of such relationships for these environments. Time-series observations of tidal height, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were taken between 1992 and 1996 in Cocoa Creek, a mangrove creek system near Townsville, NE Australia. The creek and surrounding mangrove swamps and salt flats were surveyed with an echo-sounder and total survey station, respectively. For 'within-channel' tides, the flood tide is always the fastest, at up to 0.5 m s -1. In contrast, for overbank tides (i.e. tidal height > + 1.5 m Australian Height Datum, AHD) ebb currents are fastest in July, December and January, but flood currents are fastest in August and September, at up to 1 m s -1 in both cases. The tidal asymmetry of overbank tides in Cocoa Creek is controlled by the interaction between offshore tidal forcing and the intertidal storage effect of the mangrove swamps and salt flats, with the result being that during certain periods of the year there tends to be a predominance of either faster flood or ebb velocities on overbank tides. Significant tidal suspended sediment transport in the channel is only initiated at overbank height. On overbank tides, measured net suspended sediment fluxes in the channel are mostly seaward-directed (up to 180 t per tidal cycle). However, the net flux measured over a neap-spring period may be either landwards or seawards (up to 465 and 60 t, respectively). Furthermore, on the larger overbank tides (where the maximum tidal height >+1.85 m AHD) net sediment fluxes may be reduced because of a limited supply of available material. Thus hydrodynamic and sediment sampling durations of up to a month may not be representative of long-term trends. Given that our large dataset has not identified a clear long-term net transport direction within the creek system, we conclude tentatively that the geomorphology of Cocoa Creek may be near a long-term equilibrium.

Bryce, S.; Larcombe, P.; Ridd, P. V.

2003-03-01

277

Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340°C-1350°C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

2007-04-01

278

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

1983-01-01

279

Powder handling for automated fuel processing  

SciTech Connect

Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

1989-04-09

280

Modeling of laser cladding with powder injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cladding is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce a metallurgically bonded deposition\\u000a layer. To obtain a high-quality resulting part, a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms is required. In this article,\\u000a a mathematical model is developed to simulate the coaxial laser-cladding process with powder injection, which includes laser-\\u000a substrate, laser-powder, and powder-substrate interactions. The model

L. Han; K. M. Phatak; F. W. Liou

2004-01-01

281

Synthesis of mullite powders by acrylamide polymerization.  

SciTech Connect

Mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2SiO{sub 2}) ceramics and composites are widely used. Synthesis of mullite powders, especially those that can be readily sintered, remains a focus of much current research. In support of recent efforts to fabricate mullite fibrous monoliths and to use superplastic flow to join ceramics, we have looked to synthesize reactive mullite powders. Recent advances in application of acrylamide polymers to ceramic synthesis offer promise of obtaining large quantities of high-quality powder at relatively low cost. We report here on synthesis from acrylamide monomers of mullite powders of two interesting particle sizes.

Sin, A.; Picciolo, J. J.; Lee, R. H.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Goretta, K. C.; Energy Technology; INPG-CNRS

2001-09-01

282

Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

1986-01-01

283

Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity.

Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A. [and others

1997-08-01

284

Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

2003-09-01

285

Metal Powder ProcessingMetal Powder Processing ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

E-print Network

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Powder General Motors automotive engines Source: Courtesy of Zenith ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 4 #12;Making Powder-Metallurgy PartsMaking Powder

Colton, Jonathan S.

286

Effect of Milk Fat, Cocoa Butter, and Whey Protein Fat Replacers on the Sensory Properties of Lowfat and Nonfat Chocolate Ice Cream1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Po- lydextrose was added as required so that all formula- tions contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of -30°C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate

E. A. Prindiville; R. T. Marshall; H. Heymann

2000-01-01

287

Sintering study of nanocrystalline tungsten carbide powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

WC powder with an average grain size of 6 nm was obtained after high energy ball milling under protective gas atmosphere. The kinetics of densification was studied during sintering the powder in a dilatometer up to 1450 °C. The microstructure was investigated by TEM and high resolution SEM after various stages of sintering. The green density of the specimens was

G. R. Goren-Muginstein; S. Berger; A. Rosen

1998-01-01

288

Optical properties of cathodochromic powder screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melamed's diffuse reflectance for powdered materials is discussed in conjunction with its application for cathodochromic powder screens. Adaptation of the model was introduced through the modification of geometrical factor xu which is now to be empirically established for given screen. Experimental evidence obtained for cathodochromic bromosodalite well supports proposed modification.

Maszara, W. P.; Todd, L. T., Jr.

1985-07-01

289

Insolubility of milk powder products A minireview  

E-print Network

Review Insolubility of milk powder products ­ A minireview Alan J. BALDWIN* Fonterra Research Abstract ­ In this paper, the formation of insolubility in milk powder is described, and the factors différences d'ordres de grandeur des taux d'humidité. L'effet des réactifs chimiques sur l'étendue de la

Boyer, Edmond

290

Applied fractal geometry and powder technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder technology is important to many industries including mining, food processing, paint technology, powder metallurgy and space research. Applied fractal geometry is being used in these industries to describe and comprehend the complex interactions of many causes. The topics to be discussed in this review include, the study of important fractally structured pigments, the fractal structure of hazardous fumes, and

B. H. Kaye

1995-01-01

291

Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

Seiko, Y.

1985-01-01

292

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOEpatents

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

1982-01-01

293

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

SciTech Connect

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, L.G.

1982-01-19

294

Flow of Damp Powder in a Rotating Impervious Cone Flow of Damp Powder in a Rotating Impervious Cone  

E-print Network

the interfacial friction law for the flow of a damp powder past an impervious wall. 2 Introduction 2.1 The conicalFlow of Damp Powder in a Rotating Impervious Cone Flow of Damp Powder in a Rotating Impervious Cone, axisymmetric flow of damp powder within a rotating impervious cone. The powder spins with the cone

Fleck, Norman A.

295

21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to...

2013-04-01

296

21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to...

2014-04-01

297

Preparation and characterization of uranyl oxalate powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranyl oxalate powders are prepared by adding 0.5 M oxalic acid solution to the uranyl nitrate (UNH) solutions purified with TBP extraction from dissolution of the Canada originated U 3O 8 commercial concentrate. Uranyl oxalate powders are identified by chemical analysis, TGA/DTG analysis, IR analysis and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The effects of the precipitation conditions on the powder properties are determined. A broad particle size distribution is obtained for all precipitation variants. These powders including very fine particles are difficult to filter and are not free flowing. The reactor and mixing type have a considerable effect on the powder properties of the uranyl oxalate powders. It was possible to ameliorate the filtration and the flowability to a certain degree using a conical air agitated reactor. The flowability of these powders is 0.4 g/s with a specific surface area 6.64 m 2/g and an average particle size of 11 ?m.

Tel, H.; Bülbül, M.; Eral, M.; Alta?, Y.

1999-10-01

298

Dry powder formulation of simvastatin.  

PubMed

Objectives: This study focuses on the development of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of simvastatin (SV), and the effects of SV on the respiratory epithelium. Methods: Micronised SV samples were prepared by dry jet-milling. The long-term chemical stability and physicochemical properties of the formulations were characterised in terms of particles size, morphology, thermal and moisture responses. Furthermore, in vitro aerosol depositions were performed. The formulation was evaluated for cell viability and its effect on cilia beat activity, using ciliated nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The formulation transport across an established air interface Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells and its ability to reduce mucus secretion was also investigated. Results: The particle size of the SV formulation and its aerosol performance were appropriate for inhalation therapy. Moreover, the formulation was found to be non-toxic to pulmonary epithelia cells and cilia beat activity up to a concentration of 10(-6) M. Transport studies revealed that SV has the ability to penetrate into airway epithelial cells and is converted into its active SV hydroxy acid metabolite. Single dose of SV DPI also decreased mucus production after 4 days of dosing. Conclusion: This therapy could potentially be used for the local treatment of diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis given its anti-inflammatory effects and ability to reduce mucus production. PMID:25244365

Tulbah, Alaa S; Ong, Hui Xin; Morgan, Lucy; Colombo, Paolo; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

2014-09-22

299

Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders  

PubMed Central

Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3–37.9% and 0.1–31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

2013-01-01

300

Pulmonary drug delivery by powder aerosols.  

PubMed

The efficacy of pharmaceutical aerosols relates to its deposition in the clinically relevant regions of the lungs, which can be assessed by in vivo lung deposition studies. Dry powder formulations are popular as devices are portable and aerosolisation does not require a propellant. Over the years, key advancements in dry powder formulation, device design and our understanding on the mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol have opened up new opportunities in treatment of diseases through pulmonary drug delivery. This review covers these advancements and future directions for inhaled dry powder aerosols. PMID:24818765

Yang, Michael Yifei; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

2014-11-10

301

Formulation considerations for dry powder inhalers.  

PubMed

The market for inhalable dry powder medication has consistently grown over past years. Targeting the lungs has been recognized to offer several advantages compared with oral application of drugs. The successive development of inhalation products has led to advances in local treatment of different respiratory diseases, but has also demonstrated the possibility to utilize the lungs for systemic drug delivery. Since a dry powder inhalation product is always a combination of drug formulation and inhalation device, the requirements for the development of such a system may be particularly complex. Therefore, this review aims to give an overview of the necessary considerations for a successful dry powder inhaler development. PMID:25090281

Cordts, Eike; Steckel, Hartwig

2014-06-01

302

Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same  

DOEpatents

A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

1999-01-01

303

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

304

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

305

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

306

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

307

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2010-04-01

308

21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2011-04-01

309

Screening and classification of ceramic powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

Miwa, S.

1983-01-01

310

Metal powder production by gas atomization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

1986-01-01

311

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2011-04-01

312

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2013-04-01

313

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2010-04-01

314

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2012-04-01

315

21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.  

...starch (including food starch-modified as prescribed in § 172.892 of this chapter). (5) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the anticaking ingredients specified in...

2014-04-01

316

Magnesium Powder Metallurgy: Process and Materials Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major efforts in magnesium alloy development for automotive applications have concentrated on creep resistant alloys produced by permanent mould and high-pressure die casting routes. While large components, such as crankcases, will never be produced by powder metallurgy, there are smaller components in and around the powertrain which could be fabricated from powder precursors. This article will explore the potential of some of the more recent powder compaction developments, and discuss the alloy development strategies that emerge for magnesium-based components as a consequence of these process developments. In particular, the viability of direct powder extrusion of semi-finished product, using conventional extrusion or equal channel angular processing, combined with T6 heat treatments, will be considered.

Bettles, Colleen J.

2008-06-01

317

Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation  

SciTech Connect

A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

Reardon, B.J.

1998-12-01

318

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-print Network

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01

319

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2013-04-01

320

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2012-04-01

322

21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.  

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

323

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2013-04-01

324

21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.  

...GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION...specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall...amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

325

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

DOEpatents

A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

326

Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders  

DOEpatents

Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

1985-09-24

327

Adjustable Powder Injector For Vacuum Plasma Sprayer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attachment for plasma spray gun provides four degrees of freedom for adjustment of position and orientation at which powder injected externally into plasma flame. Manipulator provides for adjustment of pitch angle of injection tube: set to inject powder at any angle ranging from perpendicular to parallel to cylindrical axis. Scribed lines on extension bar and manipulator indicate pitch angle of extension tube. Collar changed to adapt injector to different gun.

Burns, D. H.; Woodford, W. H.; Mckechnie, T. N.; Mcferrin, D. C.; Davis, W. M.; Beason, G. P., Jr.

1993-01-01

328

Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders  

DOEpatents

Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

Barringer, Eric A. (Waltham, MA); Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce (Waban, MA); Bowen, H. Kent (Belmont, MA)

1985-01-01

329

Relative flow rates of explosive powders  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine the relative flow rates of various explosive powders and evaluate their adaptability for use in automated dispensing systems. Results showed that PBX 9407, LX-15, RX-26-BH, and HNAB are potential candidates for use in these systems. It was also shown that powders with graphite and stearate additives generated the least amount of static and were the easiest to handle.

Willson, V.P.

1988-05-31

330

Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)). PMID:24517011

Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

2013-12-15

331

Transcriptomics expression analysis to unveil the molecular mechanisms underlying the cocoa polyphenol treatment in diet-induced obesity rats.  

PubMed

Cocoa polyphenol (CP), due to their biological actions, may be supplementary treatments for adipose tissue-fat gain. However, the molecular mechanism of CPs is still ambiguous. This study investigated the hypothesis that CP treatment modulates expressing of lipid metabolism genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue (MES-WAT). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 12weeks. Thereafter, HFD rats (n=10/group) were treated at a dose of 600mg/kgbw/day CPs (HFD+CPs) for 4weeks. DNA microarray analysis resulted in 753 genes of the 13,008 genes expressed. Bioinformatics tools showed CP treatment significantly decreased gene expression levels for lipogenic enzymes, while increased the mRNA levels responsible for lipolysis enzymes. CP administration differentially regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in MES-WAT. These data unveil a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effect of CPs on obesity biomarkers in obese rats. PMID:25451742

Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Pei, Chong Pei

2015-01-01

332

Ti Multicomponent Alloy Bulks by Powder Metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CrCuFeMnMo0.5Ti multicomponent alloy bulks were prepared by powder metallurgy of mechanical alloying and sintering. A simple body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution was prepared after 40 h ball milling of the raw CrCuFeMnMo0.5Ti metallic powder. Particles of the alloyed powder are in microsized structures, which are actually a soft agglomeration of lamellar grains with thicknesses less than 1 ?m. Meanwhile, the lamellar granules are consisted of nanosized grains under rigid cold welding. The 80-h ball-milled powder was consolidated by cold pressing and subsequent sintering at 800°C. The observed main phase in the consolidated sample after milling for 80 h is still a bcc solid solution. The solidified sample of 80-h ball-milled powder exhibits a Vickers hardness of 468 HV, which is much higher than 171 HV of the counterpart prepared from the raw metallic powder.

Zhang, Kuibao; Wen, Guanjun; Dai, Hongchuan; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang

2014-10-01

333

Multiphase electrodispersion precipitation of zirconia powders  

SciTech Connect

The multiphase electrodispersion precipitation of zirconia powders has been done The multiphase in the electric dispersion reactor (EDR). This paper presents the first results obtained where the bench-scale EDR unit was operated in the continuous mode to synthesize 130 {+-} 2 g of ZrO{sub 2} powder in approximately 12 h. An aqueous solution of zirconyl nitrate was dispersed and precipitated in a 2-ethyl-l-hexanol continuous phase containing 0.012 {und M} to 0.12 {und M} ammonia. A gravity settler was used to remove soft agglomerates of the ZrO{sub 2} particles from the organic solvent. Electric bed filtration was employed to remove the fines from the solvent, which was then recycled. The particle-size distribution was varied by changing the electric field strength. At high field strengths (approximately 20 kV/cm), the particle sizes ranged from approximately 0.1 to 5 {mu}m. The dried powder had a consistency of talcum powder. Microwave and conventional heating experiments showed that the powders were sinterable. The BET surface area of the powders ranged from approximately 20 to 90 m{sup 2}/g.

Harris, M.T.; Sisson, W.G.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.; Byers, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Division; Ren, W.; Meek, T.T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

1994-12-31

334

ACCURACY IN POWDER DIFFRACTION IV Critical parameters for  

E-print Network

ACCURACY IN POWDER DIFFRACTION IV Critical parameters for instrument alignment and performance validation of XRD instrumentation Gaithersburg, MD, USA April 22-25, 2013 1Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV · Accuracy in Powder Diffraction starts with accurate powder diffraction data ­ Also from laboratory

Magee, Joseph W.

335

Concentration mode of the powder stream in coaxial laser cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blown powder laser cladding process has recently been greatly enhanced by the development of a coaxial powder feed system. It provides a new route to generate the metal parts directly from CAD drawings. The performance of the coaxial powder feeder depends on various gas flow streams which significantly affect the distribution mode of the powder stream and the deposition

Jehnming Lin

1999-01-01

336

Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.  

PubMed

To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic acid concentrations in the pulp and the beans. To conclude, it turned out that the species diversity and community dynamics, influenced by local operational practices, in particular pod/bean selection, impact the quality of fermented cocoa beans. PMID:21569940

Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-08-01

337

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and “Acetobacter ghanaensis” (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-01-01

338

50 Omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated several 50 Omega characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters. The filters are made with bronze or copper metal powder with varying amounts of metal powder in a metal powder\\/epoxy mixture. Our goal is to make a filter with a characteristic impedance Z=50 Omega at frequencies up to 10 GHz. Using a 78% bronze powder\\/epoxy mixture in a

F. P. Milliken; J. R. Rozen; G. A. Keefe; R. H. Koch

2007-01-01

339

50 ? characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated several 50 ? characteristic impedance low-pass metal powder filters. The filters are made with bronze or copper metal powder with varying amounts of metal powder in a metal powder\\/epoxy mixture. Our goal is to make a filter with a characteristic impedance Z=50 ? at frequencies up to 10 GHz. Using a 78% bronze powder\\/epoxy mixture in a

F. P. Milliken; J. R Rozen; G. A. Keefe; R. H. Koch

2007-01-01

340

Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics  

DOEpatents

A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

2011-04-12

341

Interaction between laser beam and powder stream in the process of laser cladding with powder feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Lambert-Beer theorem and Mie's theory, the attenuation of laser power by a powder stream was calculated and the laser intensity distribution at the laser spot on the surface of a workpiece was obtained. Simultaneously, the temperature distribution of the powder particles arriving at different sites on the surface of the workpiece was computed following the heat equilibrium principle.

Yan-Lu Huang; Gong-Ying Liang; Jun-Yi Su; Jian-Guo Li

2005-01-01

342

Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation  

DOEpatents

A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

1985-06-27

343

Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation  

DOEpatents

A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Korth, Gary E. (Blackfoot, ID)

1986-01-01

344

Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.  

SciTech Connect

The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

2005-04-01

345

Inhaled Dry Powder Formulations for Treating Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Although anti-tubercular drugs have been traditionally administered orally, there is a growing interest in delivering drugs via the pulmonary route using nebulisers or dry powder inhalers. Drugs in dry powder inhalers (DPI) are stable and DPI are user-friendly compared to nebulisation which is time consuming, inconvenient and inefficient and requires special equipment. For tuberculosis treatment, drugs should target alveolar macrophages that harbour microorganisms and/or maintain high drug concentration at the infection site in the lung. Drug particles include micro-particles or nanoparticles. Powders can be engineered by micronisation, crystallisation, spray drying, freeze drying and particle coating approaches. The formulation may contain single or combination drugs. This paper will provide an update on current status of TB, its pathogenesis, current treatment strategies, shortcomings of current oral or parenteral delivery strategies, pulmonary delivery devices, advantages of pulmonary delivery of powder formulations, formulation approaches and pharmacokinetic studies of pulmonary delivery of powders for inhalation. PMID:25030114

Das, Shyamal; Tucker, Ian; Stewart, Peter

2014-07-16

346

(?)-Epicatechin rich cocoa mediated modulation of oxidative stress regulators in skeletal muscle of heart failure and type 2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are associated with high levels of skeletal muscle (SkM) oxidative stress (OS). Health benefits attributed to flavonoids have been ascribed to antioxidation. However, for flavonoids with similar antioxidant potential, end-biological effects vary widely suggesting other mechanistic venues for reducing OS. Decreases in OS may follow the modulation of key regulatory pathways including antioxidant levels (e.g. glutathione) and enzymes such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase. Methods We examined OS-related alterations in SkM in T2D/HF patients (as compared vs. healthy controls) and evaluated the effects of three-month treatment with (?)-epicatechin (Epi) rich cocoa (ERC). To evidence Epi as the mediator of the improved OS profile we examined the effects of pure Epi (vs. water) on SkM OS regulatory systems in a mouse model of insulin resistance and contrasted results vs. normal mice. Results There were severe alterations in OS regulatory systems in T2D/HF SkM as compared with healthy controls. Treatment with ERC induced recovery in glutathione levels and decreases in the nitrotyrosilation and carbonylation of proteins. With treatment, key transcriptional factors translocate into the nucleus leading to increases in SOD2 and catalase protein expression and activity levels. In insulin resistant mice, there were alterations in muscle OS and pure Epi replicated the beneficial effects of ERC found in humans. Conclusions Major perturbations in SkM OS can be reversed with ERC in T2D/HF patients. Epi likely mediates such effects and may provide an effective means to treat conditions associated with tissue OS. PMID:23870648

Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Nogueira, Leonardo; Coe, Taylor; Perkins, Guy; Hogan, Michael; Maisel, Alan S.; Henry, Robert R.; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

2013-01-01

347

Increase in AMPK brought about by cocoa is renoprotective in experimental diabetes mellitus by reducing NOX4/TGF?-1 signaling.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to investigate, in diabetes mellitus (DM), the mechanism of NOX4 up-regulation, its link with 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inactivation and transforming growth factor (TGF) ß-1 signaling in determining the accumulation of kidney extracellular matrix (ECM), and the possible action of cocoa enriched with polyphenols (CH) in these events. After 16 weeks of DM, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed increased kidney TGF?-1 levels and expression of phosphorylated smad2, collagen IV and fibronectin in parallel with elevated NOX4 expression and reduced phosphorylated AMPK. CH treatment in diabetic rats prevented all of these abnormalities. In immortalized human mesangial cells exposed to high glucose (HG), or TGF?-1, CH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate blocker, or silencing NOX4 ameliorated enhanced phosphorylated smad2 and collagen IV. Reduction in phosphorylated AMPK induced by HG or TGF?-1 was ameliorated by CH or activation of AMPK, which reduced phosphorylation of smad2 and collagen IV via reduction in NOX4 expression. The effects of CH were abolished by AMPK blockade. These results suggest that inactivation in AMPK leads to NOX4 up-regulation, activation of TGF?-1 signaling and increased ECM accumulation. Additionally, increased TGF-ß1 per se leads to the amplification of ECM production by reducing AMPK and promoting the activation of NOX4. It is suggested that the activation of AMPK by CH followed by reduction in NOX4/TGF?-1 signaling may have a therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24768660

Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Peixoto, Elisa B M I; Silva, Kamila C; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

2014-07-01

348

Rate of Dehydration and Cumulative Desiccation Stress Interacted to Modulate Desiccation Tolerance of Recalcitrant Cocoa and Ginkgo Embryonic Tissues1  

PubMed Central

Rate of dehydration greatly affects desiccation tolerance of recalcitrant seeds. This effect is presumably related to two different stress vectors: direct mechanical or physical stress because of the loss of water and physicochemical damage of tissues as a result of metabolic alterations during drying. The present study proposed a new theoretic approach to represent these two types of stresses and investigated how seed tissues responded differently to two stress vectors, using the models of isolated cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) embryonic tissues dehydrated under various drying conditions. This approach used the differential change in axis water potential (??/?t) to quantify rate of dehydration and the intensity of direct physical stress experienced by embryonic tissues during desiccation. Physicochemical effect of drying was expressed by cumulative desiccation stress [?\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{o}^{t}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}f(?,t)], a function of both the rate and time of dehydration. Rapid dehydration increased the sensitivity of embryonic tissues to desiccation as indicated by high critical water contents, below which desiccation damage occurred. Cumulative desiccation stress increased sharply under slow drying conditions, which was also detrimental to embryonic tissues. This quantitative analysis of the stress-time-response relationship helps to understand the physiological basis for the existence of an optimal dehydration rate, with which maximum desiccation tolerance could be achieved. The established numerical analysis model will prove valuable for the design of experiments that aim to elucidate biochemical and physiological mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. PMID:11950981

Liang, Yongheng; Sun, Wendell Q.

2002-01-01

349

Dry powder coating of pharmaceuticals: a review.  

PubMed

Over the last half century, film coating technology has evolved significantly in terms of compositions and manufacturing processes, allowing for greater functionality, flexibility and efficiency. Driven by a combination of cost considerations and functionality, a range of dry powder coating technologies have been developed in both academic and industrial settings. These technologies can be generally classified into three major types based on the layer formation process: liquid assisted, thermal adhesion and electrostatic. In addition to specific manufacturing processes that must be implemented to achieve the desired product attributes, many of these techniques also require the use of novel excipients and specific formulations to provide acceptable manufacturability. This review summarizes the current dry powder coating technologies and highlights their industrial applicability with publicly disclosed case studies. Commentary on the future directions of dry powder coating is also provided. PMID:23428881

Sauer, Dorothea; Cerea, Matteo; DiNunzio, James; McGinity, James

2013-12-01

350

Preparation of nickel powders in nonaqueous media.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation of nickel powder is usually carried out in aqueous media. Nonaqueous solvents such as ethanolamines offer several advantages. The effective temperature range extends to the higher temperatures needed for the reduction of nickel at atmospheric pressure, a reaction that is also facilitated by the basicity of the medium. Tests were carried out for the preparation of submicrometre nickel powders by the reduction of metal salts using various ethanolamines (monoethanolamine - MEA, diethanolamine - DEA, and triethanolamine - TEA) as solvents. Hydrazine (N2H4) was used as the reducing agent. The basicity, polarity, viscosity and boiling point of the reaction medium all affect the reactions. By changing the reaction conditions and the anionic component of the precursor salt, it was possible to alter the purity and morphology of the nickel powders obtained and the average particle size, except in the case of MEA where no reduction occured. The products were subsequently characterised by chemical analysis and by scanning electron microscopy.

Macek, Jadran; Degen, Andrej

351

Geohydrology and potential for upward movement of saline water in the Cocoa well field, East Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Floridan aquifer system, an approximately 2,000-foot thick sequence of Eocene-age limestone and dolomite, is the main source of water supply in central Florida. Hydraulic conductivity is different in strata of different lithology and is the basis for separating the aquifer system into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semi- confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The coastal city of Cocoa withdraws about 26 million gallons of water per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer from a well field in east Orange County, about 25 miles inland. About 60 million gallons per day are withdrawn from the Upper Floridan aquifer and 56 million gallons per day from the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Orlando area, about 15 miles west of the Cocoa well field. Wells drilled in the Cocoa well field from 1955-61 yielded water with chloride concentrations ranging from 25-55 milligrams per liter. Soon after the wells were put in service, chloride concentrations increased; therefore, new wells were drilled further inland. Chloride concen- trations in water from many of the new wells also have increased. Possible sources of saline water are lateral movement of relict seawater in the Upper Floridan aquifer from the east, regional upconing of saline water from the Lower Floridan aquifer or underlying older rocks, or localized upward movement of saline water through fractures. Several test wells were drilled to provide information about chloride concentration changes with depth and to monitor changes with time, including a multi-zone well drilled in 1965 (well C) and two wells drilled in the 1990's (wells R and S). Chloride concentrations have increased in the zone pumped by the supply wells (the upper 500 feet of the aquifer) and in the 1,351-1,357-foot deep zone of well C, but not in the two intervening zones. This indicates that the source of saline water is located laterally, rather than vertically, from the pumped zone in the area of well C. The potential for upward movement of saline water depends on the direction of the vertical hydraulic gradient and on the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. A series of aquifer tests was run in 1993-94 and existing water-level and water-quality data were analyzed to evaluate the potential for upward movement of saline water in the well field. The transmissivity of the upper 500 feet of the aquifer is about 100,000 feet squared per day (the horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about 200 feet per day) and the storage coefficient is about 2x10 -4. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities determined from slug tests of the three deepest zones of well C ranged from 20-50 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities probably do not exceed 0.05 feet per day. The vertical hydraulic gradient is determined by comparing water levels in the various zones, but because of density differences, unadjusted water levels in the deepest zone investigated cannot be directly compared to water levels in the overlying freshwater zones. The difference between environmental-water heads (adjusted for density differences) in the saline-water zone of well C and the overlying freshwater zone were calculated from measured water levels for the period 1966 to 1994. During most of this time period, the gradient was downward, indicating that saline water did not move upward. Upconing of saline water probably is not taking place in the center and western part of the well field, based on the low vertical hydraulic conductivity values estimated for the middle semi-confining unit, the generally downward vertical hydraulic gradient, and the constant chloride concentrations in the intermediate zones of well C. However, there is no information about the extent of the zone of low vertical hydraulic conductivity gradient in the eastern part of the well field. Thus, increased chloride concentrations in supply wells in the eastern part of the well field could be caused either by lateral movement of saline water from the east, or by upwar

Phelps, G.G.; Schiffer, D.M.

1996-01-01

352

Atomization methods for forming magnet powders  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

Sellers, Charles H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hyde, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

353

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOEpatents

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

1987-04-24

354

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1995-01-01

355

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01

356

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26

357

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06

358

Determination of porosity variations in powder beds.  

PubMed

A gamma-ray attenuation technique for detecting local porosity variations in packings of pharmaceutical powders has been developed and assessed. It proved necessary to employ an empirical expression describing the attenuation coefficient of the model material, lactose, as a function of porosity. The precision of measurement of local porosity can be pre-selected due to the statistical basis of the method, and local porosity measurements with 95% confidence intervals of +/- 0.005 can readily be carried out. A method of producing grey-scale images of porosity distributions has been employed to enable the degree of inhomogeneity of a powder bed to be seen. PMID:6124616

Woodhead, P J; Hardy, J G; Newton, J M

1982-06-01

359

Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

2003-05-01

360

ORIGINAL PAPER Evaluation of attractant flavours for use in oral vaccine baits  

E-print Network

): aniseed, apple, cocoa powder, carob powder, curry, fish, garlic, peanut and strawberry. The bait matrix seeking the baits. The trials showed carob and cocoa powders were equally attractive and more attractive than any of the other candidates. Carob and cocoa show potential as bait attractants for badgers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

[Identification of pearl powder using microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Pearl is a precious ornament and traditional Chinese medicine, which application history in China is more than 2000 years. It is well known that the chemical ingredients of shell and pearl are very similar, which all of them including calcium carbonate and various amino acids. Generally, shell powders also can be used as medicine; however, its medicinal value is much lower than that of pearl powders. Due to the feature similarity between pearl powders and shell powders, the distinguishment of them by detecting chemical composition and morphology is very difficult. It should be noted that shell powders have been often posing as pearl powders in markets, which seriously infringes the interests of consumers. Identification of pearl powder was investigated by microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and pearl powder as well as shell powder was calcined at different temperatures for different time before infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis. The experimental results indicated that when calcined at 400 °C for 30 minutes under atmospheric pressure, aragonite in pearl powder partly transformed into calcite, while aragonite in shell powder completely transformed into calcite. At the same time, the difference in phase transition between the pearl powders 'and shell powders can be easily detected by using the microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Therefore, based on the difference in their phase transition process, infrared reflectance spectroscopy can be used to identify phase transformation differences between pearl powder and shell powder. It's more meaningfully that the proposed infrared reflectance spec- troscopy method was also investigated for the applicability to other common counterfeits, such as oyster shell powders and abalone shell powders, and the results show that the method can be a simple, efficiently and accurately method for identification of pearl powder. PMID:25532338

Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Chao; Yan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Feng; Li, Jun-Fang; Bai, Hua; Xi, Guang-Cheng; Liao, Jie

2014-09-01

362

Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.  

PubMed

Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation. PMID:20559826

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

2010-08-01

363

Cocoa flavonoids attenuate high glucose-induced insulin signalling blockade and modulate glucose uptake and production in human HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Cocoa and its main flavanol, (-)-epicatechin (EC), display some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanisms for their preventive activities related to glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in the liver remain largely unknown. In the present work, the preventive effect of EC and a cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) on insulin signalling and on both glucose production and uptake are studied in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells treated with high glucose. Pre-treatment of cells with EC or CPE reverted decreased tyrosine-phosphorylated and total levels of IR, IRS-1 and -2 triggered by high glucose. EC and CPE pre-treatment also prevented the inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and AMPK, as well as the diminution of GLUT-2 levels induced by high glucose. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cells with EC and CPE avoided the increase in PEPCK levels and the diminished glucose uptake provoked by high glucose, returning enhanced levels of glucose production and decreased glycogen content to control values. These findings suggest that EC and CPE improved insulin sensitivity of HepG2 treated with high glucose, preventing or delaying a potential hepatic dysfunction through the attenuation of the insulin signalling blockade and the modulation of glucose uptake and production. PMID:24262486

Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

2014-02-01

364

Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

2011-08-01

365

Thermal Conductivity of Powder Aggregates and Porous Compacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new equation for calculating the thermal conductivity of metal powder aggregates and sintered metal powder compacts is proposed. In this equation, the effective conductivity of the powder system is a function of the conductivity of the fully dense material, the porosity of the system, and the tap porosity of the starting powder. The new equation is applicable to powder systems, from the tap porosity to zero porosity, as well as to consolidated powders. The proposed equation has been experimentally validated by fitting to data from other authors. The results confirm a good agreement with theoretical predictions.

Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.; Muñoz, S.

2012-12-01

366

Proton glass freezing in hydrated lysozyme powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

At room temperature, the dielectric relaxation of hydrated powder of the protein lysozyme is known to be due to protons migrating between ionized side chains. A recent study of this relaxation at lower temperatures suggested a behavior typical of proton glasses. An analysis of the complex dielectric susceptibility by a temperature-frequency plot presented here has revealed that ergodicity is broken

Adrijan Levstik; Cene Filipic; Zdravko Kutnjak; Giorgio Careri; Giuseppe Consolini; Fabio Bruni

1999-01-01

367

Balanced mechanical resonator for powder handling device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system incorporating a balanced mechanical resonator and a method for vibration of a sample composed of granular material to generate motion of a powder sample inside the sample holder for obtaining improved analysis statistics, without imparting vibration to the sample holder support.

Sarrazin, Philippe C. (Inventor); Brunner, Will M. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

368

Screening mail for powders using terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2001 Anthrax letter attacks in the USA, there has been a continuing interest in techniques that can detect or identify so-called 'white powder' concealed in envelopes. Electromagnetic waves (wavelengths 100-500 ?m) in the terahertz frequency range penetrate paper and have short enough wavelengths to provide good resolution images; some materials also have spectroscopic signatures in the terahertz region. We report on an experimental study into the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for mail screening. Spectroscopic signatures of target powders were measured and, using a specially designed test rig, a number of imaging methods based on reflection, transmission and scattering were investigated. It was found that, contrary to some previous reports, bacterial spores do not appear to have any strong spectroscopic signatures which would enable them to be identified. Imaging techniques based on reflection imaging and scattering are ineffective in this application, due to the similarities in optical properties between powders of interest and paper. However, transmission imaging using time-of-flight of terahertz pulses was found to be a very simple and sensitive method of detecting small quantities (25 mg) of powder, even in quite thick envelopes. An initial feasibility study indicates that this method could be used as the basis of a practical mail screening system.

Kemp, Mike

2011-11-01

369

Characterization of nal powders for rocket propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosized metal powders are known to significantly improve both solid and hybrid rocket performance, but have some drawbacks in terms of cost, safety, and possible influence on propellant mechanical properties. Performance enhancement through nanosized metal or metal hydride addition to solid fuels is currently under investigation also for hybrid propulsion. Therefore, a preburning characterization of the powders used in solid propellant or fuel manufacturing is useful to assess their effects on the ballistic properties and engine performance. An investigation concerning the comparative characterization of several aluminum powders having different particle size, age, and coating is presented. Surface area, morphology, chemical species concentration and characteristics, surface passivation layers, surface and subsurface chemical composition, ignition temperature and ignition delay are investigated. The aim of this characterization is to experimentally assess the effect of the nAl powder properties on ballistic characteristics of solid fuels and solidrocket composite-propellant performance, showing an increase in terms of Is caused by the decrease of two-phase losses in solid and a possible significant rf increase in hybrid rockets.

Merotto, L.; Galfetti, L.; Colombo, G.; DeLuca, L. T.

2011-10-01

370

Low density fragile states in cohesive powders  

E-print Network

We discuss the difference between cohesive and non-cohesive granular media in the context of a recent report of "dry quicksand." Weak low density states with properties like dry quicksand are readily formed in common household powders. In contrast, such states cannot be formed in cohesionless granular media such as ordinary sand.

Paul B. Umbanhowar; Daniel I. Goldman

2005-12-24

371

Strength enhancement process for prealloyed powder superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique involving superplastic processing and high pressure autoclaving was applied to a nickel base prealloyed powder alloy. Tensile strengths as high as 2865 MN/sq m at 480 C were obtained with as-superplastically deformed material. Appropriate treatments yielding materials with high temperature tensile and stress rupture strengths were also devised.

Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.

1977-01-01

372

Pressing behavior of atomized iron powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimum zinc stearate content, ensuring the greatest compressibility of a powder at a given pressing pressure, is determined mainly by the volume of interparticle pores. The higher the density of a compact and the smaller the size of its pores, the smaller is the amount of zinc stearate it can hold. The weakening action of zinc stearate, which manifests

A. F. Zhornyak; V. E. Oliker

1981-01-01

373

Ceramic powder synthesis by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of spray pyrolysis (SP) techniques have been developed to directly produce ceramic powders from solutions. This paper reviews the current status of these processes in terms of the process parameters that enable the formation of particles with controlled morphology and composition. A model incorporating solute diffusion in the droplet and solvent evaporation from the droplet surface is presented

Gary L. Messing; Shi-Chang Zhang; Gopal V. Jayanthi

1993-01-01

374

Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Aluminoborosilicate Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of sol-gel process to synthesis of aluminoborosilicate powders shows potential for control of microstructures of materials. Development of materials having enhanced processing characteristics prove advantageous in extending high-temperature endurance of fibrous refractory composite insulation made from ceramic fibers.

Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Selvaduray, Guna

1992-01-01

375

MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

376

Improved Small-Particle Powders for Plasma Spraying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved small-particle powders and powder-processing conditions have been developed for use in plasma spray deposition of thermal-barrier and environmental barrier coatings. Heretofore, plasma-sprayed coatings have typically ranged in thickness from 125 to 1,800 micrometers. As explained below, the improved powders make it possible to ensure complete coverage of substrates at unprecedently small thicknesses of the order of 25 micrometers. Plasma spraying involves feeding a powder into a hot, high-velocity plasma jet. The individual powder particles melt in the plasma jet as they are propelled towards a substrate, upon which they splat to build up a coating. In some cases, multiple coating layers are required. The size range of the powder particles necessarily dictates the minimum thickness of a coating layer needed to obtain uniform or complete coverage. Heretofore, powder particle sizes have typically ranged from 40 to 70 micrometers; as a result, the minimum thickness of a coating layer for complete coverage has been about 75 micrometers. In some applications, thinner coatings or thinner coating layers are desirable. In principle, one can reduce the minimum complete-coverage thickness of a layer by using smaller powder particles. However, until now, when powder particle sizes have been reduced, the powders have exhibited a tendency to cake, clogging powder feeder mechanisms and feed lines. Hence, the main problem is one of synthesizing smaller-particle powders having desirable flow properties. The problem is solved by use of a process that begins with a spray-drying subprocess to produce spherical powder particles having diameters of less than 30 micrometers. (Spherical-particle powders have the best flow properties.) The powder is then passed several times through a commercial sifter with a mesh to separate particles having diameters less than 15 micrometers. The resulting fine, flowable powder is passed through a commercial fluidized bed powder feeder into a plasma spray jet.

Nguyen, QuynhGiao, N.; Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

2005-01-01

377

In vitro bioactivity of a biocomposite fabricated from HA and Ti powders by powder metallurgy method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, hydroxyapatite was used as a coating material on titanium substrate by various techniques. In the present work, a biocomposite was successfully fabricated from hydroxyapatite and titanium powders by powder metallurgy method. Bioactivity of the composite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. Main crystal phases of the as-fabricated composite are found to be Ti2O, CaTiO3, CaO, ?-Ti and

C. Q. Ning; Y. Zhou

2002-01-01

378

Theory, manufacturing technology, and properties of powders and fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of ferromagnetic powders after reduction annealing are examined. It is shown that magnetite and a destructured\\u000a composite organic coating ensure the resistance of such powders to external effects.

V. V. Nepomnyashchii; T. V. Mosina; A. K. Radchenko; G. Ya. Kalutskii

2007-01-01

379

Rheological and Thermal Debinding Behaviors in Titanium Powder Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder injection molding (PIM) is suitable for the fabrication of complex shape titanium and its alloys and has a great potential in many applications. This article deals with the injection molding of hydride-dehydride (HDH) titanium powder, spheroidized HDH titanium powder, and gas-atomized (GA) titanium powder. Rheological and thermal debinding behaviors are compared between feedstocks made from the three powders. Torque and capillary rheometers are used to investigate rheological behavior as it relates to the power-law model of viscosity and moldability index. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to analyze debinding behavior given a master decomposition curve consisting of two sigmoids. Spheroidized HDH Ti powder behaves in a manner similar to GA Ti powder. The analysis of the results in this study indicates the possibility of using a combination of HDH and GA titanium powders for PIM.

Park, Seong-Jin; Wu, Yunxin; Heaney, Donald F.; Zou, Xin; Gai, Guosheng; German, Randall M.

2009-01-01

380

Radio-absorbing properties of nickel-containing schungite powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nickel-containing shungite powder has been synthesized by means of chemical reduction from aqueous solutions. The chemical composition and radio-absorbing properties of this powder have been studied.

Lyn'kov, L. M.; Borbot'ko, T. V.; Krishtopova, E. A.

2009-05-01

381

Study of Velocity and Materials on Tribocharging of Polymer Powders for Powder Coating Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic powder deposition is widely used in a plethora of industrial-applications ranging from the pharmaceutical and food.industries, to farm equipment and automotive applications. The disadvantages of this technique are possible back corona (pin-like formations) onset and the Faraday penetration limitation (when the powder does not penetrate in some recessed areas). A possible solution to overcome these problems is to use tribochargers to electrostatically charge the powder. Tribocharging, or contact charging while two materials are in contact, is related to the work function difference between the contacting materials and generates bipolarly charged particles. The generation of an ion-free powder cloud by tribocharging with high bipolar charge and an overall charge density of almost zero, provides a better coverage of the recessed areas. In this study, acrylic and epoxy powders were fluidized and charged by passing through stainless steel, copper, aluminum, and polycarbonate static mixers, respectively. The particle velocity was varied to determine its effect on the net charge-to-mass ratio (QIM) acquired by the powders. In general, the Q/M increases rapidly when the velocity was increased from 1.5 to 2.5 m/s, remaining almost constant for higher velocities. Charge separation experiments showed bipolar charging for all chargers.

Biris, Alex S.; Trigwell, Steve; Sims, Robert A.; Mazumder, Malay K.

2005-01-01

382

Charging Characteristics of Some Powders Used in Electrostatic Coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies have been carried out on charging characteristics of two epoxy powders and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by measuring charge-to-mass ratios (Q\\/m). The epoxy powders were charged by corona current and the PTFE by triboelectric. The results indicate that for the PTFE powder, the mean Q\\/m is inversely proportional to the particle radius, whereas for epoxy powders the pigmentation and

Sampuran Singh

1981-01-01

383

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE  

E-print Network

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N is measured in steady state, from which the thermal conductivity of powder insulation is calculated and compared with published results. KEYWORDS: Thermal conductivity, Powder insulations, Cryostats PACS:44

Chang, Ho-Myung

384

Oxidation of ultrafine (Si) SiC powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing usage of ultrafine ceramic powders in the fabrication of highly reliable ceramics results in a growing interest in appropriate processing conditions for these powders. During processing the extremely high surface areas might lead to significant absorbtion of oxygen even at low temperatures. But especially in this temperature regime, oxidation data of powders are rarely available; as far as

R. Vaben; D. Stöver

1994-01-01

385

Critical thicknesses of electrostatic powder coatings from inside  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple electrostatic model is applied to the charge powder coating of a grounded conductor eventually covered by insulating layers. The electric field inside the powder coating and its evolution during the process are established with also the corresponding evolution in the dielectric layer and some practical consequences are also discussed. The thickness of the charged powder layer is limited

Jacques Cazaux

2007-01-01

386

Cold forging of sintered iron-powder preforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on an investigation into various aspects of cold forging of iron-powder preforms which have been compacted and sintered from atomised iron powder. An upperbound solution is constructed for determining the die pressures developed during the cold forging of iron powder under axisymmetric and plane-strain condition. The results so obtained are discussed critically to illustrate the interaction of

G. Sutradhar; A. K. Jha; S. Kumar

1995-01-01

387

Improved retort for cleaning metal powders with hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved cleaning retort produces uniform temperature distribution in the heated zone and minimizes hydrogen channeling through the powder bed. Retort can be used for nonmetallic powders, sintering in a reducing atmosphere, and for cleaning powders in reduction atmospheres other than hydrogen.

Arias, A.

1969-01-01

388

Charge decay enhancement in polymer powders using plasma treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow charge decay characteristics of polymer powders results in occurrence of back corona which adversely affects the integrity of the powder film. The surface property that primarily governs the charge decay characteristics and back corona is the surface resistivity of the powder layer. Since the charge decay through these highly resistive polymers is primarily a surface phenomenon, surface modification was

R. Sharma; R. A. Sims; M. K. Mazumder

2002-01-01

389

Ignition of aluminum powders by electro-static discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal powder heating and ignition by an electro-static discharge, ESD (or spark) was investigated. For different spark voltages, ESD discharge energies transferred to the powder samples and respective spark radii are evaluated experimentally. Al powder was chosen as a popular metal fuel additive for many energetic formulations, and as a metal, for which spark initiation typically results in ignition of

Ervin Beloni; Edward L. Dreizin

2010-01-01

390

EPR Investigation of Irradiated Curry Powder  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray irradiated curry powder, a well priced oriental spice was investigated in order to establish the ability of EPR to detect the presence and time stability of free irradiation free-radicals. Accordingly, curry powder aliquots were irradiated with gradually increasing absorbed doses up to 11.3 kGy. The EPR spectra of all irradiated samples show the presence of al last two different species of free radicals, whose concentration increased monotonously with the absorbed doses. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components of the initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after more than one year storage at room temperature, all of them being very useful in establishing the existence of any previous irradiation treatment.

Duliu, O. G.; Ali, S. I. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Georgescu, R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

2007-04-23

391

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01

392

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01

393

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01

394

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1992-01-01

395

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-10-19

396

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01

397

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOEpatents

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18

398

Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

Cawley, James D.

1994-01-01

399

Powder Handling Device for Analytical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for causing a powder sample in a sample holder to undergo at least one of three motions (vibration, rotation and translation) at a selected motion frequency in order to present several views of an individual grain of the sample. One or more measurements of diffraction, fluorescence, spectroscopic interaction, transmission, absorption and/or reflection can be made on the sample, using light in a selected wavelength region.

Sarrazin, Philippe C. (Inventor); Blake, David F. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

400

Laser cladding using the powder blowing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laser-clad samples have been produced using a 5 kW CO2 laser and a powder blowing technique. With the correct conditions, a fused bead of alloy up to 5 mm wide and 1 mm thick can be formed on a surface. A wide variety of combinations of base plate and clad materials have been used, including base plates

J. M. Yellup

1995-01-01

401

77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline Powder AGENCY...soluble powders administered in drinking water from Teva Animal Health, Inc...soluble powders administered in drinking water to Quo Vademus, LLC, 277...

2012-04-09

402

Full body powder antichip. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

NONE

1996-04-17

403

Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

404

Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From this optical measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Rates of flow optimized for measurement of particle-size distributions. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications where particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

Ramsey, Keith E.

1994-01-01

405

Low-Flow-Rate Dry-Powder Feeder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus feeds small, precise flow of dry powder through laser beam of optical analyzer, measuring patterns of light created by forward scattering (Fraunhofer diffraction) of laser beam from powder particles. From measurement, statistical distribution of sizes of powder particles computed. Developed for analyzing particle-size distributions of solid-propellant powders. Also adapted to use in pharmaceutical industry, in manufacture of metal powder, and in other applications in which particle-size distributions of materials used to control rates of chemical reactions and/or physical characteristics of processes.

Ramsey, Keith E.

1994-01-01

406

Experimental observations of dry powder inhaler dose fluidisation.  

PubMed

Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are widely used to deliver respiratory medication as a fine powder. This study investigates the physical mechanism of DPI operation, assessing the effects of geometry, inhalation and powder type on dose fluidisation. Patient inhalation through an idealised DPI was simulated as a linearly increasing pressure drop across three powder dose reservoir geometries permitting an analysis of shear and normal forces on dose evacuation. Pressure drop gradients of 3.3, 10 and 30 kPa s(-1)were applied to four powder types (glass, aluminium, and lactose 6 and 16% fines) and high speed video of each powder dose fluidisation was recorded and quantitatively analysed. Two distinct mechanisms are identified, labelled 'fracture' and 'erosion'. 'Fracture' mode occurs when the initial evacuation occurs in several large agglomerates whilst 'erosion' mode occurs gradually, with successive layers being evacuated by the high speed gas flow at the bed/gas interface. The mechanism depends on the powder type, and is independent of the reservoir geometries or pressure drop gradients tested. Both lactose powders exhibit fracture characteristics, while aluminium and glass powders fluidise as an erosion. Further analysis of the four powder types by an annular shear cell showed that the fluidisation mechanism cannot be predicted using bulk powder properties. PMID:18457930

Tuley, Rob; Shrimpton, John; Jones, Matthew D; Price, Rob; Palmer, Mark; Prime, Dave

2008-06-24

407

High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination  

SciTech Connect

It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis are familiar to laboratory diffractionists. This is reflected in the fact that there are already dedicated instruments for powder diffraction at a number of synchrotrons sources, including the NSLS, the Synchrotrons Radiation Source, Daresbury, the Photon Factory, Tsukuba and HASYLAB. In addition, most general purpose beamlines can be adapted for powder diffraction experiments fairly easily. Dedicated beamlines are also planned or under consideration at the next generation of synchrotrons sources, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, and the SPring-8 machine at Harima. These will be high brilliance sources with a much harder radiation spectrum that will offer many new possibilities for powder diffraction experiments, especially at energies above 10 keV.

Cox, D. E.

1999-04-23

408

Inhibitory effects of cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 in vitro and in vivo through apoptosis.  

PubMed

Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla), a naturally decaffeinated tea commonly consumed as a healthy beverage in southern China, has been recently found to be a potential candidate for the treatment of different diseases, including obesity and cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-liver cancer activities of green cocoa tea infusion (GCTI) in vitro and in vivo using human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 cells and nude mice xenograft model. The apoptotic activities of GCTI were assessed using flow cytometry, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Our results showed that GCTI significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC?? values=292 ?g/ml at 72 h). GCTI induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis, which was demonstrated by cell cycle analysis and annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by significant proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in GCTI-treated cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, GCTI increased the expression of cell cycle inhibitory proteins (p21, p27 and p53) and the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio to induce apoptosis. The antiproliferative effect of GCTI was confirmed in HepG2 xenograft nude mice. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by GCTI in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by the decrease in tumor volume and tumor weight after 4 weeks of treatment. Administration of GCTI increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and caspase-3-positive cells in the tumor section. In conclusion, these results revealed that GCTI may be a potential and promising agent of natural resource to treat liver cancer. PMID:22018604

Yang, Xiao-rong; Wang, Yuan-yuan; La, Kai-Kai; Peng, Li; Song, Xiao-hong; Shi, Xiang-gang; Zhu, Xiao-feng; Leung, Ping-chung; Ko, Chun-hay; Ye, Chuang-xing

2012-09-01

409

Whole Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Plantation Crops Coconut, Cocoa and Arecanut  

PubMed Central

Coconut, cocoa and arecanut are commercial plantation crops that play a vital role in the Indian economy while sustaining the livelihood of more than 10 million Indians. According to 2012 Food and Agricultural organization's report, India is the third largest producer of coconut and it dominates the production of arecanut worldwide. In this study, three Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from coconut (CPCRI-1), cocoa (CPCRI-2) and arecanut (CPCRI-3) characterized for the PGP activities have been sequenced. The draft genome sizes were 4.7 Mb (56% GC), 5.9 Mb (63.6% GC) and 5.1 Mb (54.8% GB) for CPCRI-1, CPCRI-2, CPCRI-3, respectively. These genomes encoded 4056 (CPCRI-1), 4637 (CPCRI-2) and 4286 (CPCRI-3) protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both CPCRI-1 and CPCRI-3 belonged to Enterobacteriaceae family, while, CPCRI-2 was a Pseudomonadaceae family member. Functional annotation of the genes predicted that all three bacteria encoded genes needed for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, phenazine, 4-hydroxybenzoate, trehalose and quorum sensing molecules supportive of the plant growth promoting traits observed in the course of their isolation and characterization. Additionally, in all the three CPCRI PGPRs, we identified genes involved in synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which recently has been proposed to aid plant growth. The PGPRs also carried genes for central carbohydrate metabolism indicating that the bacteria can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as energy source. Genes for production of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance and glycine-betaine production that enable bacteria to survive abiotic stress were also identified. PMID:25162593

Thomas, George V.; Manikandan, Vinu; Gajewski, John; Thomas, George; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Schuster, Stephan C.

2014-01-01

410

A Dry Powder Process for Preparing Uni-Tape Prepreg from Polymer Powder Coated Filamentary Towpregs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

Wilkinson, Steven P. (inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (inventor)

1995-01-01

411

Dry powder process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. A material is applied to each side of the towpreg to form a sandwich. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

412

The effect of chromating on borohydride reduced iron powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron powders with Hc between 350 Oe and 1000 Oe were prepared by borohydride reduction of ferrous sulfate. The powders were stabilized by a chromating procedure. This paper discusses the effect of the chromating as observed by: TEM, changes in surface area, O2 content, ESCA/Auger and adsorption. Chromating coats the surface of the particles with a layer of FeCr2O4. Oxygen content in chromated powders is generally ˜8% while in the unchromated powders, it varies between 11 and ?16%. This increase in O2 can be correlated with a decrease in ?s. Sheet-like impurities are observed in unchromated powders which have been identified as FeOOH. Chromating results in a reduction in surface area of the particles as measured by N2 adsorption. The stability of the powders is greatly improved with chromating. Powders subjected to 80% R.H. for 112 days showed that the unchromated powder lost 25% of its original magnetization, while the chromated powder lost only 3%. Simultaneously, a band of FeO and Fe2O3 formed around the particles. Adsorption studies of reference polymers have shown that chromating reduces the acidic surface sites of the powders.

Baltz, A.; Freitag, W. O.; Greifer, A. P.; Suchodolski, V.

1981-03-01

413

Dietary supplementation with cocoa flavanols does not alter colon tissue profiles of native flavanols and their microbial metabolites established during habitual dietary exposure in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Metabolism of flavanols (catechins, procyanidins) by gut microbiota has been extensively characterized. Comparatively little is known about accumulation of flavanols and their metabolites in the colon tissues, particularly during chronic exposure to low doses. Mice were fed low doses of cocoa flavanols for 12 weeks. Supplementation of the control diet with flavanols did not increase colonic tissue accumulation of flavanols nor microbial metabolites versus control. The type of cocoa flavanols did not affect colonic tissue accumulation of native flavanols or metabolites. Total phenolic content of the diets indicated that these results are not explained by background levels of undetected phenolics in the control diet. This is the longest known chronic flavanol feeding study to examine colonic tissue accumulation. Vast differences appear to exist between acute high doses and chronic low doses, to which gut microbiota and epithelium adapt. These results indicate that the fate of flavanols in the colon during chronic exposure is not fully understood. PMID:25336378

Goodrich, Katheryn M; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Ye, Liyun; O'Keefe, Sean F; Hulver, Matthew W; Neilson, Andrew P

2014-11-19

414

LaRC powder prepreg system  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

Baucom, R.M.; Marchello, J.M. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-07-01

415

Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

Grant, N. J.

1982-01-01

416

Microwave characterisation of carbon nanotube powders  

PubMed Central

We have used a 3-GHz microwave host cavity to study the remarkable electronic properties of metallic, single-walled carbon nanotubes. Powder samples are placed in its magnetic field antinode, which induces microwave currents without the need for electrical contacts. Samples are shown to screen effectively the microwave magnetic field, implying an extremely low value of sheet resistance (< 10 ??) within the graphene sheets making up the curved nanotube walls. Associated microwave losses are large due to the large surface area, and also point to a similar, very small value of sheet resistance due to the inherent ballistic electron transport. PMID:22849959

2012-01-01

417

Laser production of articles from powders  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

1998-01-01

418

Laser production of articles from powders  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

1998-11-17

419

Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.  

SciTech Connect

Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

2009-03-01

420

Cocoa Flavanols and Memory  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... recruited 37 healthy men and women who underwent brain imaging and took a 20-minute memory test ... a low flavanol group. After three-months, new brain imaging and memory tests were done. The researchers ...

421

A protocol for the classification of powder compression characteristics.  

PubMed

In this paper, a structured protocol for powder compression analysis as a test to assess the mechanical properties of particles in a formulation development programme is presented. First, the sequence of classification steps of the protocol is described, and secondly, the protocol is illustrated using compression data of six powders of two model substances, sodium chloride and mannitol. From powder compression data, a set of compression variables are derived, and by using critical values of these variables, the stages expressed during the compression of the powders are identified and the powders are classified into groups with respect to the expression of particle rearrangement, particle fragmentation and particle plastic deformation during compression. It is concluded that the proposed protocol could, in a satisfactorily way, describe and distinguish between the powders regarding their compression behaviour. Hence, the protocol could be a valuable tool for the formulation scientist to comprehensively assess important functionality-related characteristics of drugs and excipients. PMID:21946474

Nordström, Josefina; Klevan, Ingvild; Alderborn, Göran

2012-01-01

422

Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the characterisation of printed circuit boards (PCB) metal powder filters and their influence on the effective electron temperature which is as low as 22 mK for a quantum dot in a silicon MOSFET structure in a dilution refrigerator. We investigate the attenuation behaviour (10 MHz-20 GHz) of filter made of four metal powders with a grain size below 50 ?m. The room-temperature attenuation of a stainless steel powder filter is more than 80 dB at frequencies above 1.5 GHz. In all metal powder filters, the attenuation increases with temperature. Compared to classical powder filters, the design presented here is much less laborious to fabricate and specifically the copper powder PCB-filters deliver an equal or even better performance than their classical counterparts.

Mueller, Filipp; Schouten, Raymond N.; Brauns, Matthias; Gang, Tian; Lim, Wee Han; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

2013-04-01

423

HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

1993-06-01

424

Detonation synthesis of nanosized titanium dioxide powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing titanyl sulfate as a TiO2 source, via a novel synthesis method—the detonation method—nanosized TiO2(n-TiO2) powders were prepared. The results showed that the as-prepared n-TiO2 powders did not have enough time to grow into large and fine crystallites, and that the characteristics of high temperature, high pressure and high cooling were helpful in the synthesis of nanosized materials. The anatase phase appeared to be the stable form of nanocrystalline TiO2 at small crystallite sizes to some extent and part of the rutile phase could transform to the anatase phase when the detonation products were oxidized to eliminate the impurities via the combined action of chromic anhydride (CrO3) and concentrated nitric acid. The main reason resulting in the reversal of stability of anatase and rutile could be the differences in the surface energy of anatase and rutile at small crystallite sizes.

Qu, Yandong; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Dahui

2007-05-01

425

NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

2012-07-25

426

Oxidation and dissolution of tungsten carbide powder in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation and dissolution of tungsten carbide powder dispersed in water was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and leaching studies. We found that the WO3 surface layer on the oxidised tungsten carbide powder dissolves readily at pH>3 with the tungsten concentration increasing linearly with time. Adding cobalt powder to the tungsten carbide suspension resulted in a significant reduction of

Karin M. Andersson; Lennart Bergström

2000-01-01

427

Mach stem characterization in Mbar designs using RSR powder  

SciTech Connect

Suitable selection of powders can be used as a modeling device for complicated experimental designs. The powder melt zone is clearly defined and the RSR-834 powder is reasonably well behaved. This experiment was with only one composition, size and distribution. However, it is believed that other morphologies, composition, and size distributions could result in a more complete modeling of the compaction process that would enable heuristic calculations of the combined effects of adiabatic temperature rise and entropic heating (strain/deformation).

Staudhammer, K.P.; Johnson, K.A.

1985-01-01

428

The biaxial loading response of powder aluminum at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fuel can be fabricated using powder-metallurgy processes by compacting uranium-oxide powder with aluminum powder to\\u000a form a cermet and then extruding the cermet to form fuel tubes. This method of production allows greater control of uranium-oxide\\u000a particle size and distribution in the tube, making the production of fuel with greater concentrations of uranium oxide possible,\\u000a and thus decreasing the

T. O. Woods; D. G. Berghaus

1994-01-01

429

Preparation and surface properties of encapsulated powder pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the blending of two powders in a mixer, the preferential adhesion and sticking of fine powders onto other large powder\\u000a surfaces were usually observed. These frictional charging and physical adhesiveness properties can be used to modify and encapsulate\\u000a the surfaces of solids. In the present study, a centrifugal rotating-type mixer was used to study the possible wax encapsulation\\u000a process

Masumi Koishi; Takafumi Ishizaka; Takehisa Nakajima

1984-01-01

430

In situ characterization of small-particle plasma sprayed powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various small-particle plasma spray powder injection parameters on the in situ particle position, velocity,\\u000a and temperature is measured for yttria-stabilized zirconia and yttrium-aluminum-garnet powder. Using full-factorial experiments\\u000a and multiple regression analysis, carrier gas flow, injector angle, and powder feeder disc speed were found to significantly\\u000a affect the particle properties. Temperature and velocity were inversely related; on average,

Y. J. Su; K. T. Faber; T. F. Bernecki

2002-01-01

431

Microstructure of composite material with powders of barium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the present work is the microstructure characterization of commercial powder BaFe12O19 (as-prepared) and composite material with BaFe12O19 powders and polymer matrix, using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) methods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: The morphology of barium ferrite powders and a fracture surface of the examined composite material was realized by using the scanning electron microscope. The

R. Nowosielski; R. Babilas; G. Dercz; L. Paj?k b

432

Nanograin formation in milled MoO3 powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder of Molybdenum trioxide was milled for different times in horizontal ball mills. Such powder was characterized by TEM and XRD. Powder was rapidly de-agglomerated and fragmented up to attain nanoplates of two types, amorphous and crystalline. Finally, cold-welding of nanoplates occurred permitting some relaxation process to obtain a more stable energized structure consisting of equiaxial crystalline nanograins after 16 hours of milling.

Guerrero-Paz, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.; Aguilar-Martínez, J. A.; Garibay-Febles, V.

2013-06-01

433

Superior tribological properties of powder materials with solid lubricant nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear of powder materials impregnated with commercially available layered (platelets) WS2 (2H) and inorganic fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles (IF) were studied. Bronze–graphite, iron–graphite and iron–nickel–graphite samples were used in this experiment. The linear wear of powder materials (in situ) was measured. It was shown that the IF nanoparticles impregnated into the pores improve the tribological properties of powder materials

L Rapoport; V Leshchinsky; M Lvovsky; I Lapsker; Yu Volovik; Y Feldman; R Popovitz-Biro; R Tenne

2003-01-01

434

Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs. PMID:15046893

Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

2004-08-01

435

Structural changes during milling of aluminum oxide powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical activation of four fused corundum powders and a calcined Al2O3 powder was studied. The milled powders were characterized by their structural properties, crystallite size, and lattice distortions. Structural changes during milling, detected by X-ray line broadening analysis, gave information about the enhanced activity of the powders caused by the lattice distortions and by the decreasing crystallite size during milling. The structural changes during milling, under the same milling conditions, can be quite different for the same ceramic material, but with different characteristics in the as received state.

Ziepler, G.

1984-01-01

436

Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

2014-09-16

437

Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product  

DOEpatents

A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

Rabin, Barry H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

438

Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites.  

PubMed

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared using compression molding and chicken eggshell was used as a filler. The effect of the eggshell powder (EP) on the properties of TPS was compared with the effect of commercial calcium carbonate (CC). The organic compound on the surface of the eggshell powder acted as a coupling agent that resulted in a strong adhesion between the eggshell powder and the TPS matrix, as confirmed by SEM micrographs. The biodegradation was determined by the soil burial test. The TPS/EP composites were more rapidly degraded than the TPS/CC composites. In addition, the eggshell powder improved the water resistance and thermal stability of the TPS. PMID:23911451

Bootklad, Munlika; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

2013-09-12

439

Powder processing of nickel and other aluminides by hot consolidation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alloys based on FeAl, NiAl, and Ni3Al have been processed by extrusion of powders over a range of compositions, powder characteristics, and extrusion parameters. It is found that extrusion leads to dynamic recrystallization and that the grain size of the extrusions depends on the powder size, extrusion temperature, and extrusion ratio. Prior particle boundary oxides play an important role in controlling the grain size and uniformity by acting as obstacles to grain growth. Hot isostatic pressing and vacuum hot pressing can be used for powder densification, but prior particle oxides are not effectively broken up due to insufficient shearing deformation.

Vedula, K.; Stephens, J. R.

1987-01-01

440

Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with AM. Alternative powders can be made by blending or re-spheroidizing HDH and CPTi powders. Machine modifications were performed to allow the testing and manufacturing with these low cost alternative powders. A comparison was made between alternative powders and gas atomized powders. Powders were compared in terms of morphology and at the microstructural level. Flowability of different powder blends was also measured. Finally, a comparison of parts fabricated from the multiple powder blends and gas atomized powder was made. It has been demonstrated that powder blending can produce fully dense parts in the Arcam system by utilizing the double melt technique or HIPing the built pars. The double melt technique increased the density of the sample part and modified the microstructure into finer martensitic grains. The HIP process can make a part fully dense regardless of what percentage of HDH powder blending is used. The HIP process yielded the same microstructure, regardless of the grain structure it started with. This research allows for the reduction of costs using titanium powders in the EBM system, but can also be implemented with more costly elements and alloys using other metal AM technologies. This includes niobium, tantalum, and nickel-based superalloys for use in various industries.

Medina, Fransisco

441

Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO? powder.  

PubMed

The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds. PMID:24797905

Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

2014-06-15

442

Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to prepare ginger powder using various drying methods and their nutritional evaluation was carried out. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was dried using shade, solar, oven and microwave drying methods. All the samples were ground in grinder to make fine powder. Sensory analysis indicated that acceptability of all types of ginger powders were in the range of 'liked very much' to 'liked moderately' by the panelists. The mean score obtained for colour was higher in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 8.20 as compared to oven dried (7.60), solar dried (7.70) and microwave dried ginger powder (7.80). Moisture content ranged from 3.55 % in solar dried ginger powder to 3.78 % in shade dried ginger powder. Slightly higher moisture content was found in shade dried ginger powder. Protein, crude fiber, fat and ash contents ranged from 5.02 to 5.82, 4.97 to 5.61, 0.76 to 0.90 and 3.38 to 3.66 %, respectively. ?-carotene and ascorbic acid content was found maximum in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 0.81 mg/100 g and 3.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Polyphenol content was almost similar in all the samples whereas calcium was slightly higher in the shade dried ginger powder i.e., 69.21 mg/100 g. Results have shown that ginger powder prepared from various drying methods had good sensory and nutritional profile. PMID:25190894

Sangwan, A; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

2014-09-01

443

Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder  

PubMed Central

Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

2015-01-01

444

Proton glass freezing in hydrated lysozyme powders.  

PubMed

At room temperature, the dielectric relaxation of hydrated powder of the protein lysozyme is known to be due to protons migrating between ionized side chains. A recent study of this relaxation at lower temperatures suggested a behavior typical of proton glasses. An analysis of the complex dielectric susceptibility by a temperature-frequency plot presented here has revealed that ergodicity is broken due to the divergence of the longest relaxation time at 266 K, indicating specifically that this hydrated protein is a proton glass. A change in the temperature behavior of the static dielectric constant and the average relaxation frequency at 273 K indicates a further transition occurring at this temperature, whose nature remains to be investigated. PMID:11970721

Levstik, A; Filipic, C; Kutnjak, Z; Careri, G; Consolini, G; Bruni, F

1999-12-01

445

Neutron powder diffraction study of perdeuterodimethyl sulfone.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of perdeuterodimethyl sulfone, (CD(3))(2)SO(2) or C(2)D(6)O(2)S, has been refined at 4.5 K against high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data. The structure determined previously by Sands [Z. Kristallogr. (1963), 119, 245-251] at ambient temperature is shown to remain down to liquid helium temperature, and at 4.5 K the S-C and S-O bond distances are 1.441 (2) and 1.760 (2) A, respectively. The molecules are distorted tetrahedra with C(2v) point symmetry (crystallographic symmetry m2m for S and m for C, O and one D atom) and are linked through a network of weak hydrogen bonds in the C-centred orthorhombic structure. PMID:17478915

Ibberson, R M

2007-05-01

446

Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

2010-11-01

447

Interior view of main corridor, with door to powder room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of main corridor, with door to powder room (labeled "Magazine") in foreground, plotting room with barred windows and double doors in middle, and second powder room door in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

448

Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.  

PubMed

The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation. PMID:21717808

Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

2011-01-01

449

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

450

Properties of soluble protein powders from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soluble protein powders were produced from pollock by-products and evaluated for their functional, nutritional and rheological properties. Soluble protein powders were made from pollock viscera (PVSP), viscer without liver (PVWLSP), heads (PHSP), frames (PFSP), trimmings (PTSP), and liver (PLSP) and...

451

21 CFR 520.905d - Fenbendazole powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole powder. 520.905d Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905d Fenbendazole powder. (a) Specifications...contains 2.27 grams (4 percent) of fenbendazole plus other inert ingredients....

2010-04-01

452

Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

Jin, F.

1995-11-01

453

21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V powder. 520.1696c Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a) Specifications...contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsor. See No....

2013-04-01

454

21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V powder. 520.1696c Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a) Specifications...contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsor. See No....

2014-04-01

455

Measles vaccination of macaques by dry powder inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles vaccination via the aerosol route has proven effective under field conditions, using vaccine reconstituted prior to nebulization. Inhalation of a dry powder aerosol vaccine would have additional benefits, including easier logistics of administration, reduced cold chain dependence and the potential of single dose administration. We have evaluated two candidate dry powder measles vaccine formulations in macaques. Specific immune responses

Rik L. de Swart; Cynthia LiCalsi; Alan V. Quirk; Geert van Amerongen; Vladislav Nodelman; Robert Alcock; Selma Yüksel; Gary H. Ward; John G. Hardy; Helma Vos; Clyde L. Witham; Christopher I. Grainger; Thijs Kuiken; Bernard J. Greenspan; Trevor G. Gard; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

2007-01-01

456

21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.154c Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications...perfringens susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations . Prepare a...

2013-04-01

457

21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.154c Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications...perfringens susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a...

2014-04-01

458

21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.154c Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications...perfringens susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations . Prepare a...

2012-04-01

459

Novel dry powder inhalation system based on dispersion of lyophilisates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry powder inhalers and dry powder formulations experience a growing interest and are the subject of continuous further development. In this study the objective was to evaluate the possible aerosolization of lyophilisates by an air impact and to prove this new concept of creating individual inhalable particles from a coherent bulk at the time of inhalation. Therefore an output test

Sarah Claus; Tilo Schoenbrodt; Claudius Weiler; Wolfgang Friess

2011-01-01

460

Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

461

84. BUILDING NO. 561, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CANNON POWDER BLENDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

84. BUILDING NO. 561, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CANNON POWDER BLENDER FROM ACROSS PICATINNY LAKE. LOUVERED WALL FACING LAKE WAS DESIGNED TO RELIEVE BLASTS AND DIRECT THEM TOWARD LAKE IF THEY OCCURRED. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

462

Mathematical modeling of powder-snow avalanche flows  

E-print Network

Mathematical modeling of powder-snow avalanche flows Denys Dutykh a, aLAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS´e de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex, France Abstract Powder-snow avalanches are violent natural. In this study we present a novel model for the simulation of avalanches in the aerosol regime. The second scope

463

Synthesis and chemical reactivity of polyol prepared monodisperse nickel powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodisperse 1350 Å Ni powders are prepared according to the polyol process using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a protective agent. Smaller size monodisperse Ni powders (300 Å) have presently been made from Ni(OH)2 in ethylene glycol (EG) and PVP using Pd or Pt as nucleating agents. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) measurements in air showed that ethylene glycol

M. S. Hegde; D. Larcher; L. Dupont; B. Beaudoin; K. Tekaia-Elhsissen; J.-M. Tarascon

1996-01-01

464

Thermal processes of a powder particle in coaxial laser cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical analysis of the heating, melting and evaporation processes of a single spherical powder particle when irradiated by a CO2 laser beam in coaxial laser cladding. The power particle has a size ranging from 20 to 200?m and the intensity of the laser has been varied from 500 to 3000W. The laser energy, initial powder velocity

Chang-Yi Liu; Jehnming Lin

2003-01-01

465

Powdered versus granular carbon for oil refinery wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot studies were conducted on two activated carbon-based systems for meeting the effluent quality requirements of an oil refinery. Upgrading of activated sludge by addition of powdered activated carbon directly into aeration tank mixed liquor and tertiary treatment of activated sludge effluent by granular carbon adsorption were studied. Powdered carbon enhancement was found to be more cost-effective than granular carbon

C. G. Grieves; L. W. Crame; D. G. Venardos; W. Ying

1980-01-01

466

Plastic deformation and yield criterion for compressible sintered powder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the basic aspects of plastic deformation behaviours of compressible sintered powder materials, such as plastic volume change, mass constancy, small Poisson's ratio and the effect of hydrostatic pressure on yield. Based on the uniaxial compression tests using sintered powder copper as a model material, the true stress–strain equation, a generalized yield criterion and some plastic constitutive equations

Lin Hua; Xunpeng Qin; Huajie Mao; Yumin Zhao

2006-01-01

467

Powder diffraction from a combinatorial and analytic viewpoint A. Iosevich  

E-print Network

Powder diffraction from a combinatorial and analytic viewpoint A. Iosevich and M. Rudnev September 14, 2005 Abstract The mathematical theory of the powder diffraction intensity function is presented method of processing the diffraction data, this paper stresses the importance of the moments

Rudnev, Misha

468

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-print Network

distribution in the Wyodak- Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin. PQ-3. Ash yield in the WyodakChapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey

469

Preparation of ultrafine boride powders by metallothermic reduction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine TiB2, ZrB2, and ReB2 powders were prepared by the metallothermic reduction method using Mg. Obtained TiB2, ZrB2, and ReB2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and scratch test. The morphology of the powders was a laminar hexagonal single crystal. The mean particle sizes of TiB2 and ZrB2 increased with increasing reaction temperature, and that of ReB2 was 0.11 ?m at 1093 K. The obtained ReB2 powder can scratch the surface of polycrystalline synthetic diamonds (HK = 7000 kg/mm2). The obtained powders will be useful for developing of new superhard alloys and pigments.

Nishiyama, Katsuhiro; Nakamur, Takanobu; Utsumi, Shigenori; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

2009-06-01

470

Nanocrystalline ceria powders through citrate-nitrate combustion.  

PubMed

Nanocrystalline ceria powders have been synthesized by combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The auto-ignition of the gels containing cerium nitrate and citric acid resulted in ceria powders. A theory based on adiabatic flame temperature for different citric acid-to-cerium nitrate molar ratios has been proposed to explain the nature of combustion reaction and its correlation with the powder characteristics. Specific surface area and primary particle size of the ceria powder obtained through fuel-deficient precursor was found to be approximately = 127 m2/g and 2.5-10 nm, respectively. The combustion synthesized ceria powder when cold pressed and sintered in air at 1250 degrees C for 1 hour resulted in approximately = 96% of its theoretical density with sub-micron grains. PMID:16573097

Purohit, R D; Saha, S; Tyagi, A K

2006-01-01

471

Molten salt synthesis of YAlO3 powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the molten salt synthesis technique was applied to the synthesis of YAlO3 powder using LiCl, NaCl or KCl salt as the flux. YAlO3 powder was synthesized by reacting equimolar amounts of Y2O3 and Al2O3 powders in LiCl salt. The synthesis temperature for YAlO3 using LiCl salt was 1300 °C which is by about 500 °C lower than that in the conventional mixed-oxide method. The synthesized powders have been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The effect of the salt type on the formation of YAlO3 has also been investigated.

Lee, Joo-Sin

2013-04-01

472

Production of ceramic powders from laser-driven reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser photo induced reactions from gaseous precursors have been applied to the synthesis of nanosized silicon carbonitrides and (gamma) -alumina based powders. Silicon carbonitrides with different structures and chemical compositions have been produced by changing the reactant gases or their relative concentrations. The structural and chemical evolution have been studied by thermal treatments in Ar and N2 atmosphere. The results confirm the applicability of this powder for industrial applications. Concerning the (gamma) -alumina powder, changes in the reactants concentration ratio have shown to influence both the process yield and the composition of the outcoming powders. Nitrogen or carbon rich (gamma) - alumina powders (Al3O3N, Al2OC) have been synthesized. Some recent and encouraging results on the thermal properties of laser produced silicon carbide are also presented.

Borsella, E.; Botti, S.; Cesile, M. C.; Martelli, Stefano; Nesterenko, A.; Giorgi, Rossella; Turtu, S.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Morjan, Ion G.

1995-03-01

473

A simple solution-polymerization route for oxide powder synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A simple solution polymerization route based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the organic carrier for the cations is used to process pure, mixed oxide powders. Simultaneous DTA/TGA analyses revealed that the organics are burnt out below 600{degrees}C. The new system produces X-ray amorphous, fine, white powders at temperatures as low as 650{degrees}C. The powders thus prepared have a 12 m{sup 2}/g as-calcined specific surface area. The successful use of a non-chelating polymer for the solution polymerization method indicated that cation chelation is not the only route for creating stable ceramic precursors. The process has a net yield of 1.8 for the weight ratio of the mixed oxide powder to the organics. The organic carrier has a significant influence on the morphology of the final ceramic powder.

Guelguen, M.A.; Kriven, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

474

The influence of microstructure on the sintering process in crystalline metal powders investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy: II. Tungsten powders with different powder-particle sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compacts of tungsten powder with five different powder-particle sizes (from 0953-8984\\/11\\/7\\/010\\/img7 to 0953-8984\\/11\\/7\\/010\\/img8) are subjected to pressureless sintering. We investigate the change in microstructure during the sintering process by positron lifetime spectroscopy. So as to be able to distinguish between defects having the same positron lifetime, we investigate their kinetics when the sample is annealed. In particular, we consider the

T. E. M. Staab; R. Krause-Rehberg; B. Vetter; B. Kieback; G. Lange; P. Klimanek

1999-01-01

475